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Sample records for accumulated drainage area

  1. A Novel Selenocystine-Accumulating Plant in Selenium-Mine Drainage Area in Enshi, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linxi; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Banuelos, Gary; Li, Wei; Yin, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    Plant samples of Cardamine hupingshanesis (Brassicaceae), Ligulariafischeri (Ledeb.) turcz (Steraceae) and their underlying top sediments were collected from selenium (Se) mine drainage areas in Enshi, China. Concentrations of total Se were measured using Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Se speciation were determined using liquid chromatography/UV irradiation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LC-UV-HG-AFS). The results showed that C. hupingshanesis could accumulate Se to 239±201 mg/kg DW in roots, 316±184 mg/kg DW in stems, and 380±323 mg/kg DW in leaves, which identifies it as Se secondary accumulator. Particularly, it could accumulate Se up to 1965±271 mg/kg DW in leaves, 1787±167 mg/kg DW in stem and 4414±3446 mg/kg DW in roots, living near Se mine tailing. Moreover, over 70% of the total Se accumulated in C. hupingshanesis were in the form of selenocystine (SeCys2), increasing with increased total Se concentration in plant, in contrast to selenomethionine (SeMet) in non-accumulators (eg. Arabidopsis) and secondary accumulators (eg. Brassica juncea), and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeCys) in hyperaccumulators (eg. Stanleya pinnata). There is no convincing explanation on SeCys2 accumulation in C. hupingshanesis based on current Se metabolism theory in higher plants, and further study will be needed. PMID:23750270

  2. A novel selenocystine-accumulating plant in selenium-mine drainage area in Enshi, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linxi; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Banuelos, Gary; Li, Wei; Yin, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    Plant samples of Cardamine hupingshanesis (Brassicaceae), Ligulariafischeri (Ledeb.) turcz (Steraceae) and their underlying top sediments were collected from selenium (Se) mine drainage areas in Enshi, China. Concentrations of total Se were measured using Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Se speciation were determined using liquid chromatography/UV irradiation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LC-UV-HG-AFS). The results showed that C. hupingshanesis could accumulate Se to 239±201 mg/kg DW in roots, 316±184 mg/kg DW in stems, and 380±323 mg/kg DW in leaves, which identifies it as Se secondary accumulator. Particularly, it could accumulate Se up to 1965±271 mg/kg DW in leaves, 1787±167 mg/kg DW in stem and 4414±3446 mg/kg DW in roots, living near Se mine tailing. Moreover, over 70% of the total Se accumulated in C. hupingshanesis were in the form of selenocystine (SeCys2), increasing with increased total Se concentration in plant, in contrast to selenomethionine (SeMet) in non-accumulators (eg. Arabidopsis) and secondary accumulators (eg. Brassica juncea), and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeCys) in hyperaccumulators (eg. Stanleya pinnata). There is no convincing explanation on SeCys2 accumulation in C. hupingshanesis based on current Se metabolism theory in higher plants, and further study will be needed.

  3. Drainage-Area Data for Wisconsin Streams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    drainage areas for gaging stations, sewage-treatment plants, dams , major highway crossings, and other sites where discharge measurements or water-quality...streams of 10 mil or more . Also, areas have been determined for sewage-treatment plants, dams , major highway crossings, gaging stations, and other...plants, ma- jor highway crossings, dam , and powerplants . Drainage Area The column under the drainage-area heading lists the drainage-area of the site

  4. Drainage-area data for Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henrich, E.W.; Daniel, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Drainage areas were delineated on U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps. Drainage areas are shown in tabular form under six headings : station number; stream name, rank, and location; township, range, and section ; county; type of site; and drainage area. Eleven major-river-basin maps show the location and station number of key sites .

  5. Drainage area data for Alabama streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallings, J.S.; Peirce, L.B.

    1957-01-01

    The drainage area of a river basin is an important parameter in many engineering equations used for hydrologic design. It is not a parameter, however, that always requires precise measurement. Factors in the hydrologic cycle such as rainfall, runoff, transpiration, and infiltration cannot be measured nearly as closely as drainage area. Largely for this reason, drainage areas are often measured to varying degrees of precision depending upon the immediate need, with little thought to some other use or some other user of the figure obtained. It can readily be appreciated that this practice, continued for long by many different agencies, will result in a heterogeneous collection of drainage area figures, often discordant and of an accuracy unknown to any but those who computed them. Figures of drainage area published by various Federal agencies are frequently discrepant or contradictory, giving rise to confusion in the use of drainage area data. Seeking to better this situation, the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee (FIARBC) in November 1951 published its Bulletin No. 4, Inter-Agency Coordination of Drainage Area Data. That Bulletin recommended procedures to be followed by the interested Federal agencies “for coordinating drainage area data in the interest of promoting uniformity, reducing confusion and contradiction of published figures, and improving the ready availability of drainage area data pertaining to drainage basins of the United States and its possessions.”

  6. Drainage Areas of Selected Streams in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Donald C.; Wiegand, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Drainage areas were determined for more than 1,600 basins in the three major river basins of Virginia -- the North Atlantic Slope, South Atlantic Slope, and Ohio River Basins. Drainage areas range from 0.004 square mile to 7,866 square miles. A geographic information system was used to digitize and store data associated with the drainage basins. Drainage divides were digitized from digital U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute, 1:24,000-scale, topographic quadrangles using procedures recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology, Federal Interagency River Basin Committee. Digital drainage basins were quality assured, polygons of the closed drainage basins were generated, and drainage areas were computed.

  7. Southeast Area Drainage District Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    to evaluate surface water flooding problems along the Annawomscutt Brook and perform a hydrologic and hydraulic analysis of the brook for both existing conditions and with proposed drainage improvements.

  8. Scalable, massively parallel approaches to upstream drainage area computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A.; Hill, C. N.; Perron, T.

    2011-12-01

    Accumulated drainage area maps of large regions are required for several applications. Among these are assessments of regional patterns of flow and sediment routing, high-resolution landscape evolution models in which drainage basin geometry evolves with time, and surveys of the characteristics of river basins that drain to continental margins. The computation of accumulated drainage areas is accomplished by inferring the vector field of drainage flow directions from a two-dimensional digital elevation map, and then computing the area that drains to each tile. From this map of elevations we can compute the integrated, upstream area that drains to each tile of the map. Generally this last step is done with a recursive algorithm, that accumulates upstream areas sequentially. The inherently serial nature of this restricts the number of tiles that can be included, thereby limiting the resolution of continental-size domains. This is because of the requirements of both memory, which will rise proportionally to the number of tiles, N, and computing time, which is O(N2). The fundamental sequential property of this approach prohibits effective use of large scale parallelism. An alternate method of calculating accumulated drainage area from drainage direction data can be arrived at by reformulating the problem as the solution of a system of simultaneous linear equations. The equations define the relation that the total upslope area of a particular tile is the sum of all the upslope areas for tiles immediately adjacent to that tile that drain to it, and the tile's own area. Solving these equations amounts to finding the solution of a sparse, nine-diagonal matrix operating on a vector for a right-hand-side that is simply the individual tile areas and where the diagonals of the matrix are determined by the landscape geometry. We show how an iterative method, Bi-CGSTAB, can be used to solve this problem in a scalable, massively parallel manner. However, this introduces

  9. Ballona Creek and Tributaries, Los Angeles County Drainage Area, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    7AD-AiSI 322 BALLONA CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES LOS ANGELES COUNTYii DRAINAGE AREA CALIFORNIA(U) ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT LOS ANGELES CA DEC 82 UNCLASSIFIED...FesbltyRpf for of Engineers Faiiiy~pr o Los Angeles District Ballona Creek and Tributaries In LOS ANGELES COUNTY DRAINAGE AREA, CALIFORNIA ~EB14 Y85... DRAINAGE AREA, CALIFORNIA INTERIM FEASIBILITY REPORT FOR BALLONA CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS LOS ANGELES DECEMBER 1982 C "L --i

  10. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua

    2012-07-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area. Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer, biological fixation by leguminous and other crops, wet/dry atmospheric deposition, excreta from humans and animals, and crop residues. The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg, of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies. Of the total N transported into waterbodies, the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%), followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%), synthetic fertilizer N (17%), N in sewage wastes (17%), N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%). We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins, from upstream to downstream: the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD, the headwater drainage area, 138 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD, 347 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities, approx. 3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD, 520 500 km2, large-scale human disturbance, about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD, 699 900 km2, large-scale human disturbance, approx. 620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary). The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3, 7.3, 24.1, and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD, JSD, PYD, and YDD sub-basins, respectively, suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  11. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  12. Guidelines for Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities smaller than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in greater amounts are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WSSs). This document provides guidelines for establishing and maintaining an SSA. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. IET area plot and utilities plan. Includes drainage. Ralph M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET area plot and utilities plan. Includes drainage. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-U-310. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL code no. 035-0100-00-693-106898 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Drainage areas of streams at selected locations in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bower, David E.; Jackson, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The drainage areas for more than 2,000 selected sites throughout Kentucky were determined. Areas of limestone terrain characterized by sinkholes are indicated in basins where they have been determined. Each location is referenced by U.S. Geological Survey station number (where assigned), latitude, longitude, county code, topographic quadrangle, river distance, and in some cases by nearby town or landmark. All values are given in both English and metric units and an alphabetical index by stream name is provided. (USGS)

  15. Erosion and deposition as indicated by sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Carl H.; Colby, Bruce R.

    1957-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the powder River drainage basin upstream from Arvada, Wyo. The study was made to determine the net rates of erosion in the upland areas and the effects of the reservoirs on the amount of sediment transported to the parent stream. The climate of the area ranges from cold and humid on the high mountains to warm and semiarid on the plains. The average annual precipitation ranges from less than 15 inches on the plains to more than 27 inches in the high mountains, which have a maximum altitude of 13,165 feet. The rocks in the Powder River drainage basin range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The 25 stock reservoirs that were used in the study have drainage areas of 0.09 to 3.53 square miles, are from 3 to 51 years old, and impound water from areas that have land slopes averaging from about 3 to 41 percent. The ratio of average reservoir capacity to drainage area ranges from about 2 to nearly 200 acre-feet per square mile. After adjustment for trap efficiency the average annual sediment yield to the 25 reservoirs ranged from 0.04 to 1.49 acre-feet per square mile and averaged 0.50 acre-foot per square mile of drainage area. The average sediment yield from 6 drainage areas mostly underlain by shale was 0.80 acre-foot per year, 2.3 times greater than yields from the areas underlain by sandstone or sandy shales. Correlations show that the sediment yield increased approximately as the 1.5 power of the channel density, the 0.4 power oif the shape factor, the 0.7 power of the average land slope, and the -0.25 power of the age of the reservoir. Empirical equations for sediment yield and trap efficiency for the area studied are given.

  16. Pleistocene drainage incision in the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The deep dissection of the Wisconsin Driftless Area and topographically similar, but glaciated areas in adjacent states is generally acknowledged to have occurred during the Pleistocene, but the precise chronology has been poorly understood. The distribution of pre-Illinoian glacial outwash gravels on uplands and valley side benches near the Mississippi River, on the western margin of the Wisconsin Driftless Area, indicates that the major incision (50-60 m) of drainage had occurred during the very early Pleistocene. Deposits in cut-off valley meanders, a common feature in the lower reaches of Driftless Area rivers, provide a basis for relative dating of the valley incision. The cut-offs appear to have evolved episodically when, at various times during the Pleistocene, glacial debris blocked the drainages of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers causing massive alluviation of side valley tributaries. A radiocarbon date of 21,910 +/- 350 year B.P., representing a buried soil horizon at 22 m depth and about 9 m above the bedrock floor of a cut-off valley meander and 18 m above the bedrock floor of the adjacent present-day valley, supports stratigraphic interpretations that suggest modest valley incision into bedrock probably occurred during the Illinoian and may have also occurred during the early Wisconsinan.

  17. The LACDA (Los Angeles County Drainage Area) System Recreation Study, Los Angeles County Drainage Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    the Nation dt, t:... .. .Los Angeles District in association with DANIEL, MANN, JOHNSON, & MENDENHALL URBAN DESIGN DISCIPLINES, INC. 3250 WILSHIRE...POTENTIAL TRAIL PROJECTS 4-3 Planning and Design of Trail Projects 4-3 Classification of Potential Trail Projects 4-3 Bicycle Trails 4-6 Equestrian...bicycles for both recreation routes and the design of trail facilities: arid commuting and would be a major stimulus to equestrian activity in the area

  18. Insufficient Lymph Drainage Causes Abnormal Lipid Accumulation and Vein Wall Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Suzuki, Minoru; Mano, Yuuki; Sano, Masaki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previously, we analyzed human varicose veins (VV) using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and detected the abnormal accumulation of lipid molecules in the walls of VV, possibly due to insufficient lipid drainage by the lymphatic vessels. In this study, we created an animal model of lymphatic insufficiency to investigate the effects of insufficient lymph drainage on vein walls. Methods: In rats, the lymphatic collecting vessels surrounding the femoral vein were ligated on one side (the model tissue), which caused the local retention of lymphatic fluid in the perivascular tissue. The equivalent contralateral tissue was used as a control. A histological study of the femoral vein and the surrounding perivascular tissue was conducted. IMS was used to analyze the distribution of lipid molecules in the perivascular tissue. Results: Fourteen days after the procedure, the lymphatic vessels in the model tissue were significantly dilated. Furthermore, IMS revealed that the composition of the lipid molecules in the perivascular regions of the model tissue had altered. Compared with the control tissue, the model tissue exhibited marked perivascular accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine (1-acyl 16:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4), and triglycerides (52:2). Interestingly, the walls of the femoral veins running through the model tissue were 3.4-fold thicker than those of the femoral veins running through the control tissue. The number of tumor necrosis factor α-positive adipocytes was increased in the perivascular regions of the model tissue. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the accumulation of lymphatic fluid due to insufficient lymph drainage changes the structure of vein walls, and such changes might be associated with chronic venous insufficiency. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2015; 26: 227–235.) PMID:28018498

  19. A quick algorithm of counting flow accumulation matrix for deriving drainage networks from a DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yonghe; Xie, Hongbo; Xiang, ZhongLin

    2011-06-01

    Computerized auto-extraction of drainage networks from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been widely used in hydrological modeling and relevant studies. Several essential procedures need to be implemented in eight-directional(D8) watershed delineation method, among which a problem need to be resolved is the lack of a high efficiency algorithm for quick and accurate computation of flow accumulation matrix involved in river network delineations. For the problem of depression filling, the algorithm presented by Oliver Planchon has resolved it. This study was aimed to develop a simple and quick algorithm for flow accumulation matrix computations. For this purpose, a simple and high efficiency algorithm of the time complexity of O(n) compared to the commonly used code of the time complexity of O(n2) orO(nlogn) , has been developed. Performance tests on this newly developed algorithm were conducted for different size of DEMs, and the results suggested that the algorithm has a linear time complexity with increasing sizes of DEM. The computation efficiency of this newly developed algorithm is many times higher than the commonly used code, and for a DEM of size 1000*1000, flow accumulation matrix computation can be completed within only several seconds compared with about few minutes needed by common used algorithms.

  20. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    ) areal extent of river drainage basins, (2) source area relief, (3) climate of the source areas and tributary systems, (4) source lithology, and (5) sediment storage within the upper drainage basin. Climate has played an important and complex role in modulating supply. In wet tropical to temperate climate regimes, abundant runoff efficiently removed entrained sediment. Arid climate limited runoff; resultant transport-limited tributaries and trunk streams deposited aggradational alluvial aprons, storing sediment in the drainage basin even in the absence of a structural depression. Eolian deposition commonly accompanied such alluvial aggradation. In contrast, seasonality and consequent runoff variability favored erosion and efficient sediment evacuation from the upper parts of drainage basins. Tectonism has played a prominent but equally complex role. Elevation of uplands by compression, crustal heating, or extrusive volcanism created primary loci of erosion and high sediment yield. At the same time, accompanying subsidence sometimes created long-lived sediment repositories that intercepted and sequestered sediment adjacent to sources. Regional patterns of uplift and subsidence relocated drainage divides and redirected trunk stream paths to the Gulf margin.

  1. Drainage network extraction of Brazilian semiarid region with potential flood indication areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosim, Sergio; de Freitas Oliveira, João. Ricardo; de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Cuellar, Miguel Zanic; Jardim, Alexandre Copertino

    2014-10-01

    This region has the particularity of, at the same time, coexisting with sporadic floods and scarcity of water. This situation requires complex studies involving water resources based on runoff of rain waters and on the courses of the rivers. For the extraction of drainage was carried out by using of the system for hydrological modeling treatment TerraHidro, developed by INPE's Image Processing Division. This system uses the PFS method for extraction of drainage, which has provided good results, enabling the reduction of the time spent on manual editing of drainage errors. TerraHidro has a tool called Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) which gives information on potential flood areas. Elevation data were used in the Aster GDEM with spatial resolution of 30 meters for drainage extraction. A qualitative comparison was performed between drainage extracted by TerraHidro and drainage manually extracted by a specialist.

  2. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to document trends in surface-water quality, specifically for trends in nutrients and suspended sediment. Surface-water samples were collected from streams at specific sampling stations. Water-quality characteristics at each station are influenced by the natural and cultural characteristics of the drainage area upstream from the sampling station. Efficient quantification of the drainage area characteristics requires a digital map of the drainage area boundary that may be processed, together with other digital thematic maps (such as geology or land use), in a geographic information system (GIS). Digital drainage-area boundary data for one stream-sampling station in the Missouri River Basin (MRB4) study area is included in this data release. The drainage divides were identified chiefly using 1:24,000-scale hypsography.

  3. Drainage basin morphometry controls on the active depositional area of debris flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Wasklewicz, Thad; Malamud, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A majority of the research on understanding the connection between alluvial fans and drainage basins to date has focused on coarse-scale relations between total fan area and drainage basin area. Here we take a new approach where we assess relationships between active fan depositional area and drainage basin morphometry using 52 debris flow fans (32 from the White Mountains and 20 from the Inyo Mountains) on the eastern side of Owens Valley, California, USA. The boundaries for fans, drainage basin and active depositional areas were delineated from 10m digital elevation models and 1 m aerial photographs. We examined the relationships between the normalised active depositional area of the fan (Afad/Af, where Afad is the fan active depositional area and Af the entire fan area) and the following four variables for drainage basin: (i) area (Adb), (ii) total stream length (Ls), (iii) relief (BHH), (iv) roughness (R). We find a statistically significant (r2 > 0.40) inverse power-law relationship between recent sediment contribution to the fan and drainage basin area (Afad/Af = 0.29Adb-0.167) drainage network length (Afad/Af = 0.39Ls-0.161) and basin relief (Afad/Af = 3.90BHH-0.401), and a statistically weak (r2 = 0.22) inverse power law with basin roughness (Afad/Af = 0.32R0.5441). Drainage basin size combined with other morphometric variables may largely determine efficiency in sediment transport and delivery to the fan surface. A large proportion of the total fan area of smaller fans are flooded by debris flow indicating less sediment storage in the drainage basins and greater efficiency in sediment delivery. The findings signify the importance of coarse-scale relationships to both long- and short-term fan evolution.

  4. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the well...

  5. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the well...

  6. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the well...

  7. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the well...

  8. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the well...

  9. Relative importance of impervious area, drainage density, width function, and subsurface storm drainage on flood runoff from an urbanized catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Raj Pradhan, Nawa; Downer, Charles W.; Zahner, Jon A.

    2011-12-01

    The literature contains contradictory conclusions regarding the relative effects of urbanization on peak flood flows due to increases in impervious area, drainage density and width function, and the addition of subsurface storm drains. We used data from an urbanized catchment, the 14.3 km2 Dead Run watershed near Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and the physics-based gridded surface/subsurface hydrologic analysis (GSSHA) model to examine the relative effect of each of these factors on flood peaks, runoff volumes, and runoff production efficiencies. GSSHA was used because the model explicitly includes the spatial variability of land-surface and hydrodynamic parameters, including subsurface storm drains. Results indicate that increases in drainage density, particularly increases in density from low values, produce significant increases in the flood peaks. For a fixed land-use and rainfall input, the flood magnitude approaches an upper limit regardless of the increase in the channel drainage density. Changes in imperviousness can have a significant effect on flood peaks for both moderately extreme and extreme storms. For an extreme rainfall event with a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years, imperviousness is relatively unimportant in terms of runoff efficiency and volume, but can affect the peak flow depending on rainfall rate. Changes to the width function affect flood peaks much more than runoff efficiency, primarily in the case of lower density drainage networks with less impermeable area. Storm drains increase flood peaks, but are overwhelmed during extreme rainfall events when they have a negligible effect. Runoff in urbanized watersheds with considerable impervious area shows a marked sensitivity to rainfall rate. This sensitivity explains some of the contradictory findings in the literature.

  10. Ground-water and drainage problems in the Whitney terrace area, Boise, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, S.W.

    1955-01-01

    Ground-water and drainage problems can be relieved by reducing excessive recharge to the ground-water reservoir.  Reduction can be accomplished by economical use of water by individuals, establishment of a water-tight public sewage system to transport all sewage to a central plant outside of the area, and by drainage works.  These measures would cause a net decline of ground-water levels in the area.  They can be undertaken separately or collectively.

  11. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  13. Digital database architecture and delineation methodology for deriving drainage basins, and a comparison of digitally and non-digitally derived numeric drainage areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The drainage basin is a fundamental hydrologic entity used for studies of surface-water resources and during planning of water-related projects. Numeric drainage areas published by the U.S. Geological Survey water science centers in Annual Water Data Reports and on the National Water Information Systems (NWIS) Web site are still primarily derived from hard-copy sources and by manual delineation of polygonal basin areas on paper topographic map sheets. To expedite numeric drainage area determinations, the Colorado Water Science Center developed a digital database structure and a delineation methodology based on the hydrologic unit boundaries in the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This report describes the digital database architecture and delineation methodology and also presents the results of a comparison of the numeric drainage areas derived using this digital methodology with those derived using traditional, non-digital methods. (Please see report for full Abstract)

  14. Gravitational drainage systems in urban areas: case study (Galaţi town, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfirescu, Fl.; Popa, I.; Danchiv, Al.

    2006-03-01

    The water leakage in the urban areas causes a continuous rise in the water table, with harmful effects. An experimental drainage system, based on horizontal well technology, was designed and implemented in a populated area. Groundwater flow modeling was used to assess the hydrodynamic efficiency of the system through drain conductance parameter estimation.

  15. Appendix D-21 Building 696S Consolidation Waste Accumulation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Michalik, R L

    2005-04-15

    This appendix is designed to provide information specific to the Building 696S Consolidation Waste Accumulation Area (B-696S CWAA), a waste storage area. The appendix is not designed to be used as a sole source of information. All general information that is not specific to the B-696S CWAA is included in the Contingency Plan for Waste Accumulation Areas, dated July 2004, and should be referenced.

  16. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Annual peak discharge from small drainage areas is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  18. Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy; Huttly, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective study of the effect of drainage and sewerage systems on diarrhoea in children aged < 5 years was conducted in 9 poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (population 2.44 million) in north-east Brazil in 1989-90. Due to complex political and administrative reasons, 3 areas had benefited from drainage improvements, 3 from both drainage and sewerage improvements, and 3 from neither. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and mothers recorded diarrhoea episodes in their children aged < 5 years daily for 1 year, using calendars. Fortnightly home visits were made to collect the data. The incidence of diarrhoea in children in neighbourhoods with drainage was less than two-thirds, and in neighbourhoods with drainage and sewerage less than one-third, of the incidence in neighbourhoods with neither. After controlling for potential confounders, the proportion of children with 'frequent diarrhoea' showed the same significant trend across the study groups. Though the groups were not exactly comparable, more than one child was monitored per household, and it was not possible to rotate fieldworkers between study groups, the study provides evidence that community sanitation can have an impact on diarrhoeal disease, even without measures to promote hygiene behaviour.

  19. Event mean concentration and first flush effect from different drainage systems and functional areas during storms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Gao, Xue-Long; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) and first flush effect (FFE) during typical rainfall events in outfalls from different drainage systems and functional areas. Stormwater outfall quality data were collected from five outfalls throughout Fuzhou City (China) during 2011-2012. Samples were analyzed for water quality parameters, such as COD, NH3-N, TP, and SS. Analysis of values indicated that the order of the event mean concentrations (EMCs) in outfalls was intercepting combined system > direct emission combined system > separated system. Most of the rainfall events showed the FFE in all outfalls. The order of strength of the FFE was residential area of direct emission combined system > commercial area of separated system > residential area of intercepting combined system > office area of separated system > residential area of separated system. Results will serve as guide in managing water quality to reduce pollution from drainage systems.

  20. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  1. Depth to water table, recharge areas, drainage basins, and relief of Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    This 3-sheet map report depicts hydrologic systems of surface water and groundwater in Duval County, Florida. The maps are from 1:20,000 and 1:62,500 quadrangles, U.S. Geological Survey. Symbols and colors describe water levels, groundwater recharge, drainage areas, and topography. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Fractures and drainage in the granite mountainous area - A study from Sierra Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Kerstin; Migon, Piotr; Olvmo, Mats

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of relationships between drainage patterns and fractures in the part of Sierra Nevada, California, north of the Yosemite Valley. Bedrock is Cretaceous granite and cut by numerous lineaments of various orientation, length and geomorphic expression. We have mapped fractures and drainage lines from aerial photographs, 1:40 000 scale, in four test areas ranging in size from 32.5 to 266 km 2. Azimuths are shown on rose diagrams for fractures and drainage lines and then visually and statistically compared. The coincidence of drainage and fracture patterns is strong, which implies causal relationships. In plan, the majority of valleys follow fractures even if this locally means a different orientation in respect to the regional slope arising from tectonic tilt of the range. Main streams occupy deeply incised troughs coincident with 'master fractures' of regional extent. Among two principal fracture directions, SSW-NNE to SW-NE and WSW-ENE, the former exerts more control on the drainage lines. The presence of a central zone of structural weakness within the major valleys provided significant constraints for the course of glacial erosion and may explain why multiple Pleistocene glaciers did not succeed in transforming valley cross-sections into expected U-shapes.

  3. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  4. Effectiveness of constructed overland flow areas in decreasing diffuse pollution from forest drainages.

    PubMed

    Liljaniemi, Petri; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Tossavainen, Tarmo; Kotanen, Juho; Haapanen, Merja; Lepistö, Ahti; Kenttämies, Kaarle

    2003-11-01

    Forestry is the largest scale human impact affecting catchments in Finland and a prominent source of diffuse pollution in many water courses. Among the forestry activities, draining of wetlands had the most pronounced impacts on sediment, nutrient, and metal loading in the past. At present, renovation of old ditches and fertilization of peatlands constitute the major risk of forestry-induced diffuse pollution. Contemporary forestry aims at decreasing this risk with various riparian buffer strip designs. Among such designs, creation of overland flow areas by plugging the outlet ditches is increasingly used. Our objectives were to evaluate the potential of constructed overland flow areas to function as riparian buffers and estimate the quality and quantity of diffuse pollution from old versus recent forest drainages. We studied retention and release of pollutants from 20 constructed, 2- to 10-m-wide overland flow areas receiving drainage water from forested peatlands. Drainage waters were sampled above and below the plugged ditches three times per year from 1998 to 1999. Chemical oxygen demand and nutrient and metal loads and concentrations varied strongly between seasons, years, and drainage areas. Areas subjected to recent ditch renovations and fertilizations had clearly elevated seasonal loads and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), PO4, Fe, and Al in comparison to old treatment areas. Especially TP loads were high above the national average values measured for forestry-induced diffuse pollution. In general, water quality above and below the buffer strips did not differ significantly. Our results indicate that plugged outlet ditches and associated narrow overland flow areas do not function as proper buffers in peatland areas. We suggest that wider buffers with extensive overland flow areas are needed in order to control diffuse pollution from forested and drained peatlands.

  5. Import-export balance of nitrogen and phosphorus in food, fodder and fertilizers in the Baltic Sea drainage area.

    PubMed

    Asmala, Eero; Saikku, Laura; Vienonen, Sanna

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements for life, but in excess they contribute to aquatic eutrophication. The Baltic Sea is a brackish semi-enclosed sea that is heavily influenced by anthropogenic loading of nutrients, resulting in a major environmental problem, eutrophication. In this study, the nutrient balance of the food production and consumption system in seven countries in the Baltic Sea drainage area was quantified for the period 2002-2005. The food production and consumption system accumulates nutrients in the Baltic Sea drainage area, due to extensive imports to the system. The average annual net surplus of nutrients was 1,800,000 tons N and 320,000 tons P in 2002-2005, or annually 28 kg N and 5 kg P per capita. The average total annual import was 2,100,000 tons N and 340,000 tons P during 2002-2005. The largest imports to the system were fertilizers, totaling 1,700,000 tons N and 290,000 tons P. Traded nutrients in food and fodder amounted to a net annual surplus of 180,000 tons N and 25,000 tons P. The nutrient load to the Baltic Sea due to the food consumption and production system was 21% N and 6% P of the respective annual net inputs to the region. This study shows that large amounts of nutrients to Baltic Sea drainage area are inputs from outside the region, eventually contributing to eutrophication. To reduce the nutrient imports, fertilizers should be used more efficiently, nutrients should be recycled more efficiently inside the region, and food system should be guided toward low-nutrient intensive diets.

  6. Statewide analysis of the drainage-area ratio method for 34 streamflow percentile ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  7. Estimating Vadose Zone Drainage From a Capped Seepage Basin, F Area, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Denham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Large volumes of waste solutions were commonly discharged into unlined seepage basins at many different facilities in the past. Plutonium was extracted from depleted uranium from 1955 to 1988 at the F-Area within the Savannah River Site, with contaminated process waters disposed of in permeable seepage basins. The primarily acidic solutions contained radioactive components (including tritium, 129I, and multiple isotopes of U, Pu, Sr, and Cs), elevated nitrate, and some metals (Hg, Pb, Cd). Basin 3 was the largest F-Area seepage basin, covering 2.0 hectare, with the water table typically at about 20 m below the soil surface. The local groundwater flows at an average velocity of 200 m/y in the approximately 10 m thick shallow aquifer, and is underlain by the low permeability Tan Clay. We used nearly 20 years of groundwater quality data from a monitoring well immediately downstream of Basin 3 to estimate the post-closure drainage of waste solutions through its underlying vadose zone, into the shallow aquifer. The measurements of tritium, nitrate, and specific conductance, were used as plume tracers in our estimates of vadose zone drainage. These calculations indicate that early stages of post-closure waste drainage occurred with high fluxes (≈ 1 m/y), and quickly declined. However, even after 20 years, drainage continues at a low but significant rate of several cm/y. These estimated drainage fluxes can help constrain predictions on the waste plume behavior, especially with respect to its emerging trailing gradient and anticipated time scales suitable for monitored natural attenuation.

  8. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Annual peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  10. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  12. Mean annual streamflow of selected drainage basins in the coal area of southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, Rodger F.

    1981-01-01

    Streamflow characteristics of drainage basins within the Forst Union coal region of southeastern Montana were estimated to provide premining data for evaluating the future effects of mining on the environment. Estimated annual mean streamflow at 22 data-collection stations for water years 1975-77 ranged from 0 to 887 cubic feet per second. These estimates are based on miscellaneous-streamflow records at each station and continuous-streamflow records from other stations in the study area. Estimated mean annual streamflow for a 10-year period (water years 1968-77) ranged from 0 to 572 cubic feet per second. These long-term estimates were based on data from stations in the surrounding area having continuous-streamflow records. Estimates mean annual runoff in inches for selected drainage basins within the study area showed no discernible pattern. Many of the drainage basins had a mean annual runoff of less than 0.60 inch; the maximum observed mean annual runoff was 4.45 inches. (USGS)

  13. Geochemical study of acid mine drainage of the Big Lick Tunnel area, Williamstown, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Tollin, S. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-03-01

    Acid mine drainage in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania continues to be a significant environmental problem. This study examines the acid mine outflow from the Big Lick Tunnel, north of Williamstown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The tunnel drains abandoned mines on the north side of the Big Lick Mountain. Mining ceased in the area circa 1940, and the tunnel has been in operation since that time. The water, soil and stream bed sediment geochemistry has been studied to determine their changes in chemistry over distance. The pH, TDS and metal concentrations were the primary focus. Metal concentrations were determined using an ICP unit. Data indicates the pH of the outflow to range between 6.7 and 7.3 Fe and Mn concentrations are as high as 9.7 ppb. Extensive metal precipitation ( yellow boy'') occurs within the tunnel and for several hundred meters from the mouth of the tunnel. The combination of near neutral pH and high metal concentration suggest that the drainage is in contact with highly alkaline materials prior to discharge from the tunnel. The geology of the area does not suggest bedrock as the possible source of alkaline material. One hypothesis is that the acidic water is reacting with the concrete tunnel and being neutralized. Data also suggests that the Fe precipitates much quicker than the Mn, resulting in a zonation between Fe-rich and Mn-rich sediments along the length of the drainage.

  14. Appendix D-12A Building 332C Waste Accumulation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, D

    2005-01-21

    This appendix is designed to provide information specific to the Building 332C Waste Accumulation Area (B-332C WAA), a waste storage area. This appendix is not designed to be used as a sole source of information. All general information that is not specific to the B-332C WAA is included in the Contingency Plan for Waste Accumulation Areas, dated July 2004, and should be referenced. The B-332C WAA is located in the southwest quadrant of the LLNL Main Site in Building 332, Room 1330. Hazardous and mixed wastes may be stored at the B-332C WAA for 90 days or less, until transferred to the appropriate Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) facility or other permitted treatment, storage or disposal facility (TSDF). Radioactive waste may also be stored at the WAA. The design storage capacity of this WAA is 2,200 gallons.

  15. Appendix D-16A Building 515 Waste Accumulation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, L

    2005-03-29

    The B-515 WAA is located in the southeast quadrant of the LLNL Main Site (see Figure D-1) along the west side of Building 515 (B-515). Hazardous wastes may be stored at the B-515 WAA for 90 days or less, until transferred to the appropriate Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) facility or other permitted treatment, storage or disposal facility (TSDF). The design storage capacity of this WAA is 4,840 gallons. This appendix is designed to provide information specific to the Building 515 Waste Accumulation Area (B-515 WAA), a waste storage area. This appendix is not designed to be used as a sole source of information. All general information that is not specific to the B-515 WAA is included in the Contingency Plan for Waste Accumulation Areas, dated July 2004, and should be referenced.

  16. Accumulation and turnover of carbon in organic and mineral soils of the BOREAS northern study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trumbore, S.E.; Harden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Rates of input, accumulation, and turnover of C differ markedly within soil profiles and in soils with different drainage in the BOREAS northern study area. Soil C storage increases from ???3 kg C m-2 in well-drained, sandy soils to greater than 100 kg C m-2 in wetlands. Two modes of C accumulation were observed in upland soil profiles. Large annual C inputs (0.06-0.1 kg C m-2 yr-1) and slow decomposition (turnover times of 6-250 years) lead to rapid C accumulation in regrowing surface moss and detrital layers following fire. Deep organic layers that have accumulated over the millennia since the initiation of soil development, and are located below the most recent charred horizon, show slower rates of input (0.015-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1) and turnover (100-1600 years) and accumulate C about 10 times slower than surface detrital layers. Rates of C input to soils derived from C and 14C data were in accord with net primary production estimates, with highest rates of input (0.14-0.6 kg C m-2 yr-1) in wetlands. Turnover times for C in surface detrital layers were 6-15 years for well-drained sand soils that showed highest soil temperatures in summer, 30-40 years for wetlands, and 36-250 years for uplands with thick moss cover and black spruce trees. Long (>100 years) turnover times in upland black spruce/clay soils most likely reflect the influence of woody debris incorporated into detrital layers. Turnover times for deep organic and mineral layer C were controlled by drainage, with fastest turnover (80-130 years) in well-drained sand soils and slowest turnover (>3000 years) in wetlands. Total C accumulation rates, which account for C losses from both deep organic and surface detrital layers, are close to zero for sand/jack pine soils, 0.003-0.01 kg C m-2 yr-1 for moderately to poorly drained sites in mature forest stands, and 0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1 for a productive fen. Decomposition of organic matter more than several decades old accounts for 9-22% of total heterotrophic

  17. Accumulation and turnover of carbon in organic and mineral soils of the BOREAS northern study area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, S. E.; Harden, J. W.

    1997-12-01

    Rates of input, accumulation, and turnover of C differ markedly within soil profiles and in soils with different drainage in the BOREAS northern study area. Soil C storage increases from ˜3 kg C m-2 in well-drained, sandy soils to greater than 100 kg C m-2 in wetlands. Two modes of C accumulation were observed in upland soil profiles. Large annual C inputs (0.06-0.1 kg C m-2 yr-1) and slow decomposition (turnover times of 6-250 years) lead to rapid C accumulation in regrowing surface moss and detrital layers following fire. Deep organic layers that have accumulated over the millennia since the initiation of soil development, and are located below the most recent charred horizon, show slower rates of input (0.015-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1) and turnover (100-1600 years) and accumulate C about 10 times slower than surface detrital layers. Rates of C input to soils derived from C and 14C data were in accord with net primary production estimates, with highest rates of input (0.14-0.6 kg C m-2 yr-1) in wetlands. Turnover times for C in surface detrital layers were 6-15 years for well-drained sand soils that showed highest soil temperatures in summer, 30-40 years for wetlands, and 36-250 years for uplands with thick moss cover and black spruce trees. Long (>100 years) turnover times in upland black spruce/clay soils most likely reflect the influence of woody debris incorporated into detrital layers. Turnover times for deep organic and mineral layer C were controlled by drainage, with fastest turnover (80-130 years) in well-drained sand soils and slowest turnover (>3000 years) in wetlands. Total C accumulation rates, which account for C losses from both deep organic and surface detrital layers, are close to zero for sand/jack pine soils, 0.003-0.01 kg C m-2 yr-1 for moderately to poorly drained sites in mature forest stands, and 0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1 for a productive fen. Decomposition of organic matter more than several decades old accounts for 9-22% of total heterotrophic

  18. Drainage Area-Dependent Knickpoint Generation Mechanisms, Smith River, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, D. J.; Kelsey, H. M.

    2011-12-01

    Knickpoints and knickzones (reaches of relatively high gradient located immediately downstream of a knickpoint) are a prominent characteristic of the channel slopes of both mainstem and tributary channels of the 1,575 km2 Smith River drainage in northern California. We have investigated these knickpoints using aerial photos, 10 m and 1 m digital elevation models (DEM's), and NAIP images supplemented by Schmidt hammer rock strength measurements and field verification of channel and terrace elevations using real time kinematic GPS surveys. Two types of knickpoints occur. At higher drainage areas (threshold of greater than ~250 km2), knickpoints occur within rock types with no significant difference in rock strength. There is a distinct upstream convergence of the modern channel with the lowest elevated strath surface along these knickzones, resulting in elevated strath surfaces downstream of the knickzones. We infer that the knickpoints are transient and that the straths are more vertically separated from the modern channel only after the knickpoint has migrated upstream. The causative baselevel fall that generates migrating knickpoints in the Smith River may be eustatic sea level fall following Quaternary highstands. For instance, fluvial terraces are cut into stage 5 marine terraces at the coast and these fluvial terraces likely are generated in the wake of knickpoints migrating upstream. In contrast, at drainage areas less than ~250 km2, the only knickpoints present in channels are those associated with large landslides that mobilize entire hillslopes into the channel, forcing a channel response. Notably absent along the Smith River are any knickpoints associated with changes in rock strength, as measured by Schmidt hammer values. From these observations, we infer that, first, major knickpoints along channels above a threshold drainage area of about 250 km2 are generated by baselevel fall that propagates upstream through channels of varying rock type; and second

  19. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Preliminary appraisal of the geohydrologic aspects of drainage wells, Orlando area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, Joel O.

    1978-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer contains two highly transmissive cavernous zones in the Orlando area: an upper producing zone about 150-600 feet below land surface and a lower producing zone about 1,100-1 ,500 feet below land surface. Natural head differences are downward and there is hydraulic connection between the two producing zones. Drainage wells are finished open-end into the upper producing zone and emplace surface waters directly into that zone by gravity. Quantitatively, their use constitutes an effective method of artificial recharge. Their negative aspects relate to the probably poor, but unknown, quality of the recharge water. Caution is suggested in drawing definite and final conclusions on the overall geohydrologic and environmental effects of drainage wells prior to the collection and interpretation of a considerable quantity of new data. Though few ground-water pollution problems have been documented, the potential for pollution should be seriously considered in light of the probable continuing need to use drainage wells; the probable volumes and quality of water involved; and the hydraulic relations between the two producing zones. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. A network description on geometry and economics of Yangtze drainage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binbin; Xu, Tian; He, Da-Ren

    2004-03-01

    Drainage basin of large rivers can be viewed as a network. This is well known in geomorphology. Recently, Dodds and Rothman performed an investigation of detailed geometry of river networks [1]. After them, we have investigated geometry and economics of drainage area of Yangtze, the largest river in China. In our first-degree network, we define all the anabranches of Yangtze as the nodes, and the flowing water as the directed edges. A statistics has been performed with 2332 anabranches. Six statistical properties have been obtained, which are in a good agreement with the conclusions reported in Ref. [1] and show that the drainage basin of Yangtze is a scale-free network. In our second-degree network, we define all the open ports along the anabranches as the nodes, and the trade relationship between each pair of nodes as an edge. Population, GDP, berth number, and the large quantities of goods taken in and sent out of 229 open ports have been investigated. A simple model has been suggested to describe the trade process. The results are in a good agreement with the statistical data and show that our second-degree network is also scale-free. [1] P. S. Dodds and D. H. Rothman, Phys. Rev. E 63, (2000) 016115; 016116; 016117.

  2. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana for stations discontinued before 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Parrett, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been tabulated for crest-stage gage sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from samll drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1978. From 1955 to 1978, 156 stations have been discontinued. This report is a tabulation of the stage and discharge data for the discontinued stations. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Reclamation by tubewell drainage in Rechna Doab and adjacent areas, Punjab region, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1975-01-01

    Around the turn of the century, a network of more than 40,000 miles of canals was constructed to divert water from the Indus River and its tributaries to about 23 million acres of largely unused desert in the Punjab region of Pakistan. The favorable climate and the perennial supply of irrigation water made available through the canals instituted the beginning of intensive farming. However, because of generally poor drainage and the high rate of canal leakage, the water table began to rise. As the population increased and agriculture expanded, the demand for irrigation water soon exceeded the available supply. Spreading of the canal supply to meet the expanded needs locally created shortages that prevented adequate leaching. Increased evaporation from the rising water table further contributed to the progressive accumulation of soluble salts in the soil. By the late 1930's the combined effect of waterlogging and salinity had reduced the agricultural productivity of the region to one of the lowest in the world. In 1954, after several unsuccessful projects were undertaken to reclaim affected areas and to stop the progressive encroachment of waterlogging and salinization, the Government of Pakistan in cooperation with the U.S. International Cooperation Administration undertook a study of the geology and hydrology of the Indus Plain that ultimately resulted in the formulation of a ground-water reclamation program. The principal feature of the program is the utilization of a network of deep wells spaced about a mile apart for the dual purpose of lowering the water table and for providing supplemental irrigation water. Through financial assistance and technical and engineering support principally from the United States, construction began in 1960 on the first of 18 proposed reclamation projects that eventually will include 21 million acres and more than 28,000 wells having an installed capacity of more than 100,000 cubic feet per second. An area of about 1.3 million acres

  4. Capture and characterization of particulate phosphorus from farm drainage waters in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T.; Daroub, S.

    2012-12-01

    The buildup of highly labile, organic, phosphorus (P)-enriched sediments in farms canals within the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) has been associated with the production of floating aquatic vegetation. During drainage events, these sediments are susceptible to transport and contribute to the overall P load. In order to evaluate the total P load exiting the farm canals, a settling tank experiment was conducted to capture the sediments during drainage events from eight farms. Drainage water was channelized through two 200L polypropylene collection tanks which allowed sediments to settle at the bottom based on its particle size. Water was carefully siphoned out of the tanks and the sediments collected for analyses. A five step P-fractionation process was used to distinguish organic (o) and inorganic (i) forms of P: KCl extractable P, NaOH extractable P, HCl extractable P, and residual P. The KCl-Pi fraction represents the labile Pi that is water soluble and exchangeable (loosely adsorbed); NaOH extractable P represents Fe- and Al- bound inorganic P (NaOH-Pi) and organic P associated with humic and fulvic acids (NaOH-Po). The HCl-Pi fraction includes Ca- and Mg- bound P, while Residue-P represents recalcitrant organic P compounds and P bound to minerals. The sediments were also used to conduct a P-flux study under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Our goal is to provide growers with vital information and insight into P loading that will help them in their efforts to reduce off-farm P loads in the EAA.

  5. Wildlife in some areas of New Mexico and Texas accumulate elevated DDE residues, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last decade, data gathered by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program have identified an area of elevated DDE contamination in portions of New Mexico and Texas. Extensive wildlife sampling in 1983 confirmed that DDE, the major metabolite of the insecticide DDT, was present at high concentrations in wildlife at selected sites in the Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages. DDE in carcasses ranged up to 47 ppm (wet weight) in western kingbirds (Tyrannus verticalis), 35 ppm in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), 46 ppm in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), and 104 ppm in whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus spp.) DDE was also detected in gut contents from western kingbirds at some of the highest concentrations ever reported, ranging up to 21 ppm in proventricular samples. An average of 40% of the eggs of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from two sites along the Pecos River in New Mexico had DDE levels ( gtoreq 8 ppm) that have been associated in other studies with impaired reproduction. In contrast, wintering mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American coots (Fulica americana) from the study area did not accumulate elevated DDE levels. DDE in wildlife samples at control sites (non-agricultural areas) was either absent or averaged less than 0.35 ppm. Collectively, these data provide evidence that there is major DDE contamination of several vertebrate species in portions of the Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, but whether the contamination is recent or residual was not determined. Apparently, the source was not DDE contamination present in dicofol (4-chloro-a-(4-chlorophenyl)-a- (trichloromethyl) benzenemethanol); neither dicofol nor its metabolite, p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone, were detected in wildlife carcasses (0.1 ppm detection limit) or proventricular contents (0.01 ppm detection limit) of western kingbirds.

  6. Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Passive Treatment of Mine Drainage from a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeen, S. W.; Mattson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory column tests for a passive treatment system for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area was conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, flow rate, and residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone, either in layered or mixed, were set up and operated for a total of 74 days to simulate the treatment system. The key variables determined from the tests include pH and redox adjustment of the treatment system, treatment efficiency for acidity and metals, sulfate removal rates, and precipitation of secondary minerals as sinks for metals. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e., Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn) with residence time of 15 hours and greater. The organic materials used in the test provided sufficient sulfate reduction that is available for metal removal in the mine drainage. The sulfate removal rates ranged between 200 and 600 mg/L/day. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic materials and secondary precipitates. The results from the columns tests provide a basis for design of a pilot-scale field passive treatment system, such as permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or reducing and alkalinity producing system (RAPS).

  7. Drainage areas of New York streams, by river basins; a stream gazetteer; Part 1, Data compiled as of October 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic studies concerned with surface water require geographic data of several types, among which are stream length and size of drainage area from which runoff is contributed. This gazetteer presents all drainage-area data on New York streams that were available as of October 1980. The information is grouped by river basin, and each section consists of two lists. The first gives sites alphabetically by stream name and includes the body of water to which the stream is tributary, county in which the site is located, drainage area above the mouth, coordinates of the topographic quadrangle on the State index map , and the Geological Survey site number. The second list presents site information by U.S. Geological Survey site number (downstream order along the main stream) and includes drainage area, distance of measurement site above the mouth, and location by latitude and longitude. Data were compiled from published and unpublished sources, all of which are available for inspection at the U.S. Geological Survey in Albany, N.Y. Also included are updated values on several river basins that have been redelineated and whose drainage areas have been recomputed and retabulated since 1977. (USGS)

  8. Radiation dose to the lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer with involved-field irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenbin; Gao, Hongmei; Zhu, Shuchai; Li, Youmei; Li, Juan; Liu, Zhikun; Su, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the radiation dose to the corresponding lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with involvED-field IRradiation (IFI) and to analyze associated factors. A retrospective analysis oF 81 patients with esophageal cancer was conducted. According to the location of the lesions, the lymph drainage area was delineated and the dosimetric parameters were calculated. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of the patients were 67.90, 33.33, 20.99 and 11.11%, respectively. Based on the dose-volume histogram in the treatment plan, we calculated the volume percentage of the planning target volume including clinically positive lymph nodes (PTV-N) receiving radiation doses of 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 Gy (VPTV-N30-50). The median values of VPTV-N30-50 were 73, 70, 67, 64 and 58%, respectively. The prescribed dose size exhibited no correlation with VPTV-N30-35, but did exhibit a significant correlation with VPTV-N40-50; the radiation field was not correlated with VPTV-N30-45, but exhibited a significant correlation with VPTV-N50; The length of the lesion on esophageal barium meal X-ray and the PTV were significantly correlated with VPTV-N30-50. The analysis of variance revealed that the VPTV-NX value in the upper thoracic segment was higher compared with that in the middle and lower thoracic segments; VPTV-N30-35 values differed significantly according to the different locations of the lesions, whereas VPTV-N40-50 values exhibited no significant differences. The value of VPTV-NX exerted no significant effect on long-term patient survival. Therefore, the corresponding lymph drainage area of esophageal cancer IS subjected to a certain Radiation dose when patients undergo 3D-CRT with IFI, which may play a role in the prevention of regional nodal metastasis. However, this hypothesis requires confirmation by further clinical studies.

  9. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area and in the western Mexico drainage area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome and the western Mexican drainage areas include about 4,700 square miles in southwestern Arizona. The main water-bearing unit is the alluvium along the Gila River and its tributaries and in the valleys that separate the mountains. Most of the ground-water development has taken place in the Wellton-Mohawk area in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area. The use of imported Colorado River water for irrigation caused the water levels to rise, and in the early 1970 's the water levels were within 6 feet of the land surface in most of the area. Since 1961, a network of about 70 wells has been pumping about 200,000 acre-feet of ground water annually for drainage of the waterlogged land in the area. The ground water in the Wellton-Mohawk area is of unsuitable chemical quality for most uses. Information shown on the maps includes depth to water , well depth, altitude of the water level, irrigated area, and specific conductance and Fluoride concentration in the water, A table of historical pumpage also is included. Scale 1:125.000. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. Digital reconstruction of the Song Dynasty Ganzhou drainage system based on AR technology and its’ application in the new urban area planning and revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Tao, T. H.

    2017-02-01

    Water-logging problem is a common problem in modern city. The urban built-up area of Zhangjiang new district in Ganzhou has the same water-logging problem, however, the old urban area of Ganzhou was praised as “Millennium no flood”. The drainage system of the old urban area of Ganzhou—Fushougou, which is not flooded for hundreds years because of the perfect drainage system. It’s valuable to be referenced to the modern city drainage and waterproof comprehensive planning. In order to explore the mystery of “Millennium no flood” of old urban area of Ganzhou, at the same time to provide directive opinion to the sustainability of Zhangjiang new urban area drainage system, this paper attempts to digital reconstruct the drainage system in old urban area of Ganzhou by augmented reality(AR). It will provide a new technological means and ways to evaluate the sustainability of urban underground drainage system under the surface feature changes in the landscape. On the basis of digital reconstruction of the drainage system in the old urban area of Ganzhou, the sustainability evaluation index of drainage system is studied by analyzing and contrasting with Zhangjiang new urban area drainage system, to guide the revision of comprehensive planning about city drainage and water-logging in the new urban area of Zhangjiang.

  11. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John L; Finlay, Jacques C; Kennedy, Theodore; Post, David M

    2010-11-12

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  12. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  13. Water-quality trends in the Scituate reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, 1983-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Upward trends in pH were identified for nearly half of the monitoring stations for WYs 1983-2012 and may reflect regional reductions in acid precipitation. Many upward trends in alkalinity also were identified for both the WYs 1983-2012 and for WYs 2003-12 periods and are likely related to the natural weathering of structures containing concrete or, in some cases, the application of lime or fertilizers on agriculture lands. Significant trends in chloride concentrations at most stations during WYs 1983-2012 were upward; however, results for WYs 2003-12 substantiate few significant upward trends and, in a few cases, downward trends were identified in several tributary drainage areas.

  14. Geographic Information Systems Methods for Determining Drainage-Basin Areas, Stream-Buffered Areas, Stream Length, and Land Uses for the Neosho and Spring Rivers in Northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; March, Ferrella

    2006-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems have many uses, one of which includes the reproducible computation of environmental characteristics that can be used to categorize hydrologic features. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality are investigating Geographic Information Systems techniques to determine partial drainage-basin areas, stream-buffer areas, stream length, and land uses (drainage basin and stream characteristics) in northeastern Oklahoma. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, documented the methods used to determine drainage-basin and stream characteristics for the Neosho and Spring Rivers above Grand Lake Of the Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma and calculated the characteristics. The drainage basin and stream characteristics can be used by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to aid in natural-resource assessments.

  15. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania)--Acid mine drainage and climatological approach.

    PubMed

    Buzatu, Andrei; Dill, Harald G; Buzgar, Nicolae; Damian, Gheorghe; Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț

    2016-01-15

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30-90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Clinical and morphological characteristics of the scleral drainage area in normotensive glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Shmyreva, V F; Ziangirova, G G; Mazurova, Iu V; Petrov, S Iu

    2007-01-01

    The ocular drainage system in normal intraocular-pressure glaucoma was studied by fluorescence lymphoangioscopy of the anterior ocular segment on 24 eyes and by histomorphological analysis of the drainage zone on 12 eyes. The study revealed the increased volumetric lymph flow in the drainage zone, which suggests the higher tissue drainage that correlates with intraocular pressure and agrees with the histomorphological findings. Patients with normotensive glaucoma were found to have ischemic and destructive changes in the drainage zone and vascular system of the anterior ocular segment. The histomorphological and lymphoangioscopic findings suggest the destruction of the drainage system, the retention of intraocular fluid, and the possible periodic unrecorded ophthalmic tone increase in normotensive glaucoma.

  17. Anisotropic Scale Invariance Investigation of Drainage Areas Via Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, A.; Gaonac'h, H.; Lovejoy, S.

    Spatial and temporal scale invariance investigation is now widespread in geophysical fields and reveals in most cases the existence of scaling or multiscaling behaviour over a large range of scales. However, not much attention is being paid to the anisotropy present in the analyzed geological and geophysical fields while self-similarity is as- sumed most of the time. Theory and models omitting such anisotropy do not take appropriately in consideration the anisotropic dynamics of these natural processes. However, anisotropy is a common characteristics of geophysical dynamics present in the oceans, atmosphere and earth interior and surface. It often implies differential strat- ification and rotation when describing the texture and morphology of the phenomenon scale by scale. In order to account for scaling anisotropy, the formalism of generalized scale invariance (GSI) was developed. Investigation of remotely sensed images (Land- sat, Aster and ERS-1) over drainage areas such as in Ethiopia is conducted to assess the importance of anisotropic scale invariance between eroded (highly anisotropic) and non-eroded (nearly isotropic) areas. The various spectral regions covered by these different satellite images reveal distinct anisotropic intrinsic characteristics of the re- gions (topography, chemical composition, structural features) which need to be ana- lyzed scale by scale. Multifractal parameters are reconsidered in this new anisotropic framework.

  18. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-14

    Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  20. Continental-Scale View of Bankfull Width Versus Drainage Area Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    While recognizing that there are multiple variables that influence bankfull channel width (Wbf), this study explores the relationship between Wbf and drainage area (Ada) across a range of geologic, terrestrial, climatic, and botanical environments. The study aims to develop a foundational model that will facilitate developing a comprehensive multivariate model for predicting channel width. Data for this study was compiled from independent regional curve studies (i.e., studies in which Wbf vs. Ada relationships are developed). The data represent 1,018 sites that span 12 states in the continental U.S. The channels are alluvial and are such that 1 m ≤ Wbf ≤ 110 m and 0.50 km2 ≤ Ada ≤ 22,000 km2. For developing regional curves, the Wbf vs. Ada relationship is generally assumed to be log-linear. Also, past studies have indicated that the Wbf vs. Ada relationship differs for small basins (i.e., 10 to 100 km2) and large basins due to the effects of vegetation. Linear and nonlinear (i.e., sigmoidal) models were considered for this study. The best model relates ln(Wbf ) and ln(Ada) using a three-piece linear model (Figure 1). The value of dWbf /dAda is significantly greater (p < 0.001) for mid-size basins (5 km2 ≤ Ada ≤ 350 km2) than either small or large basins. The noted change in dWbf /dAda is likely in response to vegetation. Also, the change in dWbf /dAda is so abrupt that the three-piece linear model, fits the data better than any of the sigmoidal functions explored in this study. For every model evaluated in this study, the residuals were bi-modal (Figure 2). For the residuals to begin converging on a normal distribution, at least one other factor (probably precipitation) needs to be included in the model.

  1. Improving Landslide Inventories by Limiting Land Classification to Drainage Areas of Debris Flow-Dominated Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, N. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Landslide inventories, frequently created by aerial photograph interpretation (API), are often used in the production of hillslope hazard maps to characterize past landslides or to evaluate a hazard model. In the former application of inventories, potential landslides in hazard maps are delineated as areas that have similar morphometrics as past landslides at locations of modeled hillslope instability. Therefore, the accuracy of the inventory has a strong influence upon hazard extent. In the latter application, the partial inventories that sometimes result from API, due to the subjectivity of interpretation and revegetation of landslides, likely results in incorrect evaluations. A more complete, less subjective technique is needed to not only better characterize past landslides and improve evaluation of hazard models, but also to assess the extent of areas prone to significant mass wasting in mountainous regions due to the evolution of landscapes. Inventory accuracy continues to improve with new technology and automated techniques, though rarely is the form of a channel's topography incorporated into the inventory process despite the growing evidence of a topographic signature of debris flows. This signature demarcates the transition between the dominant channel erosional process: fluvial or debris flow. These process transitions are often observed at scaling breaks in log-log plots of a channel's drainage area versus slope (DS plot). The scaling breaks, above which the effects of fluvial power laws upon channel topography are not observed and below which debris flow scars are not found, may signify the lowest point in the watershed where debris flows occur. We present an inventory technique that limits a land classification algorithm to areas that are upstream from this scaling break determined from DS plots of five streams in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) region of the southern Appalachians. Topographic data for the DS plots and the

  2. Feature pruning by upstream drainage area to support automated generalization of the United States National Hydrography Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanislawski, L.V.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey has been researching generalization approaches to enable multiple-scale display and delivery of geographic data. This paper presents automated methods to prune network and polygon features of the United States high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) to lower resolutions. Feature-pruning rules, data enrichment, and partitioning are derived from knowledge of surface water, the NHD model, and associated feature specification standards. Relative prominence of network features is estimated from upstream drainage area (UDA). Network and polygon features are pruned by UDA and NHD reach code to achieve a drainage density appropriate for any less detailed map scale. Data partitioning maintains local drainage density variations that characterize the terrain. For demonstration, a 48 subbasin area of 1:24 000-scale NHD was pruned to 1:100 000-scale (100 K) and compared to a benchmark, the 100 K NHD. The coefficient of line correspondence (CLC) is used to evaluate how well pruned network features match the benchmark network. CLC values of 0.82 and 0.77 result from pruning with and without partitioning, respectively. The number of polygons that remain after pruning is about seven times that of the benchmark, but the area covered by the polygons that remain after pruning is only about 10% greater than the area covered by benchmark polygons. ?? 2009.

  3. Development of flood probability charts for urban drainage network in coastal areas through a simplified joint assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archetti, R.; Bolognesi, A.; Casadio, A.; Maglionico, M.

    2011-04-01

    The operating conditions of urban drainage networks during storm events certainly depend on the hydraulic conveying capacity of conduits but also on downstream boundary conditions. This is particularly true in costal areas where the level of the receiving water body is directly or indirectly affected by tidal or wave effects. In such cases, not just different rainfall conditions (varying intensity and duration), but also different sea-levels and their effects on the network operation should be considered. This paper aims to study the behaviour of a seaside town storm sewer network, estimating the threshold condition for flooding and proposing a simplified method to assess the urban flooding severity as a function of either climate variables. The case study is a portion of the drainage system of Rimini (Italy), implemented and numerically modelled by means of InfoWorks CS code. The hydraulic simulation of the sewerage system has therefore allowed to identify the percentage of nodes of the drainage system where flooding is expected to occur. Combining these percentages with both climate variables values has lead to the definition charts representing the combined degree of risk "sea-rainfall" for the drainage system under investigation. A final comparison between such charts and the results obtained from a one-year sea-rainfall time series has confirmed the reliability of the analysis.

  4. Development of flood probability charts for urban drainage network in coastal areas through a simplified joint assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archetti, R.; Bolognesi, A.; Casadio, A.; Maglionico, M.

    2011-10-01

    The operating conditions of urban drainage networks during storm events depend on the hydraulic conveying capacity of conduits and also on downstream boundary conditions. This is particularly true in coastal areas where the level of the receiving water body is directly or indirectly affected by tidal or wave effects. In such cases, not just different rainfall conditions (varying intensity and duration), but also different sea-levels and their effects on the network operation should be considered. This paper aims to study the behaviour of a seaside town storm sewer network, estimating the threshold condition for flooding and proposing a simplified method to assess the urban flooding severity as a function of climate variables. The case study is a portion of the drainage system of Rimini (Italy), implemented and numerically modelled by means of InfoWorks CS code. The hydraulic simulation of the sewerage system identified the percentage of nodes of the drainage system where flooding is expected to occur. Combining these percentages with both climate variables' values has lead to the definition of charts representing the combined degree of risk "rainfall-sea level" for the drainage system under investigation. A final comparison between such charts and the results obtained from a one-year rainfall-sea level time series has demonstrated the reliability of the analysis.

  5. A Cultural Resources Literature Search of the Bayou Du Chien Drainage Project Area in Fulton, Graves, and Hickman Counties, Kentucky

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-10

    Mary E., and Roger W. Barbour 1971 A Guide to the Wildflowers and Ferns of Kentucky . The University Press of Kentucky , Lexington. I. 59 I Wharton, Mary...DRAINAGE PROJECT AREA IN FULTON, GRAVES, AND HICKMAN COUNTIES, KENTUCKY I by ?amela A. Schenian October 10, 1985 - DTIC S APRL 9 19933 I E i Cultural... KENTUCKY by Pamela A. Schenian Pamela A.’ Schenia Principal Investigator and Project Archaeologist October 10, 1985 Prepared for: The Memphis

  6. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  8. Runoff and drainage water quality from geotextile and gravel pads used in livestock feeding and loafing areas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshu; Bicudo, José R; Workman, Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Geotextile and gravel pads offer a low-cost alternative to concrete for providing all-weather surfaces for cattle and vehicle traffic, and are used in many livestock facilities to minimize mud, runoff and erosion of heavy traffic areas. The objective of this study was to compare different combinations of geotextile and gravel used in heavy livestock traffic areas that minimize the potential for water pollution. Three different pad combinations were constructed in 2.4 x 6-m plots as follows: (i) woven geotextile+100mm of gravel+50mm Dense Grade Aggregate (DGA); (ii) woven geotextile + geoweb+100 mm DGA; and (iii) non-woven geotextile+152 mm of gravel+50mm DGA; (iv) mud lots as control. The third combination was equivalent to one of the base treatments specified by the Kentucky Natural Resource and Conservation Service (NRCS). All treatment combinations were duplicated. Lysimeter pans were installed in four out of eight plots for the collection of leachate or drainage water. Runoff was collected at the lower end of the plots. About 14 kg of beef cattle manure were added evenly to the plots. Rainfall at 50mm/h was applied using rainfall simulators. In the first five of ten experiments, manure was removed from the surface of the pads after each experiment. In the remaining five experiments manure accumulated on the surface of the pads. The effect of pad treatment was significant on the electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values in surface runoff at the 5% level. Manure removal did not have any significant effect on the nutrient content of runoff or leachate samples except for ammonia (NH4-N) values. Although a mass balance indicated relatively small amounts of organic matter and nutrients were lost by runoff and leaching, the actual contamination level of both runoff and leachate samples were high; TP levels as high as 12 mg/l (5.4 mg/m2) in runoff and nitrate (NO3

  9. Purification and treatment of mine drainage in some mine areas of China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, H.

    1998-12-31

    The methods of purification and precipitation process of turbid mine water are discussed in the paper. The processes of water treatment are coagulation, precipitation, filtration and disinfection. According to each characteristic of water quality, different ways and technological processes of water treatment are carried out. Finally, the purification of mine drainages are shown through some practical examples with obvious environmental benefits.

  10. [Vacuum sealing drainage combined with discontinuous windowing technique for repairing large area exposed wound of Achilles tendon].

    PubMed

    Che, Yong-qi; Zhao, Jian-qiang; Zhai, Wei; Wang, Wen-liang; Wang, Jun-cheng; Kang, Xiang-hui

    2015-12-01

    To explore clinical effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with discontinuous windowing technique for repairing large area exposed wounds of Achilles tendon. From July 2009 to May 2014, 11 patients with large exposed wounds of Achilles tendon were treated, including 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 43 years old (aged from 7 to 65 years old). Among them, 4 cases were skin necrosis caused by heavy objects abrasion and contusion; 3 cases were caused by distal tibiofibula fractures; 3 cases were caused by bicycle-spoke injuries; 1 case was caused by diabetes. Areas of exposed Achilles tendon were from 6 cmx3 cm to 14 cmx5 cm without tendon rupture or bone exposed. After debridement, discontinuous fenestration on Achilles tendon was made by knife blade parallel with longitudinal axis of Achilles tendon, combined with Vacuum Sealing Drainage (VSD) treatment. After drainage treatment with one VSD cycle (5 to 7 days), abundant fresh granulation tissues were growing on all wounds and survived well after the second phase dermatoplasty. All patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months, the color of skin flap was good, the texture was soft without burst. At 3 to 4 months after operation, subcutaneous fat was appeared under the flap, the skin was sliding, movement of ankle joints was good. No delayed Achilles tendon rupture were occurred. Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with discontinuous fenestration is a simple, safe and effective method for repairing large area exposed wounds of Achilles tendon,which could minimize the secondary damage caused by wounds of skin flap grafting.

  11. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation of the Surface Waters in a Mining Area Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Chen, Y.; Tang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The pollution of natural waters and sediments with metals derived from acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental problem. However, the processes governing the behaviors of transportation and transformation of metals like Cd in mountain area are poorly understood, the complicated hydro-geomorphic settings of mountain catchments are difficult to access . And few reports have been reported about the effects of. In this study, the concentration and the isotopic composition of Cd selected filtered stream samples from the Hengshi river affected by AMD have been determined. The Cd concentrations were determined for collected sediments samples, which cover the entire river valley from upstream to the downstream regions. Results showed that reducing concentrations for Cd were found in the river water from upstream to downstream, and also high enrichment factor for Cd in all the sediments, suggest that Cd mainly is derived from Liwu dam and easily enter into solid phase. The isotopic data show that the dissolved Cd in rivers is characterized by δ114/110Cd, ranged from 0.09 ‰ to 0.40 ‰ in term of δ114/110Cd , the mean is 0.25 ± 0.06 ‰, and the content of Cd from the sediments is 0.18 to 39.85 μg/g. The river isotope values are similar to the isotope signature of Liwu dam, which contain significant amounts of contaminants under a deep water cover, such as mine tailings, sulfide-rich rocks and minerals. Large fractionated Cd (δ114/110Cd = 0.40 ± 0.09 ‰) was found in water sample collected from midstream near a farmland, which imply there is a new source different from the LIWU dam depend on the heavier Cd signature. We hypothesize that this shift results from either hydrology changes over time in the main and tributaries stream, and some new pollution source imported. The change in the behavior of sorption of cadmium on oxides and hydroxides in the sediment system under low pH cause indistinguishable fractionation. Our result is encouraging for

  12. Mean annual streamflow of selected drainage basins in the coal area of southeastern Montana. Water-resources investigations (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, R.F.

    1981-10-01

    Streamflow characteristics of drainage basins within the Fort Union coal region of southeastern Montana were estimated to provide premining data for evaluating the future effects of mining on the environment. Estimated annual mean streamflow at 22 data-collection stations for water years 1975-77 ranged from 0 to 887 cubic feet per second. These estimates are based on miscellaneous-streamflow records at each station and continuous-streamflow records from other stations in the study area. Estimated mean annual streamflow for a 10-year period (water years 1968-77) ranged from 0 to 572 cubic feet per second. Many of the drainage basins had a mean annual runoff of less than 0.60 inch; the maximum observed mean annual runoff was 4.45 inches.

  13. Thermodynamic Model for Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas in Porous Media for Arbitrary Drainage-Imbibition Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, Martin H.; Oostrom, Mart; Dobson, Richard; Zeyer, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Fluid/fluid interfacial areas are important in controlling the rate of mass and energy transfer between fluid phases in porous media. We present a modified thermodynamically based model (TBM) to predict fluid/fluid interfacial areas in porous media for arbitrary drainage/imbibition sequences. The TBM explicitly distinguishes between interfacial areas associated with continuous (free) and isolated (entrapped) nonwetting fluids. The model is restricted to two-fluid systems in which (1) no significant conversion of mechanical work into heat occurs, (2) the wetting fluid completely wets the porous medium’s solid surfaces, and (3) no changes in interfacial area due to mass transfer between phases occur. We show example calculations for two different drainage/imbibition sequences in two porous media: a highly uniform silica sand and a well-graded silt. The TBM’s predictions for interfacial area associated with free nonwetting-fluid are identical to those of a previously published geometry-based model (GBM). However, predictions for interfacial area associated with entrapped nonwetting-fluid are consistently larger in the TBM than in the GBM. Although a comparison of model predictions with experimental data is currently only possible to a limited extent, good general agreement was found for the TBM. As required model parameters are commonly used as inputs for or tracked during multifluid-flow simulations, the modified TBM may be easily incorporated in numerical codes.

  14. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Paul; Schechter, David S.

    1999-11-01

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. Additionally, a ten (10) acre field demonstration pilot project is part of this project. This report discusses the activity, during the third calendar quarter (July through September) of 1998 (fourth quarter of the projects fiscal year).

  15. Fate of an artificial pond receiving drainage from a reclained coal refuse and slurry area

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; LaGory, K.E.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    An artificial pond was created as part of a reclamation effort at an abandoned deep coal mine site near Staunton, Illinois. The pond was designed to help contain and control runoff from the site and to provide wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities. The benthic macroinvertebrate community was analyzed as part of the program to evaluate site reclamation success. Macroinvertebrates were collected from the pond created as part of the reclamation activities, a small retention pond that received drainage directly from the gob pile, and a small farm pond that was not linked hydrologically to the mine drainage and that served as a control. Reclamation activities began in 1976 and samples were collected from the ponds in 1977. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  17. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  18. Chemical Data for Detailed Studies of Irrigation Drainage in the Salton Sea Area, California, 1995?2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present all chemical data from the Salton Sea area collected by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 and 2001. The data were collected primarily for the Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP). The report also contains a brief summary and citation to investigations done for the NIWQP between 1992 and 1995. The NIWQP began studies in the Salton Sea area in 1986 to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxins, especially selenium, in irrigation-induced drainage. This data report is a companion to several reports published from the earlier studies and to interpretive publications that make use of historical and recent data from this area. Data reported herein are from five collection studies. Water, bottom material, and suspended sediment collected in 1995-96 from the New River, the lower Colorado River, and the All-American Canal were analyzed for elements, semi-volatile (extractable) organic compounds, and organochlorine compounds. Sufficient suspended sediment for chemical analyses was obtained by tangential-flow filtration. A grab sample of surficial bottom sediment collected from near the deepest part of the Salton Sea in 1996 was analyzed for 44 elements and organic and inorganic carbon. High selenium concentration confirmed the effective transfer (sequestration) of selenium into the bottom sediment. Similar grab samples were collected 2 years later (1998) from 11 locations in the Salton Sea and analyzed for elements, as before, and also for nutrients, organochlorine compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Nutrients were measured in bottom water, and water-column profiles were obtained for pH, conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Element and nutrient concentrations were obtained in 1999 from cores at 2 of the above 11 sites, in the north subbasin of the Salton Sea. The most-recent study reported herein was done in 2001 and contains element data on

  19. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  20. Development of regional curves relating bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainage area for streams in Pennsylvania and selected areas of Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Natural-stream designs are commonly based on the dimensions of the bankfull channel, which is capable of conveying discharges that transport sediment without excessive erosion or deposition. Regional curves relate bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainage area in watersheds with similar runoff characteristics and commonly are utilized by practitioners of natural-stream design to confirm or refute selection of the field-identified bankfull channel. Data collected from 66 streamflow-gaging stations and associated stream reaches between December 1999 and December 2003 were used in one-variable ordinary least-squares regression analyses to develop regional curves relating drainage area to cross-sectional area, discharge, width, and mean depth of the bankfull channel. Watersheds draining to these stations are predominantly within the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Provinces of Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Statistical analyses of physiography, percentage of watershed area underlain by carbonate bedrock, and percentage of watershed area that is glaciated indicate that carbonate bedrock, not physiography or glaciation, has a controlling influence on the slope of regional curves. Regional curves developed from stations in watersheds underlain by 30 percent or less carbonate bedrock generally had steeper slopes than the corresponding relations developed from watersheds underlain by greater than 30 percent carbonate bedrock. In contrast, there is little evidence to suggest that regional curves developed from stations in the Piedmont or Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province are different from the corresponding relations developed from stations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. On the basis of these findings, regional curves are presented to represent two settings that are independent of physiography: (1) noncarbonate settings characterized by watersheds with carbonate bedrock underlying 30 percent or less

  1. Effect of citric acid and rhizosphere bacteria on metal plaque formation and metal accumulation in reeds in synthetic acid mine drainage solution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

    2014-06-01

    Many of regions in the world have been affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). The study assessed the effect of rhizosphere bacteria and citric acid (CA) on the metal plaque formation and heavy metal uptake in Phragmites australis cultured in synthetic AMD solution. Mn and Al plaque were not formed, but Fe plaque which was mediated by rhizosphere iron oxidizing bacteria (Fe(II)OB) was observed on the root system of reeds. Fe plaque did not significantly influence the uptake of Fe, Al and Mn into tissues of reeds. CA significantly (p<0.01) inhibited the growth of Fe(II)OB and decreased the formation of Fe plaque. CA also significantly improved (p<0.05) the accumulation of Fe, Mn and Al in all the tissues of reeds. Roots and rhizomes were the main organs to store metals. The roots contained 0.08±0.01mg/g Mn, 2.39±0.26mg/g Fe and 0.19±0.02mg/g Al, while the shoots accumulated 0.04±0.00mg/g Mn, 0.20±0.01mg/g Fe, 0.11±0.00mg/g Al in reeds cultured in solution amended with 2.101g/l CA and without inoculation of rhizosphere bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The scavenging of silver by manganese and iron oxides in stream sediments collected from two drainage areas of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Anderson, B.J.

    1974-01-01

    Stream sediments of two well-weathered and aerated drainage areas of Colorado containing anomalous amounts of silver were allowed to react by shaking with nitric acid of different concentrations (1-10M). Silver, manganese, and iron simultaneously dissolved were determined by atomic absorption. The relationship between silver dissolution and the dissolution of manganese and/or iron was evaluated by linear and multiple regression analyses. The highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.913) between silver and manganese dissolution suggests that manganese oxides are the major control on the scavenging of silver in these stream sediments, whereas iron oxides only play a secondary role in this regard. ?? 1974.

  3. Occurrence, Distribution, and Accumulation of Pesticides in Exterior Residential Areas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiying; Conkle, Jeremy L; Luo, Yuzhou; Li, Juying; Xu, Karen; Gan, Jay

    2016-12-06

    Pesticides are commonly applied around residential homes, but their occurrence on exterior surfaces (e.g., pavement) has not been thoroughly evaluated. We collected 360 dust samples from curbside gutters, sidewalks, and street surfaces at 40 houses in southern California to evaluate pesticide occurrence on urban paved surfaces as well as their spatial and temporal distributions. Pesticides and select degradates were ubiquitously detected in dust, with the median concentration of total target analytes at 85 μg kg(-1). A total of 75% of samples contained at least five pesticides. As a result of recurring pesticide applications, concentrations increased throughout the summer. The pyrethroids bifenthrin and permethrin accounted for 55% of total pesticides detected in the dust. The highest concentrations in dust were found on the sidewalk and in the gutter. Relative to indoor environments, human exposure risk to pesticides on paved surfaces was estimated to be lower, with the highest potential oral and dermal exposure predicted to be 38 ng day(-1) for permethrin. The ubiquitous detection of pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces and the fact that the exterior concentrations did not correlate to the indoor areas highlight the necessity to measure pesticides in both indoor and outdoor areas for complete residential pesticide risk assessment.

  4. A CSF-SPH method for simulating drainage and imbibition at pore-scale resolution while tracking interfacial areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanesapillai, Rakulan; Falkner, Nadine; Hartmaier, Alexander; Steeb, Holger

    2016-09-01

    We present a conservative smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model to study the flow of multiple, immiscible fluid phases in porous media using direct pore-scale simulations. Particular focus is put on continuously tracking the evolution of interfacial areas, which are considered to be important morphological quantities affecting multiphase transport in porous media. In addition to solving the Navier-Stokes equations, the model accounts for the effects of capillarity at interfaces and contact lines. This is done by means of incorporating the governing interfacial mass and momentum balances using the continuum surface force (CSF) method, thus rendering model calibration routines unnecessary and minimizing the set of constitutive and kinematic assumptions. We address the application of boundary conditions at rigid solid surfaces and study the predictive capability of the model as well as optimal choices for numerical parameters using an extensive model validation procedure. We demonstrate the applicability of the model to simulate multiphase flows involving partial wettability, dynamic effects, large density ratios (up to 1000), large viscosity ratios (up to 100), as well as fragmentation and coalescence of fluid phases. The model is used to study the evolution of fluid-fluid interfacial areas during saturation-controlled primary drainage and main imbibition of heterogeneous pore spaces at low capillary numbers. A variety of pore-scale effects, such as wetting phase entrapment and fragmentation due to snap-off, are observed. Specific fluid-fluid interfacial area is observed to monotonically increase during primary drainage and hysteretic effects are apparent during main imbibition.

  5. Anomalous strain accumulation in the yucca mountain area, nevada

    PubMed

    Wernicke; Davis; Bennett; Elosegui; Abolins; Brady; House; Niemi; Snow

    1998-03-27

    Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys from 1991 to 1997 near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate west-northwest crustal elongation at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.3 millimeters per year (1final sigma) over 34 kilometers, or 50 +/- 9 nanostrain per year. Global Positioning System and trilateration surveys from 1983 to 1997 on a 14-kilometer baseline across the proposed repository site for high-level radioactive waste indicate that the crust extended by 0.7 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 millimeter per year (50 to 64 +/- 14 nanostrain per year), depending on the coseismic effect of the Ms 5.4 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake. These strain rates are at least an order of magnitude higher than would be predicted from the Quaternary volcanic and tectonic history of the area.

  6. The Positive Environmental Contribution of Jarosite by Retaining Lead in Acid Mine Drainage Areas

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Maria-Ondina; da Silva, Teresa Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Jarosite, KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, is a secondary iron sulphate often found in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, particularly in mining wastes from polymetallic sulphide ore deposits. Despite the negative environmental connotation usually ascribed to secondary sulphate minerals due to the release of hazardous elements to aquifers and soils, jarosite acts as an efficient remover and immobilizer of such metals, particularly lead. The mineral chemistry of jarosite is reviewed and the results of a Fe K-edge XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) study of K-, Na- and Pb-jarosite are described and discussed within the context of the abandoned old mines of São Domingos and Aljustrel located in southern Portugal, in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). PMID:21655138

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Rivera, Mick

    1993-01-01

    This report contains physical, chemical, and biological data associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area collected during the late 1980's. The data were collected in support of the u.S. Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program in the Western United States to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxics in irrigation-induced drainage. The data have been used to support interpretations in several recent publications. This data report is the companion to a comprehensive U.S. Geological Survey interpretive report that describes the geochemical and biological pathways of potential toxics, especially selenium, in the study area. The report contains data on concentra- tions of a broad suite of trace elements in soil, irrigation (Colorado River) water, drainwater, surface water (including the Salton Sea), ground- water, aquatic plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, bird eggs, and turtle eggs. Included, also, are light stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur), tritium, and radiocarbon data for selected aqueous samples and organochlorine-pesticide concentrations in biota. Geochemical samples were collected from more than 100 drainwater-collection sites, several surface- water locations, 15 fields, 3 multiple-depth lysimeter and piezometer installations, and the Alamo River Delta on the southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, and from laboratory evaporations of Colorado River water. Biological samples were collected from 39 sites, including 16 Salton Sea shore locations, 5 streams, 7 freshwater impound- ments, 11 drainwater ditches, and 2 additional locations in the Imperial Valley. (USGS)

  8. Hydrology of the coal-resource areas in the upper drainages of Huntington and Cottonwood creeks, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.; ReMillard, Michael D.; Fuller, Richard H.

    1981-01-01

    This coal-resource area in the Upper drainages of Huntington and Cottonwood Creeks of central Utah was studied in order to better define the hydrologic system, to identify the hydrologic effects of underground coal mining, and to devise methods to detect these effects. Discharge records from gaging stations in this mountainous area indicated that there are large differences in the annual discharge of streams per unit area of drainage. These differences are attributed to differences in precipitation, differences in evaporation and sublimation of the snowpack, and to subsurface movement of water out of some basins, mainly along fractures. Dissolved-solids concentrations in surface waters ranged from 130 to 503 milligrams per liter; in ground water from about 140 springs dissolved solids ranged for 50 to 750 milligrams per liter. The Star Point Sandstone and the lower coal-bearing part of the Blackhawk Formation, both of Cretaceous age, are saturated in some areas, and the aquifer yields water to underground coal mines. Most of the larger springs in the study area discharge from the Star Point-Blackhawk aquifer where faulted. Ground water also occurs in several zones above the Star Point-Blackhawk aquifer. Possible impacts due to mine dewatering include the diminution of spring flows and increases tne ground-water recharge, both of which are more likely to occur where rocks have been fractured due to subsidence above mines. The discharge of mine waters into streams causes some degradation in surface-water quality. The year-to-year similarity of spring discharge recession curves may provide a method to detect unnatural changes in the ground-water system. Pollutants entering surface waters may be detected by changes in the population of benthic invertebrates. (USGS)

  9. Assessment of drainage network extractions in a low-relief area of the Cuvelai Basin (Namibia) from multiple sources: LiDAR, topographic maps, and digital aerial orthophotographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persendt, F. C.; Gomez, C.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate delineation of drainage networks (DNs) is crucial for hydrological or hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. This task presents challenging aspects in complex lowland terrains with subtle relief and particularly for data poor-areas like the Cuvelai river basin (CRB), Namibia, where the present study takes place. In the CRB standard methods of drainage network extraction from low resolution gridded digital elevation models (DEMs) are unsuitable, hence airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) solutions have been utilized. However, LiDAR also presents challenges to large areal applications, especially with a surface roughness exceeding the capacity of numerous algorithms. Indeed, LiDAR-based DEMs (2 and 50 m resolutions) need to be hydrologically corrected and smoothed to enable the extraction of scale-relevant geomorphologic features such as DNs. In the present contribution, channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs, heads-up digitized channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The 'maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8)' GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Different progressive flow accumulation threshold values (12) were used to delineate channels with these methods. Validation was performed between the field-mapped channels, the modelled channels and those derived from multiple sources. Additionally, spatial and quantitative analyses were performed on geomorphologic parameters and indices. The results have shown that hydrologically corrected LiDAR DEMs offer useful details for identifying low order stream segments in headwaters, while blue lines derived from the national hydrography datasets for watersheds, located in elevated and low-lying areas of the study

  10. Accumulation of neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells in particular areas of culture plate surface.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Ayako; Naka, Yukie; Yamaguchi, Hiroko; Shimizu, Norio

    2010-08-01

    Nanoscale magnetic beads coated with nerve growth factor (NGF) allow us to accumulate neurons differentiated from mouse ES cells in a selected area of the culture plate surface using a magnet. Neurons with neurite outgrowths within a particular area expressed TrkA and incorporated beads in the soma.

  11. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  12. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  13. A Survey Level Report of the Johns Creek Drainage Canal Wetlands Permit Area, Shelby County, Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Mississippi and the southwestern Tennessee area as "vassal provinces" to the’Late Mississippian Nodena cultura of northeastern Arkansas. Chronological... Clovis material (40SY7). Most of what Peterson (1979a) has defined as Paleo for this area is actually best considered to be affiliated with the late Paleo

  14. Benthic invertebrates of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin, Western Lake Michigan Drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Lenz, B.N.; Scudder, B.C.

    1996-01-01

    Information gathered from these benchmark streams can be used as a regional reference for comparison with other streams in agricultural areas, based on communities of aquatic biota, habitat, and water quality.

  15. Representation of accumulating evidence for a decision in two parietal areas.

    PubMed

    de Lafuente, Victor; Jazayeri, Mehrdad; Shadlen, Michael N

    2015-03-11

    Decisions are often made by accumulating evidence for and against the alternatives. The momentary evidence represented by sensory neurons is accumulated by downstream structures to form a decision variable, linking the evolving decision to the formation of a motor plan. When decisions are communicated by eye movements, neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) represent the accumulation of evidence bearing on the potential targets for saccades. We now show that reach-related neurons from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) exhibit a gradual modulation of their firing rates consistent with the representation of an evolving decision variable. When decisions were communicated by saccades instead of reaches, decision-related activity was attenuated in MIP, whereas LIP neurons were active while monkeys communicated decisions by saccades or reaches. Thus, for decisions communicated by a hand movement, a parallel flow of sensory information is directed to parietal areas MIP and LIP during decision formation.

  16. Representation of Accumulating Evidence for a Decision in Two Parietal Areas

    PubMed Central

    de Lafuente, Victor; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Decisions are often made by accumulating evidence for and against the alternatives. The momentary evidence represented by sensory neurons is accumulated by downstream structures to form a decision variable, linking the evolving decision to the formation of a motor plan. When decisions are communicated by eye movements, neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) represent the accumulation of evidence bearing on the potential targets for saccades. We now show that reach-related neurons from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) exhibit a gradual modulation of their firing rates consistent with the representation of an evolving decision variable. When decisions were communicated by saccades instead of reaches, decision-related activity was attenuated in MIP, whereas LIP neurons were active while monkeys communicated decisions by saccades or reaches. Thus, for decisions communicated by a hand movement, a parallel flow of sensory information is directed to parietal areas MIP and LIP during decision formation. PMID:25762677

  17. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations.

  18. Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Treatment of Mine Drainage From a Waste Rock Storage Area in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeen, S.; Bain, J. G.; Blowes, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    A column experiment has been conducted to evaluate the performance of three reactive mixtures which may be used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the treatment of low quality mine drainage water from a waste rock storage area in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key element of concern in the drainage water is dissolved Ni, which occurs at approximately 13 mg/L. The water is low pH ~4.3, oxidized, contains high concentrations of dissolved sulfate (4400-4750 mg/L), Al (45 mg/L), Zn (3 mg/L), Co (3 mg/L) and relatively low concentrations of other dissolved heavy metals and iron. Three columns, each containing one of the mixtures, were constructed: column A (peat/lime/limestone/gravel), column B (peat/zero valent iron (ZVI) filings (20%/vol)/limestone/gravel), and column C (peat/ZVI filings (10%/vol)/limestone/gravel). The experimental results have shown that the mixtures promote bacterially-mediated sulfate reduction and metal removal by precipitation of metal sulfides, metal precipitation, and adsorption under relatively high pH conditions (pH of 7 to 8). Reducing conditions (Eh of 0 to -200 mV) have developed in all of the columns, from the highly oxidized influent water (Eh of +500 to +600 mV). Hydrogen sulfide is detected in the effluent water, and dissolved sulfate concentrations decrease by several hundred mg/L. Based on sulfate removal, sulfate reduction occurs more strongly in columns B and C than column A. All of the columns are removing Ni to below the limit of detection (typically < 0.01 mg/L); however, the removal rate in column A is slower than in columns B and C and has decreased over time. Most other metals are removed to low concentrations in all of the columns. The results suggest that while the longevity of mixtures including ZVI will be much longer than mixtures containing only peat, considering economic aspects, the PRB consisting of only peat could also be an alternative option, if breakthrough time can be predicted and replacement of

  19. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  20. Pollution of Osheepcheon Creek by abandoned coal mine drainage in Dogyae area, eastern part of Samcheok coal field, Kagwon-Do, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.-Y.

    1996-06-01

    . Osheepcheon Creek running through the Dogyae area is being polluted by the influx of the abandoned coal mine drainage. Generally, the more polluted water has lower pH and Eh and higher conductivity values. The concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe, SO4, and some trace elements , such as Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, U and Zn, are tens to hundreds of times more concentrated in the abandoned coal mine drainage than in the unpolluted streamwater. However, most immobile toxic pollutants from the mine drainage are quickly removed from the streamwater by the precipitation of amorphous Fe hydroxide and sorption on the precipitated Fe hydroxide. The fast removal of the pollutants from the streamwater maintains the water quality of the creek as acceptable at most places along the stream path, except where the abandoned coal mine drainage flows in. However, the creek has the potential of deteriorating quickly if the mine drainage is allowed to be continously combined with the streams. A function of pH, Eh, and conductivity has been developed with discriminant function analysis for the purpose of easy, fast, and expensive measurements of the degrees of pollution of the streams. The estimated pollution of the streams with the discriminant function are consistent with what the chemical compositions of the water samples indicate. The pollution map of the study area was constructed from the calculated scores with the discriminant function. The pollution map suggests that the pollutants mainly come from the west side of Osheepcheon Creek. Thus, the abandoned coal mine drainage from the west side has to be appropriately treated as soon as possible to prevent Osheepcheon Creek from being further polluted. Considering the topography, climate, and the amount of the mine drainage, an active treatment method is recommended.

  1. Application of LANDSAT images to the study of level soils for recognizing drainage areas. Thesis Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinoza, M. U.

    1977-01-01

    Photographic images from LANDSAT 1 were applied to the study of soil in Desaguadero, Bolivia, in order to locate areas with high agricultural and livestock potential. Photointerpretation techniques were emphasized and advantages of information obtained via multispectral satellite images in various bands and combinations were demonstrated.

  2. Human health risks in an old gold mining area with circum-neutral drainage, central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P C S; Neiva, A M R; Silva, M M V G; Santos, A C T

    2017-02-01

    The former mine of Escádia Grande was active at the middle of 1900 and was exploited for Au and Ag. The mineralized quartz veins consist mainly of quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrite, rare chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, gold and argentite. The mine dumps and tailings were deposited close to a stream, and there is a river beach downstream used for recreational proposes. Two villages are also located close to the old mining area. Mine wastes contained up to 8090 mg/kg of As and 70.1 mg/kg of Sb. The waters of the stream that cross the mining area have circum-neutral pH values and contained elevated concentrations of As reaching up to 284 µg/L. However, geochemical speciation modeling (Phreeq C) revealed that As was mainly present as As (V). Arsenic concentrations in waters are attenuated throughout the stream, mainly by the iron-(hydro)-oxides adsorption upstream. However, at 2 km downstream of mine wastes in the river beach, the waters still exceeded 10 µg/L of As, the drinking water limit. The waters also have NO2(-), Cu and Cd concentrations higher than drinking water limit. The stream sediments have As concentrations up to 45 times higher (3140 mg/kg) than the limit of the sediment guideline values of NWQMS (2000). The maximum arsenic concentrations in soils are also up to 27 times higher (5940 mg/kg) than the maximum concentrations in streams from FOREGS Geochemical Atlas of Europe. The use of river beach for recreational purposes causes cancer risk (4.48 × 10(-6)) higher than USEPA limit, mainly due to the arsenic exposure. Even for recreational purposes, stream sediments and soils in the old mining area have high non-carcinogenic effects (2.76 and 4.78, respectively) for children, also related to the arsenic exposure mainly by the ingestion pathway, and the risk is unacceptable according to the limits of USEPA. Moreover, the cancer risk resulting from exposure of adults to arsenic in soils also has unacceptable non-cancer risk (1.13). Arsenic is the

  3. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    UAD-AOBE 172 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CHAPAIGN IL WATER RESOURCES DIV F/6 8/8 RIVER MI1LEASES AND DR INAGE AREAS FOR ILLINOIS STREAMS. VOLUME -ETC(U...Name and Address 10. Prolect/Task/Work Unit N. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 11. CotatC or Grant(G) No. 605 N. Neil StreetM...Champaign, IL 61820(G 12. Sponsoring Organization Namei and Address 23. Type of Report A Period Corered U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 605 N

  4. Relation of drainage problems to high ground-water levels, Coconut Grove area, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, L.A.; Huxel, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    Purpose and Scope In 1969, hydrologic data-collection sites were established in and around the Coconut Grove area for the purpose of measuring directly the relationship between rainfall, runoff, ground-water levels, the level of water in Kawainui Swamp and the canals, and tidal fluctuations. The primary objective was to identify the causes of the occurrence and persistence of flooding and to gain data on which to base recommendations for remedial action. The scope of the study included establishing and operating flow and stage-recording gages on the Swamp, Kawainui Canal, and the inner canal; periodic and repeated measurements of ground-water level in test borings throughout the residential area; collection and analysis of soil and construction borings made for engineering purposes; the assembly and analysis of all available data relating surface and subsurface flow conditions, and the development of conclusions as to the causes and means to alleviate the flooding. This report summarizes the information collected from October 1969 to June 1971, includes analysis of the data, and discusses the probable causes of flooding.

  5. Microbial water quality and influences of fecal accumulation from a dog exercise area.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Lynell; Walker, Mark

    2008-11-01

    The risk of water contamination by fecal bacteria may be increased if a watershed includes areas where feces accumulate as a result of specific land uses, such as areas where owners frequently exercise dogs. This study examined the effects of a year-round dog exercise area in the Burke Creek Recreational Area (BCRA) in the arid alpine environment of Stateline, Nevada. Burke Creek drains a small, high relief watershed, flows through a sedimentation basin in the BCRA, and enters Lake Tahoe. Over the course of 14 months, we analyzed water samples from the creek for Escherichia coli and collected feces from plots to estimate fecal accumulation. We found that accumulation was highly localized within the study area, amounting to approximately 100.1 lbs (45.5 kg) of dry matter in 14 months. Statistical analysis indicated, however, that fecal bacteria in water decreased as the stream flowed through the area, presumably due to effects of the sedimentation basin, wetlands, and die-off of E. coli in feces from exposure to environmental stresses. These results are useful for managing heavily used sites and understanding the effects of this type of land use on water quality.

  6. Martian drainage densities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Chuang, F.C.

    1997-01-01

    Drainage densities on Mars range from zero over large areas of volcanic plains to 0.3-0.5 km-1 locally on some volcanoes. These values refer to geologic units, not to drainage basins, as is normal for terrestrial drainage densities. The highest values are close to the lowest terrestrial values derived by similar techniques. Drainage densities were determined for every geologic unit portrayed on the 1:15,000,000 geologic map of Mars. Except for volcanoes the geologic unit with the highest drainage density is the dissected Noachian plains with a drainage density of 0.0074 km-1. The average drainage density for Noachian units is 0.0032 km-1, for Hesperian units is 0.00047 km-1, and for Amazonian units is 0.00007 km-1, excluding the volcanoes. These values are 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than typical terrestrial densities as determined by similar techniques from Landsat images. The low drainage densities, despite a cumulative record that spans billions of years, indicate that compared with the Earth, the channel-forming processes have been very inefficient or have operated only rarely or that the surface is extremely permeable. The high drainage density on volcanoes is attributed to a local cause, such as hydrothermal activity, rather than to a global cause such as climate change. Copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Quality of urban runoff, Tecolote Creek drainage area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, James G.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of storm runoff from a 9.2-square-mile urbanized watershed, Tecolote Creek, San Diego County, Calif., was studied during nine storms from September 1976 through May 1977. Specific conductance reached 2,100 micromhos and total residue concentrations reached 2,770 milligrams per liter. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in 95% of the samples exceeded 50 milligrams per liter, a concentration that may be sufficient to cause severe oxygen depletion in areas of the receiving water, Mission Bay. Lead concentrations in all samples exceeded concentrations thought to affect some aquatic organisms. Median total nitrogen and total orthophosphorus concentrations were far in excess of concentrations known to cause nuisance growth of algae in lakes. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations greatly exceeded recommended levels for primary contact recreation water. Concentrations of pesticides--heptachlor, malathion, chlordane, DDT, diazinon, and dieldrin--frequently exceeded the recommended maximums for marine or freshwater aquatic systems. Total loads of selected constituents are calculated and may be used to estimate the impact of runoff on the receiving water. (USGS)

  8. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals.

  9. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  10. Helium and Carbon Isotope Systematics of Springs in the Separation Creek Drainage System, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon Cascades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2002-12-01

    In response to recent and on-going uplift in the Separation Creek drainage system, 5 km west of South Sister volcano in the central Oregon Cascades (e.g. Wicks et al., 2001), a hydrogeochemical monitoring project was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the summer of 2001. When compared to existing literature data, we found no significant changes in the helium isotope composition of hot springs located in the vicinity of South Sister volcano, but outside the area of uplift. Nor were there significant changes in fluid chemistry or conductivity of cold springs within the area of uplift. For the latter group, there are no pre-uplift helium or carbon isotope data. Therefore, the implications of the strong magmatic helium and carbon isotope signals measured in two of these samples and their possible relationship to the recent uplift could not be evaluated (Van Soest et al., 2001; Evans et al., 2002). Within the scope of the hydrogeochemical monitoring project, a detailed survey of cold springs in the Separation Creek drainage area was planned for the spring, summer and fall of 2002. Preliminary results for spring 2002 samples suggest a relationship between helium isotope composition and distance from South Sister volcano, but not the center of uplift: 8.6RA at 3 km (from a sample nearest the youngest erupted volcanics), 7.4RA at 5 km (near the center of uplift), 7.0RA at 10 km, 6.8RA at 18 km, and 5.2RA at 25 km from South Sister volcano. The last value is from the hot spring closest to the area of uplift for which there is pre-uplift data and it suggests a constant helium isotope ratio over time (1982-present). The new carbon isotope results confirm the existence of a mixing relationship between deep abiogenic (magmatic) carbon and shallow biogenic carbon that was apparent in the 2001 samples. The carbon isotope results appear to correlate with the Cl and conductivity anomalies in the springs. At this time, whether a similar correlation exists for the helium

  11. Insights into deglaciation of the largest ice-free area in the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) from quantitative analysis of the drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mink, Sandra; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Maestro, Adolfo; Garrote, Julio; Ortega, José A.; Serrano, Enrique; Durán, Juan José; Schmid, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative geomorphic analysis of the drainage system on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, has been carried out in order to study the relief evolution, glacial history and possible neotectonic influence on the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago. Aerial photographs, SAR data from RADARSAT-2 satellite, field work, a digital elevation model and GIS spatial analysis have been used to identify, map and study the existing drainage basins. A series of morphometric parameters have been studied in 30 selected basins in order to characterize their shape as well as the drainage network. Results in morphometric parameters reveal elongation trends in the shape of basins and a limited hierarchical network, common of a youthful stage of landscape evolution models. Several morphometric indexes (hypsometric integral, hypsometric curves, SL index, transverse topographical drainage basin asymmetry-T-Factor) have been used to study possible controls on drainage development. Results have been discussed in relation to relief and drainage evolution linked to the spatial distribution of lithological units and structural framework. T-Factor shows an apparently disorganized pattern and absence of tectonic influence. However, there are local values of second order basin asymmetry directions and magnitudes, which could reflect a succession of master rills through time, related to the changes in water supply during the deglaciation history of Byers Peninsula. Hypsometric values and curves of basins are also mainly related to a young stage of landscape evolution. Analysis of hypsometric integrals together with T-Factor index has allowed us to establish a possible deglaciation model on Byers Peninsula, which successfully explains the results. Areas of different landscape evolution stage are linked in space and support the hypothesis of local glacial centers during the ice cover retreat process. SL index results do not show the same pattern in results, which could be

  12. Multi-window detection for P-wave in electrocardiograms based on bilateral accumulative area.

    PubMed

    Chen, Riqing; Huang, Yingsong; Wu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    P-wave detection is one of the most challenging aspects in electrocardiograms (ECGs) due to its low amplitude, low frequency, and variable waveforms. This work introduces a novel multi-window detection method for P-wave delineation based on the bilateral accumulative area. The bilateral accumulative area is calculated by summing the areas covered by the P-wave curve with left and right sliding windows. The onset and offset of a positive P-wave correspond to the local maxima of the area detector. The position drift and difference in area variation of local extreme points with different windows are used to systematically combine multi-window and 12-lead synchronous detection methods, which are used to screen the optimization boundary points from all extreme points of different window widths and adaptively match the P-wave location. The proposed method was validated with ECG signals from various databases, including the Standard CSE Database, T-Wave Alternans Challenge Database, PTB Diagnostic ECG Database, and the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics 12-Lead Arrhythmia Database. The average sensitivity Se was 99.44% with a positive predictivity P+ of 99.37% for P-wave detection. Standard deviations of 3.7 and 4.3ms were achieved for the onset and offset of P-waves, respectively, which is in agreement with the accepted tolerances required by the CSE committee. Compared with well-known delineation methods, this method can achieve high sensitivity and positive predictability using a simple calculation process. The experiment results suggest that the bilateral accumulative area could be an effective detection tool for ECG signal analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

  14. Sulfate migration in a river affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mining area, South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqin; Lu, Guining; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chengfang; Wu, Jingxiong; Huang, Weilin; Yee, Nathan; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate, a major component of acid mine drainage (AMD), its migration in an AMD-affected river which located at the Dabaoshan mine area of South China was investigated to pursue the remediation strategy. The existing factors of relatively low pH values of 2.8-3.9, high concentrations of SO4(2-) (∼1940 mg L(-1)) and Fe(3+) (∼112 mg L(-1)) facilitated the precipitation of schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4·nH2O) in the upstream river. Geochemical model calculations implied the river waters were supersaturated, creating the potential for precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. These minerals evolved from schwertmannite to goethite with the increasing pH from 2.8 to 5.8 along the river. The concentration of heavy metals in river waters was great reduced as a result of precipitation effects. The large size of the exchangeable sulfate pool suggested that the sediments had a strong capacity to bind SO4(2-). The XRD results indicated that schwertmannite was the predominant form of sulfate-bearing mineral phases, which was likely to act as a major sulfate sink by incorporating water-borne sulfate into its internal structure and adsorbing it onto its surface. The small size of reduced sulfur pools and strong oxidative status in the surface sediments further showed that SO4(2-) shifting from water to sediment in form of sulfate reduction was not activated. In short, precipitation of sulfate-rich iron oxyhydroxides and subsequent SO4(2-) adsorption on these minerals as well as water dilution contributed to the attenuation of SO4(2-) along the river waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation of waterborne mercury(II) in specific areas of fish brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, C.; Borg-Neczak, K.; Gottofrey, J.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-10-01

    The authors used whole-body autoradiography to study the distribution of {sup 203}Hg(II) in the central nervous system of brown (Salmo trutta) and rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout. Fish were either exposed to waterborne Hg(II) for 7 and 21 d or they received an intravenous injection of the metal and were sacrificed 1 and 21 d later. Mercury did not accumulate in the brain after intravenous injection, indicating that the blood-brain barrier is impervious to Hg in plasma. In contrast, Hg was accumulated in specific areas of the grain and spinal cord following water exposure. The specificity of the accumulation sites strongly suggests that waterborne Hg was taken up by water-exposed receptor cells of sensory nerves and subsequently transferred toward the brain by axonal transport, a normal physiological process for the transport of organelles and dissolved neuronal constituents along nerve axons. Accumulation of Hg in ventral horn ganglis is probably the result of leaching of metal from blood into muscle followed by uptake in motor plates. Axonal transport allows waterborne inorganic Hg, and possibly other xenobiotics, to circumvent the blood-brain barrier. Considering the importance of complex behavior in the life of fish, and the well-known deleterious effects of mercury on the nervous system, the toxicological significance of this uptake route needs to be assessed.

  16. Accumulation and biological effects of metals in wild rats in mining areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kyohei; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Yabe, John; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-06-01

    The lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mine in Kabwe City and the copper-cobalt (Cu-Co) mine in the Copperbelt Province are major mining areas in Zambia. To examine the effects of metal pollution on wildlife, wild black rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus tanezumi) were captured in Kabwe and Chingola (in the Copperbelt Province), and in Lusaka (a noncontaminated site). Wild black rats in Kabwe accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Cd in various organs than rats from Lusaka. In Chingola, significantly higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Pb, and Cd were accumulated in wild black rats than in rats from Lusaka. These results were in accordance with metal accumulation patterns in soil. From toxicological aspects, concentrations of Pb and Cd in rats were generally low. However, metallothionein-1 (MT-1) and metallothionein-2 (MT-2) mRNA expression levels in wild black rats from Kabwe were significantly higher than those in rats from Lusaka. A generalized linear model (GLM) showed that concentrations of Zn and Cu had positive effects on the MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that wild black rats in Zambian mining sites were exposed to metals that accumulated in their organs, causing biological responses such as MT mRNA induction. GLM indicated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression could be a marker for Cr exposure.

  17. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  18. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk & leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  20. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p < 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA) was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring. PMID:26167507

  1. Accumulation of nitrogen and changes in assimilation pigments of lichens transplanted in an agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Frati, Luisa; Brunialti, Giorgio; Gaudino, Stefania; Pati, Alessandra; Rosamilia, Silvia; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The results of a survey aimed at testing the hypothesis that the lichen Evernia prunastri, when transplanted in an agricultural area with high atmospheric NH(3) concentrations, would respond to NH(3) air pollution accumulating nitrogen in its thalli and showing changes in the concentration of assimilation pigments are presented. The results confirmed the hypothesis and showed that all lichen transplants accumulated nitrogen, suggesting that besides the release of atmospheric ammonia by animal stockfarms, the use of N-based fertilizers and the deposition of N-rich dust also may contribute to the high nitrogen availability to lichens in the study area. The result indicated that in the study area both the critical level of NH(3) and the critical load of N for lichens are exceeded and physiological damage is to be expected in sensitive species. The results of assimilation pigments in E. prunastri, with a decrease in the concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids, as well as chlorophyll degradation to phaeophytin, confirmed this hypothesis. However, owing to the limited data set and pending further studies, these conclusions should be considered as limited to the study area.

  2. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  3. Acid mine drainage prevention, control and treatment technology development for the Stockett/Sand Coulee area. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1996-12-31

    The project was initiated to assist the State of Montana to develop a methodology to ameliorate acid mine drainage problems associated with the abandoned mines located in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area near Great Falls, Montana. Extremely acidic water is continuously discharging from abandoned coal mines in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area at an estimated rate of greater than 600 acre-feet per year (about 350 to 400 gallons per minute). Due to its extreme acidity, the water is unusable and is contaminating other water supplies. Most of the local alluvial aquifers have been contaminated, and nearly 5% of the private wells that were tested in the area during the mid-1980`s showed some degree of contamination. Significant government money has been spent replacing water supplies due to the magnitude of this problem. In addition, millions of dollars have been spent trying to remediate acid mine drainage occurring in this coal field. To date, the techniques used have focused on the management and containment of mine waters, rather than designing technologies that would prevent the formation of acid mine drainage.

  4. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to...

  5. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to...

  6. Tracking Forest and Open Area Effects on Snow Accumulation by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendzioch, T.; Langhammer, J.; Jenicek, M.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne digital photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. The availability of low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms well adopted for digital photography and progress in software development now gives rise to apply this technique to different areas of research. Especially in determining snow depth spatial distributions, where repetitive mapping of cryosphere dynamics is crucial. Here, we introduce UAV-based digital photogrammetry as a rapid and robust approach for evaluating snow accumulation over small local areas (e.g., dead forest, open areas) and to reveal impacts related to changes in forest and snowpack. Due to the advancement of the technique, snow depth of selected study areas such as of healthy forest, disturbed forest, succession, dead forest, and of open areas can be estimated at a 1 cm spatial resolution. The approach is performed in two steps: 1) developing a high resolution Digital Elevation Model during snow-free and 2) during snow-covered conditions. By substracting these two models the snow depth can be accurately retrieved and volumetric changes of snow depth distribution can be achieved. This is a first proof-of-concept study combining snow depth determination and Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieval to monitor the impact of forest canopy metrics on snow accumulation in coniferous forest within the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. Both, downward-looking UAV images and upward-looking LAI-2200 canopy analyser measurements were applied to reveal the LAI, controlling interception and transmitting radiation. For the performance of downward-looking images the snow background instead of the sky fraction was used. In contrast to the classical determination of LAI by hemispherical photography or by LAI plant canopy analyser, our approach will also test the accuracy of LAI measurements by UAV that are taken simultaneously during the snow cover mapping campaigns. Since the LAI parameter is important for snowpack modelling, this method presents

  7. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  8. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. - above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ~ 0.78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity analysis reveals that 71 % of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36 % (0.64 m) of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 64 % (1.14 m) of surface lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  9. Changing Surface-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Refreezing Capacity of the Lower Accumulation Area, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, P.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Box, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present five years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station (AWS) data from the lower accumulation area (1840 m above sea level) of the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland ice sheet. The summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface runoff. The observed runoff was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented melt water from percolating to available pore space below. Analysis of the in situ data reveals a relatively low 2012 summer albedo of ~0.7 as melt water was present at the surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season the surface absorbed 30% (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than in 2010. We drive a surface energy balance model with the AWS data to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model is able to reproduce the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. While the drive for melt is solar radiation, year-to-year differences are controlled by terrestrial radiation, apart from 2012 when solar radiation dominated melt. Sensitivity tests reveal that 72% of the excess solar energy in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 40% (0.67 m) of the 2012 surface ablation. The remaining ablation (0.99 m) was primarily due to the relatively high atmospheric temperatures up to +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year in the lower accumulation area even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) suggest that 2012 was the first negative SMB year with the lowest albedo at this elevation on record. The warming conditions of the last years resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area. If the warming continues the lower accumulation area will be transformed into superimposed ice.

  10. Ecological health assessment and remediation of the stream impacted by acid mine drainage of the Gwangyang mine area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Yong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Kun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; An, Kwang-Guk; Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Kwon, Young-Ho

    2007-06-01

    Ecological health in a temperate stream impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) was evaluated by using a multimetric approach of the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) based on natural fish assemblage. Recently, this approach has been widely used in many developed countries as a tool for ecological risk assessments of water environments. We used 10 metric systems, instead of 12 metrics suggested by Barbour, M. T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B. D., & Stribling, J. B. (1999). Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, 2nd edn. EPA 841-B-99-002. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, for a development of the regional IBI model, and used trophic guilds, habitat guilds, and richness variables for the calculation of IBI values. In the model, the attributes of four of 11 metrics were modified for the regional application. IBI values in the stream averaged 20.6 (n = 5), indicating a "poor condition" in terms of ecological health according to the modified criteria of U.S. EPA (1993). Fish Field and Laboratory Methods for Evaluating the Biological Integrity of Surface Waters. EPA 600-R-92-111. Environmental Monitoring systems Laboratory - Cincinnati office of Modeling, Monitoring systems, and quality assurance Office of Research Development, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268. In particular, mean IBI values in the impacted areas of sites 2 and 3 were 13, and this health condition was categorized as "very poor condition." IBI values in the impacted sites were significantly lower than the values found in the control. Also, we found that fishes in site sites 2 and 3 were not present during the study, and morphological deformity of Rhynchocypris oxycephalus was observed in site 4, influenced directly by sites 2 and 3, indicating a chemical impact in the sites. From the results of experiments in which AMD was treated with marine shells at stagnant condition, pH increased up to 6

  11. Influence of lowland forests on subsurface salt accumulation in shallow groundwater areas

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Tibor; Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; Pásztor, László; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Nosetto, Marcelo D.; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    In flat sedimentary plains in areas with a sub-humid climate, tree planting on grasslands and arable lands creates strong hydrological shifts. As a result of deep rooting and high water uptake of trees, groundwater levels drop and subsurface salt accumulation increases. Tree planting has expanded globally and in Hungary it reached rates of 15 000 ha year−1, being focused mainly in the Great Hungarian Plain where forests replace grasslands and crops in a region with widespread shallow groundwater. We performed soil and groundwater observations in 31 pairs of forest and control plots in the region, including gradients of initial water table depth and salinity, soil layering, and tree species and age. Accumulated tree biomass was positively correlated with soil salinization rates following tree planting, being also affected by species (poplar > common oak > black locust) and stand age. Differences among tree species effects appeared to be related to their growth rates. Due to downward deep percolation and salt leaching episodes during the Hungarian winters, the observed salt accumulation rates were lower than those described under similar settings in the warmer Argentine Pampas. PMID:25228311

  12. Environmental Protection Department Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division Contingency Plan for Site 300 Waste Accumulation Area(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R

    2005-07-14

    This Contingency Plan identifies personnel responsibilities, emergency equipment, and required actions necessary to mitigate potential incidents at the Waste Accumulation Area(s) (WAA)(s) located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site 300 (Site 300) as shown in Figure 1. This Plan is designed to prepare personnel to minimize hazards to human health and the environment from fires, explosions, or any sudden or nonsudden release of hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste constituents to the air, ground surface, or water from waste stored in the WAA(s). The LLNL Site 300 currently has one WAA. The location of the WAA is shown in Figure 2 and identified in Table 1. As programmatic needs change, it may become necessary to establish additional WAAs at Site 300. The WAA is a small, regularly monitored storage area where waste can be accumulated and stored temporarily. Hazardous and mixed waste can be stored or accumulated in a WAA for up to 90 days, after which it must be transferred to a Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) authorized onsite treatment or storage facility or an authorized offsite treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSDF). The onsite TSDFs authorized by DTSC are managed by the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division and by the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate (CMS) at Site 300. Hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste is referred to as ''waste'' in this document. Radioactive waste has been included in this Plan as a ''Best Management Practice'' to aid in response, where appropriate. However, radioactive waste is not regulated by DTSC under this Plan. This Contingency Plan is divided into two parts: (1) The first part, referred to as the ''General Plan'', is general information that is applicable to the existing and any subsequent WAAs. The General Plan includes Sections 1-7 and Appendices A-C. (2) The second part, referred to as the ''Site-Specific Plan'', contains site

  13. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  14. Foam drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, A.M.

    1983-11-01

    Transient drainage from a column of persistent foam has been analyzed theoretically. Gravity-driven flow was assumed to occur through an interconnected network of Plateau borders that define the edges of foam cells taken to be regular pentagonal dodecahedrons. A small liquid volume fraction and monodisperse cell size distribution were assumed. In the basic model, it is assumed that all liquid is contained in Plateau borders that are bounded by rigid gas-liquid interfaces. The predicted half life, the time required for one half of the liquid to drain from the foam, is inversely proportional to the square of the cell diameter, illustrating the importance of foam structure in drainage. Liquid hold up in the films separating adjacent cells, nonuniform initial liquid volume fraction distribution and interfacial mobility are explored. Border suction due to reduced pressure in the Plateau borders provides a mechanism for film drainage. Simultaneous film drainage and flow through the Plateau borders are analyzed. Sufficient conditions for neglecting film drainage kinetics are obtained. The results indicate that improved foam stability is related to small cells, liquid hold up in the films and slow film drainage kinetics.

  15. Environmental Inventory Report. East St. Louis and Vicinity, Cahokia Canal Drainage Area, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    be located elevated and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage. (c) Adequate drainage shall be provided so as to reduce exposure to flood...270 and just west of Sand Prairie Road. Width to 50’, depth to 3. Pull of logs, old tires, etc., wooded banks, covered with duckweed . Above highway...on water level. Much creeping water primrose, smartweed and scattered cattail patches. Some duckweed . Depth: to 4’, bottom soft organic muck; Water

  16. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 13 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2009 (October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2009). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2009 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2009. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2009. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.50 to 17 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,400,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,200,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2009; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 64,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median

  17. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island,Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamflow-gaging stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2002 (October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002). Water-quality samples were also collected at 35 of 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2002 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2002. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 12.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2002. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.14 to 8.1 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 534,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 851,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2002; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 2,900 to 40,200 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 4,200 to 68,200 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 16.8 milligrams per

  18. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2010 (October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2010 as part of a long sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Waterquality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2010. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 39 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2010. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.7 to 27 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2010; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 11,000 to 66,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 18,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride

  19. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2012 (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2012 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB were summarized by using values of central tendency and used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2012. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 26 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2012. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.40 to about 17 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2012; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,700 to 51,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 14,000 to 87,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected

  20. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were

  1. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2006 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2006. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 42 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2006. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.60 to 26 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2006; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 15,000 to 100,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 22,000 to 180,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.6 milligrams per liter

  2. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  3. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  4. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island’s largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2005). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2005 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2005. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2005. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,300,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,000,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2005; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 13,000 to 77,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 19,000 to 130,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 25.3 milligrams per

  5. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  7. Integration of local and regional species-area relationships from space-time species accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fridley, Jason D; Peet, Robert K; van der Maarel, Eddy; Willems, Jo H

    2006-08-01

    A long-standing observation in community ecology is that the scaling of species richness, as exemplified by species-area curves, differs on local and regional scales. This decoupling of scales may be largely due to sampling processes (the increasing constraint imposed by sampling fewer individuals at fine scales), as distinct from ecological processes, such as environmental heterogeneity, that operate across scales. Removal of the sampling constraint from fine-scale richness estimates should yield species-area curves that behave like those of the regions in which they are embedded, but an effective method for this removal has not been available. We suggest an approach that incorporates the manner in which small areas accumulate species over time as a way to remove the signature of sampling processes from fine-scale species-area curves. We report for three species-rich grasslands from two continents how local plant species richness is distributed through time at multiple, nested spatial scales, and we ask whether sampling-corrected curves reflect the spatial scaling of richness of each larger floristic province. Our analysis suggests that fine-scale values of richness are highly constrained by sampling processes, but once these constraints are removed, the spatial scaling of species richness is consistent from the scale of individuals to that of an entire province.

  8. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  9. Resistance to and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Actinobacteria Isolated from Abandoned Mining Areas

    PubMed Central

    El Baz, Soraia; Baz, Mohamed; El Gharmali, Abdelhay; Imziln, Boujamâa

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc “Zn” was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead “Pb” was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper “Cu,” cadmium “Cd,” and chromium “Cr” were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL−1 for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S) revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3). PMID:25763383

  10. Resistance to and accumulation of heavy metals by actinobacteria isolated from abandoned mining areas.

    PubMed

    El Baz, Soraia; Baz, Mohamed; Barakate, Mustapha; Hassani, Lahcen; El Gharmali, Abdelhay; Imziln, Boujamâa

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc "Zn" was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead "Pb" was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper "Cu," cadmium "Cd," and chromium "Cr" were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL(-1) for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S) revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3).

  11. Prediction of Regional Streamflow Frequency using Model Tree Ensembles: A data-driven approach based on natural and anthropogenic drainage area characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnier, S.; Cai, X.

    2012-12-01

    This study introduces a highly accurate data-driven method to predict streamflow frequency statistics based on known drainage area characteristics which yields insights into the dominant controls of regional streamflow. The model is enhanced by explicit consideration of human interference in local hydrology. The basic idea is to use decision trees (i.e., regression trees) to regionalize the dataset and create a model tree by fitting multi-linear equations to the leaves of the regression tree. We improve model accuracy and obtain a measure of variable importance by creating an ensemble of randomized model trees using bootstrap aggregation (i.e., bagging). The database used to induce the models is built from public domain drainage area characteristics for 715 USGS stream gages (455 in Texas and 260 in Illinois). The database includes information on natural characteristics such as precipitation, soil type and slope, as well as anthropogenic ones including land cover, human population and water use. Model accuracy was evaluated using cross-validation and several performance metrics. During the validation, the gauges that are withheld from the analysis represent ungauged watersheds. The proposed method outperforms standard regression models such as the method of residuals for predictions in ungauged watersheds. Importantly, out-of-bag variable importance combined with models for 17 points along the flow duration curve (FDC) (i.e., from 0% to 100% exceedance frequency) yields insight into the dominant controls of regional streamflow. The most discriminant variables for high flows are drainage area and seasonal precipitation. Discriminant variables for low flows are more complex and model accuracy is improved with base-flow data, which is particularly difficult to obtain for ungauged sites. Consideration of human activities, such as percent urban and water use, is also shown to improve accuracy of low flow predictions. Drainage area characteristics, especially

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  13. The aqueous geochemistry of uranium in a drainage containing uraniferous organic-rich sediments, Lake Tahoe area, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Wanty, R.B.; Pierson, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Anomalously uraniferous waters occur in a small (4.2 km2) drainage in the west-central Carson Range, Nevada, on the eastern side of Lake Tahoe. The waters transport uranium from local U-rich soils and bedrock to organic-rich valley-fill sediments where it is concentrated, but weakly bound. The dissolved U and the U that is potentially available from coexisting sediments pose a threat to the quality of drinking water that is taken from the drainage. The U concentration in samples of 6 stream, 11 spring and 7 near-surface waters ranged from 0.1 V). Possible precipitation of U(IV) minerals is predicted under the more reducing conditions that are particularly likely in near-surface waters, but the inhibitory effects of sluggish kinetics or organic complexing are not considered. These combined results suggest that a process such as adsorption or ion exchange, rather than mineral saturation, is the most probable mechanism for uranium fixation in the sediments. -Authors

  14. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  15. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Anisa Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2001-11-19

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO{sub 2} injection.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  18. Calibration models for electromagnetic induction methods to assess nutrient accumulation beneath confined livestock areas.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, R Sri; Ferguson, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient accumulation in soils beneath confined livestock areas is a potential source of groundwater contamination. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has become a practical method to assess nutrient content, with multiple linear regression (MLR) as the statistical method often employed to translate EMI readings into nutrient content. The purpose of this research is to compare and contrast the performance of spatially referenced MLR models that include secondary, 'easy-to-acquire' predictor variables such as spatial coordinate locations, soil water content and elevation information with MLR models based solely on EMI readings. Six feedlot areas were surveyed with an EM38 conductivity meter and between 6 and 12 sites at each feedlot were sampled at five different depths. The electrical conductivity (EC(e)), nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO4(3-)) concentrations were measured and used as response variables. Analyses were performed using two different approaches: the response variables in individual layers and response variables by combining the layers within the soil profile. The results of both MLR methods were comparable in most instances because the models preferentially incorporated predictors derived from EM38 readings. Differences between the models were more evident when predicting NO3- and PO4(3-), even though prediction of these two analytes by either method was generally poor. Combined profile analysis was more effective for defining nutrient build-up because by-layer analysis gave non-significant or poor models in many instances.

  19. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

  20. Drainage networks after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Predicting runoff and erosion from watersheds burned by wildfires requires an understanding of the three-dimensional structure of both hillslope and channel drainage networks. We investigate the small-and large-scale structures of drainage networks using field studies and computer analysis of 30-m digital elevation model. Topologic variables were derived from a composite 30-m DEM, which included 14 order 6 watersheds within the Pikes Peak batholith. Both topologic and hydraulic variables were measured in the field in two smaller burned watersheds (3.7 and 7.0 hectares) located within one of the order 6 watersheds burned by the 1996 Buffalo Creek Fire in Central Colorado. Horton ratios of topologic variables (stream number, drainage area, stream length, and stream slope) for small-scale and large-scale watersheds are shown to scale geometrically with stream order (i.e., to be scale invariant). However, the ratios derived for the large-scale drainage networks could not be used to predict the rill and gully drainage network structure. Hydraulic variables (width, depth, cross-sectional area, and bed roughness) for small-scale drainage networks were found to be scale invariant across 3 to 4 stream orders. The relation between hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area is similar for rills and gullies, suggesting that their geometry can be treated similarly in hydraulic modeling. Additionally, the rills and gullies have relatively small width-to-depth ratios, implying sidewall friction may be important to the erosion and evolutionary process relative to main stem channels.

  1. Late Pleistocene drainage systems beneath Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Circe, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of an extensive grid of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously published sedimentary data and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the ancestral drainage systems of the Delaware River beneath lower Delaware Bay. Major paleovalleys within these systems have southeast trends, relief of 10-35 m, widths of 1-8 km, and axial depths of 31-57 m below present sea level. The oldest drainage system was carved into Miocene sands, probably during the late Illinoian lowstand of sea level. It followed a course under the northern half of the bay, continued beneath the Cape May peninsula, and extended onto the present continental shelf. This system was buried by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and shallow-marine sediments during Sangamonian time. At the height of the Sangamonian sea-level transgression, littoral and nearshore processes built the Cape May peninsula southward over the northern drainage system and formed a contiguous submarine sedimentary ridge that extended partway across the present entrance to the bay. When sea level fell during late Wisconsinan time, a second drainage system was eroded beneath the southern half of the bay in response to the southerly shift of the bay mouth. This system, which continued across the shelf, was cut into Coastal Plain deposits of Miocene and younger age and included not only the trunk valley of the Delaware River but a large tributary valley formed by the convergence of secondary streams that drained the Delaware coastal area. During the Holocene rise of sea level, the southern drainage system was covered by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and paralic deposits that accumulated due to the passage of the estuarine circulation cell and to the landward and upward migration of coastal sedimentary environments. Some Holocene deposits have been scoured subsequently by strong tidal currents. The southward migration of the ancestral drainage systems beneath Delaware

  2. Comparison of surgical procedures and percutaneous drainage in the treatment of liver hydatide cysts: a retrospective study in an endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Akkucuk, Seckin; Aydogan, Akin; Ugur, Mustafa; Yetim, Ibrahim; Davran, Ramazan; Oruc, Cem; Kilic, Erol; Temiz, Muhyittin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures are still the golden standard option in the treatment of liver cystic echinococcosis. However, minimal invasive technics like percutaneous drainage are rising trends. We aimed to compare the efficacy of surgical and percutaneous options in the treatment of liver hydatidosis in an endemic area. Methods: Patients who underwent surgical or percutaneous procedures for hydatid disease between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Recurrence rates, hospital stay time, and related factors were analyzed. Results: There were 44 (35.5%) male and 80 (64.5%) female patients in this study. Eighty two patients (Group I) had undergone surgery (66.1%) and 42 patients (Group II) had undergone percutaneous drainage (33.9%). The mean cyst size was 7.28 ± 2.51 cm in Group I and 8.76 ± 3.30 cm in Group II. Nine recurrences (7.3%) were detected during study. Five of the recurrences were in Group II (11.9%) and four (4.9%) of them were in Group I. The mean length of hospital stay of all patients was 5.42 ± 3.16 days. Discussion: Percutaneous drainage techniques can be a good alternative to surgery in selected patients. In complicated cases like cystobiliary fistula, surgery is superior to percutaneous approaches. The hospital stay time, recurrence rate and postoperative complications were not enhanced when compared to percutaneous treatment in our study. Despite all controversy about the low morbidity after percutaneous treatment, surgical approach is still a preferable option in patients with liver hydatidosis when it is performed by experienced surgeons. PMID:25232421

  3. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Low, W.H.; Mullins, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents results of a reconnaissance investigation to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of selected trace elements or organochlorine compounds associated with irrigation drainage exist in surface and ground water, bottom sediment, aquatic plants, benthic invertebrates, fish, and waterbirds in the American Falls Reservoir area. American Falls Reservoir was selected for investigation in part because several previous investigations of fish in the reservoir indicated that mercury and cadmium concentrations exceeded human health standards and periodic botulism-related die-offs of waterbirds have been known to occur. Also, rocks south and southeast of the reservoir contain naturally occurring selenium concentrations many times greater than those in the continental crust. Samples of water, bottom sediment, aquatic plants, benthic invertebrates, fish, and waterbirds were collected from nine sites in the American Falls Reservoir area. The samples were analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents to determine whether concentrations exceeded known standards or criteria.

  4. 210Pb mass accumulation rates in the depositional area of the Magra River (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbono, I.; Barsanti, M.; Schirone, A.; Conte, F.; Delfanti, R.

    2016-08-01

    Nine sediment cores were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the inner continental shelf (Mediterranean Sea, Italy) mainly influenced by the Magra River, at water depths ranging from 11 to 64 m. Mass Accumulation Rates (MARs) were calculated through 210Pb analysed by Gamma spectrometry. Three different dating models (single and two-layer CF-CS, CRS) were applied to clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles and 137Cs was used to validate the 210Pb geochronology. The maximum MAR values (>2 g cm-2 yr-1) were found in the region adjacent to the Magra River mouth and outside the Gulf of La Spezia (0.9±0.1 g cm-2 yr-1 at St. 3-C6 and 4-C4). Results from 137Cs/210Pbxs ratios calculated in Surface Mixed Layers (SMLs) evidenced the coastal boundaries of the Magra River depositional area, which is very limited towards south. Differently, in the north-west sector, fine sediments are generally driven by the Ligurian Current and move towards north-west: at the deepest and most distant station from the River mouth, the MAR value is the lowest one in the study area. Few major Magra River floods occurred during the sediment core sampling period. By using the short-lived radioisotope 7Be as a tracer of river floods, a clear 7Be signature of 2009 flood is present at St. 1-SA1C. Finally, by analyzing the clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles, a decrease of its activity dating the years 1999 and 2000 is observed in four cores, corresponding to two major Magra River floods occurring in those years.

  5. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Tulare Lake bed area, southern San Joaquin Valley, California, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Palawski, D.U.; Skorupa, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of numerous toxic trace elements and pesticides were measured during 1986 in water, sediment, and biota from three areas near the Tulare Lake Bed, southern San Joaquin Valley, California: Kern National Wildlife Refuge, Pixley National Wildlife Refuge, and Westfarmers evaporation ponds about 5 mi west of Kern National Wildlife Refuge, to determine whether toxic constituents in agricultural-irrigation drainage pose a threat to beneficial uses of water, especially to uses by wildlife. Pesticide residues were found to be low at all three areas. Trace element concentrations were found to be comparatively low at the Kern and Pixley National Wildlife Refuge areas and high at the Westfarmers evaporation ponds. Dissolved selenium concentrations were < 1 micrograms/L (ug/L) in areas on and adjacent to the refuges, but ranged from 110 to 360 ug/L in the saline drainwater impounded in the evaporation ponds. The ratio of mean selenium concentrations in biota from Westfarmers ponds compared to biota from Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge (where adverse effects have been documented) is 5 for waterboatman, 2 for avocet liver, 1 for avocet eggs, and < 1 for widgeongrass. The low concentrations measured at Kern and Pixley National Wildlife Refuges suggest that trace elements and pesticides pose little threat to wildlife there; however, impounded subsurface drainage from agricultural irrigation does pose a threat to wildlife at the nearby Westfarmers ponds. Preliminary results of surveys conducted in 1987 indicated that there are adverse biological effects on shorebirds nesting at the ponds, although interpretation of the magnitude of the effects is premature, pending completion of ongoing studies by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (Author 's abstract)

  6. [Correlation of arsenic accumulative intake and its health effects to the residents in arsenic polluted area. Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in arsenic polluted area].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-08-01

    In order to evaluate arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in an area with arsenic pollution in the air, the level of arsenic accumulative intake is measured by calculating residents' accumulative rice consumption and the measurement of the level via inhalation. The results show that ignoring the non-polluted time periods, the highest arsenic accumulative intake level (AAIL) appears in residents aged 50 and above who have the highest level of air inhalation and rice consumption in comparison with young residents after 32 years exposure, and their AAIL detected via inhalation are 591.4 mg for female and 612.9 for male respectively. There is 3488.74 mg arsenic obtained by their daily diet. Total AAIL are 4080.14 mg for female and 4101.66 mg for male respectively, being about 80% of estimation level reflected by daily exposure level multiplied by total exposure time (day).

  7. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in agricultural plants in the area used for surface nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Kozhakhanov, T E; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on the study of artificial radionuclide accumulation in agricultural crops grown at the territory with high concentration of radionuclides, and first of all - with high concentration of transuranium elements. As a result of this work, peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of artificial radionuclides in the vegetative and generative organs of the studied plants have been revealed. Basic accumulation factors have been found for (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, and (241)Am in agricultural products. Accumulation factor dependence on type of planting was found for the investigated types of plants. It has been found that the vegetative organs accumulate radionuclides most of all. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paleohydrology of meandering systems: a new approach for the reconstruction of ancient drainage areas and the quantification of the controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, A.; Cojan, I.

    2009-12-01

    In meandering system fluvial sedimentology, studying infill geometries and sedimentary structures of channelized sandstone bodies, gives information about the sedimentary dynamic and the depositional environment. Associated with such a sedimentary approach, paleohydrology enables the reconstruction of hydrological parameters such as discharge, drainage area or stream length. Although fluvial systems are known to be influenced by allogenic and/or autogenic processes, climate or structural evolution were not taken into account in previous paleohydrological studies. Therefore, the present study attempts to develop a new method of paleohydrological reconstitution, based on the geometry of fluvial sandstone bodies and constrained by the controlling factors (climate and tectonic). We selected two meandering systems of the same age, developed under different climatic setting: the first one is located in the Alpine Foreland Basin (SE France) and was associated to a subtropical humid realm; the second one is situated in the Loranca Basin (Central Spain) and was related to subtropical semi-arid conditions. Dealing with the uniformitarianism concept, we developed a new method to determine the paleohydrological parameters of the two different systems. For each of these two climatic setting we have constructed an equivalent modern rivers database taking into account their respective climatic conditions. By defining empirical relations, we translated the point-bar thickness (the only data available in the field) into paleohydrological parameters, such as channel geometry, water discharge and basin geometry. Because fluvial members studied are composed of several channelized sequences; each of them gives a specific drainage area depending on discharge value and climatic coefficient. But assuming a constant basin area all along the river evolution, we can quantify the spatiotemporal impact of the climate on the development of an alluvial system. Furthermore, granulometry

  9. Application of a watershed model (HSPF) for evaluating sources and transport of pathogen indicators in the Chino Basin drainage area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Church, Clinton D.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2011-01-01

    A watershed model using Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was developed for the urbanized Chino Basin in southern California to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, evaluate the flow-component and land-use contributions to bacteria contamination and water-quality degradation throughout the basin, and develop a better understanding of the potential effects of climate and land-use change on water quality. The calibration of the model for indicator bacteria was supported by historical data collected before this study and by samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from targeted land-use areas during storms in water-year 2004. The model was successfully calibrated for streamflow at 5 gage locations representing the Chino Creek and Mill Creek drainages. Although representing pathogens as dissolved constituents limits the model's ability to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, the bacteria concentrations measured over the period 1998-2004 were well represented by the simulated concentrations for most locations. Hourly concentrations were more difficult to predict because of high variability in measured bacteria concentrations. In general, model simulations indicated that the residential and commercial land uses were the dominant sources for most of the pathogen indicator bacteria during low streamflows. However, simulations indicated that land used for intensive livestock (dairies and feedlots) and mixed agriculture contributed the most bacteria during storms. The calibrated model was used to evaluate how various land use, air temperature, and precipitation scenarios would affect flow and transport of bacteria. Results indicated that snow pack formation and melt were sensitive to changes in air temperature in the northern, mountainous part of the Chino Basin, causing the timing and magnitude of streamflow to shift in the natural drainages and impact the urbanized areas of the central Chino Basin. The relation between

  10. Assessment and application of a snowblow modelling approach for identifying enhanced snow accumulation in areas of former glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Smith, Michael; Le Brocq, Anne; Ardakova, Ekaterina; Hillier, John; Boston, Clare

    2016-04-01

    The redistribution of snow by wind can play an important role in providing additional mass to the surface of glaciers and can, therefore, have an impact on the glacier's surface mass balance. In areas of marginal glaciation, this local topo-climatic effect may be prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers, whilst it can also increase heterogeneity in the distribution of snow on ice caps and ice sheets. We present a newly developed snowblow model which calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography. We apply this model to areas of former marginal glaciation in the Brecon Beacons, Wales and an area of former plateau icefield glaciation in the Monadhliath, Scotland. We can then determine whether redistribution by snow can help explain variations in the estimated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) of these former glaciers. Specifically, we compare the areas where snow is modelled as accumulating, to the reconstructed glacier surface, which is based on mapped moraines believed to be of Younger Dryas age. The model is applied to 30 m resolution DEMs and potential snow accumulation is simulated from different wind directions in order to determine the most likely contributing sector. Total snow accumulation in sub-set areas is then calculated and compared to the reconstructed glacier area. The results suggest that areas with larger amounts of snow accumulation often correspond with those where the ELA is lower than surrounding glaciers and vice versa, in both the marginal and icefield setting, suggesting that the role of snowblow in supplying additional mass to the surface of glaciers is significant.

  11. Estimation of sediments in urban drainage areas and relation analysis between sediments and inundation risk using GIS.

    PubMed

    Moojong, Park; Hwandon, Jun; Minchul, Shin

    2008-01-01

    Sediments entering the sewer in urban areas reduce the conveyance in sewer pipes, which increases inundation risk. To estimate sediment yields, individual landuse areas in each sub-basin should be obtained. However, because of the complex nature of an urban area, this is almost impossible to obtain manually. Thus, a methodology to obtain individual landuse areas for each sub-basin has been suggested for estimating sediment yields. Using GIS, an urban area is divided into sub-basins with respect to the sewer layout, with the area of individual landuse estimated for each sub-basin. The sediment yield per unit area for each sub-basin is then calculated. The suggested method was applied to the GunJa basin in Seoul. For a relation analysis between sediments and inundation risk, sub-basins were ordered by the sediment yields per unit area and compared with historical inundation areas. From this analysis, sub-basins with higher order were found to match the historical inundation areas. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. [Characteristics of dry matter and potassium accumulation and distribution in potato plant in semi-arid rainfed areas].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Wu; Qiu, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Hou, Shu-Yin

    2013-02-01

    In 2010, a field experiment with potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar 'Xindaping' was conducted at the Dingxi Extension Center of Gansu Province, Northwest China, aimed to understand the accumulation and distribution patterns of dry matter (DM) and potassium (K) in the organs of potato plant in semi-arid rainfed areas. During the whole growth period of the cultivar, the DM accumulation in root, stem, and leaf all showed a unimodal curve, with the DM accumulation rate being leaf > stem > root, whereas the DM accumulation in whole plant and tuber was an S-curve. The maximum DM accumulation rate of the whole plant was higher than that of the tuber, and appeared 17 days earlier. The distribution of DM in different organs showed two turning points, i.e., during the tuber formation (TF) period and the tuber growth (TG) period. During TF period, the DM accumulation was the greatest in leaf, followed by in tuber. The TF period was also the DM balance period, which occurred 90 days after emergence. Before the DM balance period, the DM accumulation in tuber was lesser than that in root, stem, and leaf, and there was a positive correlation between the DM accumulation in tuber and in root, stem, and leaf. However, after the DM balance period, the DM accumulation in tuber was greater than that in root, stem, and leaf, and the correlation was negative. At seedling stage and in TF period, TG period, starch accumulation period, and maturity period, the DM accumulation in whole plant was 5%, 30%, 60%, 4% , and 1%, while that in tuber was 0,18% , 62 , 18% , and 2%, respectively. In the whole growth period, more than 50% of the DM was formed in TG period. The K concentration was the highest in stem and the lowest in tuber, though the K was mostly concentrated in root before the DM balance period. The K accumulation before the DM balance period was mostly in root, stem, and leaf, with the sequence of stem > leaf > root, but after the DM balance period, the K was mainly allocated in

  13. Analysis of Surface Drainage Paths for Mine Reclamation Using Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, H.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents an application of GIS-based hydrological modeling and spatial analysis to a coal mining site to effectively control the contaminated surface runoff for mine reclamation. A reliable DEM (Digital Elevation Model) was generated at the study area by detailed topographical surveys. Hydrological analyses were performed to extract the characteristics of drainage system such as flow direction, flow accumulation and catchment area from DEM. The results of spatial analysis showed that some runoff drained through waste dump can flow in the river without any purification. Consequently, several practical actions were suggested to optimize the design of drainage system in the study area for mine reclamation.

  14. [Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake and residents' health effects in an air pollution area--relationship between arsenic accumulative intake level and arsenicism prevalence].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports the results of epidemiological survey on health effects of residents exposed to arsenic in a pollution area and estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level (EAAIL) based on calculating accumulative rice consumption and via inhalation way. 795 persons were sampled randomly from the polluted area, among whom 674 persons and 83 persons were diagnosed with Chronic Arsenic Absorption (CAA) and Chronic Arsenicism (CA) according to the National Diagnose Standard respectively. There were 60.98% CAA in 30 years old and younger age-groups and 97.59% CA in 30 years old and older age-groups. The one youngest case of CA occurred in 15 years old age group, while its EAAIL was at 1846.47 mg. The highest EAAIL was at 8706.47 mg. The rate of CA had gone obviously up at 30 years old age group. Its EAAIL was at 3833.42 mg. One equation of relationship between the rate of CA (%) and EAAIL (mg) was fitted by means of curve fitting, its is followed: Y = X1.843/e12.694 -2.866, r2 = 0.945.

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Hahn, D.A.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because of concerns about potential effects of irrigation drainage on fish and wildlife resources and on human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior initiated a program in 1985 to assess water-quality problems associated with Federal irrigation projects in the Western United States. Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected for a detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, during 1991-92. This report lists onsite measurements and concen- trations of major constituents, trace elements, and stable isotopes for surface-water- and ground-water-sampling sites. Insecticide data collected in the Grand Valley are presented. Ranges of specific-conductance measurements and dissolved- oxygen concentrations for selected wells and a daily record of water-level altitude and specific conduc- tance for a well in the Grand Valley are presented. The report presents historical water-level and dissolved-solids data for two wells in the Grand Valley. Concentrations of trace elements, major constituents, total carbon, and organic carbon in bottom-sediment, bedrock, and in aquifer-sediment samples and semiquantitative data on clay and bulk mineralogy of samples of the Mancos Shale are presented. The report contains selenium-speciation data for selected water and bottom-sediment samples and selected aquifer-test results. Biological samples collected in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley included aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, and bird eggs. The report lists concentrations of trace elements in biological samples collected in 1991-92. A limited number of biological samples were analyzed for pesticides, PCB's, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Hydrology of Johnson Creek Basin, a Mixed-Use Drainage Basin in the Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area and through rural and agricultural land in unincorporated Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. Johnson Creek has had a history of persistent flooding and water-quality problems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted streamflow monitoring and other hydrologic studies in the basin since 1941.

  17. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... central accumulation area. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste, the eligible academic entity... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making the hazardous waste... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS...

  18. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... central accumulation area. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste, the eligible academic entity... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making the hazardous waste... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS...

  19. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.211 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area. If an eligible academic entity makes the hazardous waste....34(a) (or § 262.34(j) and (k) for Performance Track members) for large quantity generators or §...

  20. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of water in western Utah, Part I: Sink Valley area, drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the first part of an investigation that was started in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey. The investigation has the purpose of providing information about the chemical quality of water in western Utah that will help interested parties to evaluate the suitability of the water for various uses in a broad area of Utah where little information of this type previously has been available. The area studied includes the Sink Valley area, the drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area (fig. 1). Osamu Hattori and G. L. Hewitt started the investigation, and the author completed it and prepared the report.

  1. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Mayer, P. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Arango, C. P.; Balz, D. A.; Fritz, K. M.; Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to facilitate above ground development or stormwater runoff. We predicted that burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain and transform nitrate, the dominate form of bioavailable N in urban streams, by eliminating primary production, reducing respiration rates, and decreasing water residence time. We tested these predictions by measuring whole-stream nitrate (NO3-) removal rates using 15NO3- isotope tracer releases in reaches that were buried and open to the sunlight in three streams in Cincinnati, Ohio and three streams in Baltimore, Maryland during four seasons. Nitrate uptake lengths in buried reaches (range: 560 - 43,650 m) were 2-98 times greater than open reaches exposed to daylight (range: 85 - 7195 m), indicating that buried reaches were substantially less effective at retaining NO3- than open reaches. Nitrate retention in buried reaches was suppressed by a combination of hydrological and biological processes. High water velocities in buried reaches (buried= 5.8 m/s, open=1.48 m/s) rapidly exported NO3- from the channel, reducing the potential for in-stream NO3- retention. Uptake lengths in the buried reaches were lengthened further by low in-stream biological NO3- demand, as indicated by NO3- uptake velocities 16-fold lower than that of the open reaches. Similarly, buried reaches had lower ecosystem respiration rates than open reaches (buried=1.5g O2/m2/hr, open=4.5g O2/m2/hr), likely due to lower organic matter standing stocks (buried=12 gAFMD/m2, open=48 gAFDM/m2). Biological activity in the buried reaches was further suppressed by the absence of light which precluded photosynthetic activity and the associated assimilative N demand. Overall, our results demonstrate that the

  2. Impact of Megadunes and Glaze Areas on Estimates of East Antarctic Mass Balance and Accumulation Rate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Shuman, C.; Haran, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent mapping of megadune extent via satellite images indicates they cover 1.27 million km2, or approximately 18% of the East Antarctic Plateau surface above 2000 m. Glaze regions cover an additional 5 to 10% of the surface. Ground-based ice radar profiles collected in 2002 and 2004 have shown these features exhibit large accumulation variations. Megadunes show alternating kilometer-wide stripes of accumulation (measured at 3.4 to 4.2 cm/yr w.e. at the crests), grading to 'glaze' regions of near-zero accumulation and several km width. The typical fraction of the surface with near-zero accumulation in a megadune field is 63%. Glaze regions are larger areas of near-zero or slightly negative surface mass flux, identifed and mapped by their coarser mean optical grain size and lower albedo using the recent Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) grain size and surface morphology image maps. The actual net accumulation of megadune regions, approx. 1.5 to 2.5 cm/yr w.e. is far below the value attributed to these regions in the currently-used compilations of surface mass balance (avg. of megadune areas is 4 cm/yr; see Vaughan et al., 1999; Giovinetto and Zwally, 2000). These compilations also attribute positive accumulation to the extensive glaze areas within the plateau. The value attriuted to these regions is close to the crest, or maximum, local accumulation value, possibly because the compilations did not incorporate null accumulation measurements. Because the combination of megadune and glaze regions comprise such a large area, these errors have a significant cumulative effect. An initial estimate is that net surface flux for East Antarctica is lower by 32 Gt/yr than is calculated from the surface flux compilations due to megadunes alone; glaze areas likely account for an additional 10 to 20 Gt/yr. This is a large fraction of current estimates of total East Antarctic mass imbalance (e.g. net +22 Gt/yr, Rignot and Thomas, 2002). The strong local accumulation variations observed

  3. Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.

    PubMed

    Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

    2013-06-01

    Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 μg g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow.

  4. Hydrogeological aspects of agricultural drainage in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdon, David J.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrogeological principles and approaches have been applied to the problems of agricultural drainage in Ireland in the hope that such application will contribute to the better solution of the many drainage problems in Ireland. The legal position and a short history of drainage in Ireland are given, as well as a list of the many state bodies involved in arterial and agricultural drainage. The evolution of the present Irish environment is outlined, from the end of the last ice age to the present day, with emphasis on the formation of lands in need of drainage. Natural conditions indicate that agricultural drainage was required over some 50% (34,450 km2) of Ireland; the achieved agricultural drainage extends over some 29.3% of the country. Natural conditions affecting drainage are set out under the headings of topographical, geological, hydrogeological, vegetative, and hydrochemical influences as well as man's actions with regard to drainage. The third portion of the article deals with the ways in which areas now requiring agricultural drainage have been formed. Areas of low or nil infiltration are described, with some emphasis on such occurrences as lacustrine marls, pans of various types, the effects of the Calp and the Namurian in Carboniferous strate, and conditions under which rejected recharge by overfull aquifers produces winter marshes. Then areas afflicted by high, but often diffuse, groundwater discharge are noted. And the effect of bog growth, both raised bogs and blanket bog, are outlined; drainage of bogs is a very specialized operation, mainly undertaken by Bord na Mona. Some of the harmful affects of drainage are outlined, as reduction of grazing during rare droughts, of lands suitable for waterfowl, as well as some pollution from bog drainage. Drainage does not deplete the groundwater resources of Ireland, which are abundant and little used. The article ends with some general conclusions and a list of some 13 unusual ideas which arise from the

  5. Water information bulletin No. 30, part 13: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Preliminary geologic reconnaissance of the geothermal occurrences of the Wood River Drainage Area

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.E.; Bideganeta, K.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    Pre-tertiary sediments of the Milligen and Wood River Formations consisting primarily of argillite, quartzite, shale and dolomite are, for the most part, exposed throughout the area and are cut locally by outliers of the Idaho Batholith. At some locations, Tertiary-age Challis Volcanics overlay these formations. Structurally the area is complex with major folding and faulting visible in many exposures. Many of the stream drainages appear to be fault controlled. Hydrologic studies indicate hot spring occurrences are related to major structural trends, as rock permeabilities are generally low. Geochemical studies using stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate the thermal water in the Wood River region to be depleted by about 10 0/00 in D and by 1 to 2 0/00 in /sup 18/0 relative to cold water. This suggests the water could be meteoric water that fell during the late Pleistocene. The geological data, as well as the chemical data, indicate the geothermal waters are heated at depth, and subsequently migrate along permeable structural zones. In almost all cases the chemical data suggest slightly different thermal histories and recharge areas for the water issuing from the hot springs. Sustained use of the thermal water at any of the identified springs is probably limited to flow rates approximating the existing spring discharge. 28 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Lake evolution of the terminal area of Shiyang River drainage in arid China since the last glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, Q.; Chen, F.-H.; Zhu, Y.; Madsen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of geomorphology and sedimentology, and analyses of radiocarbon dates, grain size and carbonate of the sediment at the present-dry closed basin in the terminal area of Shiyang River in arid China were conducted to recover the history of palaeolake change since the last glacial. The terminal area was covered by eolian sand before 13,000 14C BP. Lacustrine deposits covered the eolian sand after 13,000 14C BP, but were succeeded rapidly by eolian or fluvial deposits ca. 11,200-10,000 BP. This fact plus the grain-size distribution and CaCO3 content showed that climate was extremely dry during the last glacial, but wet-dry oscillations characterized the late glacial. A single coalescent lake, over 45 m deep and 2130 km2, formed between 10,000-6400 14C BP in the basin. The lake disintegrated into several shallow carbonate lakes or swamps gradually after 6400 14C BP. Eolian sand reached into the most part of the basin during the period. The lake evolution in the area generally reflects the East Asian summer monsoon history forced by Northern hemisphere insolation. Short time-scale lake fluctuations also existed in the area since the last glacial. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromagnetic Induction Sensor Data to Identify Areas of Manure Accumulation on a Feedlot Surface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was initiated to test the validity of using electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey data, a prediction-based sampling strategy and ordinary linear regression modeling to predict spatially variable feedlot surface manure accumulation. A 30 m × 60 m feedlot pen with a central mound was selecte...

  8. EMI-Sensor Data to Identify Areas of Manure Accumulation on a Feedlot Surface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was initiated to test the validity of using electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey data, a prediction-based sampling strategy and ordinary linear regression modeling to predict spatially variable feedlot surface manure accumulation. A 30 m × 60 m feedlot pen with a central mound was selecte...

  9. Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area.

    PubMed

    Baroni, F; Boscagli, A; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2000-08-01

    Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139-793 mg/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg/kg) and S. vulgaris in shoots (1164 mg/kg). In these plant species, the efficiency of antimony accumulation decreases when the antimony availability in the soil is high. In A. ageratum and S. vulgaris, the death of the epigeal target part at the end of the growing season contributes to a reduction of the antimony load in the plant. A study to test the use of these species as bioindicators of antimony availability in soil is suggested by our results.

  10. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  11. Environmental Inventory Report. East St. Louis and Vicinity, Cahokia Canal Drainage Area, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    district at distances of one mile to twenty miles as seen in Figure III-1.* Most of the major industrial or point sources in the metropolitan area of...were not agreed upon for major urban- industrial locations in Illinois by the Illinois Pollution Control Board until April, 1972. A number of variances...have been granted throughout Madison County to permit various point sources ( industry ) to alleviate air pollution control problems and still take

  12. POPs accumulated in fish and benthos bodies taken from Yangtze River in Jiangsu area.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanjiu; Sun, Cheng; Li, Juan; Zhao, Yonggang; Wang, Hui; Li, Yiqiang

    2009-08-01

    The persistent organic pollutants of DDTs, PCBs, PAHs and HCHs accumulated in the bodies of fish and benthos taken at seven sites were measured to understand the issue of ecological health of Yangtze River at Jiangsu section. The highest levels for DDTs, the total 20 PCBs, the total 16 PAHs and HCHs in fish bodies were 0.076 microg/kg, 23.1 microg/kg, 7.44 ng/kg and 0.028 microg/kg, respectively and that in benthos bodies were 0.082 microg/kg, 14.3 microg/kg, 21.1 ng/kg and 0.026 microg/kg. The PAHs concentrations in benthos were higher than that in fish and they had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05). Among the detectable chemicals, DDTs were 100% of p,p'-DDE isomers, the main PCBs were 4- and 5-chlorinated biphenyls in which PCB 105 had the highest detection frequency and the main PAHs were the compounds of 2-4 rings. PCBs were accumulated in fish bodies which enrichment factors were as high as 508-42,414 folds occurred at three sites. The results demonstrated that the accumulation measurements can be used to test the effects of PAHs, DDTs, PCBs and HCHs on aquatic ecological health.

  13. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  14. Water-Quality Conditions and Constituent Loads, Water Years 1996-2002, and Water-Quality Trends, Water Years 1983-2002, in the Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2008-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality data and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 2002, (water years (WY) 1996-2002) were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1, 1982 through September 30, 2002 (WY 1983-2002). Water samples were collected and analyzed by Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics were calculated for WY 1996-2002 for all 37 monitoring stations for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform and E. coli bacteria (indicator bacteria), chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese were calculated for all sampling dates during WY 1996-2002 for the 23 stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared to State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines, and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, and road density. Tributary stream water in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area for WY 1996-2002 was slightly acidic (median pH of all stations equal to 6.1) and contained low concentrations of chloride (median 13 milligrams per liter (mg/L)), nitrate (median 0.04 mg/L as N), and orthophosphate (median 0.04 mg/L as P). Turbidity and alkalinity values also were low with median values of 0

  15. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    PubMed

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo.

  16. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    PubMed

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  17. Water withdrawals for irrigation, municipal, mining, thermoelectric-power, and drainage uses in Arizona outside of active management areas, 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2005-01-01

    Economic development in Arizona is largely influenced by access to adequate water supplies owing to the State's predominantly semiarid to arid climate. Water demand is met by pumping ground water from aquifers or by con-veying surface water through a system of reservoirs and canals. Water-withdrawal data provide important information on how water demand affects the State's water resources. Information on water withdrawals also can help planners and managers assess the effectiveness of water-management policies, regulations, and conservation activities. This report includes water-withdrawal data for irrigation, municipal, mining, thermoelectric-power, and drainage uses for 1991-2000, and describes the methods used to collect, compile, and estimate the data. Data are reported for the Arizona Department of Water Resources ground-water basins outside of Active Management Areas. Because of the climate, ground water and surface water are used to irrigate nearly all agricultural fields in Arizona. Irrigation accounted for the largest use of water in the study area during 1991-2000. The amount of water withdrawn for irrigation varies greatly from year to year for some of the basins, primarily because of differences in the consumptive water requirement for different crops and because of changes in irrigated acreage. The population of Arizona increased about 35 percent from 1991 to 2000-from about 3.79 million in 1991 to about 5.13 million in 2000. Correspondingly, water withdrawal for municipal use increased steadily in most of the basins during 1991-2000. Ground-water withdrawals for mining did not show any consistent trends during 1991-2000. Increases and decreases in withdrawals for mining were most likely due to variations in mineral production. Mineral prices and competition from mining in other States and foreign countries probably result in annual increases or decreases in mineral production in Arizona. Between 1991 and 2000, ground-water withdrawals for

  18. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and

  19. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  20. Heavy metal distribution and partitioning in the vicinity of the discharge areas of Lisbon drainage basins (Tagus Estuary, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Bernardo; Silva, Gilda; Costa, José Lino; Medeiros, João Paulo; Azeda, Carla; Sá, Erica; Metelo, Inês; Costa, Maria José; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Worldwide estuarine ecosystems are by their privileged geographic location, anthropogenically impacted systems. Heavy metal contamination in estuarine waters and sediments are well known to be one of the most important outcomes driven from human activities. The partitioning of these elements has been widely focused, due to its importance not only on the estuarine biogeochemistry but also on its bioavailability to the trophic webs. As observed in other estuaries, in the Tagus basin, no increase in the partition coefficients with the increasing suspended particulate matter concentrations was observed, mostly due to a permanent dilution process of the suspended matter, rich in heavy metals and less contaminated and resuspended bottom sediments. Another important outcome of this study was the common origin of all the analysed heavy metals, probably due to the large industrialization process that the margins of the Tagus estuary suffered in the past, although no relationship was found with the presence of the different discharge areas. In fact, metal partitioning seems to be mostly influenced by the chemical species in which the pollutant is delivered to the system and on water chemistry, with a higher emphasis on the metal cycling essentially between the particulate and dissolved phase. This partitioning system acquires a relevant importance while evaluating the impacts of marine construction and the associated dredging operations, and consequent changes in the estuarine water chemistry.

  1. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Sun River area, west-central Montana, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Sun River area was selected for a reconnaissance investigation of irrigation drainage because sufficient information existed to indicate that potential problems of a toxic nature might exist. The area of study included the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freeze-out Lake Game Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Water, bottom sediment , and biota were sampled at selected sites and analyzed for inorganic and organic constituents that could be toxic at large concentrations. Although selenium was of primary concern, other trace elements and selected pesticides were also analyzed. Some water quality problems have been prevalent for many years in the Sun River Irrigation Projects, including the Sun River and Muddy Creek. However, during this study, most sampling sites were free of concentrations of toxic constituents that are in excess of established criteria and standards. There was little change in arsenic, boron, mercury, and selenium concentrations in fish and invertebrates at Sun River sampling sites upstream and downstream from the irrigation project. Presently, the most serious threat within the irrigation project appears to be from nitrate in groundwater. Water from some wells contains nitrate concentration in excess of drinking water standards (10 mg/L) established for the State of Montana. The largest selenium concentrations in water and bottom sediment were from seeps that surround Benton Lake, with maximum concentrations of 580 mg/L in water and biological samples. Several eared-grebe livers from Freezeout Lake and several coot livers and eggs from Benton Lake had selenium concentrations indicative of contamination. (See also W89-07064) (Author 's abstract)

  2. Water-mineral relations of Quaternary deposits in the Lower Platte River drainage area in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan; Bentall, Ray

    1968-01-01

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), the degree of saturation with respect to calcite (IAP/K calcite), the pH, and the concentrations of selected constituents in solution were determined for water from 52 wells and the Platte River. Compared to the PCO2 in the atmosphere, the average PCO2 in the ground water was many times greater and that in .the river water was about twice as great. The high PCO2 in the ground water probably results from the absorption, by infiltrating precipitation, of carbon dioxide produced in the soil by respiration of plant roots ,and microorganisms. The values for IAP/K calcite for the ground water ranged from 0.141 to 1.29 and for the river water the average was 9.6. Water from each of the 10 sampled wells on the terrace plain in southeastern Saunders County was unsaturated with respect to calcite, whereas water from seven of the 42 wells on the Platte River flood plain was nearly saturated or supersaturated. Of the ,seven, two were in the Lincoln city well field where hydrologic relations indicate that a large fraction of the water yielded by the wells is induced seepage from the .river. That more of the city wells did not yield supersaturated water is surprising in view of the high IAP/K calcite values for the river water. Supersaturation of water from five of nine sampled wells downvalley from the well field probably is due to the presence of numerous limestone fragments in the Quaternary deposits in that part of the area. also surprising was the finding that the average pH of the water from the city wells was 1 unit lower than that of the river water. The presence of both dissolved iron and dissolved oxygen in the water from several of the city wells probably reflects derivation of the water from two distinct sources : ground water naturally in the aquifer and induced seepage from the river.

  3. Hydrogeochemical features of surface water and groundwater contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD) in coal mining areas: a case study in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) were investigated in surface waters (Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream) and groundwaters from a coal mining area sampled in two different seasons at Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil. The spatial data distribution indicated that the acid effluents favor the chemical elements leaching and transport from the tailings pile into the superficial water bodies or aquifers, modifying their quality. The acid groundwaters in both sampling periods (dry: pH 2.94-6.04; rainy: pH 3.25-6.63) were probably due to the AMD generation and infiltration, after the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Such acid effluents cause an increase of the solubilization rate of metals, mainly iron and aluminum, contributing to both groundwater and surface water contamination. Sulfate in high levels is a result of waters' pollution due to AMD. In some cases, high sulfate and low iron contents, associated with less acidic pH values, could indicate that AMD, previously generated, is nowadays being neutralized. The chemistry of the waters affected by AMD is controlled by the pH, sulfide minerals' oxidation, oxygen, iron content, and microbial activity. It is also influenced by seasonal variations that allow the occurrence of dissolution processes and the concentration of some chemical elements. Under the perspective of the waters' quality evaluation, the parameters such as conductivity, dissolved sodium, and sulfate concentrations acted as AMD indicators of groundwaters and surface waters affected by acid effluents.

  4. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barbero, L; Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; Casas-Ruiz, M; Hierro, A; Baskaran, M; Ketterer, M E

    2014-12-01

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of (210)Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and (210)Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1-2) is very low, with (210)Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%.

  5. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  6. Map showing principal drainage basins, principal runoff-producing areas, and selected stream flow data in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1978-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area. Streamflow records used to compile this map and the accompanying table were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas were delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Information about Lake Powell was furnished by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

  7. Sodium accumulation at potential-induced degradation shunted areas in polycrystalline silicon modules

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Steven P.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Hacke, Peter; Guthrey, Harvey; Johnston, Steve; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2016-09-19

    Here, we investigated potential-induced degradation (PID) in silicon mini-modules that were subjected to accelerated stressing to induce PID conditions. Shunted areas on the cells were identified with photoluminescence and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) imaging. The identical shunted areas were then analyzed via time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) imaging, 3-D tomography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The TOF-SIMS imaging indicates a high concentration of sodium in the shunted areas, and 3-D tomography reveals that the sodium extends more than 2 um from the surface below shunted regions. Transmission electron microscopy investigation reveals that a stacking fault is present at an area identified as shunted by DLIT imaging. After the removal of surface sodium, tomography reveals persistent sodium present around the junction depth of 300 nm and a drastic difference in sodium content at the junction when comparing shunted and nonshunted regions.

  8. Sodium Accumulation at Potential-Induced Degradation Shunted Areas in Polycrystalline Silicon Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Steven P.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Hacke, Peter; Guthrey, Harvey; Johnston, Steve; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2016-11-01

    We investigated potential-induced degradation (PID) in silicon mini-modules that were subjected to accelerated stressing to induce PID conditions. Shunted areas on the cells were identified with photoluminescence and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) imaging. The identical shunted areas were then analyzed via time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) imaging, 3-D tomography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The TOF-SIMS imaging indicates a high concentration of sodium in the shunted areas, and 3-D tomography reveals that the sodium extends more than 2 um from the surface below shunted regions. Transmission electron microscopy investigation reveals that a stacking fault is present at an area identified as shunted by DLIT imaging. After the removal of surface sodium, tomography reveals persistent sodium present around the junction depth of 300 nm and a drastic difference in sodium content at the junction when comparing shunted and nonshunted regions.

  9. Extent of Low-accumulation 'Wind Glaze' Areas on the East Antarctic Plateau: Implications for Continental Ice Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scambos, Theodore A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Haran, T.; Bohlander, J.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Jezek, K.; Long, D.; Urbini, S.; Farness, K.; Neumann, T.; Albert, M.; Winther, J.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 square kilometers in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 plus or minus 1.7%, or 950 plus or minus 143 x 10(exp 3) square kilometers, of the EAIS above 1500m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.

  10. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  11. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; ...

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  12. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  13. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness. PMID:25914696

  14. Distribution and accumulation of organotin species in seawater, sediments and organisms collected from a Taiwan mariculture area.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Lian; Wang, Jih-Terng; Chung, Kuo-Nan; Leu, Ming-Yih; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution and accumulation of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in seawater, sediments and selected organisms from a cage mariculture area in southern Taiwan, Hsiao Liouchiou Island. Our results show that ΣOTs were found in concentrations as high as 196 ng/L in seawater collected from the sites in Pai-Sa harbor, and up 1040 ng/g dry wt. in sediments dredged from sites within Da-Fu harbor. Also, ΣOTs concentrations of 859 ng/g dry wt. were observed in the liver of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) from mariculture cages. As most published studies have focused on the acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of organotins in mussels, the effects of organotins on cobia and other marine fauna are still poorly understood. This study highlights the significance of ΣBTs accumulation in cobia, as well as in the sediments and seawater surrounding their culture facilities.

  15. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of indigenous calcareous shale for neutralization and removal of arsenic and heavy metals from acid mine drainage in the Taxco mining area, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero, F M; Núñez, L; Gutiérrez, M E; Armienta, M A; Ceniceros-Gómez, A E

    2011-02-01

    In the Taxco mining area, sulfide mineral oxidation from inactive tailings impoundments and abandoned underground mines has produced acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.2-2.9) enriched in dissolved concentrations (mg l⁻¹) sulfate, heavy metals, and arsenic (As): SO₄²⁻ (pH 1470-5454), zinc (Zn; 3.0-859), iron (Fe; pH 5.5-504), copper (Cu; pH 0.7-16.3), cadmium (Cd; pH 0.3-6.7), lead (Pb; pH < 0.05-1.8), and As (pH < 0.002-0.6). Passive-treatment systems using limestone have been widely used to remediate AMD in many parts of the world. In limestone-treatment systems, calcite simultaneously plays the role of neutralizing and precipitating agent. However, the acid-neutralizing potential of limestone decreases when surfaces of the calcite particles become less reactive as they are progressively coated by metal precipitates. This study constitutes first-stage development of passive-treatment systems for treating AMD in the Taxco mine area using indigenous calcareous shale. This geologic material consists of a mixture of calcite, quartz, muscovite, albite, and montmorillonite. Results of batch leaching test indicate that calcareous shale significantly increased the pH (to values of 6.6-7.4) and decreased heavy metal and As concentrations in treated mine leachates. Calcareous shale had maximum removal efficiency (100%) for As, Pb, Cu, and Fe. The most mobile metals ions were Cd and Zn, and their average percentage removal was 87% and 89%, respectively. In this natural system (calcareous shale), calcite provides a source of alkalinity, whereas the surfaces of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals possibly serve as a preferred locus of deposition for metals, resulting in the neutralizing agent (calcite) beings less rapidly coated with the precipitating metals and therefore able to continue its neutralizing function for a longer time.

  17. Active tectonic influence on the evolution of drainage and landscape: Geomorphic signatures from frontal and hinterland areas along the Northwestern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Mohanty, C.

    2007-03-01

    The Kangra Re-entrant in the NW Himalaya is one of the most seismically active regions, falling into Seismic Zone V along the Himalaya. In 1905 the area experienced one of the great Himalayan earthquakes with magnitude 7.8. The frontal fault system - the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) associated with the foreland fold - Janauri Anticline, along with other major as well as secondary hinterland thrust faults, provides an ideal site to study the ongoing tectonic activity which has influenced the evolution of drainage and landscape in the region. The present study suggests that the flat-uplifted surface in the central portion of the Janauri Anticline represents the paleo-exit of the Sutlej River. It is suggested that initially when the tectonic activity propagated southward along the HFT the Janauri Anticline grew along two separate fault segments (north and south faults), the gap between these two fault and the related folds allowed the Sutlej River to flow across this area. Later, the radial propagation of the faults towards each other resulted in an interaction of the fault tips, which caused the rapid uplift of the area. Rapid uplift resulted in the disruption and longitudinal deflection of the Sutlej river channel. Fluvial deposits on the flat surface suggest that an earlier fluvial system flowed across this area in the recent past. Geomorphic signatures, like the sharp mountain fronts along the HFT in some places, as well as along various hinterland subordinate faults like the Nalagarh Thrust (NaT), the Barsar Thrust (BaT) and the Jawalamukhi Thrust (JMT); the change in the channel pattern, marked by a tight incised meander of the Beas channel upstream of the JMT indicate active tectonic movements in the area. The prominent V-shaped valleys of the Beas and Sutlej rivers, flowing across the thrust fronts, with Vf values ranging from <1.0-1.5 are also suggestive of ongoing tectonic activity along major and hinterland faults. This suggests that not only is the HFT

  18. An energy-based model accounting for snow accumulation and snowmelt in a coniferous forest and in an open area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějka, Ondřej; Jeníček, Michal

    2016-04-01

    An energy balance approach was used to simulate snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution in an open area, forest clearing and coniferous forest during winter seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13 in the Bystřice River basin (Krušné Mountains, Czech Republic). The aim was to describe the impact of vegetation on snow accumulation and snowmelt under different forest canopy structure and trees density. Hemispherical photographs were used to describe the forest canopy structure. Energy balance model of snow accumulation and melt was set up. The snow model was adjusted to account the effects of forest canopy on driving meteorological variables. Leaf area index derived from 32 hemispherical photographs of vegetation and sky was used to implement the forest influence in the snow model. The model was evaluated using snow depth and SWE data measured at 16 localities in winter seasons from 2011 to 2013. The model was able to reproduce the SWE evolution in both winter seasons beneath the forest canopy, forest clearing and open area. The SWE maximum in forest sites was by 18% lower than in open areas and forest clearings. The portion of shortwave radiation on snowmelt rate was by 50% lower in forest areas than in open areas due to shading effect. The importance of turbulent fluxes was by 30% lower in forest sites compared to openings because of wind speed reduction up to 10% of values at corresponding open areas. Indirect estimation of interception rates was derived. Between 14 and 60% of snowfall was intercept and sublimated in the forest canopy in both winter seasons. Based on model results, the underestimation of solid precipitation (heated precipitation gauge used for measurement) at the weather station Hřebečná was revealed. The snowfall was underestimated by 40% in winter season 2011/12 and by 13% in winter season 2012/13. Although, the model formulation appeared sufficient for both analysed winter seasons, canopy effects on the longwave radiation and ground heat flux were not

  19. Surface area control of organic carbon accumulation in continental shelf sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The relationship between organic carbon (OC) and grain size found in most continental shelf sediments is here reinterpreted in terms of the surface area of the sediments. Cores from many North American shelf environments show downcore decreases in OC to similar refractory background concentrations if expressed relative to the surface area of the sediments. This consistent concentration is 0.86 mg-OC m[sup [minus]2], which is equivalent in concentration to a monolayer of organic matter coating all mineral surfaces. A more global collection of sediment-water interface samples show that this relationship is even more extensive, with exceptions occurring in areas of very high riverine sediment input, organic pollution, or low-oxygen water columns. Density separations indicate that organic matter is largely adsorbed to mineral grains. The microtopography of surfaces was examined with N[sub 2] sorption and most surface area was found to be inside pores of <10 nm width. These data lead to a hypothesis that organic matter is protected by its location inside pores too small to allow functioning of the hydrolytic enzymes necessary for organic matter decay. Such protection would likely work in concert with other protection mechanisms such as humification. This consistent surface area correlation with OC concentration may explain control of spatial and temporal variations in OC burial rates by sedimentation rates; the pore protection hypothesis provides a causal mechanism for this observed control.

  20. [Eye and lymph drainage].

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, J; Schicha, H; Huth, F

    1979-06-01

    Up to now lymphatics in the eye could not be pointed out. An ocular lymph drainage is denied. Földi succeeded in producing experimentally the syndrome of "lymphostatic encephalopathy and ophthalmopathy" by operative blockade of the cervical lymphatics in animals. In the first part of the present paper a historical view considering the subject "Eye and lymphatic system" is given. In the second part it is entered into the particulars of own experimental studies. As to our own investigations, rabbits have been injected 99mTc-sulfur-colloid, 99mTc-microcolloid, 99mTc-Albumin and 198Au-colloid into the retrobulbar space, anterior chamber, vitreous body and subconjuctival space of one eye. Measurements of the activity's distribution have been made in vivo with an Anger type camera (pho-Gamma-IV Hp, Searle Nuclear Chicago) and in vitro after section with a sodium iodine crystal well counter (Clinimat-200, Picker). In some animals the investigation has been combined with a bilateral dissection of the cervical lymph nodes. After injection in the retrobulbar space a significant concentration of the activity could be observed for the most part in the equilateral Lymphonodulus cervicalis profundus. By the cervical lymph blockade the removal of lymphoctopic substances from the retrobulbar space was largely inhibited. After injection in the anterior chamber a significant concentration could be observed for the most part in the equilateral Lymphonodulus cervicalis superficialis. After intravitreal injection a drainage to the bilateral deep cervical lymph nodes could be observed. After injection into the subconjunctival space a significant accumulation of activity could be registered in the equilateral Lymphonoduli mandibulares and cervicales superficiales. The data substantiate a segmental lymph drainage from the eye: vitreous body and retrobulbar space for the most part into the Lymphonoduli cervicales profundi, anterior chamber and subconjunctival space for the most part into

  1. DNA damage and metal accumulation in four tissues of feral Octopus vulgaris from two coastal areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Joana; Costa, Pedro M; Vale, Carlos; Costa, Maria Helena; Moura, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The alkaline comet assay has been employed for the first time to estimate the basal DNA damage in the digestive gland, gills, kidney and gonads of Octopus vulgaris. Octopuses were captured in two coastal areas adjacent to the cities of Matosinhos (N) and Olhão (S), Portugal. The area of Matosinhos is influenced by discharges of the Douro River, city of Porto, industries and intensive agriculture, while Olhão is an important fisheries port. Previous works point to contrasting metal availability in the two coastal areas. Among the analysed tissues digestive gland presented the highest levels of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Tissues of specimens from Matosinhos exhibited high levels of Cd and from Olhão enhanced Pb concentrations. The DNA damages in digestive gland, gills and kidney were more accentuated in specimens from Matosinhos than from Olhão, suggesting a stronger effect of contaminants. Elevated strand breakages were registered in digestive gland, recognised for its ability to store and detoxify accumulated metals. The DNA damages in kidney, gills and gonads were lower, reflecting reduced metal accumulation or efficient detoxification. The broad variability of damages in the three tissues may also mirror tissue function, specific defences to genotoxicants and cell-cycle turnover.

  2. Sodium accumulation at potential-induced degradation shunted areas in polycrystalline silicon modules

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey, Steven P.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Hacke, Peter; ...

    2016-09-19

    Here, we investigated potential-induced degradation (PID) in silicon mini-modules that were subjected to accelerated stressing to induce PID conditions. Shunted areas on the cells were identified with photoluminescence and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) imaging. The identical shunted areas were then analyzed via time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) imaging, 3-D tomography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The TOF-SIMS imaging indicates a high concentration of sodium in the shunted areas, and 3-D tomography reveals that the sodium extends more than 2 um from the surface below shunted regions. Transmission electron microscopy investigation reveals that a stacking fault is present at an areamore » identified as shunted by DLIT imaging. After the removal of surface sodium, tomography reveals persistent sodium present around the junction depth of 300 nm and a drastic difference in sodium content at the junction when comparing shunted and nonshunted regions.« less

  3. Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals in acid mine drainage: an example from the abandoned Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hun-Bok; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Soon-Oh; Park, Seong-Sook; Lee, Pyeong-Koo

    2005-08-01

    Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals (Cr, Co, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd) in acid mine drainage were studied in two creeks in the Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, southern part of Korea. Chemical analysis of stream waters and the weak acid (0.1 N HCl) extraction, strong acid (HF-HNO3-HClO4) extraction, and sequential extraction of stream sediments were performed. Heavy metal pollution of sediments was higher in Chonam-ri creek than in Sagok-ri creek, because there is a larger source of base metal sulfides in the ores and waste dump upstream of Chonam-ri creek. The sediment-water distribution coefficients ( K d) for metals in both creeks were dependent on the water pH and decreased in the order Pb ≈ Al > Cu > Mn > Zn > Co > Ni ≈ Cd. K d values for Al, Cu and Zn were very sensitive to changes in pH. The results of sequential extraction indicated that among non-residual fractions, Fe-Mn oxides are most important for retaining trace metals in the sediments. Therefore, the precipitation of Fe(-Mn) oxides due to pH increase in downstream sites plays an important role in regulating the concentrations of dissolved trace metals in both creeks. For Al, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn, the metal concentrations determined by 0.1 N HCl extraction (Korean Standard Method for Soil Pollution) were almost identical to the cumulative concentrations determined for the first three weakly-bound fractions (exchangeable + bound to carbonates + bound to Fe-Mn oxides) in the sequential extraction procedure. This suggests that 0.1 N HCl extraction can be effectively used to assess the environmentally available and/or bioavailable forms of trace metals in natural stream sediments.

  4. Using 10Be and 26Al to determine sediment generation rates and identify sediment source areas in an arid region drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Caffee, Marc

    2002-06-01

    We measured 10Be and 26Al in 64 sediment and bedrock samples collected throughout the arid, 187 km 2 Yuma Wash drainage basin, southwestern Arizona. From the measurements, we determine long-term, time-integrated rates of upland sediment generation (81±5 g m -2 year -1) and bedrock equivalent lowering (30±2 m Ma -1) consistent with other estimates for regions of similar climate, lithology, and topography. In a small (˜8 km 2), upland sub-basin, differences in nuclide concentrations between bedrock outcrops and hillslope colluvium suggest weathering of bedrock beneath a colluvial cover is a more significant source of sediment (40×10 4 kg year -1) than weathering of exposed bedrock surfaces (10×10 4 kg year -1). Mixing models constructed from nuclide concentrations of sediment reservoirs identify important sediment source areas. Hillslope colluvium is the dominant sediment source to the upper reaches of the sub-basin channel; channel cutting of alluvial terraces is the dominant source in the lower reaches. Similarities in nuclide concentrations of various sediment reservoirs indicate short sediment storage times (<10 3 years). Nuclide concentrations, measured in channel sediment from tributaries of Yuma Wash and in samples collected along the length of the Wash, were used to construct mixing models and determine sediment sources to the main stem channel. We find an exponential decrease in the channel nuclide concentrations with distance downstream, suggesting that as much as 40% of sediment discharged from Yuma Wash has been recycled from storage within basin fill alluvium. Sediment generation and denudation rates determined from the main stem are greater (25%) than rates determined from upland sub-basins suggesting that, currently, sediment may be exported from the basin more quickly than it is being generated in the uplands. Independence of nuclide concentration and sediment grain size indicates that channels transport sediment in discrete pulses before rapidly

  5. The study of rare earth elements in farmer's well waters of the Podwiśniówka acid mine drainage area (south-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    The principal objective of the current study was to elucidate the potential influence of acid mine drainage (AMD) pond on neighboring farmer's wells in the Podwiśniówka area (south-central Poland), using North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized rare earth element (REE) concentration profiles. The well waters generally displayed a distinctly positive Eu anomaly similar to that of parent rocks and AMD sediment. In contrast, the AMD pit pond water exhibited the typical roof-shaped NASC-normalized REE concentration pattern with a strong positive Gd anomaly. The low pH (mean of 2.9) of this pond water is induced by oxidation of pyrite that occurs in quartz veins and rocks exposed in the abandoned Podwiśniówka quarry. The principal source of REEs in turn is a crandallite series of aluminum–phosphate–sulfate (APS) minerals (gorceixite with florencite and Ce-bearing goyazite) that prevail in most clayey shales. These data indicate that the REE contents of the AMD pit pond and well waters are linked to bedrock mineralogy and lithology, but not to pyrite mineralization. The diverse REE patterns of NASC-normalized REE concentrations of the AMD and well waters may suggest complex sorption and desorption processes that occur at the rock–water interface influenced by different pH, Eh, temperature, and other factors. This is evidenced by a presence of strong positive Ce anomaly in the rocks, a lack of Ce anomaly in the AMD water and sediment, and the dominant negative anomaly of this element in the well waters. Variations in correlation coefficients (r 2) of REE concentrations between the rocks and the well waters may also result from a different contribution of quartzites, clayey shales, or tuffites to the REE signal of well waters as well as from mixing of shallow groundwater with infiltrating rainwater or meltwater with different REE profiles.

  6. Preliminary results from agricultural drainage water management CIG projects on Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field demonstrations were monitored to compare the crop yields, drainage discharge, and nutrient loadings to streams from managed and unmanaged subsurface drainage systems. Paired drainage systems within the same field, under similar soil, area, cropping, and management conditions, were identified. ...

  7. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  8. Accumulation of metals in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 yr under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) were collected from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to lead-zinc mining and ore beneficiation in southeastern Missouri. Samples were analyzed for lead, zinc, and cadmium, and for a suite of biomarkers (reported in a companion paper). A subset of the hog sucker (n=9) representing three sites were also analyzed for nickel and cobalt. Blood and liver lead concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.84-0.85, P < 0.01) in all three species and were significantly (ANOVA, P < 0.01) greater at sites < 10 km downstream of active lead-zinc mines and mills and in a historical lead-zinc mining area than at reference sites, including a site in the area proposed for new mining. Correlations between blood and liver cadmium concentrations were less evident than for lead but were nevertheless statistically significant (r=0.26-0.69, P < 0.01-0.07). Although blood and liver cadmium concentrations were highest in all three species at sites near mines, within-site variability was greater and mining-related trends were less evident than for lead. Blood and liver zinc concentrations were significantly correlated only in stoneroller (r=0.46, P < 0.01) and mining-related trends were not evident. Concentrations of cobalt and nickel in blood and liver were significantly higher (ANOVA, P < 0.01) at a site near an active mine than at a reference site and a site in the historical lead-zinc mining area. These findings confirm previous studies indicating that lead and other metals are released to streams from active lead

  9. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a well...

  10. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a well...

  11. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a well...

  12. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a well...

  13. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a well...

  14. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 12. Stable isotopic evaluation of thermal water occurrences in the Weiser and Little Salmon River drainage basins and adjacent areas, west-central Idaho with attendant gravity and magnetic data on the Weiser area

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.; Bideganeta, K.; Palmer, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Fifteen thermal springs, two thermal wells, and eight cold springs in the Weiser and Little Salmon river drainages were sampled for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis during the fall of 1981. The straight-line fit of delta D and delta /sup 18/O versus latitude and longitude observed in the data is what would be expected if the recharge areas for the thermal and non-thermal waters were in close proximity to their respective discharge points. The discrete values of delta D and delta /sup 18/O for each thermal discharge suggest that none of the sampled thermal systems have common sources. The depleted deuterium and oxygen-18 contents of most thermal relative to non-thermal waters sampled suggests that the thermal waters might be Pleistocene age precipitation. The isotopic data suggest little or no evidence for mixing of thermal and non-thermal water for the sampled discharges. Thermal waters from Weiser, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, and White Licks hot springs show enrichment in oxygen-18 suggesting that these waters have been at elevated temperatures relative to other sampled thermal discharges in the area. Gravity and magnetic data gathered by the Idaho State University Geology Department in the Weiser Hot Springs area suggest that southeastward plunging synclinal-anticlinal couples, which underlie the hot springs, are cut south of the springs by a northeast trending boundary fault.

  15. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  16. Soil organic carbon accumulation during post-agricultural succession in a karst area, southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liqiong; Luo, Pan; Wen, Li; Li, Dejun

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and the underlying mechanisms following agricultural abandonment in a subtropical karst area, southwest China. Two post-agriculture succession sequences including grassland (~10 years), shrubland (~29 years), secondary forest (~59 years) and primary forest with cropland as reference were selected. SOC and other soil physicochemical variables in the soil depth of 0–15 cm (representing the average soil depth of the slope in the studied area) were measured. SOC content in the grassland was not significantly elevated relative to the cropland (42.0 ± 7.3 Mg C ha−1). SOC content in the shrubland reached the level of the primary forest. On average, SOC content for the forest was 92.6 ± 4.2 Mg C ha−1, representing an increase of 120.4 ± 10.0% or 50.6 ± 4.2 Mg ha−1 relative to the cropland. Following agricultural abandonment, SOC recovered to the primary forest level in about 40 years with a rate of 1.38 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were found to be the strongest predictors of SOC dynamics. Our results suggest that SOC content may recover rapidly following agricultural abandonment in the karst region of southwest China. PMID:27876827

  17. Soil organic carbon accumulation during post-agricultural succession in a karst area, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqiong; Luo, Pan; Wen, Li; Li, Dejun

    2016-11-23

    This study was aimed to investigate the direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and the underlying mechanisms following agricultural abandonment in a subtropical karst area, southwest China. Two post-agriculture succession sequences including grassland (~10 years), shrubland (~29 years), secondary forest (~59 years) and primary forest with cropland as reference were selected. SOC and other soil physicochemical variables in the soil depth of 0-15 cm (representing the average soil depth of the slope in the studied area) were measured. SOC content in the grassland was not significantly elevated relative to the cropland (42.0 ± 7.3 Mg C ha(-1)). SOC content in the shrubland reached the level of the primary forest. On average, SOC content for the forest was 92.6 ± 4.2 Mg C ha(-1), representing an increase of 120.4 ± 10.0% or 50.6 ± 4.2 Mg ha(-1) relative to the cropland. Following agricultural abandonment, SOC recovered to the primary forest level in about 40 years with a rate of 1.38 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). Exchangeable Ca and Mg were found to be the strongest predictors of SOC dynamics. Our results suggest that SOC content may recover rapidly following agricultural abandonment in the karst region of southwest China.

  18. Oak leaves as accumulators of airborne elements in an area with geochemical and geothermal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R; Monaci, F; Agnorelli, C

    2003-01-01

    The Colline Metallifere (Tuscany) was a major Italian mining district (FeS2, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn) for centuries, and in the last fifty years it has become the most important area for the exploitation of geothermal resources. Leaves of the widespread oak Quercus pubescens and surface soils were collected from 90 sampling sites in the area and their elemental composition was compared. The results showed that the composition of oak leaves was not significantly affected by the presence of mineral deposits (metal sulphide ores) or soils with high concentrations of Cr, Mg, and Ni (ultramafic). Arsenic was the only element showing higher concentrations in leaves from sites with deposits of metal sulphide ores or As-polluted soils around abandoned smelting plants. Compared to the composition of epiphytic lichens andepigeic mosses from the same sites in the Colline Metallifere, the elemental composition of Q. pubescens leaves was less affected by element contributions from adsorbed soil particles. It was thus easier to evaluate atmospheric inputs of elements in oak leaves than in cryptogams.

  19. Soil organic carbon accumulation during post-agricultural succession in a karst area, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqiong; Luo, Pan; Wen, Li; Li, Dejun

    2016-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and the underlying mechanisms following agricultural abandonment in a subtropical karst area, southwest China. Two post-agriculture succession sequences including grassland (~10 years), shrubland (~29 years), secondary forest (~59 years) and primary forest with cropland as reference were selected. SOC and other soil physicochemical variables in the soil depth of 0–15 cm (representing the average soil depth of the slope in the studied area) were measured. SOC content in the grassland was not significantly elevated relative to the cropland (42.0 ± 7.3 Mg C ha‑1). SOC content in the shrubland reached the level of the primary forest. On average, SOC content for the forest was 92.6 ± 4.2 Mg C ha‑1, representing an increase of 120.4 ± 10.0% or 50.6 ± 4.2 Mg ha‑1 relative to the cropland. Following agricultural abandonment, SOC recovered to the primary forest level in about 40 years with a rate of 1.38 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were found to be the strongest predictors of SOC dynamics. Our results suggest that SOC content may recover rapidly following agricultural abandonment in the karst region of southwest China.

  20. Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Ruiz, Luis; Fornaciari, Marco; Romano, Bruno; Galán, Carmen; Oteros, Jose; Ben Dhiab, Ali; Msallem, Monji; Orlandi, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The main characteristics of the heat accumulation period and the possible existence of different types of biological response to the environment in different populations of olive through the Mediterranean region have been evaluated. Chilling curves to determine the start date of the heat accumulation period were constructed and evaluated. The results allow us to conclude that the northern olive populations have the greatest heat requirements for the development of their floral buds, and they need a period of time longer than olives in others areas to completely satisfy their biothermic requirements. The olive trees located in the warmest winter areas have a faster transition from endogenous to exogenous inhibition once the peak of chilling is met, and they show more rapid floral development. The lower heat requirements are due to better adaptation to warmer regions. Both the threshold temperature and the peak of flowering date are closely related to latitude. Different types of biological responses of olives to the environment were found. The adaptive capacity shown by the olive tree should be considered as a useful tool with which to study the effects of global climatic change on agro-ecosystems.

  1. Modeling coastal plain drainage ditches with SWAT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the low-relief Eastern Shore region of Maryland, extensive land areas used for crop production require drainage systems either as tile drains or open ditches. The prevalence of drainage ditches in the region is being linked to increased nutrient loading of the Chesapeake Bay. Process-based water ...

  2. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace

  3. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  4. Geochemical characteristics of dissolved rare earth elements in acid mine drainage from abandoned high-As coal mining area, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuexian; Wu, Pan

    2017-07-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) represents a major source of water pollution in the small watershed of Xingren coalfield in southwestern Guizhou Province. A detailed geochemical study was performed to investigate the origin, distribution, and migration of REEs by determining the concentrations of REEs and major solutes in AMD samples, concentrations of REEs in coal, bedrocks, and sediment samples, and modeling REEs aqueous species. The results highlighted that all water samples collected in the mining area are identified as low pH, high concentrations of Fe, Al, SO4(2-) and distinctive As and REEs. The spatial distributions of REEs showed a peak in where it is nearby the location of discharging of AMD, and then decrease significantly with distance away from the mining areas. Lots of labile REEs have an origin of coal and bedrocks, whereas the acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite is a prerequisite to cause the dissolution of coal and bedrocks, and then promoting REEs release in AMD. The North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized REE patterns of coal and bedrocks are enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and middle REEs (MREEs) relative to heavy REEs (HREEs). Contrary to these solid samples, AMD samples showed slightly enrichment of MREEs compared with LREEs and HREEs. This behavior implied that REEs probably fractionate during acid leaching, dissolution of bedrocks, and subsequent transport, so that the MREEs is primarily enriched in AMD samples. Calculation of REEs inorganic species for AMD demonstrated that sulfate complexes (Ln(SO4)(+)and Ln(SO4)2(-)) predominate in these species, accounting for most of proportions for the total REEs species. The high concentrations of dissolved SO4(2-) and low pH play a decisive role in controlling the presence of REEs in AMD, as these conditions are necessary for formation of stable REEs-sulfate complexes in current study. The migration and transportation of REEs in AMD are more likely constrained by adsorption and co

  5. Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 μg g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 μg g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 μg g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 μg g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 μg g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 μg g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 μg g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 μg g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 μg g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 μg g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils.

  6. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  7. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  8. Stormwater Drainage Wells

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information for identifying stormwater drainage wells, learn how to comply with regulations for storm water drainage wells, and how to reduce the threat to ground water from stormwater injection wells.

  9. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  10. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  11. A theoretical treatise of drainage and seepage in bottom land areas adjacent to incised channels: the J. J. van Deemter analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saturated groundwater flow research on agricultural land in early times was mainly concerned with drainage of excessive rain. The key issue then was the spacing of drains or ditches to provide the efficient and effective removal, within a given time, of excessive water for a given soil. The focus wa...

  12. Hygienic drainage for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Peter Jennings, technical director for ACO Building Drainage, which specialises in the development of corrosion-resistant drainage systems and building products, looks at the key issues to consider when specifying and installing pipework and drainage for hygiene-critical environments such as hospitals and other healthcare facilities.

  13. Balance mass flux and ice velocity across the equilibrium line in drainage systems of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2001-12-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. The estimates are based on a model equilibrium line fitted to field data and on a revised distribution of surface mass balance for the conterminous ice sheet. Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS radar altimeter data. Ice thicknesses at the equilibrium line and throughout each drainage system are based on the latest compilation of airborne radar sounding data described elsewhere. The net accumulation rate in the area bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt a-1, and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt a-1. Excluding an east central coastal ridge reduces the net accumulation rate to 397 Gt a-1, with a range from 42 to 121 Gt a-1 for the individual drainage systems. The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt km-2 a-1 and 0.111 km a-1, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. In contrast, the mean mass discharge per unit length along the equilibrium line ranges from one half to double the overall mean rate of 0.0468 Gt km-1 a-1. The ratio of the ice mass in the area bounded by the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6 ka for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  14. Simulation of the effects of critical factors on ozone formation and accumulation in the greater Athens area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossioli, Elissavet; Tombrou, Maria; Dandou, Aggeliki; Soulakellis, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the temporal and spatial dynamics of the ozone production in the greater Athens area (GAA) is examined by using the photochemical UAM-V model coupled with the meteorological MM5 model. Several numerical experiments were performed in order to investigate and to quantify the effect of critical factors that conduce to the ozone formation and accumulation during ozone episodes. The initial scenario is able to reproduce the observed ozone patterns, but it underestimates the observed peaks in most of the downwind suburban stations. Using process analysis, we demonstrate the contribution of chemical and physical processes to ozone formation and destruction. The inclusion of biogenic emissions and their distribution based on a satellite vegetation index, as well as the adjustment of the speciation of the anthropogenic NMVOC emissions according to specific characteristics measured in street and aged city plumes, lead to a more realistic description of the urban mixture and thus of the ozone production. The effect of the urban sector introduced via a simplified urbanized meteorological data set, provoke a differentiation of the spatial pattern attributed to the accumulation of the primary NOX pollutants inside the city center and to the consequent limited horizontal advection toward the peripheral zone. Finally, the ozone background turned out to be a key factor for the model performance. The statistical evaluation of the results reveals the importance and the necessity of implementing all the above modifications; the persistence of some discrepancies is associated with meteorological or modeling coupling limitations.

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals to assess the health status of swordfish in a comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Atlantic areas.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Simone; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    During the last few decades, the combined effects of natural and human activities acting on the Mediterranean Sea basin have caused a reduction in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) population. In this project, we investigated the accumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels in the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of swordfish during a five-year survey. In the marine environment, top predators such as swordfish accumulate high concentrations of toxic metals, and thus, potentially incur a high toxicological risk. Furthermore, heavy metals, such as chemical pollutants, have strong long-term effects on fish, and thus, constitute a high risk for the resource and humans that consume it. The aim of this work is to contribute to the assessment of the state of European swordfish population health. We analyzed muscle tissue from 56 specimens captured in Mediterranean and Atlantic areas for trace elements. Mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the following ranges: 0.66-2.41, 0.04-0.16, and 0.97-1.36 mg/kg ww, respectively. These data suggest a need for continuous monitoring to avoid reductions in the population of this fish species of high commercial and ecological interest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Massive Perched Ice Layers in the Shallow Firn of Greenland's Lower Accumulation Area Inhibit Percolation and Enhance Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFerrin, M. J.; Machguth, H.; Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Abdalati, W.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Greenland's recent trend of record-breaking melt seasons (2012, 2010, 2007, 2002, et al.) have substantially increased the amount of melt water generated in the ice sheet's lower accumulation area. Due to this enhanced refreezing in the firn, regions with low accumulation rates have formed multi-annual ice layers 5-10+ meters thick in the thermally active shallow firn that overlies porous firn at depth. The loss of pore space in the firn prevents the majority of melt water from percolating to depth and results in surface runoff where water previously would have refrozen. Here we present evidence from in situ ground-penetrating radar, firn cores and airborne radar from NASA's Operation IceBridge, collected both before and after Greenland's 2012 melt season, to illustrate the mechanism by which southwest Greenland's runoff zone in 2012 extended 20 kilometers inland from the long-term saturation line. Additional evidence from satellite imagery, firn temperature profiles and modeling support the notion that these layers blocked percolation and contributed to Greenland's record runoff in 2012. Should Greenland's trend of anomalously warm summers persist, these massive lenses are likely to grow thicker and extend further inland, resulting in enhanced runoff and rapid upslope migration of the equilibrium line. These results illustrate the vital importance of understanding subsurface firn changes in order to accurately predict Greenland's future runoff in a changing climate.

  17. Dramatic loss of glacier accumulation area on the Tibetan Plateau revealed by ice core tritium and mercury records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Wang, F.; Morgenstern, U.; Zhang, Y.; Grigholm, B.; Kaspari, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Ren, J.; Yao, T.; Qin, D.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2015-06-01

    Two ice cores were retrieved from high elevations (~5800 m a.s.l.) at Mt. Nyainqêntanglha and Mt. Geladaindong in the southern and central Tibetan Plateau region. The combined tracer analysis of tritium (3H), 210Pb and mercury, along with other chemical records, provided multiple lines of evidence supporting that the two coring sites had not received net ice accumulation since at least the 1950s and 1980s, respectively. These results implied an annual ice loss rate of more than several hundred millimeter water equivalent over the past 30-60 years. Both mass balance modeling at the sites and in situ data from the nearby glaciers confirmed a continuously negative mass balance (or mass loss) in the region due to dramatic warming in recent decades. Along with a recent report on Naimona'nyi Glacier in the Himalayas, the findings suggest that the loss of accumulation area of glacier is a possibility from the southern to central Tibetan Plateau at high elevations, probably up to about 5800 m a.s.l. This mass loss raises concerns over the rapid rate of glacier ice loss and associated changes in surface glacier runoff, water availability, and sea levels.

  18. Acid rock drainage in Nevado Pastoruri glacier area (Huascarán National Park, Perú): hydrochemical and mineralogical characterization and associated environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique; Palomino, Edwin Julio; González-Toril, Elena; Aguilera, Ángeles

    2017-09-19

    The generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) was observed in an area of Nevado Pastoruri as a result of the oxidative dissolution of pyrite-rich lutites and sandstones. These ARDs are generated as abundant pyrite becomes exposed to atmospheric conditions as a result of glacier retreat. The proglacial zone contains lagoons, springs, streams and wetlands, scant vegetation, and intense fluvioglacial erosion. This work reports a comprehensive identification and the results of sampling of the lagoons and springs belonging to the microbasin, which is the headwaters of the Pachacoto River, as well as mapping results based on the hydrochemical data obtained in our study. The physical properties and water chemistry of 12 springs and 22 lagoons from the proglacial zone are also presented. Water springs are far from being chemically uniform, with pH and EC values ranging between 2.55-6.42 and 23-1110 μS/cm respectively, which suggests a strong geologic control on water chemistry. Fe-SO4(-2) concentrations confirm the intense process of pyrite oxidative dissolution. Many of the lagoons are affected by ARD, with low pH (~ 3), and high EC (256-1092 μS/cm) values when compared with unaffected lagoons (EC between 7 and 59 μS/cm), indicating a high degree of mineralization. The affected lagoons show higher concentrations of SO4(2-) and SiO2, and elements as Fe, Al, Mg, Mn, Zn, Co, and Ni, which are related to the alteration of pyrite and the dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals. Schwertmannite-goethite appears to be the most important mineral phases controlling the Fe solubility at a pH of 2-3.5. Moreover, they act as a sorbent of trace elements (As, Sb, V, Pb, Zn, Cr), which is an efficient mechanism of natural attenuation. Despite of this, the water flowing out from the basin is acid (pH 3.1) and contains significant concentrations of Fe (0.98 mg/L) and Al (3.76 mg/L) that confer mineral acidity to water. The Pachacoto River located 5.5 km downstream from this point

  19. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  20. Evaluation of the sustainability of road drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Diez, Iván; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2017-04-01

    Water is the most erosive agent that exists on the linear structures, because they are constantly subjected to outdoor condition like irregular infiltration, frosts and different rain intensities. Another variables that highly influence in the entire lifetime of a natural drainage system are the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, the soil, the vegetation cover and the design. All this factors are affecting the vulnerability of the clearings and embankments, by wearing away the weakest materials which surround the roads or train rails, producing erosion and very bumpy surfaces. The result is that the original pattern, developped to disminished the lost of soil, is not properly working and it cannot eliminate water, with the consequence destruction of the linear structure after several rainfall periods, and the accumulation of material down slope. The propose of this research focuses on analysing the drainage systems used in spanish roads and railways lines. For this purpose, a revision of the literature has been done, and the main drainage solutions have been recovered, carrying out an evaluation of them from an environmental point of view. This procedure has been requested by several authors in the past (Nwa, E.U. & Twocock, J.G., 1969; Goulter, I.C., 1992), together with the need of designing a more sustainable drainage system. The final objective of this complete revision is to compare objetively the designs to valuate them in order to develop a new drainage patter which minimize the erosion, increasing the durability and effectiveness of the drainage system. For this purpose, it is neccesary to assure that all the systems will be compare under similar parameters of flow rate, vegetation, substrate, lenght, slope and total section. Only the channels pattern and water distribution will change. The analysis has been done following Liu, H. & Zhu, X.B., (2012), who pointed out that the main parameters to take into account to select a road drainage

  1. Toxic mine drainage from Asia's biggest copper mine at Malanjkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Sharma, Richa; Roy, Manju; Pandey, Madhurima

    2007-06-01

    This paper has studied the environmental deterioration due to copper mining in Malanjkhand at Central-east India. No data is available on environmental degradation at the studied site although geological aspects are well studied. Mine drainage from the mines is definitively toxic. The site is also undergoing various stages of acid mine drainage (AMD) particularly from the heap leaching sites and the tailing area. AMD impacted water steam and sediment were also analysed. Results show substantial level of contamination of almost all segments of environment. Presence of elevated level of other heavy metal viz. Au, Ag, Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, Cu and base metals like Na, K in AMD impacted water and sediments is due to metal leaching effect of AMD. Bio monitoring with the help of benthic macro invertebrates and metal accumulation in plants was also carried to know the impact of the toxic drainage. Results prove a very significant impact on the environmental health.

  2. Automated extraction of natural drainage density patterns for the conterminous United States through high performance computing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanislawski, Larry V.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrographic networks form an important data foundation for cartographic base mapping and for hydrologic analysis. Drainage density patterns for these networks can be derived to characterize local landscape, bedrock and climate conditions, and further inform hydrologic and geomorphological analysis by indicating areas where too few headwater channels have been extracted. But natural drainage density patterns are not consistently available in existing hydrographic data for the United States because compilation and capture criteria historically varied, along with climate, during the period of data collection over the various terrain types throughout the country. This paper demonstrates an automated workflow that is being tested in a high-performance computing environment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map natural drainage density patterns at the 1:24,000-scale (24K) for the conterminous United States. Hydrographic network drainage patterns may be extracted from elevation data to guide corrections for existing hydrographic network data. The paper describes three stages in this workflow including data pre-processing, natural channel extraction, and generation of drainage density patterns from extracted channels. The workflow is concurrently implemented by executing procedures on multiple subbasin watersheds within the U.S. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Pre-processing defines parameters that are needed for the extraction process. Extraction proceeds in standard fashion: filling sinks, developing flow direction and weighted flow accumulation rasters. Drainage channels with assigned Strahler stream order are extracted within a subbasin and simplified. Drainage density patterns are then estimated with 100-meter resolution and subsequently smoothed with a low-pass filter. The extraction process is found to be of better quality in higher slope terrains. Concurrent processing through the high performance computing environment is shown to facilitate and refine

  3. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  4. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  5. Water Flow and Lake Drainage Beneath Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, I. C.; Long, S. M.; Peters, N. J.; Arnold, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    We use 5 km resolution surface and bed DEMs of Antarctica to calculate the subglacial hydraulic potential, and location of drainage catchments and major drainage pathways for the Antarctic Ice Sheet. We find close correlations between sinks in the hydraulic potential, the location of major drainage pathways and the position of known subglacial lakes. We use a thermo-mechanical ice sheet dynamics model with an assumed geothermal heat-flux to calculate energy supply and melt rates beneath the ice sheet. Accumulating this water along the drainage pathways allows us to calculate the steady state water flux to all known lakes (which range between ~ 0.1 and ~ 10m3 s-1) and in the drainage pathways as they enter the ocean (which range from ~ 1 to ~ 100m3 s-1). For different assumed lake drainage event discharges, we estimate a range of jokulhlaup frequencies for each lake. For the observed 1996-8 Adventure Subglacial Trench lake drainage event of ~ 1.8 km3, we estimate a flood frequency of 25 years. Finally, we use Nye's (1976) theory to model the time dependent discharge associated with the Adventure Trench jokulhlaup and can match theory to the observed surface altimetry data for realistic values of initial conduit diameter and roughness.

  6. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.; Fayard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Drainage wells of the first type are further categorized as either Floridan aquifer drainage wells or Biscayne aquifer drainage wells. Floridan aquifer drainage wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Biscayne aquifer drainage wells are used locally to dispose of stormwater runoff and other surplus water in southeast Florida, where large numbers of these wells have been permitted in Dade and Broward Counties. The majority of these wells are used to dispose of water from swimming pools or to dispose of heated water from air-conditioning units. The use of Biscayne aquifer drainage wells may have minimal effect on aquifer potability so long as injection of runoff and industrial wates is restricted to zones where chloride concentrations exceed 1,500 milligrams per liter. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mines and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed

  7. Modelling hydrological connectivity in semi-arid flat areas: effect of the flow accumulation algorithm on the spatial pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Much of the water and sediment fluxes in semi-arid landscapes are found to be concentrated in localized pathways. Identifying the location of these pathways is important for management and restoration. This task becomes more complicated in flat areas, such as alluvial terraces, where geomorphic features of concentrated overland flow (rills and ephemeral gullies) are scarce or inexistent. Field identification of sediment delivery pathways as well as depositional areas is also difficult and challenged. The concept of hydrological connectivity (HC) helps us to express the complexity of landscape non-linear responses to rainfall inputs. One of the unsolved issues in overland flow modelling studies is the choice of the right flow accumulation algorithm (FAA). There is an abundant literature on runoff generation under semi-arid conditions, and relating HC and land use management and changes. However, we found a scientific gap in the literature focussed on modelling of HC in flat areas under semi-arid conditions. This study aims to fill in this gap by modelling HC in alluvial terraces (28 ha) in NE Spain under semi-arid conditions (342 mm / year), mainly devoted to rain-fed cereal fields, by using eight FAA. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). The study area includes seven fields on flat alluvial terraces, three fields on a gentle slope, small patches of scrubland, and twelve grass buffer strips that are located between each set of fields. Gentle and flat areas (S < 4%) cover 38% of the total surface. A photogrammetry-derived DEM was obtained through a flight, using a photographic camera installed in a professional mapping drone (model eBee by senseFly Ltd.). In order to minimize the effect of the vegetation on the photogrammetry restitution technique, pictures were taken in early spring, before the growth of the cereals. Then, several DEMs were generated independently. For this study, we chose

  8. Envisat derived Elevation Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and a Comparison with ICESat Results in the Accumulation Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Simonsen, S. B.; Meister, R.; Forsberg, R.; Levinsen, J. F.; Flament, T.

    2014-12-01

    We show that an along track method for deriving rates of elevation change can successfully be applied to Envisat radar altimetry data over Greenland (2002-2010). The results provide improved resolution and coverage compared to previous results obtained from cross-over methods. Also, we find that temporal changes in the elevation change rate can be derived from Envisat data, and show clear examples of this by generating five-year running means for selected areas of the Greenland ice sheet. For a period between 2003 and 2009, the elevation of the ice sheets was measured by both the laser altimeter on board ICESat and the radar altimeter on board Envisat. We compare rates of elevation change derived from ICESat and Envisat for this time span in which both sensors were operating. We focus on the area above the equilibrium line altitude, in order to specifically derive information on snow parameters. A comparison of the elevation changes observed by the two sensors shows a complex pattern, which can be explained regionally by model output describing the changes in both firn air content and accumulation rates.

  9. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  10. The topography of optimal drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Meakin, P.; JøSsang, T.

    1994-09-01

    A model for drainage networks and their associated landscapes has been developed. This model is based on the minimum energy dissipation principle and an empirical relationship s ˜ Qα between the slope s of each link in a channel network and the mean annual discharge Q that flows through it. The model was studied using six different values for the exponent α. The surfaces of these minimum energy dissipation drainage networks appear to be more complex than simple self-affine fractals. The drainage basins in these optimal drainage networks have power law size (area) distributions with a universal exponent, which is independent of the value of α. For the minimum energy dissipation drainage networks obtained using a particular value for α, the basin shapes are similar to each other. An empirical relationship has also been found to relate the basins' "length-width" ratio to the value of α.

  11. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  12. Accumulation of cadmium in and its effect on the midgut gland of terrestrial snail Helix pomatia L. from urban areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Włostowski, Tadeusz; Kozłowski, Paweł; Laszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara; Oleńska, Ewa; Aleksandrowicz, Olgierd

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the midgut gland of a land snail Helix pomatia L. inhabiting residential areas of the 14 largest cities in Poland, and (2) to examine whether the accumulated Cd exerted any toxic effects. The average accumulation of Cd in the midgut gland of snails, weighing 16-18 g, ranged from 7.00 to 87.3 µg/g dry weight (0.06-0.77 µmol/g) and differed significantly among animals from the various urban areas. This difference in Cd accumulation was not related to city population, but was associated with the topsoil Cd (R(2) = 0.868, p < 0.0001). The tissue Cd was not found to produce toxicity (histopathology, programmed cell death, lipofuscin formation or lipid peroxidation), probably due to the induction of sufficiently high quantities of metallothionein and glutathione, well-known protective molecules.

  13. Measuring water accumulation rates using GRACE data in areas experiencing glacial isostatic adjustment: The Nelson River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A.; Huang, J.; Kamp, G.; Henton, J.; Mazzotti, S.; James, T. S.; Courtier, N.; Barr, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived total water storage can be obscured by glacial isostatic adjustment. In order to solve this problem for the Nelson River drainage basin in Canada, a gravity rate map from 110 months (June 2002 to October 2011) of GRACE gravity data was corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment using an independent gravity rate map derived from updated GPS vertical velocities. The GPS-based map was converted to equivalent gravity rate using a transfer function developed from GPS and absolute-g data at colocated sites. The corrected GRACE gravity rate map revealed a major positive anomaly within the drainage basin, which was independently shown by hydrological data to be due to changes in water storage. The anomaly represents a cumulative increase at its center of about 340 mm of water, reflecting a progression from extreme drought to extremely wet conditions.

  14. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Jones, W.E.; Morton, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of the Kendrick Reclamation Project in central Wyoming was conducted during 1986-87 to determine if irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or other water uses. The investigation of the Kendrick Reclamation Project is one of nine similar investigations being conducted in the western conterminous United States as part of the Department of the Interior 's Irrigation Drainage Program. Samples of surface water were collected at 10 sites and ground water at 5 sites. Surface-water analyses included trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides. Concentrations in the water generally were less than national standards for public water supplies, with the exception of selenium. The median concentration of dissolved selenium was 7.5 microgm/L in 24 samples of surface and groundwater. Of the 11 samples that contained dissolved- selenium concentrations greater than the national standard for public water supplies of 10 microgm/L, 10 of the samples were collected at sites on streams that are not used for public water supplies; the eleventh sample was collected from a shallow well. Dissolved-selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 300 microgm/L. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in the North Platte River, which supplies drinking water for several municipalities, ranged from less than 1 to 4 microgm/L. The dissolved-selenium concentration and selenium discharge in the North Platte River increased in the downstream direction. The four principal tributaries that receive drainage from the Kendrick Reclamation Project contributed substantially to the increase in selenium concentration and discharge in the North Platte River. Bottom-sediment samples from the North Platte River contained selenium contents of 1.2 microgm/g or less. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Sedimentary facies and gas accumulation model of Lower Shihezi Formation in Shenguhao area, northern Ordos basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weibing; Chen, Lin; Lu, Yongchao; Zhao, Shuai

    2017-04-01

    The Lower Shihezi formation of lower Permian series in Shenguhao develops the highest gas abundance of upper Paleozoic in China, which has already commercially produced on a large scale. The structural location of Shenguhao belongs to the transition zone of Yimeng uplift and Yishan slope of northern Ordos basin, China. Based on the data of core, well logging and seismic, the sedimentary facies and gas accumulation model have been studied in this paper. Sedimentary facies analysis shows that the braided delta is the major facies type developed in this area during the period of Lower Shihezi formation. The braided delta can be further divided into two microfacies, distributary channel and flood plain. The distributary channel sandbody develops the characteristics of scour surface, trough cross beddings and normal grading sequences. Its seismic reflection structure is with the shape of flat top and concave bottom. Its gamma-ray logging curve is mainly in a box or bell shape. The flood plain is mainly composed of thick mudstones. Its seismic reflection structure is with the shape of parallel or sub-parallel sheet. Its gamma-ray logging curve is mainly in a linear tooth shape. On the whole, the distribution of sandbody is characterized by large thickness, wide area and good continuity. Based on the analysis of the sea level change and the restoration of the ancient landform in the period of Lower Shihezi formation, the sea level relative change and morphology of ancient landform have been considered as the main controlling factors for the development and distribution of sedimentary facies. The topography was with big topographic relief, and the sea level was relatively low in the early stage of Low Shihezi formation. The sandbody distributed chiefly along the landform depressions. The sandbody mainly developed in the pattern of multiple vertical superpositions with thick layer. In the later stage, landform gradually converted to be flat, and strata tended to be gentle

  16. Potentially toxic element contamination in soil and accumulation in maize plants in a smelter area in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Nannoni, Francesco; Rossi, Sara; Protano, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A biogeochemical field study was carried out in the industrial area of Kosovska Mitrovica in northern Kosovo, where agricultural soils were contaminated by potentially toxic elements due to smelting activity. Total and bioavailable contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, U and Zn in soil and their concentrations in maize roots and grains were determined. Soil contamination by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn was variable from slightly to highly contaminated soils and influenced both the bioavailable fraction and accumulation of these potentially toxic elements in maize tissues. The comparison between potentially toxic element concentrations in roots and grains indicated that maize is able to limit the transfer of non-essential elements to edible parts. The plant-to-soil bioconcentration indices suggested that the transfer of potentially toxic elements from soil to plant was predicted better by bioavailable concentrations than by the total contents. These indices further identified some competitions and interactions among these elements in root uptake and root-to-grain translocation.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  18. Using EMI, Geospatial Statistics and Multi-Linear Regression for Identifying Areas of Manure Accumulation on Feedlot Surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accumulated feedlot manure negatively affects the environment. The objective was to test the validity of using EMI mapping methods combined with predictive-based sampling and ordinary linear regression for measuring spatially variable manure accumulation. A Dualem-1S EMI meter also recording GPS c...

  19. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  20. Percutaneous Abscess Drainage

    MedlinePlus

    ... the local anesthetic is injected. Most of the sensation is at the skin incision site which is numbed using local anesthetic. ... open surgical drainage. Risks Any procedure where the skin is penetrated ... organ may be damaged by percutaneous abscess drainage. Occasionally ...

  1. Biotreatment of mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.; Phillips, R.

    1996-12-31

    Several experiments and field tests of microbial mats are described. One study determined the removal rate of Uranium 238 and metals from groundwater by microbial mats. Free floating mats, immobilized mats, excised mats, and pond treatment were examined. Field tests of acid coal mine drainage and precious metal mine drainage are also summarized. The mechanisms of metal removal are briefly described.

  2. Drainage water management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article introduces a series of papers that report results of field studies to determine the effectiveness of drainage water management (DWM) on conserving drainage water and reducing losses of nitrogen (N) to surface waters. The series is focused on the performance of the DWM (also called contr...

  3. Foam consolidation and drainage.

    PubMed

    Jun, S; Pelot, D D; Yarin, A L

    2012-03-27

    A theoretical model of foam as a consolidating continuum is proposed. The general model is applied to foam in a gravity settler. It is predicted that liquid drainage from foam in a gravity settler begins with a slow drainage stage. Next, a stage with faster drainage occurs where the drainage rate doubles compared to the initial stage. The experiments conducted within the framework of this work confirmed the theoretical predictions and allowed measurements of foam characteristics. Foams of three different concentrations of Pantene Pro-V Classic Care Solutions shampoo were studied, as well as the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in one case. The shampoo's main foaming components are sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate. It is shown to what extent foam drainage is slowed down by using higher shampoo concentrations and how it is further decreased by adding polymer (PEO).

  4. Acid mine drainage and the acid drainage index

    SciTech Connect

    Talbett, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluates changes in acidity of a small stream that drains areas in which both surface and underground coal mining have occurred. Thirty-three sample days of field measurements, spread over a period of eight months, at twelve sites on the stream were utilized to measure drainage from two potential acid sources within its drainage basin. These sources were surface runoff from a gob and slurry area associated with a surface coal mine and the constant flow of water from an open air shaft constructed for a now abandoned underground mine. The data collected included stream discharge, stream water pH and related areal measurements. These data were used to evaluate the total amount of pH activity, the amount of pH depression, stream discharge and pH recovery for each sample day. Data analysis indicated that during the observation period no distinctive seasonal differences occurred in pH or discharge levels during the observation period. Similarly, no systematic relationship was found between the stream pH and discharge. Despite the lack of meaningful correlations between pH and discharge, variations in acidity, as related to discharge, were assessed through the use of a derived Acid-Drainage Index (ADI).

  5. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining area... or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. 434.30 Section 434.30 Protection of Environment...

  6. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining area... or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. 434.30 Section 434.30 Protection of Environment...

  7. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining area... or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. 434.30 Section 434.30 Protection of Environment...

  8. Automatic semi-continuous accumulation chamber for diffuse gas emissions monitoring in volcanic and non-volcanic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Norelli, Francesco; Virgili, Giorgio; Continanza, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Since various decades the accumulation chamber method is intensively used in monitoring activities of diffuse gas emissions in volcanic areas. Although some improvements have been performed in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility of the detectors, the equipment used for measurement of gas emissions temporal variation usually requires expensive and bulky equipment. The unit described in this work is a low cost, easy to install-and-manage instrument that will make possible the creation of low-cost monitoring networks. The Non-Dispersive Infrared detector used has a concentration range of 0-5% CO2, but the substitution with other detector (range 0-5000 ppm) is possible and very easy. Power supply unit has a 12V, 7Ah battery, which is recharged by a 35W solar panel (equipped with charge regulator). The control unit contains a custom programmed CPU and the remote transmission is assured by a GPRS modem. The chamber is activated by DataLogger unit, using a linear actuator between the closed position (sampling) and closed position (idle). A probe for the measure of soil temperature, soil electrical conductivity, soil volumetric water content, air pressure and air temperature is assembled on the device, which is already arranged for the connection of others external sensors, including an automatic weather station. The automatic station has been tested on the field at Lipari island (Sicily, Italy) during a period of three months, performing CO2 flux measurement (and also weather parameters), each 1 hour. The possibility to measure in semi-continuous mode, and at the same time, the gas fluxes from soil and many external parameters, helps the time series analysis aimed to the identification of gas flux anomalies due to variations in deep system (e.g. onset of volcanic crises) from those triggered by external conditions.

  9. [Effects of phosphorus fertilization on leaf area index, biomass accumulation and allocation, and phosphorus use efficiency of intercropped maize].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Xue; Li, Han-Han; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Xin-Ping; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Chao-Chun; Xu, Kai-Wei

    2013-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilization on the leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation (DMA), and P use efficiency (PUE) of maize in wheat/maize/soybean intercropping system. Five P fertilization rates were installed, i.e., 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) for wheat, marked as WP0, WP1, WP2, WP3, and WP4, respectively, and 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, and 150 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) for maize, marked as MP0, MP1, MP2, MP3, and MP4, respectively. During the coexisted growth periods of wheat and maize, P fertilization increased the LAI, leaf area duration (LAD), and stem and leaf DMA of maize significantly. After the jointing stage of maize, the maize LAI, LAD, DMA, and crop growth rate (CGR) all decreased after an initial increase with the increasing P rate, with the maximum growth in treatment MP2 or MP3. During the reproductive stage of maize, the maize dry mass translocation from vegetative to reproductive organ increased with increasing P fertilization rate, and the grain yield of both maize and whole cropping system increased firstly and decreased then, with the maximum grain yield of maize and whole cropping system being 6588 and 11955 kg x hm(-2) in treatment P3, respectively. The P apparent recovery efficiency of maize was the highest (26.3%) in treatment MP2, being 82.6%, 38.4%, and 152.9% higher than that in MP1 (14.4%), MP3 (19.0%), and MP4 (10.4%), respectively. In sum, for the wheat/maize/soybean intercropping system, applying appropriate amount of P fertilizer could promote maize growth, alleviate the impact of wheat on maize, and consequently, increase the P apparent recovery efficiency of maize. In this study, the appropriate P fertilization rate was 75-112.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2).

  10. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  12. High iron accumulation in hair and nail of people living in iron affected areas of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Banerjee, Saumen; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum

    2014-12-01

    Human populace of Assam, India repeatedly exposed to high concentration of iron in groundwater results in adverse health effects like hemochromatosis, liver cirrhosis and siderosis. In the present study, human hair and nail analysis were carried out to establish a possible relationship between iron toxicity and its deposition among the residents. Nail and hair iron concentrations ranged from 28.2 to 1046μgg(-1) (n=114) and 26.5-838 (n=108)μgg(-1) levels, respectively, among all the study participants. The iron content of the groundwater (421-5340μgL(-1)) (n=64) used for drinking purposes was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.788, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.709, p<0.0001) iron concentrations. Age- and sex-matched controls corresponding to each group were selected from population residing in other parts of the country where groundwater does not have excess iron. All the study groups included population drinking iron-contaminated water above the WHO/BIS limit (>300µgL(-1)) for 5 years (Group 1), for more than 5-10 years (Group 2) and for more than 10 years (Group 3). Results suggested that the participants consuming groundwater exceeding the WHO limit of iron had significantly more iron accumulation than those using groundwater containing ≤300μgL(-1) iron (p<0.01). There was statistically higher concentration of iron in the nail samples than the hair samples in all the study groups (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation in iron concentration and the residence time of the participants (p<0.01). Iron levels in the male participants were significantly higher than the female participants in the present study (p<0.01). The current findings are sufficiently compelling to warrant more extensive study of iron exposure through drinking water and adverse effects to the human in the areas where iron concentration is high.

  13. Influence of Sediment Transport on Formation of Sandbars in Drainage Canals during Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Akie; Taruya, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Naka, Tatsuo

    Sediment of drainage canals plays significant roles for aquatic plant rooting, fish spawning and invertebrate habitats. In steep areas, it is difficult to maintain the sediment during floods because water flows rapidly. Fast flowing water causes sediment loss and habitat loss through intense sediment transport. Therefore, we installed spur dikes in field drainage canals to control sediment transport and form sandbars to provide habitats for aquatic organisms. The results showed that sandbars were formed by controlling the sediment transport and the process of sandbar formation depended on the magnitude of flood discharge. When the flood discharge was small, the sediment was washed out between the spur dikes, and distinct sandbars were not formed except in areas aquatic plants. When the flood discharge was large, the sediment accumulated between the spur dikes, and sandbars were clearly formed. Without spur dikes, most sediment was flushed away by flood discharges. Consequently, spur dikes facilitate an increase in invertebrate populations by establishing sandbars for habitats.

  14. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R. |

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

  15. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  16. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  17. Ear drainage culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An ear drainage culture is collected by placing a cotton swab gently in the ear canal. The sample is sent to the laboratory for testing to isolate and identify the type of organism causing the ear infection.

  18. Impact of climate change on acid mine drainage generation and contaminant transport in water ecosystems of semi-arid and arid mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawar, Hossain Md.

    Disposal of untreated and treated mining wastes and tailings exerts a significant threat and hazard for environmental contamination including groundwater, surface water, wetlands, land, food chain and animals. In order to facilitate remediation techniques, it is important to understand the oxidation of sulfidic minerals, and the hydrolysis of the oxidation products that result in production of acid mine drainage (AMD), toxic metals, low pH, SO42- and Fe. This review has summarized the impacts of climate change on geochemical reactions, AMD generation, and water quality in semi-arid/arid mining environments. Besides this, the study included the effects of hydrological, seasonal and climate change on composition of AMD, contaminant transport in watersheds and restoration of mining sites. Different models have different types of limitations and benefits that control their adaptability and suitability of application in various mining environments. This review has made a comparative discussion of a few most potential and widely used reactive transport models that can be applied to simulate the effect of climate change on sulfide oxidation and AMD production from mining waste, and contaminant transport in surface and groundwater systems.

  19. Airport Pavement Drainage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    drainage layer and trench drains can be found in Cedergren (10). 4.2 COMPONENTS OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM 4.2.1 Outflow Once the water has found...According to Cedergren (10) the open graded aggregate can replace the normally used dense graded materials on an inch-for-inch basis. A main problem in...the perforated pipe to prevent fines from entering, Figure 4.24 (11). Cedergren (10) suggests that collector pipes should be 42 laid with the

  20. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  1. Drainage Network Development on a Porous Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, A.; Grant, G. E.

    2005-12-01

    Most landscape evolution models force drainage development using stream power laws, but this concept cannot be applied where a permeable substrate precludes surface runoff. Such a situation is common in volcanic landscapes throughout the world. Key processes and timescales that reduce the permeability of lava to the point where the stream power law can be applied are poorly documented. On Quaternary basaltic lava flows of the Oregon Cascades, surface drainage network development involves several stages. Measurements of soil depth show that lava <3000 years old is mostly bare rock, with no surface drainage. By ~15,000 years, soils are 5 to >30 cm deep and surface runoff may occur for short periods during peak snowmelt. We propose that, in this initial stage, permeability is reduced by void infilling from eolian or organic material as the soil mantle accumulates. GIS analysis and rock dating show that a second stage persists for several hundred thousand years, during which time drainage is primarily via groundwater, expressed in large springs at flow toes and valley walls. Incision during this stage is primarily the result of glaciation. Up slope of the springs, a low-density, ephemeral drainage network forms, often on glacial deposits. During this period, we hypothesize that lava permeability reduction occurs by weathering, secondary mineralization in voids, and compaction from overburden. In the third stage, permeability becomes low enough that surface runoff begins to dominate over groundwater. This handoff occurs between 680,000 and 2 million years, based on rock dates and drainage density. Beyond this point, further incision and drainage network expansion are stream power driven.

  2. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    PubMed Central

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Key Points Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage events Limited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainage Persistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited PMID:26640746

  3. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  4. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Natalie D.; Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill area includes about 3,000 square miles in southwestern Arizona. Ground-water development has taken place only in the northern part of the area, and only this part is included in the report. The southwestward-flowing Gila River drains the 1 ,900-square-mile northern part of the area. The main water-bearing unit is the valley-fill deposits. Since 1967, the estimated ground-water pumpage has exceeded 100,000 acre-feet per year, and in 1977 the ground-water pumpage was 210,000 acre-feet; the ground water is used mainly for irrigation. The ground-water withdrawals have resulted in general water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level, 1965-78 and 1973-78, and irrigated area; depth to water, altitude of the water level, and well depth; and specific conductance and fluoride concentration in the water. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:250 ,000. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. GeoSHED Software for Wetlands Drainage Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    WRP Technical Note HY-IA-5. 1 August 1993 GeoSHED Software for Wetlands Drainage Analysis PURPOSE: This technical note documents recent software...developments in automated drainage basin analysis and describes how the tools can be used in wetland enviromnents. BACKGROUND: A detailed knowledge of...streams and sub-basins, calculating drainage areas and other pertinent hydrologic statistics, and writing out this information in a form expected by

  6. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  7. Rapid development of an unusual peat-accumulating ecosystem in the Chilean Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Lisa R.; Warner, Barry G.; Aravena, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Stratigraphic relationships, radiocarbon dating, sediment and peat characteristics, and rates of peat and carbon accumulation from a soligenous peatland, or "bofedal," in the Chilean Altiplano shows the peatland to be unusually young, dynamic, and sensitive to environmental changes. The site lies in the National Park Nevado de Tres Cruces in the puna desert grassland at an elevation of 4300 m a.s.l. Eight peat cores were extracted from a 1.75-km transect yielding a maximum of 3.6 m of organic sediment. Organic matter began to accumulate 1700-1100 cal yr B.P. under a progressively arid local climate, after a period when regional climate is believed to have been more humid than at present. Areas of greater relief and better drainage in the valley bottom eventually fostered the growth of a riparian cushion plant community after water flowing down the valley began to diminish. This led to rapid lateral expansion of the riparian peatland communities over open water in topographic depressions at a rate heretofore unprecedented in the peatland literature. It appears that development of the peatland has been encouraged by autoregulation of internal hydrology. The drainage impediment created by organic mass accumulation in lower-relief areas probably reduced the amount of water arriving at the lower reaches of the peatland. These areas have become progressively drier and have since died and oxidized. Through endogenous peat accumulation and a concomitant drainage impediment, the ecosystem has been migrating upstream over the past 50 years.

  8. Are metals accumulated in human hair affected by naturally occurring asbestos fiber contamination? A case study from a rural area of china.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Jiangping; Ye, Bixiong; Jia, Xianjie

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the link between metals accumulated in human and asbestos fiber contamination in the environment. Therefore, hair samples of 368 subjects (128 males and 240 females) from a rural area contaminated by crocidolite asbestos fibers were collected to investigate the distributions of 17 metals accumulated in human. The results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in hair of the total subjects were 0.23, 23.36, 4.33, 0.11, 0.05, 0.70, 10.53, 29.74, 0.37, 241.57, 3.52, 0.08, 153.21, 0.72, 4.26, 10.96, and 113.35 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, approximately 86.14, 52.17, 73.91, 85.05, 80.98, 74.46, and 53.80 % of the hair samples of the total subjects contained much higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and Sr compared with the highest reference values, respectively. The mean concentrations of the determined metals (except for As, Co, Cr, Hg, and Mo) significantly varied among different age groups for both male and females. The results of correlation analysis and cluster analysis revealed that strong correlations were found between Al, Fe, Zn, Mg, and Na accumulated in human from the study area. These might suggest that Al, Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and Sr were significantly derived from contamination of crocidolite asbestos fibers. Zn, Mg, and Na might also originate from diet. However, Cd, Mo, Co, As, Cr, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Ba accumulated in human seemed to be mainly derived from soil. It can be concluded that metals accumulated in human hair have a link with asbestos fiber contamination in the environment.

  9. 2012 Annual Report: Simulate and Evaluate the Cesium Transport and Accumulation in Fukushima-Area Rivers by the TODAM Code

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2013-03-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the application of the time-varying, one-dimensional sediment-contaminant transport code, TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional, Degradation, And Migration) to simulate the cesium migration and accumulation in the Ukedo River in Fukushima. This report describes the preliminary TODAM simulation results of the Ukedo River model from the location below the Ougaki Dam to the river mouth at the Pacific Ocean. The major findings of the 100-hour TODAM simulation of the preliminary Ukedo River modeling are summarized as follows:

  10. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  11. No Drain, No Gain. Maximize Corn Production with Good Surface and Internal Drainage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adequate drainage is necessary for maximum corn production. Poor drainage hampers field operations from field preparation through harvest and limits the effectiveness of irrigation. Eliminating poorly drained areas preserves natural soil productivity by reducing field rutting that requires additiona...

  12. Accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in vegetation and soils of deglaciated area in Ellesmere Island, high-Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osono, Takashi; Mori, Akira S.; Uchida, Masaki; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The amount of biomass, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) in vegetation and soil were measured at two spatial scales in the high Arctic. At the scale of proglacial landscape, the amount of C and N in aboveground and belowground parts of vegetation, surface litter, and soil were significantly affected by the habitat (moraines vs hummocks), the relative age of the terrain after the deglaciation, and/or the vegetation. At another scale, we focused on mudboils as an agent of local disturbance in the vegetation and soil of the glacier foreland. The biomass and the amount of C and N in aboveground vegetation, surface litter, biological soil crust, and soil were generally increased with the stage of mudboils' inactivation. Biomass, C, and N in aboveground vegetation and surface litter were generally greater at moraine than at hummock, whereas those in biological soil crust and soil were greater at hummock. Principal component analysis identified two pathways, xeric and mesic ones on moraines and hummocks, respectively, of C and N accumulation both at the two spatial scales. These results suggested that the C and N accumulation was not linearly related to the time since deglaciation and that moisture condition, vegetation, and mudboil activity were locally important.

  13. Accumulated exposure to rural areas of residence over the life course is associated with overweight and obesity in adulthood: a 25-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Kira A E; Gall, Seana L; Venn, Alison J; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terry; Cleland, Verity J

    2017-03-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated whether body mass index (BMI) and weight status in mid-adulthood were predicted by trajectories of urban-rural residence from childhood to adulthood. Participants aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8498) were followed up in 2004-2006 (n = 3999, aged 26-36 years) and 2009-2011 (n = 3049, aged 31-41 years). Area of residence (AOR) was classified as urban or rural at each time point. BMI and/or weight status was calculated from self-reported weight and height (2009-2011). We tested which of three life-course models ("accumulation," "sensitive period," "mobility") best explained the AOR-BMI and/or weight status association using a novel life-course modeling framework. Accumulation and sensitive period models best described the effect of AOR on mid-adulthood BMI and weight status. Those with greater accumulated exposure to rural areas had a higher BMI (β = 0.29 kg/m(2) per time in a rural area, P = .005) and were more likely obese (relative risk = 1.13 per time in a rural area, P = .002). Living in rural areas at ages 26-30 years was also associated with a higher BMI and obesity in mid-adulthood. Greater cumulative exposure to rurality and exposure during the "sensitive period" of young adulthood is associated with obesity in middle-aged adults. This study highlights the important contribution of context to the development of obesity over the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, J.G.; Schroeder, R.A.; Densmore, J.N.; Goodbred, S.O.; Audet, D.J.; Radke, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a detailed study by the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program (NIWQP), U.S. Department of the Interior, indicate that factors controlling contaminant concentrations in subsurface irrigation drainwater in the Imperial Valley are soil characteristics, hydrology, and agricultural practices. Higher contaminant concentrations commonly were associated with clayey soils, which retard the movement of irrigation water and thus increase the degree of evaporative concentration. Regression of hydrogen- and oxygen-isotope ratios in samples collected from sumps yields a linear drainwater evaporation line that extrapolates through the isotopic composition of Colorado River water, thus demonstrating that Colorado River water is the sole source of subsurface drainwater in the Imperial Valley. Ratios of selenium to chloride indicate that selenium present in subsurface drainwater throughout the Imperial Valley originates from the Colorado River. The selenium load discharged to the Salton Sea from the Alamo River, the largest contributor, is about 6.5 tons/yr. Biological sampling and analysis showed that drainwater contaminants, including selenium, boron, and DDE, are accumulating in tissues of migratory and resident birds that use food sources in the Imperial Valley and the Salton Sea. Selenium concentration in fish-eating birds, shorebirds, and the endangered Yuma clapper rail were at levels that could affect reproduction. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl and resident shorebirds were at levels that potentially could cause reduced growth in young. As a result of DDE contamination of food sources, waterfowl and fish-eating birds in the Imperial Valley may be experiencing reproductive impairment.

  15. Agricultural drainage water management: Potential impact and implementation strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  16. Drainage Water Filtration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  17. [Drainage in thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ardito, G; Revelli, L; Guidi, M L; Murazio, M; Lucci, C; Modugno, P; Di Giovanni, V

    1999-01-01

    Bleeding represents a rare complication of thyroid surgery but when it occurs it may be life-threatening. To prevent this complication drainage is widely used. However no study has demonstrated the drains' value and recent reports have questioned its benefits. Therefore we have analyzed our experience of a 10 year-period in which 1.217 thyroidectomies were performed by the same surgical team and prophylactic routine drainage was always adopted. In 13 patients (1.06%) a benign hematoma occurred with spontaneous remission. In 6 patients the bleeding was severe and compressive hematoma occurred; it required surgical re-exploration. Such a complication is unusual in the neck surgery (0.49% in the authors' series) performed by experienced surgeons and when life-threatening hematomas do occur they depend on various uncontrolled factors and drainage is often not helpful. Otherwise a meticulous haemostatic technique is necessary and patients should be observed very closely during the few first hours following surgery on the thyroid gland. Therefore on the basis of the analysis of their series, although it is not always possible to prove the benefit of the drainage, the authors suggest its indication in the neck surgery, as in other fields with dead space, to remove blood and secretions reducing postoperative complications. They have never observed wound infections and patients were discharged within 72 hours.

  18. Accumulation of accident-derived radiocesium in lake and coastal sediments at 300-700 km distance from Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, S; Miyata, Y; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Murakami, T; Nishimura, S; Itono, T; Suzuki, T; Hamataka, K; Kawano, Y; Hamajima, Y; Kashiwaya, K

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of accident-derived radiocesium was investigated in nine water bodies located 300-700 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). (134)Cs from the accident was detected in surface sediment of five water bodies. The (134)Cs concentration, corrected to the time of the accident in 2011, was generally lower than that of (137)Cs, and its spatial pattern does not fully correspond to that of (137)Cs. These results suggest that radiocesium derived from both FDNPP and past global fallout can be separately observed and that the contributions of both sources are non-uniform within these sites. The (134)Cs inventory in surface sediments is smaller than its deposition, suggesting that almost all deposited (134)Cs remains within the catchment and/or a part has been discharged from the saline and brackish water bodies.

  19. Design and assessment of urban drainage and water reuse systems for the reconstruction of formerly industrial areas: a case in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zeng, S; Dong, X; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    The Shougang Group is an industrial steel enterprise occupying 800 ha in Beijing that will cease production by 2010. The area will be converted to a new financial and commercial zone. The rebuilding of the water infrastructure in this area should address water shortages in Beijing and retain the industrial landmark of a large cooling water tank. A design framework and an assessment system with 11 indicators were developed for this purpose. Four reconstruction schemes are presented here. Scheme 1 is a traditional system that completely depends on outside the municipal facility. Schemes 2, 3, and 4 are systems to separately discharge greywater and blackwater. Scheme 4 uses a vacuum system that allows the reclamation of nutrients. Schemes 2 and 4 use wetland-treated greywater to fill the water tank. Scheme 3 reuses greywater for toilets after on-site treatment. Scheme 2 is recommended due to its lower cost, greater environmental benefit, moderate resource reclamation, and higher technical feasibility.

  20. Archaeological Investigations in Upland Kaneohe: Survey and Salvage Excavations in the Upper Kamo’oali’i Stream Drainage Area Kaneohe, Ko’olaupoko, Oahu, Hawaii,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    cultural and botanical resource surveys (Kamo’oali’i Project, Phase I [1972]), intensive archaeological Survey and test excavations (Kamo’oali’i Project...conducted in 1972 as part of the initial inventory of cultural and natural resources located within the project area. Report 4, by Patrick McCoy, details...ANNE H. TAKEMOTO . . . . 2-17 REPORT 3. RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY --Environmental Inventory Cultural Survey Patrick C. McCoy and Aki Sinoto PREFACE

  1. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Drainage for Land Application Sites - Module 21, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Drainage for land treatment sites must be evaluated with respect to the purpose the system is meant to achieve. Off-site drainage controls the flow of storm runoff onto the site or groundwater incursion into the soil within the site. On-site drainage is employed for a variety of reasons. These two areas of drainage control must be designed as a…

  2. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Drainage for Land Application Sites - Module 21, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Drainage for land treatment sites must be evaluated with respect to the purpose the system is meant to achieve. Off-site drainage controls the flow of storm runoff onto the site or groundwater incursion into the soil within the site. On-site drainage is employed for a variety of reasons. These two areas of drainage control must be designed as a…

  3. Preliminary results of biological monitoring using benthic macroinfauna of the discharge areas of Lisbon drainage basins in Tagus estuary after new developments in sanitation infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeda, Carla; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Medeiros, João Paulo; Tavares, Maria João; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo; Metelo, Inês; Costa, José Lino; Costa, Maria José

    2013-10-01

    The present study focused on the use of benthic macroinfauna to assess the ecological quality status of two specific areas in the Tagus estuary (Portugal), after the improvement in the sanitation infrastructures discharging in those areas. The sampling campaigns were held in summer of 2009, 2010 and 2011 in a set of impact and control stations. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the evolution of spatial and temporal patterns in benthic macroinfauna assemblages' composition. The ecological status of these assemblages was assessed by means of taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and AMBI and M-AMBI biotic indices. The results obtained in both study areas seemed to indicate a trend for an improvement in the ecological condition of their benthic macroinfauna assemblages over time, although a consistent pattern was not found in all the analyses performed. When benthic macroinfauna assemblages under analysis are considerably degraded, the multimetric index M-AMBI seems to be more adequate for conducting monitoring studies than the AMBI index. However, the continuation of this work is indispensable to ensure the validity of this conclusion.

  4. Detailed study of selenium and selected constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.; Wilson, R.M.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Shineman, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior began the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) to investigate these concerns at irrigation projects sponsored by the Department. The San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Study teams composed of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at 61 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Supplemental data collection conducted during 1991-95 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its contractor extended the time period and sampling sites available for analysis. Analytical chemistry performed on samples indicated that most potentially toxic elements other than selenium generally were not high enough to be of concern to fish, wildlife, and human health. Element concentrations in some water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples exceeded applicable standards and criteria suggested by researchers in current literature. Selenium concentrations in water samples from 28 sites in the study area exceeded the 2-microgram-per-liter wildlife-habitat standard. Vanadium concentrations in water exceeded the 100-microgram-per-liter standard for livestock-drinking water at one site. In biota, selenium and aluminum concentrations regularly equaled or exceeded avian dietary threshold concentrations. In bottom sediment and soil, element concentrations above the upper limit of the baseline range for western soils were: selenium, 24 exceedances; lead, 2 exceedances; molybdenum, 2 exceedances; strontium, 4 exceedances; and zinc, 4 exceedances. Concentrations of total selenium in bottom-sediment and soil samples were significantly greater for Cretaceous than for non-Cretaceous soil types in the

  5. Spatial and temporal variations and controlling factors of sediment accumulation in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea area in the Holocene, especially in the Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhibing; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Yuexia; Li, Xishuang; Jiang, Li; Si, Shaokun

    2016-08-01

    The sub-bottom and collected borehole data provide insight into the transport and accumulation processes of the Yangtze-derived sediment in the study area since ~11 kyr BP. Five seismic units were identified according to six major acoustic surfaces. The sedimentary strata consist of fluvial, estuarine and deltaic systems from the bottom up, characterized by two different trends in sediment accumulation rates, i.e., low-high-low, and high-low-high. On the inner shelf of the East China Sea, the terrain with trough and ridge was formed by the Early Holocene transgression strata (formed in ~10 to 12 kyr BP) scoured by the later rectilinear tidal current due to postglacial sea-level transgression, and the sharply protruding seismic units are interpreted to be bedrocks outcropping on the seafloor. An analysis of the sedimentary characteristics in the boreholes and such factors as difference in accumulation rates, and tectonic subsidence led us to conclude that the paleo-coastline was located not far away from and to the east of Core ZK09 at ~9 kyr BP, and the southern bank of the Yangtze River estuary was located to the south of Core ZK09. At ~9 kyr BP, the Yangtze-derived sediments were transported eastwards along the southern bank of the Yangtze River and the barrier due to the influence of the paleo-coastal current from the north, the direction of the Yangtze-derived sediment transport was split on the northeast of the Zhoushan archipelago, and the sediments covered the terrain with trough and ridge. During the high sea level period (7 kyr BP-present), the eastward migration of paleo-coastline had resulted in the increase in accumulation rate. We also conclude that the sharp increase in accumulation rate near the Yangtze River estuary after ~2 kyr BP was not primarily caused by human activities. The position shifts of the estuary caused by the paleo-coastline migration and sea level oscillations since the Holocene is the main cause controlling the Yangtze

  6. Making Space for Water: A review of SUstainable Drainage systems (SUDs) in a rural/urban area of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Tellier, Sebastien; Wilkinson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of the city of Newcastle included a new development of over 3000 houses and an associated commercial area on agricultural land. The development firmly signed up to the notion that the new estate should adhere to full SUDs design and implementation. In essence there should be no loss of floodplain capacity, the total runoff from the new housing should not increase flood risk downstream and benefits to ecology, recreation and amenity should be fully maximised. Credit must be given to Newcastle City Council, the Environment Agency, the local water company and the developers themselves as a full set of large scale SUDs now exist and they are clearly an asset to the city. However, such a large scale landscape engineering endeavour has not been without direct and indirect problems. This paper reviews some of the experiences, problems and lessons learnt from SUDs implementation, the function of SUDs during flood events and the perception of SUDs by the public. During the life of the project several older estates close to the new development suffered from two major flood events; including foul water inundation, the drowning out of sewer overflows and intense flash flooding. These floods at first gave rise to the public perception that the new development had caused the flooding. During a research project entitled 'making space for water', the instrumentation of the river in the area and the SUDs took place. The hydrological data this produced has given rise to a mixture of positive and negative aspects of SUDs implementation. The cause of one flood was due to the drowning out of key sewer overflows by locally generated by urban flood flow arising from an upstream estate. The second flood was caused by a 48 hour storm event giving rise to high runoff from the rural area again drowning out key sewer overflows. The SUDs were found to perform well during storm events and do not increase runoff from the new estates. The main fundamental complaint is that despite such

  7. Managing selenium-contaminated agricultural drainage water by the integrated on-farm drainage management system: role of selenium volatilization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z Q; Cervinka, V; Pickering, I J; Zayed, A; Terry, N

    2002-07-01

    The Integrated on-Farm Drainage Management (IFDM) system was designed to dispose of selenium (Se)-contaminated agricultural irrigation drainage water through the sequential reuse of saline drainage water to grow crops having different salt tolerance. This study quantified the extent of biological volatilization in Se removal from the IFDM system located in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Selenium volatilization from selected treatment areas, including pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata L.), bare soil, and the solar evaporator, was monitored biweekly using an open-flow sampling chamber system during the pickleweed growing season from February to September 1997, and monthly from September 1997 to January 1998. Biological volatilization from the pickleweed section removed 62.0 +/- 3.6 mg Se m(-2) y(-1) to the atmosphere, which was 5.5-fold greater than the Se accumulated in pickleweed tissues (i.e., phytoextraction). The total Se removed by volatilization from the bare soil, saltgrass, and the solar evaporator was 16.7 +/- 1.1, 4.8 +/- 0.3, and 4.3 +/- 0.9mg Se m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Selenium removal by volatilization accounted for 6.5% of the annual total Se input (957.7mg Sem(-2) y(-1)) in the pickleweed field, and about 1% of the total Se input (432.7 mg Se m(-2) y(-1)) in the solar evaporator. We concluded that Se volatilization under naturally occurring field conditions represented a relatively minor, but environmentally important pathway of Se removal from the IFDM system.

  8. Validation of a new global 30-min drainage direction map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, Petra; Lehner, Bernhard

    2002-02-01

    Digital drainage direction maps are a prerequisite for analyzing the flow of water on the land surface of the Earth. For continental or global studies, the most appropriate and most frequently used resolution for such data sets appears to be 30‧ (longitude-by-latitude). In this paper we present the new global drainage direction map DDM30, a 30‧ raster map of surface drainage directions, which organizes the Earth's land area into drainage basins and provides the river network topology. DDM30 was generated by first upscaling two drainage direction maps (DDMs) at higher resolutions. The resulting map was then extensively corrected in an iterative manner by comparison against vectorized, high resolution river maps and other geographic information. Finally, it was co-referenced to the locations of 935 gauging stations (provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre GRDC), which again involved manual corrections. DDM30 was validated against drainage basin areas from the literature, against the given upstream areas of the GRDC stations and, most importantly, against information from HYDRO1k, a data set based on a hydrologically corrected 1-km digital elevation model which is thought to afford the best information on surface drainage currently available at the global scale. In the course of the validation, the quality of DDM30 was compared to three other 30‧ DDMs. The validation results show that DDM30 provides a more accurate representation of drainage directions and river network topology than the other 30‧ DDMs.

  9. Effects of land use and geohydrology on the quality of shallow ground water in two agricultural areas in the western Lake Michigan drainages, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, David A.

    1997-01-01

     Estimated recharge dates showed that historic patterns of atrazine plus deethyl atrazine concentrations in ground water mimic historic patterns of atrazine use on corn. Concentrations in ground water that recharged prior to the early 1960s, when atrazine started to become widely used on corn in Wisconsin, were very low or not detectable. As atrazine use on corn steadily increased from the late 1960s to the late 1970s and early 1980s, detectable concentrations of atrazine plus deethyl atrazine in ground water became more common. The recharge dates of some of the highest measured concentrations of atrazine plus ethyl atrazine in ground water from both study areas correspond to the period of highest atrazine use on corn within the State.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metal in scalp hair of people exposed in Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuwei; Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Mingshuo; Wang, Zilu; Wang, Qianqian; Zeng, Xiangfeng

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in soil, wheat, and scalp hair exposed to Beijing sewage discharge channel sewage irrigation area (BSIA) in Tianjin were studied to evaluate the influence of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, with 55.2 and 8.62% of soil samples accumulating Cd and Zn, respectively, at concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain from BSIA were higher than these from the clean water irrigation area by 63.2% for Cd, 3.8% for Cu, 100% for Pb, 6.6% for Zn, and 326.7% for Cr. The heavy metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the following order: Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr. Interestingly, these accumulation of heavy metals in soil after sewage irrigation could increase the migration ability of heavy metals (particularly Zn and Cd) from soil to wheat. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in the hair of residents followed the decreasing trend of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd, which were higher than the control area by 110.0% for Cd, 20.0% for Cu, 55.9% for Zn, 36.6% for Pb, and 64.6% for Cr. Concentrations of heavy metals in male human hair in BSIA were higher than those of females. And the concentrations of heavy metals except for Pb in human hair increased with their increasing ages. The heavy metal BAF values of wheat/soil in BSIA showed the trend of Zn (98.0057) > Pb (7.0162) > Cr (5.5788) > Cu (5.4853) > Cd (3.5584); heavy metals had obvious biological amplification from wheat to human hair. These results indicated that local population health was potentially exposed to the heavy metal risk via wheat consumption.

  11. Sediment accumulation rates and high-resolution stratigraphy of recent fluvial suspension deposits in various fluvial settings, Morava River catchment area, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláček, Jan; Bábek, Ondřej; Kielar, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study concerning sedimentary processes in fluvial sediment traps within the Morava River catchment area (Czech Republic) involving three dammed reservoirs, four meanders and oxbow lakes, and several natural floodplain sites. The objective of the study was to determine sediment accumulation rates (SAR), estimate erosion rates, calculating these using a combination of the 137Cs method and historical data. Another purpose of this study was to provide insight into changing erosion and accumulation rates over the last century. Extensive water course modifications were carried out in the Morava River catchment area during the twentieth century, which likely affected sedimentation rates along the river course. Other multiproxy stratigraphic methods (X-ray densitometry, magnetic susceptibility, and visible-light reflectance spectrometry) were applied to obtain additional information about sediment infill. Sediment stratigraphy revealed distinct distal-to-proximal patterns, especially in reservoirs. Granulometrically, silts and sandy silts prevailed in sediments. Oxbow lakes and meanders contained larger amounts of clay and organic matter, which is the main difference between them and reservoirs. Pronounced 137Cs peaks were recorded in all studied cores (maximum 377 Bq·kg- 1), thus indicating Chernobyl fallout from 1986 or older events. Calculated sediment accumulation rates were lowest in distal parts of reservoirs (0.13-0.58 cm/y) and floodplains (0.45-0.88 cm/y), moderately high rates were found in proximal parts of reservoirs and oxbow lakes (2.27-4.4 cm/y), and the highest rates in some oxbow lakes located near the river (6-8 cm/y). The frequency of the inundation still can be high in some natural areas as in the Litovelské Pomoraví protected area, whereas the decreasing frequency of the inundation in other modified parts can contribute to a lower sedimentation rate. The local effects such as difference between SARs in oxbow lakes and

  12. Cadmium Accumulation and Pathological Alterations in the Midgut Gland of Terrestrial Snail Helix pomatia L. from a Zinc Smelter Area: Role of Soil pH.

    PubMed

    Włostowski, Tadeusz; Kozłowski, Paweł; Łaszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara; Oleńska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in the midgut gland of Helix pomatia snails living in a Cd-contaminated area were related to soil pH. Toxic responses in the midgut gland (i.e., increased vacuolization and lipid peroxidation) occurred in H. pomatia snails exhibiting the highest Cd levels in the gland (265-274 µg/g dry wt) and living on acidic soil (pH 5.3-5.5), while no toxicity was observed in snails accumulating less Cd (90 µg/g) and ranging on neutral soil (pH 7.0), despite the fact that total soil Cd was similar in the two cases. The accumulation of Cd in the gland was directly related to the water extractable Cd in soil, which in turn correlated inversely with soil pH, indicating that this factor had a significant effect on tissue Cd. It appeared further that the occurrence of Cd toxicity was associated with low levels of metallothionein in the gland of snails ranging on acidic soil.

  13. Distribution and accumulation of selenium in wild plants growing naturally in the Gumuskoy (Kutahya) mining area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Merve; Akgül, Bunyamin; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated selenium uptake and transport from the soil to 12 plant species in the mining area of Gumuskoy (Kutahya), Turkey. Plant samples and their associated soils were collected and analyzed for Se content by ICP-MS. Mean Se values in the soils, roots, and shoots of all plants were 0.9, 0.6, and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean enrichment coefficients for roots (ECR) and shoots (ECS) of these plants were 0.78 and 0.97. The mean translocation factors (TLF) were 1.33. These values indicate that all 12 plant species had the ability to transfer Se from the roots to the shoot, but that transfer was more efficient in plants with higher ECR and ECS. Therefore, these plants may be useful in phytoremediation in rehabilitating areas contaminated by Se because their ECR, ECS and TLFs are >1.

  14. Acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  15. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  16. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  17. Potential effects of coal mining and road construction on the water quality of Scofield Reservoir and its drainage area, central Utah, October 1982 to October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.; Thompson, K.R.; Wangsgard, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Studies were done during 1983-84 to determine the effect of coal mining in Pleasant Valley and construction of State Road 264 in Eccles Canyon on the water quality of local streams and on Scofield Reservoir. Streamflow during 1983-84 set high-flow records in all gaged streams and transported considerable sediment and associated trace metals and nutrients to Scofield Reservoir. Concentrations of most toxic substances were not sufficient to constitute a hazard in the streams or reservoir; however, concentrations of total phosphorus in the streams commonly exceeded water-quality criterion for phosphate as phosphorus of 0.05 milligram per liter, established by the State as an indicator of pollution. Data from Eccles Canyon creek, which is in an actively mined area, were compared to data from Boardinghouse Canyon creek, which is in a nearby canyon with no active mining or construction activities. Concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were substantially larger in Eccles Canyon creek than in Boardinghouse Canyon creek. Loads of suspended sediment during storms and base-flow conditions also were larger in Eccles Canyon creek. Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, mercury, and zinc in water from Scofield Reservoir occasionally exceeded Utah State water- quality standards and criteria for protection of aquatic wildlife that were in effect during 1983- 84. In combination with the generally cooler spring temperatures, shortened growing season, and greater flushing rate for the reservoir, the large inflow of water into the reservoir prevented the occurrence of blue-green blooms common in earlier years. Large concentrations of orthophosphorus and manganese were released from sediment cores, and concentrations of manganese in the hypolimnion frequently exceeded the Federal drinking-water standard.

  18. Assessment and synthesis of 50 years of published drainage phosphorus losses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of artificial drainage systems in intensively cropped areas across North America combined with the importance of freshwater resources in these regions has created a critical intersection where understanding drainage phosphorus (P) transport is vital. In this study, drainage nutrient ...

  19. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining area resulting...

  20. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining area resulting...

  1. Temporal monitoring of perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation in aquatic biota downstream of historical aqueous film forming foam use areas.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Heather A; Cochran, Rebecca S; Mudge, Joseph F; Olson, Adric D; Blackwell, Brett R; Maul, Jonathan D; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

    2017-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have recently received increased research attention, particularly concerning aquatic organisms and in regions of exposure to aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs). Air Force bases historically applied AFFFs in the interest of fire training exercises and have since expressed concern for PFAS contamination in biota from water bodies surrounding former fire training areas. Six PFAS were monitored, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in aquatic species from 8 bayou locations at Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City, Louisiana (USA) over the course of 1 yr. The focus was to evaluate temporal and spatial variability in PFAS concentrations from historic use of AFFF. The PFOS concentrations in fish peaked in early summer, and also increased significantly downstream of former fire training areas. Benthic organisms had lower PFOS concentrations than pelagic species, contrary to previous literature observations. Bioconcentration factors varied with time but were reduced compared with previously reported literature values. The highest concentration of PFOS in whole fish was 9349 ng/g dry weight, with 15% of samples exceeding what is believed to be the maximum whole fish concentration reported to date of 1500 ng/g wet weight. Further studies are ongoing, to measure PFAS in larger fish and tissue-specific partitioning data to compare with the current whole fish values. The high concentrations presently observed could have effects on higher trophic level organisms in this system or pose a potential risk to humans consuming contaminated fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2022-2029. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    To select suitable tree species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated area, we measured the AMF status and heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues in a lead-zinc mine area, Northwest China. All 15 tree species were colonized by AM fungi in our investigation. The mycorrhizal frequency (F%), mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and spore density (SP) reduced concomitantly with increasing Pb and Zn levels; however, positive correlations were found between arbuscule density (A%) and soil total/DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in plant samples were 168.21, 96.61, 41.06, and 0.79 mg/kg, respectively. Populus purdomii Rehd. accumulated the highest concentrations of Zn (432.08 mg/kg) and Cu (140.85 mg/kg) in its leaves. Considerable amount of Pb (712.37 mg/kg) and Cd (3.86 mg/kg) were concentrated in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Populus simonii Carr., respectively. Plants developed different strategies to survive in HM stress environment: translocating more essential metals (Zn and Cu) into the aerial parts, while retaining more toxic heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the roots to protect the above-ground parts from damage. According to the translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), growth rate and biomass production, five tree species (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Cotinus coggygria Scop., P. simonii, P. purdomii, and R. pseudoacacia) were considered to be the most suitable candidates for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization purposes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants.

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  4. Strontium isotope record of seasonal scale variations in sediment sources and accumulation in low-energy, subtidal areas of the lower Hudson River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.P.; Bullen, T.D.; Brabander, D.J.; Olsen, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) profiles in sediment cores collected from two subtidal harbor slips in the lower Hudson River estuary in October 2001 exhibit regular patterns of variability with depth. Using additional evidence from sediment Ca/Sr ratios, 137Cs activity and Al, carbonate (CaCO3), and organic carbon (OCsed) concentration profiles, it can be shown that the observed variability reflects differences in the relative input and trapping of fine-grained sediment from seaward sources vs. landward sources linked to seasonal-scale changes in freshwater flow. During high flow conditions, the geochemical data indicate that most of the fine-grained sediments trapped in the estuary are newly eroded basin materials. During lower (base) flow conditions, a higher fraction of mature materials from seaward sources with higher carbonate content is trapped in the lower estuary. Results show that high-resolution, multi-geochemical tracer approaches utilizing strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) can distinguish sediment sources and constrain seasonal scale variations in sediment trapping and accumulation in dynamic estuarine environments. Low-energy, subtidal areas such as those in this study are important sinks for metastable, short-to-medium time scale sediment accumulation. These results also show that these same areas can serve as natural recorders of physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect particle and particle-associated material dynamics over seasonal-to-yearly time scales. ?? 2009.

  5. Understanding the paradox of selenium contamination in mercury mining areas: high soil content and low accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Chengxin; Li, Qiuhua; Liu, Yi; Gu, Chunhao; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Rice is an important source of Se for billions of people throughout the world. The Wanshan area can be categorized as a seleniferous region due to its high soil Se content, but the Se content in the rice in Wanshan is much lower than that from typical seleniferous regions with an equivalent soil Se level. To investigate why the Se bioaccumulation in Wanshan is low, we measured the soil Se speciation using a sequential partial dissolution technique. The results demonstrated that the bioavailable species only accounted for a small proportion of the total Se in the soils from Wanshan, a much lower quantity than that found in the seleniferous regions. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the existence of Hg contamination, which is likely related to the formation of an inert Hg-Se insoluble precipitate in soils in Wanshan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Widespread surface meltwater drainage in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingslake, J.; Ely, J.; Das, I.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Surface meltwater is thought to cause ice-shelf disintegration, which accelerates the contribution of ice sheets to sea-level rise. Antarctic surface melting is predicted to increase and trigger further ice-shelf disintegration during this century. These climate-change impacts could be modulated by an active hydrological network analogous to the one in operation in Greenland. Despite some observations of Antarctic surface and sub-surface hydrological systems, large-scale active surface drainage in Antarctica has rarely been studied. We use satellite imagery and aerial photography to reveal widespread active hydrology on the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet as far south as 85o and as high as 1800 m a.s.l., often near mountain peaks that protrude through the ice (nunataks) and relatively low-albedo `blue-ice areas'. Despite predominantly sub-zero regional air temperatures, as simulated by a regional climate model, Antarctic active drainage has persisted for decades, transporting water through surface streams and feeding vast melt ponds up to 80 km long. Drainage networks (the largest are over 100 km in length) form on flat ice shelves, steep outlet glaciers and ice-sheet flanks across the West and East Antarctica Ice Sheets. Motivated by the proximity of many drainage systems to low-albedo rock and blue-ice areas, we hypothesize a positive feedback between exposed-rock extent, BIA formation, melting and ice-sheet thinning. This feedback relies on drainage moving water long distances from areas near exposed rock, across the grounding line onto and across ice shelves - a process we observe, but had previously thought to be unlikely in Antarctica. This work highlights previously-overlooked processes, not captured by current regional-scale models, which may accelerate the retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  7. Urban rivers as conveyors of hydrocarbons to sediments of estuarine areas: source characterization, flow rates and mass accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Cristiane R; Wagener, Angela de L R; Massone, Carlos G; Aniceto, Mayara da S; Lazzari, Letícia; Carreira, Renato S; Farias, Cássia de O

    2015-02-15

    Aliphatic (n-C12-n-C40, unresolved complex mixture, resolved peaks) and aromatic hydrocarbons (46 PAH) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled over eleven months in six of the major rivers and two channels of the Guanabara Bay Basin. PAH flow rates of the most contaminated rivers, the contribution to the PAH sediment load of the receiving bay, and the main sources of hydrocarbons were determined. PAH (38) ranged from 28 ng L(-1) to 11,514 ng L(-1). Hydrocarbon typology and statistical evaluation demonstrated contribution of distinct sources in different regions and allowed quantification of these contributions. Total flow rate for the five major rivers amounts to 3 t year(-1) and responds for 30% of the total PAH annual input into the northern area of the Guanabara Bay. For the first time PAH mass deposited in the bay sediments has been estimated and shall serve as base for decision making and source abatement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Accumulation of Mercury in Soil-maize System of Non-ferrous Metals Smelting Area and Its Related Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Na; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2015-10-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution, especially the mercury pollution, has been widespread concern in non-ferrous metallurgical area. This study focused on the content, distribution and pollution status of Hg in maize soil of Huludao city. Meanwhile, Hg contents in the various organs of maize were analyzed. Hg concentration in soil ranged from 0.25 to 3.49 mg x kg(-1) with the average content of 1.78 mg x kg(-1), which was 48 times as high as the background value of Liaoning soil. Around 2-3m range of zinc plant, the pattern of spatial distribution showed that the content of Hg was gradually increased with the increase of the distance to Huludao zinc plant. The result of geoaccumulation index reflected that Hg pollution is up to moderate pollution level on the whole. 54. 6% of the total sample were belonged to the serious pollution level. The potential ecological risk index of Hakanson was applied to assess the ecological risk of Hg. The target hazard quotient method (THQ) was used to assess the health risk for human, the results revealed that there was no significant health risk by consumption corn. Mercury is very difficult to transport in soil-maize system, and there is no obvious health risks to adults. But the risk coefficient of children, which is up to 0.056. is much higher than adults.

  9. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  10. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of /sup 90/Sr accumulation by deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of /sup 90/Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate /sup 90/Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi /sup 90/Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi /sup 90/Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with <5 pCi/g DW results in calculated steady-state (maximum) /sup 90/Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck.

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, J.R.; Garrabrant, L.A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other

  12. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE INVESTIGATION 1945-1946. APPENDIX 4. REPORT ON FULL SCALE FIELD DRAINAGE TESTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HYDROLOGY, DRAINAGE ), (* DRAINAGE , TESTS), (*LANDING FIELDS, DRAINAGE ), SOIL MECHANICS, PARTICLE SIZE, POROSITY, PAVEMENTS, RUNWAYS, SIMULATION, CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, DESIGN, THICKNESS, PERMEABILITY, LAMINAR FLOW

  13. Lymph drainage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women.

  14. Topological Analysis of Urban Drainage Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage networks are an essential component of infrastructure, and comprise the aggregation of underground pipe networks carrying storm water and domestic waste water for eventual discharge to natural stream networks. Growing urbanization has contributed to rapid expansion of sewer networks, vastly increasing their complexity and scale. Importance of sewer networks has been well studied from an engineering perspective, including resilient management, optimal design, and malfunctioning impact. Yet, analysis of the urban drainage networks using complex networks approach are lacking. Urban drainage networks consist of manholes and conduits, which correspond to nodes and edges, analogous to junctions and streams in river networks. Converging water flows in these two networks are driven by elevation gradient. In this sense, engineered urban drainage networks share several attributes of flows in river networks. These similarities between the two directed, converging flow networks serve the basis for us to hypothesize that the functional topology of sewer networks, like river networks, is scale-invariant. We analyzed the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area for practical sewer networks in South Korea. We found that the exceedance probability distributions of upstream area follow power-law, implying that the sewer networks exhibit topological self-similarity. The power-law exponents for the sewer networks were similar, and within the range reported from analysis of natural river networks. Thus, in line with our hypothesis, these results suggest that engineered urban drainage networks share functional topological attributes regardless of their structural dissimilarity or different underlying network evolution processes (natural vs. engineered). Implications of these findings for optimal design of sewer networks and for modeling sewer flows will be discussed.

  15. Pipe downchute stormwater drainage system

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    SCS Engineers (SCS) was provided with the challenge of developing a completely enclosed pipe downchute system for stormwater drainage at the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the largest landfill in the world. With a total landfill drainage subshed totaling over 1000 acres, and an average yearly precipitation at the site of approximately 4.2 feet, the final constructed stormwater drainage system would capture and convey over 591 million gallons of stormwater runoff per year, and discharge it into 17 stormwater basins.This paper describes the drainage system.

  16. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  17. Age-dependent accumulation of heavy metals in a pod of killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-02-01

    Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle of nine killer whales (including three calves) that stranded together in the northern area of Japan were determined. The Hg and Cd concentrations were found at trace levels in the calf organs, and increased with age. The Fe concentration in the muscle was significantly lower in the calves than in the mature whales and also increased with age. In contrast, Mn and Cu concentrations in the muscle were significantly higher in the calves than in the mature whales, and changes in the Zn concentration relative to age were unclear. These results suggest minimal mother-to-calf transfer of the toxic metals Hg and Cd and accumulation of these metals in the organs with age, while the essential metals Mn and Cu were found at higher concentrations in the muscle of calves than in mature whales.

  18. Evaluation of urban drainage network based geographycal information system (GIS) in Sumenep City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrianto, F.; Hadiani, R.; Purwana, Y. M.

    2017-02-01

    Sumenep City frequently hit by floods. Drainage network conditions greatly affect the performance of her maid, especially those aspects that affect the capacity of the drainage channel. Aspects that affect the capacity of the drainage channel in the form of sedimentation rate and complementary buildings on drainage channels, for example, the presence of street inlet and trash rack. The method used is a drainage channel capacity level approach that level assessment of each segment drainage network conditions by calculating the ratio of the channel cross-sectional area that is filled with sediment to the total cross-sectional area wet and the existence of complementary buildings. Having obtained the condition index value of each segment, the subsequent analysis is spatial analysis using ArcGIS applications to obtain a map of the drainage network information. The analysis showed that the level condition of drainage network in the city of Sumenep in 2016 that of the total 428 drainage network there are 43 sections belonging to the state level “Good”, 198 drainage network belong to the state level “Enough”, 115 drainage network belong to the state “Mild Damaged”, 50 sections belonging to the state “Heavy Damage” and 22 drainage network belong to the state of “Dysfunction”.

  19. Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Evaporation and their Relations with Precipitation, Net Radiation, and Net Carbon Accumulation for the Gediz Basin Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1999-01-01

    A model combining the rate of carbon assimilation with water and energy balance equations has been run using satellite and ancillary data for a period of 60 months (January 1986 to December 1990). Calculations for the Gediz basin area give mean annual evaporation as 395 mm, which is composed of 45% transpiration, 42% soil evaporation and 13% interception. The coefficient of interannual variation of evaporation is found to be 6%, while that for precipitation and net radiation are, respectively, 16% and 2%, illustrating that net radiation has an important effect in modulating interannual variation of evaporation. The mean annual water use efficiency (i.e., the ratio of net carbon accumulation and total evaporation) is ca. 1 g/sq m/mm, and has a coefficient of interannual variation of 5%. A comparison of the mean water use efficiency with field observations suggests that evaporation over the area is utilized well for biomass production. The reference crop evaporation for irrigated areas has annual mean and coefficient of variation as, respectively, 1176 mm and 3%. The total evaporation during three summer months of peak evaporation (June-August) is estimated to be about 575 mm for irrigated crops like maize and cotton. Seasonal variations of the fluxes are presented.

  20. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Pereira, Ana M; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  1. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Robalo, Joana I.; Pereira, Ana M.; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  2. Evaluating Metrics of Drainage Divide Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Whipple, K. X.; DiBiase, R.; Gasparini, N. M.; Ouimet, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    Watersheds are the fundamental organizing units in landscapes and thus the controls on drainage divide location and mobility are an essential facet of landscape evolution. Additionally, many common topographic analyses fundamentally assume that river network topology and divide locations are largely static, allowing channel profile form to be interpreted in terms of spatio-temporal patterns of rock uplift rate relative to baselevel, climate, or rock properties. Recently however, it has been suggested that drainage divides are more mobile than previously thought and that divide mobility, and resulting changes in drainage area, can potentially induce changes to fluvial topography comparable to spatio-temporal variation in rock uplift, climate, or rock properties. Ultimately, reliable metrics are needed to diagnose the mobility of divides. One such recently proposed metric is cross-divide contrasts in `chi', a measure of the current topology of the drainage network, but cross-divide contrasts in a number of topographic metrics show promise. Here we use a series of landscape evolution modeling scenarios in which we induce divide mobility under different conditions to test the utility of a suite of plausible topographic metrics of divide mobility and compare these to natural examples. Specifically, we test cross-divide contrasts in mean slope, mean local relief, channel bed elevation at a reference drainage area, and chi. Our results highlight that cross-divide contrasts in chi can only be accurately interpreted in terms of divide mobility when uplift, rock erodibility, climate, and base-level are uniform across both river networks on either side of the divide. This is problematic for application of this metric to natural landscapes as (1) uniformity of all of these parameters is exceedingly unlikely and (2) quantifying the spatial patterns of these parameters is difficult. Consequently, as shown here for both simulated and natural landscapes, simple measures of cross

  3. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallock, Robert J.; Hallock, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

  4. Lineations on the ``White'' Accumulation Areas of the Residual Northern Ice Cap of Mars: Their Relation to the ``Accublation'' and Ice Flow Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David A.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Stern, Harry

    2002-09-01

    Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of the whiter areas of the residual North Polar Cap (P. C. Thomas et al. 2000, Nature404, 161-164) show a gentle hummocky pitted surface that has been popularly called "cottage cheese" terrain. The pits are 1 or 2 m deep and tens of meters across. They are typically joined in roughly linear strings or long depressions and these features are referred to here as "lineations." The lineations tend to have one or occasionally two preferred directions. We have examined the MOC imagery for the North Cap and using high-resolution images that have good wide-angle context images were able to determine the lineation angles for 31 sites scattered over most of the ice cap. We propose a process that will produce linear features in the white areas, then relate the orientation of the lineations over much of the North Cap to these processes and the inferred ice flow direction. There is first-order agreement between the measured sign of the lineation angles and those predicted assuming ice flow. Higher accumulations and velocities are predicted in the catchment for ice that flows into Chasma Boreale. This comes from the indications that katabatic winds are concentrated in this catchment.

  5. An efficient and comprehensive method for drainage network extraction from DEM with billions of pixels using a size-balanced binary search tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Li, Tiejian; Huang, Yuefei; Li, Jiaye; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), computational efficiency problems have been encountered when extracting the drainage network of a large river basin at billion-pixel scales. The efficiency of the most time-consuming depression-filling pretreatment has been improved by using the O(NlogN) complexity least-cost path search method, but the complete extraction steps following this method have not been proposed and tested. In this paper, an improved O(NlogN) algorithm was proposed by introducing a size-balanced binary search tree (BST) to improve the efficiency of the depression-filling pretreatment further. The following extraction steps, including the flow direction determination and the upslope area accumulation, were also redesigned to benefit from this improvement. Therefore, an efficient and comprehensive method was developed. The method was tested to extract drainage networks of 31 river basins with areas greater than 500,000 km2 from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM and two sub-basins with areas of approximately 1000 km2 from the 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM. Complete drainage networks with both vector features and topographic parameters were obtained with time consumptions in O(NlogN) complexity. The results indicate that the developed method can be used to extract entire drainage networks from DEMs with billions of pixels with high efficiency.

  6. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (p<0.01), Cd and Cu (p<0.05) were found in the lichens especially in samples collected from road sites. Higher As concentration (48.1±2.1 μg g(-1)) in samples were found near the paddy field, indicating pesticide-herbicides as its source used in agriculture. The substrate exhibits lower concentration of most of the metals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative biliary drainage in Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Identifying patients who require percutaneous drainage after failed endoscopic drainage

    PubMed Central

    Wiggers, Jimme K; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Coelen, Robert J; Rauws, Erik A; Schattner, Mark A; Nio, C Yung; Brown, Karen T; Gonen, Mithat; van Dieren, Susan; van Lienden, Krijn P; Allen, Peter J; Besselink, Marc GH; Busch, Olivier RC; D’Angelica, Michael I; DeMatteo, Robert P; Gouma, Dirk J; Kingham, T Peter; Jarnagin, William R; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims Preoperative biliary drainage is often initiated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with potentially resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC), but additional percutaneous transhepatic catheter (PTC) drainage is frequently required. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model to identify patients with a high risk of inadequate ERCP drainage. Patients and Methods Patients with potentially resectable PHC and preoperative (attempted) ERCP drainage were included from two specialty center cohorts between 2001 and 2013. Indications for additional PTC drainage were failure to place an endoscopic stent, failure to relieve jaundice, cholangitis, or insufficient drainage of the future liver remnant. A prediction model was derived from the European cohort and externally validated in the USA cohort. Results 108 of 288 patients (38%) required additional preoperative PTC after inadequate ERCP drainage. Independent risk factors for additional PTC were proximal biliary obstruction on preoperative imaging (Bismuth 3 or 4) and pre-drainage total bilirubin level. The prediction model identified three subgroups: patients with a low risk of 7%, a moderate risk of 40%, and a high risk of 62%. The high-risk group consisted of patients with a total bilirubin level above 150 μmol/L and Bismuth 3a or 4 tumours, who typically require preoperative drainage of the angulated left bile ducts. The prediction model had good discrimination (AUC 0.74) and adequate calibration in the external validation cohort. Conclusions Selected patients with potentially resectable PHC have a high risk (62%) of inadequate preoperative ERCP drainage requiring additional PTC. These patients might do better with initial PTC instead of ERCP. PMID:26382308

  8. Sediment Deposits in Drainage Ditches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    LEVEL~ TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES SEDIMENT DEPOSiTS IN DRAINAGE 01TC.HES 00 ZVTI AlA I Av~s 1E6 URITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ( Mehn Data Rnteted...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Sediment Deposits in Drainage Ditches Final S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR OIMANT NUMBER...mmob.c) The purpose of this study is to estimate one of the off farm costs of cropland soil loss, sediment removal from drainage ditches. Information

  9. Separation of drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff episodes using the stable isotope method and drainage water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Kvítek, Tomáš; Pomije, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Stabile isotopes of 2H 18O and drainage water temperature were used as natural tracers for separation rainfall-runoff event hydrograph on several tile drained catchments located in Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Small agricultural catchments with drainage systems built in slopes are typical for foothill areas in the Czech and Moravian highland. Often without permanent surface runoff, the drainage systems represent an important portion of runoff and nitrogen leaching out of the catchment. The knowledge of the drainage runoff formation and the origin of its components are prerequisites for formulation of measures leading to improvement of the drainage water quality and reduction of nutrient leaching from the drained catchments. The results have proved presence of event water in the drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff events. The proportion of event water observed in the drainage runoff varied between 15 - 60 % in the summer events and 0 - 50 % in winter events, while the sudden water temperature change was between 0,1 - 4,2 °C (2 - 35 %). The comparison of isotope separation of the drainage runoff and monitoring the drainage water temperature have demonstrated that in all cases of event water detected in the runoff, a rapid change in the drainage water temperature was observed as well. The portion of event water in the runoff grows with the growing change in water temperature. Using component mixing model, it was demonstrated that water temperature can be successfully used at least as a qualitative and with some degree of inaccuracy as a quantitative tracer as well. The drawback of the non-conservative character of this tracer is compensated by both its economic and technical accessibility. The separation results also resemble results of separations at small streams. Together with a similarly high speed of the discharge reaction to beginning of precipitation, it is obvious that the mechanism of surface runoff formation and drainage runoff formation

  10. Accumulation and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in soil and plants of four different ecosystems in a former polymetallic ores mining and smelting area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Demková, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Bobuľská, Lenka; Tomáš, Ján; Stanovič, Radovan; Lošák, Tomáš; Harangozo, Luboš; Vollmannová, Alena; Bystrická, Judita; Musilová, Janette; Jobbágy, Ján

    2017-04-16

    Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils and plants of four different ecosystems (forest, grassland, agro and urban ecosystem) at different distances from the source of the pollution were analyzed in order to assess and compare soil contamination in the various ecosystems and determine the potential accumulation of plants depending on the place they inhabit. Correlation relationships among heavy metals in soils differ depending on the ecosystem, and between soil and plant, the heavy metals showed significant correlation for Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) were used in order to determine the level of environmental contamination of the study area. All studied ecosystems were rated as moderately contaminated (except agroecosystem, which was found as low contamination ecosystem) according to Cd and extremely polluted according to PLI. The highest pollution in both cases was found in urban ecosystem, and Cd, Cu and Fe were determined as the biggest pollutants.

  11. Integrating remotely sensed leaf area index and leaf nitrogen accumulation with RiceGrow model based on particle swarm optimization algorithm for rice grain yield assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hang; Zhu, Yan; Li, Wenlong; Cao, Weixing; Tian, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    A regional rice (Oryza sativa) grain yield prediction technique was proposed by integration of ground-based and spaceborne remote sensing (RS) data with the rice growth model (RiceGrow) through a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Based on an initialization/parameterization strategy (calibration), two agronomic indicators, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA) remotely sensed by field spectra and satellite images, were combined to serve as an external assimilation parameter and integrated with the RiceGrow model for inversion of three model management parameters, including sowing date, sowing rate, and nitrogen rate. Rice grain yield was then predicted by inputting these optimized parameters into the reinitialized model. PSO was used for the parameterization and regionalization of the integrated model and compared with the shuffled complex evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) optimization algorithm. The test results showed that LAI together with LNA as the integrated parameter performed better than each alone for crop model parameter initialization. PSO also performed better than SCE-UA in terms of running efficiency and assimilation results, indicating that PSO is a reliable optimization method for assimilating RS information and the crop growth model. The integrated model also had improved precision for predicting rice grain yield.

  12. Geomodel constructs of the Earth's crust for water continuation of the Korotaikha depression from gravity and magnetic data for revealing promising areas of oil and gas accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Kudryavtsev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the results of re-interpretation of geophysical data within the water continuation of the Korotaikha depression. To solve the issue of identifying promising areas of oil and gas accumulation in the region, magnetic and gravity materials were reprocessed: digital maps of potential fields at 1: 500 000 scale were compiled on a frame network of seismic lines (3 lines on land and 3 lines in water area) made by reflection-CDP, density models to a depth of 20 km by solving the direct problem of gravity prospecting in GM-SYS module (Geosoft) in 2D formulation were constructed. Deep reflection-CDP seismic sections specified according to the deep wells were used as starting models. Correctness of the selected density models was controlled by comparing the theoretical curve with the values interpolated on the profile line from the digital model of gravity anomaly (Bouguer, density of the intermediate layer of 2.67 g/cm3). Magnetic modeling was performed using geometry of blocks from the obtained density models to a depth of 20 km and is based on selection of local anomaly sources in the upper section (in the Triassic strata). Blocks of the Precambrian basement were used as sources of regional magnetic anomalies in the considered models. Modeling constructs show the defining role of the topography of terrigenous and carbonate complex boundary within the Paleozoic section as a source of gravity anomalies for the region under study. These findings are confirmed by comparison of gravity and seismic data (maps of local gravity anomalies and structural maps of reflecting horizons) and additionally substantiated by analysis of the nature of local magnetic anomalies distribution. The latter are associated with the Triassic basalt horizons at the top of the terrigenous complex and thus also reflect structures of the sedimentary cover, which are registered independently by gravity data.

  13. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you have questions about the wound drainage culture, contact your doctor. You can also talk to the nurse or doctor performing the procedure right before it's done. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl ... Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines ...

  14. Migration of global radioactive fallout to the Arctic Ocean (on the example of the Ob's river drainage basin).

    PubMed

    Miroshnikov, A; Semenkov, I

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an assessment of the impact of global fallout on (137)Cs contamination in the bottom sediments of Kara Sea. The erosiveness of 10th-level river basins was estimated by landscape-geochemical and geomorphological characteristics. All 10th-level basins (n=154) were separated into three groups: mountain, mountain-lowland and plain. Four different types of basins were identified depending on the geochemical conditions of the migration of radiocaesium in the plain and mountain-lowland. Classifications of types were carried out using the geographic information systems-based approach. The Ob River's macroarena covers 3.5 million km(2). Internal drainage basins cover 23 % of the macroarena and accumulate whole radiocaesium from the global fallout. The remaining territory is transitional for the (137)Cs. The field research works performed in the three plain first-level basins allow one to estimate the radiocaesium run-off. The calculations show that 7 % of (137)Cs was removed from the first-level basin in arable land. Accumulation of radiocaesium in the first-level basin under undisturbed forest is 99.8 %. The research shows that (137)Cs transfer from the humid basins is in the range of 6.9-25.5 TBq and for semi-humid basins 5.6-285.5 TBq. The areas of these basins cover 40 and 8 % of the Ob River's macroarena, respectively. Drainage lakes and reservoir drainage basins make up 22 % of the macroarena. Mountainous and semi-arid drainage basins cover 7 % of the macroarena.

  15. Filter Fabrics for Airport Drainage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Systems for *r- field Pavements," Harry R. Cedergren . d. "Development of Guidelines for the Design of Subsurfac( Drainage Systems for Highway Pavement...Structural 4Sectic s," H. R. Cedergren , J. A. Arman, and K. H. O’Brien. e. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, Harry R. Cedergren .> Five...by Cedergren (974).5 Additionally, several references were used, particularly those describing experimental anu construction prolects using filter

  16. Salt and N leaching and soil accumulation due to cover cropping practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, J. L.; Quemada, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate leaching beyond the root zone can increase water contamination hazards and decrease crop available N. Cover crops used in spite of fallow are an alternative to reduce nitrate contamination in the vadose zone, because reducing drainage and soil mineral N accumulation. Cover crops can improve important characteristics in irrigated land as water retention capacity or soil aggregate stability. However, increasing evapotranspiration and consequent drainage below the root system reduction, could lead to soil salt accumulation. Salinity affects more than 80 million ha of arable land in many areas of the world, and one of the principal causes for yield reduction and even land degradation in the Mediterranean region. Few studies dealt with both problems at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary a long-term evaluation of the potential effect on soil salinity and nitrate leaching, in order to ensure that potential disadvantages that could originate from soil salt accumulation are compensated with all advantages of cover cropping. A study of the soil salinity and nitrate leaching was conducted during 4 years in a semiarid irrigated agricultural area of Central Spain. Three treatments were studied during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.): barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and fallow. Cover crops were killed in March allowing seeding of maize of the entire trial in April, and all treatments were irrigated and fertilised following the same procedure. Before sowing, and after harvesting maize and cover crops, soil salt and nitrate accumulation was determined along the soil profile. Soil analysis was conducted at six depths every 0.20 m in each plot in samples from four 0 to 1.2-m depth holes dug. The electrical conductivity of the saturated paste extract and soil mineral nitrogen was measured in each soil sample. A numerical model based on the Richards water balance equation was applied in order to calculate drainage at 1.2 m depth

  17. Hydrologic Response Differences Between Drainage Network Classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. L.; Gironas, J. A.; Niemann, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Basin drainage networks have been grouped into classifications such as dendritic, parallel, pinnate, rectangular and trellis based on their planform structures. While it has long been known that the size and shape of a drainage basin affect its hydrologic response to precipitation events, the effects of the network organization have not been investigated as extensively. The objective of this work is to simulate and analyze the instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUHs) and hydrologic responses of networks from different classifications for potential systematic differences between the classifications. That goal is accomplished by calculating the IUH for ten previously-classified basins of each network type listed above using a spatially-distributed travel time (SDTT) model applied to the outlet flow length distributions (i.e., width functions) of each drainage network. We find that the width functions, IUHs and the resulting hydrologic responses of the different network classifications are each largely distinguishable from one another based on statistical tests of their moments. Additionally, we find that the differences in hydrologic responses are at least partially independent of the differences in the basin vertical characteristics, as represented by the slope-area relationships. The results indicate that network classification-dependent inputs to semi-distributed rainfall-runoff models could improve model performance.

  18. Natural water loss in selected drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Gordon R.

    1940-01-01

    Determinations of areal rainfall, run-off, and water loss, comprising largely evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration by vegetation, are essential in indicating the hydrologic characteristics of river basins. This report is primarily a statistical study that presents the results of computations of annual water loss, or annual rainfall minus annual run-off, for river basins in the humid or semiarid regions east of the Rocky Mountains. The basic period for which the computations are made is the water year or year ending September 30. As it is impractical to present in this report all the basic data used in arriving at the results, only sample computations are given. The various steps in the computations and the probable accuracy of the results are discussed. The drainage areas for which data are presented are those above river-measuring stations that have records for 3 years or more. For each area there are determinations of annual rainfall, annual run-off, and annual water loss for each year of record .as well as the means for the period of record. Results are given for about 200 drainage areas with an aggregate period of record of more than 2,000 years. As an illustration of the magnitude involved, the annual water loss from the eastern streams draining directly into the Atlantic Ocean varies more or less closely with latitude from about 20 inches as an average in northern New England to about 30 inches in Georgia. As the annual water loss from a basin is affected by the temperature, a supplemental study was made of the relation between water loss and temperature. For 28 drainage areas selected in various parts 8f eastern and central United States, average temperatures were computed for each year of the period shown in table 1. The results indicate a relation between average annual water loss and average annual temperature.

  19. Flood Response Along a Drainage Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

    2007-12-01

    Flooding in urban areas is complex. As water overtops stream banks, it comes into contact with structural obstacles on the land surface, such as bridge constrictions, that dominate flow pathways. Furthermore, at small, or local, spatial scales, other hydraulic controls such as pipe surcharge and stormwater management ponds play a significant role in flood response. A major obstacle towards a better understanding of how these controls impact flood response is the scarcity of data available to characterize them. One watershed where both hydraulic and hydrologic data is available is the Dead Run watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland. Dead Run is a research watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), part of the Long Term Ecological Research network established by the National Science Foundation. Dead Run geospatial data is available through the BES and Baltimore County; hydrologic data was collected by the authors during field campaigns in the 2003-2005 field seasons; and hydraulic information including storm drain pipes, stormwater management ponds, and bridge constrictions was digitized by the author. The availability of this data in Dead Run allows us to detail not only the impact of impervious surfaces and hydrologic forcing on flood response, but also structural aspects of the urban drainage network. In this study, we integrate the three types of observations - geospatial, hydrologic, and hydraulic - to characterize drainage network structure along Dead Run's tributaries. We use these characterizations and the Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Management Model (EPA SWMM) to estimate the 10- and 100-year floods over the drainage network. Analyses focus on two extreme floods in Dead Run: the 7 July 2004 and 28 June 2005 events. Results highlight the importance of incorporating drainage network structure into the models we use to predict flooding in urban environments.

  20. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  1. 140. ARAIII Grading and drainage plan showing plot plan, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. ARA-III Grading and drainage plan showing plot plan, including berms around waste storage tank and fuel oil storage tank. Aerojet-general 880-area-GCRE-101-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0101-00-013-102507. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the tomato and topinambur plants in a contaminated area of South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Stefania; Bartoli, Giovanni; Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Zornoza, Raúl; Carillo, Petronia; Fioretto, Antonietta

    2017-04-01

    According to a survey of the Italian Environmental Monitoring Agency (ARPA), there are different critical sites in Campania region (South Italy) (e.i. legal or illegal landfills, countryside lands, abandoned farms, parking lots and regular streets). Literature data show that about half of the lead, cadmium and mercury contents, ingested through food, is due to the plant products (fruit, vegetables and grains) (Kachenko and Singh 2006; Liu et al 2012; Chang et al 2014; Wong et al 2002). In the health protection programs, the knowledge of heavy metals translocation from soils to plants used as food are very important with research on metal uptake by plants of food interest cultivated in contaminated soils. The goal of this work was to evaluate the translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, fruit) of Topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) sampled in the coast area of Castel Volturno (Campania region, South Italy). This area is one of the critical sites according to a survey of the Environmental Monitoring Agency ARPA. In addition to these measures, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was assayed to evaluate the stress state of the plant. The results showed that the trace metals concentration determinated in different organs of each species studied were more present in the roots than the other plant's parts, suggesting a probable block at root level. The only exception were Cu and Hg in tomato and topinambur plants respectively, that were mainly present in the leaves. The metals block at the root induced no alteration of MDA. However, the correlation between this activity and Cd, Pb, V and Hg seemed to attest to a possible synergy. Keywords: "Helianthus tuberosus", "Solanum lycopersicum", trace metal, traslocation Reference -Kachenko AG, Singh B, 2006 Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Urban and Metal Smelter Contaminated Sites in Australia. Water

  3. Heavy metals translocation and accumulation from the rhizosphere soils to the edible parts of the medicinal plant Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) grown on a metal mining area, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhang Jun; Xu, De Cong; Chen, Yan Song; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) is one of Chinese 34 famous medicinal materials. This study investigated the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn) in rhizosphere soils, cortex mouton and seeds of Fengdan planted in a metal mining area, China. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the rhizosphere soils were above the limits set by the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The contamination factor (CF) of Cd was >5, while it was >2for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in all the soils. The integrated pollution index for all the soils was >3 and ˂ 5. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of Fengdan were in the following decreasing order: Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cr≥Cd. The transfer factor mean values for As, Cu, Cd and Fe in the cortex moutan of old Fengdan (over 6 years) were significantly higher than in young Fengdan. Available metal concentrations, pH and soil organic matter content influenced the metal concentrations of the cortex moutan. The results indicated that mining and smelting operations have led to heavy metals contamination of soils and medicinal parts of Fengdan. The major metal pollutants were elemental Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Heavy metals mainly accumulated in the cortex moutan of Fengdan. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Pb in the old cortex moutan (over 6 years) were above those of the Chinese Green Trade Standards for Medicinal Plants and Preparations in Foreign Trade (WM/T2-2004). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. DeltaFosB accumulates in a GABAergic cell population in the posterior tail of the ventral tegmental area after psychostimulant treatment.

    PubMed

    Perrotti, Linda I; Bolaños, Carlos A; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Russo, Scott J; Edwards, Scott; Ulery, Paula G; Wallace, Deanna L; Self, David W; Nestler, Eric J; Barrot, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The transcription factor deltaFosB is induced in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum by chronic exposure to several drugs of abuse, and increasing evidence supports the possibility that this induction is involved in the addiction process. However, to date there has been no report of deltaFosB induction by drugs of abuse in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is also a critical brain reward region. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that chronic forced administration of cocaine induces deltaFosB in the rat VTA. This induction occurs selectively in a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cell population within the posterior tail of the VTA. A similar effect is seen after chronic cocaine self-administration. Induction of deltaFosB in the VTA occurs after psychostimulant treatment only: it is seen with both chronic cocaine and amphetamine, but not with chronic opiates or stress. The expression of deltaFosB appears to be mediated by dopamine systems, as repeated administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor induced deltaFosB in the VTA, while administration of serotonin or norepinephrine uptake inhibitors failed to produce this effect. Time course analysis showed that, following 14 days of cocaine administration, deltaFosB persists in the VTA for almost 2 weeks after cocaine withdrawal. This accumulation and persistence may account for some of the long-lasting changes in the brain associated with chronic drug use. These results provide the first evidence of deltaFosB induction in a discrete population of GABA cells in the VTA, which may regulate the functioning of the brain's reward mechanisms.

  5. [Release of mercury from soil and plant in water-level-fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its accumulation in zebrafish].

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Xian; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Yang; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the production, distribution and bioavailability of methylmercury (MMHg) in soil and plants of the water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted in laboratory. Results indicated that the level of total mercury (THg) in soil decreased with the lengthening of submerging time while that in water increased obviously. The level of MMHg in inundated soil and water increased, especially in the water treated by Echinochloa crusgalli and soils. And the MMHg level in that treatment was 2.52 times higher than that treated only by soils for 21 days. This indicated that soil and plants of WLFZ were important sources of mercury in the water of the reservoir. Echinochloa crusgalli as the tested plant was decomposed after being submerged, leading to lower pH and DO and higher DOC, which had little effect on MMHg in soil but significant effect on MMHg in water. The level of THg in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish increased obviously, which had a significant correlation with that in water (P < 0.01). MMHg levels accumulated in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish differed to some degree, particularly in the head and muscle. After treated in the soils for 21 days, MMHg levels in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish were 1.75-6.25, 3.53-8.38 and 2.22-3.36 times higher than those in the control groups, respectively. While for the treatment of Echinochloa crusgalli and soil, MMHg levels in zebrafish's head, viscera and muscle were 3.57, 2.37 and 1.52 times higher than those treated only by soil, respectively. Therefore, submerged soil was the main source of MMHg in fish. And submerged plants changed the water condition and affected the release of mercury to water so as to cause elevated levels of MMHg in fish.

  6. Accumulation of mercury, selenium and PCBs in domestic duck brain, liver and egg from a contaminated area with an investigation of their redox responses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-05-01

    PCBs and methylmercury (MeHg) are two of the most ubiquitous contaminants in the Qingzhen (QZ) area of Guizhou province. The estimated tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) of total mercury (T-Hg), MeHg, PCBs and Se from contaminated rice, eggs and fish by Chinese people in QZ showed that both MeHg and PCBs exceeded the corresponding safety limits. Pearson's correlation analyses of mercury and Se in all duck tissues showed that there were high correlations with T-Hg or MeHg and Se in QZ samples. However, the molar ratio between T-Hg and Se in brain tissues was close to 1, suggesting that Se is antagonistic to mercury toxicity only in brain tissues. Biochemical analyses showed that both superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the brain, whereas in the liver and egg these enzymes decreased. However, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in liver and egg tissues showed contrary responses, where significant increases in these tissues were seen relative to controls. Mercury and PCBs co-accumulation in liver and egg tissues gave rise to large numbers of free radicals as well as aggravated alkyl free radicals, superoxide radical and nitric oxide, thereby resulting in oxidative stress in these tissues. It can be concluded that an adaptive response of the redox defense system is present in brain tissues, as opposed to a general break down of the redox defense system in liver and egg. The results obtained in this study will provide basic information on exposure and risk assessment in local residents.

  7. Soil carbon stocks and their rates of accumulation and loss in a boreal forest landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Trumbore, S.E.; Davidson, E.A.; Harden, J.W.; Veldhuis, H.

    1998-01-01

    Boreal forests and wetlands are thought to be significant carbon sinks, and they could become net C sources as the Earth warms. Most of the C of boreal forest ecosystems is stored in the moss layer and in the soil. The objective of this study was to estimate soil C stocks (including moss layers) and rates of accumulation and loss for a 733 km2 area of the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site in northern Manitoba, using data from smaller-scale intensive field studies. A simple process-based model developed from measurements of soil C inventories and radiocarbon was used to relate soil C storage and dynamics to soil drainage and forest stand age. Soil C stocks covary with soil drainage class, with the largest C stocks occurring in poorly drained sites. Estimated rates of soil C accumulation or loss are sensitive to the estimated decomposition constants for the large pool of deep soil C, and improved understanding of deep soil C decomposition is needed. While the upper moss layers regrow and accumulate C after fires, the deep C dynamics vary across the landscape, from a small net sink to a significant source. Estimated net soil C accumulation, averaged for the entire 733 km2 area, was 20 g C m-2 yr-1 (28 g C m-2 yr-1 accumulation in surface mosses offset by 8 g C m-2 yr-1 lost from deep C pools) in a year with no fire. Most of the C accumulated in poorly and very poorly drained soils (peatlands and wetlands). Burning of the moss layer in only 1% of uplands would offset the C stored in the remaining 99% of the area. Significant interannual variability in C storage is expected because of the irregular occurrence of fire in space and time. The effects of climate change and management on fire frequency and on decomposition of immense deep soil C stocks are key to understanding future C budgets in boreal forests.

  8. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    SciTech Connect

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25/sup 0/C during summer and about 20/sup 0/C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s/sup -1/ and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin.

  9. The Global Geometry of River Drainage Basins and the Signature of Tectonic and Autogenic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetta, E.; Willett, S.

    2015-12-01

    The plan-form structure of the world's river basins contains extensive information regarding tectonic, paleo-geographic and paleo-climate conditions, but interpretation of this structure is complicated by the need to disentangle these processes from the autogenic behavior of fluvial processes. One method of interpreting this structure is by utilizing the well-established scaling between drainage area and channel slope. Integration of this scaling relationship predicts a relationship between channel length and downstream integrated drainage area, referred to in recent studies as χ (Willett et al., 2014). In this paper, we apply this methodology at a continental scale by calculating χ for the world's river networks using hydrological information from the HydroSHED (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttleElevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) suite of geo-referenced data sets (drainage directions and flow accumulations). River pixels were identified using a minimum drainage area of 5 km2. A constant value of m/n of 0.45 was assumed. We applied a new method to correct χ within closed basins where base level is different from sea level. Mapping of χ illustrates the geometric stability of a river network, thus highlighting where tectonic or climatic forcing has perturbed the shape and geometry. Each continent shows characteristic features. Continental rift margins on all continents show clear asymmetric escarpments indicating inland migration. Active orogenic belts break up older river basins, but are difficult to interpret because of spatially variable uplift rates. Regions of recent tilting are evident even in cratonic areas by lateral reorganizations of basins. Past and pending river captures are identified on all continents. Very few regions on Earth appear to be in near-equilibrium, though some are identified; for example the Urals appears to provide a stable continental divide for Eurasia. Our analysis of maps of χ at the global scale quantifies a

  10. Drainage through subglacial water sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyts, Timothy T.; Schoof, Christian G.

    2009-10-01

    Subglacial drainage plays an important role in controlling coupling between glacial ice and underlying bed. Here, we study the flow of water in thin, macroporous sheets between ice and bed. Previous work shows that small perturbations in depth of a nearly parallel-sided water film grow unstably because these areas have enhanced viscous dissipation that leads to enhanced melting of an ice roof. We argue that in the presence of bed protrusions bridging a water sheet, downward motion of the ice roof can stabilize this sheet. Stability results when the rate of roof closure increases faster with water depth than the rate of viscous dissipation. We therefore modify existing theory to include protrusions that partially support the overlying glacier. Differences in the pressure on protrusions relative to water pressure drive roof closure. The mechanisms of both regelation and creep normal to the bed close the overlying ice roof and decrease the ice-bed gap. In order to account for multiple protrusion sizes along the bed (for instance, resulting from an assortment of various-sized sediment grains), we incorporate a method of partitioning overburden pressure among different protrusion size classes and the water sheet. Partitioning is dependent on the amount of ice protrusion contact and, therefore, water depth. This method allows prediction of roof closure rates. We then investigate stable, steady sheet configurations for reasonable parameter choices and find that these steady states can occur for modest water depths at very low effective pressures, as is appropriate for ice streams. Moreover, we find that multiple steady sheet thicknesses exist, raising the possibility of switches between low and high hydraulic conductivity regimes for the subglacial water system.

  11. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of pipe drainage in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq; Ghazaw, Yousry Mahmoud; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Kamal, Mumtaz Ahmed; Niazi, Muhammed Farooq

    2012-03-01

    Many drainage schemes and salinity control projects have been executed world wide. Pipe drainage has widely been used in Pakistan, Egypt and India to control waterlogging. The impact of pipe drainage on land and water was evaluated in this paper using data of three pipe drainage projects in Pakistan namely Khushab Salinity Control and Reclamation Project, Fourth Drainage Project in Faisalabad and Swabi Salinity Control and Reclamation Project. Data by regular monitoring of these projects were collected. The effect of pipe drainage on water table depth at these three locations has been compared. Water quality and soil salinity improvement due to the pipe drainage has also been investigated. Data, related to water table depths and discharges from drain pipes/wells, was collected. Observation wells, installed at various places by the Water and Power Development Authority, were used for collection of this data. To evaluate the impact of the projects on salinity, soil samples from all the three locations were tested. A questionnaire was prepared to get the view of the people about the projects. It was revealed that in these areas, due to subsurface pipe drainage, the percentage of the abandoned land has been considerably decreased. Over drainage was observed in a few places of the projects. The farmers at such places were asked to change their cropping patterns. Ultimately, there has been an increase in area under cultivation, crop yields and cropping intensity in the projects' area.

  12. Heimlich valve for chest drainage.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, H J

    1983-01-01

    The Heimlich chest drainage valve was developed so that the process of draining the pleural cavity could be accomplished in a safe, relatively simple, and efficient manner. Replacing the cumbersome underwater drainage bottle system, the Heimlich valve connects to chest tubing and allows fluid and air to pass in one direction only. The valve, which functions in any position, need never be clamped, and regulated suction can be attached to it if necessary. The valve drains into a plastic bag that can be held at any level, allowing the patient undergoing chest drainage to be ambulatory simply by carrying the bag. The construction and function of the valve is easily understood by medical and nursing staffs. It is presterilized, stored in a sterile package, and readily utilized on emergency vehicles and in the operating room.

  13. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  14. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  15. Observing a catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and drainage of thermokarst lakes have reshaped ice-rich permafrost lowlands in the Arctic throughout the Holocene. North of Teshekpuk Lake, on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, thermokarst lakes presently occupy 22.5% of the landscape, and drained thermokarst lake basins occupy 61.8%. Analysis of remotely sensed imagery indicates that nine lakes (>10 ha) have drained in the 1,750 km2 study area between 1955 and 2014. The most recent lake drainage was observed using in situ data loggers providing information on the duration and magnitude of the event, and a nearby weather station provided information on the environmental conditions preceding the lake drainage. Lake 195 (L195), an 80 ha thermokarst lake with an estimated water volume of ~872,000 m3, catastrophically drained on 05 July 2014. Abundant winter snowfall and heavy early summer precipitation resulted in elevated lake water levels that likely promoted bank overtopping, thermo-erosion along an ice-wedge network, and formation of a 9 m wide, 2 m deep, and 70 m long drainage gully. The lake emptied in 36 hours, with 75% of the water volume loss occurring in the first ten hours. The observed peak discharge of the resultant flood was 25 m3/s, which is similar to that in northern Alaska river basins whose areas are more than two orders of magnitude larger. Our findings support the catastrophic nature of sudden lake drainage events and the mechanistic hypotheses developed by J. Ross Mackay.

  16. Determination of drainage density for surface-mine reclamation in the western US. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.I.; Schumm, S.A.; Watson, C.C.

    1985-07-01

    As part of any surface-mined land reclamation plan, quantitative geomorphic data is required in order that relatively stable landforms can be constructed. Drainage density is an extremely important characteristic of the landscape that reflects the interaction between eroding forces and the erodibility of an area. There is a characteristic drainage density for each location, and when this is identified, it should be used in reclamation design. Mining and reclamation will change other properties of drainage basins, which will, in turn, affect drainage density. Baselevel control provided by resistant bedrock outcrops may be removed; infiltration capacity may be decreased by mixing fine-textured subsoil with topsoil; and relief may be increased through bulking of overburden or decreased by removal of thick coal seams. Therefore, the characteristic drainage densities will require adjustment as a result of these changes, and additional research is needed in order to refine estimates of drainage density.

  17. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field analyses of acid mine drainage. Topics include site investigations and characterization, remediation and monitoring programs, contaminant treatment research, and control and abatement studies. Chemical analyses of affected areas, and evaluation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to acid drainage are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control...

  19. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control...

  20. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control...

  1. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control...

  2. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood control...

  3. Agricultural Drainage Water Management: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies for Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  4. Drainage and water table control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Sixth Drainage Symposium, sponsored by the ASAE and cooperating organizations, continued the 25-year tradition of promoting detailed technical reporting and communications between science, industry, and practice in agricultural drainage and water management. This popular series began in 1965, and over the years has attracted good attendance and participation from North America and other parts of the world. By the Fifth Symposium in 1987 (following the Third International Workshop on Land Drainage held at The Ohio State University), the growth in international participation was noteworthy. The first in the series to be announced and conducted as an International Drainage Symposium, the two-full-day program included presenters from the United States, Canada, England, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Egypt, Belgium, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Sri Lanka. Also for the first time, a combination of oral and one-on-one presentations permitted the program committee to accommodate a total of 46 oral presentations and 20 one-on-one presentations/exhibits. This made the Sixth Symposium the largest in the series in terms of number of papers in the published proceedings. Papers for the one-on-one presentations are also printed in the proceedings, and participants were able to view the one-on-one displays during the entire symposium.

  5. Direct cholangiography and biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Burcharth, F; Kruse, A

    1996-01-01

    Direct cholangiography by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography has greatly improved diagnostic work-up of patients with known or suspected biliary obstruction. These diagnostic procedures were introduced in Denmark in the early 1970s, and technical refinements and clinical research of the methods were initiated. The Danish contribution led to definition of indications for direct cholangiography and general acceptance of the methods in daily clinical practice; nationally as well as internationally. The transhepatic cholangiography with selective catheterization of the biliary ducts permitted external drainage of obstructed ducts. The disadvantages of this technique inspired the innovation of internal biliary drainage and the invention of the biliary endoprosthesis. The endoscopic approach to the biliary tract and the technical improvements of accessory instruments led to the early introduction of therapeutic procedures, i.e. papillotomy, stone removal, biliary drainage and treatment of strictures and post-traumatic lesions. Experimental and clinical research with endoprostheses improved their function and prevented dislodgment. Clinical research documented that biliary drainage by endoprosthesis is a valuable alternative to surgical bypass in patients with inoperable biliary obstructions. Endoscopic therapeutic procedures for common bile duct stones have almost replaced conventional surgical treatment. Endoluminal imaging techniques are under evaluation and may contribute to future improvements.

  6. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    PubMed

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    , noncohesive regolith is nearly equal to the thickness of regolith and appears to gbe independent of the angle of repose, within the resolution of our experiments. This provides a simple means of estimating regolith thickness where drainage pits are present. On Phobos, two locations differing by 90 degrees in longitude have average pit spacings that suggest regolith thicknesses of 290 and 300 m, suggesting that large areas of Phobos have a nearly uniform regolith thickness of approximately 300 m.

  7. Mercury in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of Hg pollution--an accumulation and desorption experiment with microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dubińska, Anna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2014-10-01

    Because of its high mobility in ecosystems, mercury is one of the main toxic threats to the environment, and its concentration must be carefully controlled. To fulfill this need, we selected terrestrial mosses with different characteristic life forms: orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. The concentrations of mercury were determined in both species growing together at sites situated approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6km to the north, south, east and west, respectively of five known mercury polluters. The mercury concentrations reflected the emissions produced by the surrounding industry, reaching values of 0.44mgkg(-1) in P. schreberi and 0.79mgkg(-1) in P. commune in the vicinity of the chlor-alkali industry. To determine how long a load of Hg would remain in the mosses after mercury emitters restricted releases of Hg to the atmosphere, accumulation and desorption experiments were performed. We compared the two moss species collected from clean and moderately and heavily mercury-polluted sites. After eight days of exposure to mercury, P. schreberi accumulated up to 25mgkg(-1) of Hg, and P. commune accumulated up to 31mgkg(-1). Both in the field and in the experiment, P. commune accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg than did P. schreberi, most likely because of its surface morphology, which is likely to enhance the capture of metal from the atmosphere. After sixteen days of exposure, mercury changed the structure of the plasma membrane and affected organelles such as the nuclei and chloroplasts, leading to cell disintegration and death. The negative effects of mercury on the functioning of living cells appeared first in the older leaves of P. schreberi. After 64 days growing in the absence of Hg, P. schreberi clearly retained only 10-14% of the initially accumulated Hg, while P. commune retained 10-21%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Benefits of digital thoracic drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Danitsch, Debbie

    A number of risks and complications are associated with traditional chest drainage systems. A trust decided to trial digital drainage systems, and found the new systems improved treatment time and patient mobility.

  9. Models Robustness for Simulating Drainage and NO3-N Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, Jay; Jabro, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Computer models simulate and forecast appropriate agricultural practices to reduce environmental impact. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare robustness and performance of three models -- LEACHM, NCSWAP, and SOIL-SOILN--for simulating drainage and NO3-N leaching fluxes in an intense pasture system without recalibration. A 3-yr study was conducted on a Hagerstown silt loam to measure drainage and NO3-N fluxes below 1 m depth from N-fertilized orchardgrass using intact core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments were replicated five times in a randomized complete block experimental design. The models were validated under orchardgrass using soil, water and N transformation rate parameters and C pools fractionation derived from a previous study conducted on similar soils under corn. The model efficiency (MEF) of drainage and NO3-N fluxes were 0.53, 0.69 for LEACHM; 0.75, 0.39 for NCSWAP; and 0.94, 0.91for SOIL-SOILN. The models failed to produce reasonable simulations of drainage and NO3-N fluxes in January, February and March due to limited water movement associated with frozen soil and snow accumulation and melt. The differences between simulated and measured NO3-N leaching and among models' performances may also be related to soil N and C transformation processes embedded in the models These results are a monumental progression in the validation of computer models which will lead to continued diffusion across diverse stakeholders.

  10. Minimizing contamination hazards to waterbirds using agricultural drainage evaporation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David

    1991-11-01

    In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.

  11. Fire severity in intermittent stream drainages, Western Cascade Range, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Jennifer E. Tollefson; Frederick J. Swanson; John H. Cissel

    2004-01-01

    We quantified fire severity patterns within intermittent stream drainages in a recently burned area of the central western Cascades, Oregon. Aerial photographs were used to estimate post fire live canopy cover within streamside and upland zones on the southeast and southwest-facing slopes of 33 watersheds. Live canopy cover did not differ significantly between...

  12. Cold air drainage flows subsidize montane valley ecosystem productivity

    Treesearch

    Kimberly A. Novick; Andrew C. Oishi; Chelcy Ford Miniat

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas, cold air drainage from high to low elevations has pronounced effects on local temperature, which is a critical driver of many ecosystem processes, including carbon uptake and storage. Here, we leverage new approaches for interpreting ecosystem carbon flux observations in complex terrain to quantify the links between macro-climate...

  13. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exposed for long periods during construction. (d) Storm water systems. The design of storm water systems... basin level. Storm water systems should be compatible with the natural features of the site. In areas with inadequate drainage systems, permanent or temporary storm water storage shall be an integral part...

  14. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  15. Solving Problems of Ice-Blocked Drainage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    operations. These techniques may allow ice to form, but will slow down its formation or will maintain an unfrozen opening so that drainage flow can -0...Hampshire 03755 Solving problems of ice-blocked 0 drainage 0 - *O 0 Kevin L. Carey % - S 0 Introduction Once the processes that lead to ice-blocked drainage ...facili- ties are understood (Ice-Blocked Drainage : Problems and - , Processes, Cold Regions Technical Digest No. 83-2), it is pos- sible to work out

  16. Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-continent has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental

  17. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  18. Mine Drainage Control and Treatment Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is the third in a series of webinars for Region 10's Hardrock Mine Geochemistry and Hydrology Webinar Workshops. It will discuss briefly how mine drainage forms, some suggested mitigation methods, how ions in the drainage change if drainage does get to the envi...

  19. Mine Drainage Control and Treatment Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is the third in a series of webinars for Region 10's Hardrock Mine Geochemistry and Hydrology Webinar Workshops. It will discuss briefly how mine drainage forms, some suggested mitigation methods, how ions in the drainage change if drainage does get to the envi...

  20. Controls on the Form and Function of Headwater Channels in Humid, Moderate-Relief Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavage, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    Non-perennial headwater channels commonly dominate water and sediment transport in mountainous regions. However, little is known about the behavior and evolution of headwater channel systems or their coupled interaction with perennial trunk streams. To better understand landscape evolution or topographic responses to tectonic and climatic change, the controls on headwater channel form and function must be more tightly constrained. This is particularly true in the southern Appalachian Mountains, where non-perennial headwater streams drain the majority of the landscape. In the Valley and Ridge, for example, drainage networks form a trellis pattern that consists of perennial trunk streams draining only the narrow valleys, while ephemeral/intermittent tributaries are responsible for draining all of the adjacent hillslopes. Our goal is thus to gain an understanding of the controls on headwater channel geometry (longitudinal and cross sectional) and function (discharge and sediment transport). We have investigated nine channels in a range of lithologic, structural, climatic, and base-level-controlled relief conditions in the Valley and Ridge and Blue Ridge provinces in Virginia and North Carolina. Several of these drainage basins also provide control on the effect of historic logging, which occurred across the entire Appalachian landscape and must be considered as a potential agent of short-term channel change. The channels are first to third order, with drainage areas of 0.33-1.6 square km and relief of 134-559 m. Longitudinal and cross sectional channel form, channel substrate, and in-channel woody debris were surveyed in detail from the trunk streams to the channel head. Results show that systematic variations of channel geometry with drainage area are disrupted by the presence of resistant bedrock and woody debris. Sporadic resistant units create steep, bedrock-floored knickpoints that control the upstream gradient and narrow the channel banks and adjacent valley

  1. The impact of selected soil organic matter fractions on the PAH accumulation in the agricultural soils from areas of different anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Smreczak, Bozena; Ukalska-Jaruga, Aleksandra

    2016-04-11

    The level of 16PAH accumulation was determined in 75 soil samples collected from two agricultural regions of Poland corresponding to the smallest Polish administrative unit at the LAU 2 level. Both regions are characterised by similar territory and soil cover but different history of pollution and different pressure of anthropogenic factors. Overall accumulation of Σ16PAHs in the upper soil layer was within a wide range with the median value of 291 and 1253 μg kg(-1) for a non-contaminated and high anthropopressure region, respectively. Nearly 75 % of the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pool was represented by high molecular four-to-six-ring compounds, deriving mainly from combustion sources. The total organic carbon (Corg) and black carbon (BC) contents were the main parameters associated with the PAH accumulation in soils, and the level of the regional anthropopressure was considered a significant factor. The strongest links of PAHs/BC (r = 0.70, p ≤ 0.05) were found in the region of high anthropopressure, characterized by a relatively high content of BC (up to 45.3 g kg(-1)), which tends to heavily adsorb hydrocarbons. In a region of low influence exerted by anthropopressure, the PAH/Corg or PAH/BC relationships were not observed, which may suggest different diffuse sources of PAH origin and a dominant role of other organic matter fractions in retention of PAHs in soils.

  2. Inherited drainage - paleochannels and preferential groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Richard; Dahlin, T.

    2010-06-01

    It is suggested that in a localized remnant of Kalahari sand at Dufuya, central Zimbabwe, groundwater flows in an integrated pattern inherited from the paleochannel network of the underlying gneiss. Contact springs occur at discrete localities along the Kalahari sand/gneiss boundary and are associated with spring sapping and land surface subsidence. Subsidence is presumed to be due to preferential solute removal by leaching and dissolution as a result of concentration of groundwater flow within the buried paleochannel network and the location of the springs is presumed to occur where the paleochannel network intersects the Kalahari sand/gneiss boundary. Over time the surficial Kalahari sand is preferentially removed along these buried drainage lines by spring sapping and headwards erosion, exposing the gneiss. Multi-electrode direct current resistivity profiling and radar have been used to map the sub-surface, revealing the topography of the basement and nature of the Kalahari cover. Coincidence of gneiss basement depressions with the spring sites, leached sands and subsidence zones suggests inheritance of the gneiss fluvial paleochannel network pattern by the present day groundwater flow. Washed sand and gravel intersected in shallow boreholes in these areas provides further evidentiary support for the concept of inherited drainage.

  3. Peat drainage conditions assessment in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Artz, Rebekka; Donaldson-Selby, Gillian; Aitkenhead, Matt; Donnelly, David; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Scotland are covered in peat, providing an important sink of carbon but also a notable source of emission where peatlands are not in good condition. However, despite data from designated sites that peat degradation is common, a detailed spatial assessment of the condition of most peatlands across the whole of Scotland is missing. An assessment of peatland drainage was carried out at >600 random sampling locations with an expert-based estimation of presence or absence of drainage ditches within a 500 metre block using 25 cm resolution aerial imagery. The resulting dataset was modelled using a scorpan-kriging approach, in particular using Generalised Additive Models for the description of the trend. Remote sensing images from different sensors (i.e. MODIS, Landsat and Sentinel 1 and 2) were used. In particular we used indices describing vegetation greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index), water availability (Normalised Water Difference index), Land Surface Temperature and vegetation productivity. When considering MODIS indices we used time series and phenological summaries. The model provides also uncertainty of the estimations. The derived dataset can then be used in the decision making process for the selection of sites for restoration, emissions estimation and accounting.

  4. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida; an interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, Joel O.; Fayard, Larry D.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) Surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Surface-water injection wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mining operations and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed standards values for gross alpha concentrations. (USGS)

  5. Velocimetry of aqueous foam drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Matthew J.; Fleming, James W.

    2011-11-01

    We study the flow behavior of a freely draining aqueous foam using microparticle image velocimetry. Video shows liquid traveling uphill along the bubble surfaces, counter-directional to the primary flow. Most theoretical models of foam drainage avoid direct calculation of the flow at the gas-liquid interface. Rather, they treat the effect of surface flow empirically due to lack of experimental and theoretical understanding of the forces which cause flow at the surface. This uphill flow represents a significant component of the overall flow. Understanding the surface-driven flow can improve predictions of water-retention time. In the present work, we use a proprietary fire-suppression foam solution comprising hydrocarbon-based non-fluorinated surfactants in water. At the start of drainage, the mean upward flow speed is 0.2 +/- 0.1 mm/s while the mean downward flow speed is 0.8 +/- 0.1 mm/s. The local bubble size at the location-under-imaging is 0.6 mm with a coefficient of variation of 50%. Ongoing efforts concern the effect of the liquid solution constituents on the uphill flow and the effect of bubble size on drainage time. NRC/NRL Postdoctoral Fellow

  6. Modeling Antarctic subglacial lake filling and drainage cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, C. F.; Werder, M. A.; Nowicki, S.; Walker, R. T.

    2015-11-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to determine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes and their impact on ice stream dynamics. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of the ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from large catchments, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water through the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it too steepens the hydraulic gradient and allows greater flux out of the overdeepened lake basin. Eventually this flux is large enough to create channels that cause the lake to drain. Due to the presence of the channels, the drainage of the lake causes high water pressures around 50 km downstream of the lake rather than immediately in the vicinity of the overdeepening. Following lake drainage, channels again shut down. Lake drainage depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  7. Assessments of chromium (and other metals) in vegetables and potential bio-accumulations in humans living in areas affected by tannery wastes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hualin; Arocena, Joselito M; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Zhou, Jiangmin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (Cr) commonly enters the food chain through uptake by vegetables. However, accurate prediction of plant uptake of Cr (and other metals) still remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated 5 indices of availability for Cr (and other metals) to identify reliable predictors of metal transfer from soils to garlic, onion, bokchoy, radish and celery grown in soils impacted by tannery wastes. The potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans was calculated from the Cr content of vegetable predicted by the best bio-availability index, amounts of vegetable consumed and recommended daily doses for Cr. Our results show that soil total Cr is the best predictor of Cr transfer from soils to onion (Cr in onion=8.51+0.005 Total Cr) while Cr extractable by Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure at pH 5 correlates very well with Cr uptake by bokchoy (Cr bokchoy=5.86+7.32 SPLP-5 Cr) and garlic (Cr garlic=7.63+2.36 SPLP-5 Cr). The uptake of Cr by radish and celery could not be reliably estimated by any of the 5 indices of availability tested in this study. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans (BA-Cr) increases from soils with low Cr (BA-Cr=11.5) to soil with high total Cr (BA-Cr=31.3). Due to numerous soil factors affecting the behavior of Cr in soils and the physiological differences among vegetables, we suggest that the prediction of the transfer of Cr (and other metals) from soils to plants should be specific to site, metal and vegetable. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans can be derived from a transfer function of Cr from soils to plants and the human consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River Basin, northeastern Montana 1986-87

    SciTech Connect

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic uranium and vanadium in Dry Lake Unit, and boron in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain and two shallow domestic wells were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation and gross beta radiation were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediment of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium, copper, nickel, vanadium, and zinc that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. 46 refs., 13 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Effects of Scale on DEM Derived Drainage Networks For a High Arctic Wetland Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. C.; Young, K. L.

    2004-05-01

    The ability to automatically generate drainage patterns is a useful tool in hydrologic studies, especially in remote areas where limited data is available. However drainage patterns derived from digital elevation data can be significantly affected by the scale of the data from which they are generated. This study investigates the effects of scaling on drainage patterns extracted from elevation data for a low gradient wetland area on Somerset Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian High Arctic. A series of Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) were created from digitized topographic information at varying resolutions (2.5 m, 5 m. 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m). Automated drainage network extractions were performed for each resolution grid, using ESRI ArcInfo software. A series of flow networks were created for each resolution DEM using varying minimum stream lengths in order to examine the effects of this variable on flow pattern and direction. The modelled drainage at each resolution was then compared to the `actual' drainage mapped from aerial photography (air photos and low level oblique photographs) and topographic maps to examine differences as a result of scaling. Preliminary results suggest that reproducing correct flow direction was not possible with the coarser resolution DEMs (10 m and up), while the finer resolutions (2.5 m, 5 m) resulted in drainage networks most similar to the mapped drainage.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Neonatal Pyometrocolpos Under Local Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, Oktay; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Kilic, Nizamettin

    2011-02-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is an uncommon congenital disorder with cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus that occurs as a result of accumulated secretions from the reproductive tract due to distal genital tract obstruction. Secondary infection may also occur, resulting in pyometrocolpos, a potentially lethal disease. Immediate drainage of the cystic mass in patients determined to have pyometrocolpos is required to prevent or treat uropathy and septicemia until definitive corrective surgery can be performed. We report an unusual cause of obstructive uropathy in three infants: pyometrocolpos due to lower genital tract atresia. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the pyometrocolpos resulted in dramatically improved clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage under local anesthesia is a simple, minimally invasive, safe, and effective procedure that facilitates later successful corrective surgery and avoids the need for more complex drainage procedures.

  11. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  12. Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin - A balance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maximum and minimum estimates are made of the drainage basin feeding the Jakobshavns Glacier by using surface elevation maps derived from Seasat altimetry. Benson's (1962) net balance measurements are used to calculate the balance flow within the basin. Comparisons of the balance flux at the terminus with estimates of actual flux suggest the basin is in overall equilibrium or slightly thickening. This agrees with measurements along the nearby EGIG traverse. Balance velocities accelerate rapidly within 100 km of the coast. Farther upstream, balance velocities are consistent with both measured velocities along the EGIG traverse and calculated deformation velocities. It is estimated that Jakobshavns Glacier discharges between 4.8 and 7.6 percent of the annual net balance over Greenland and drains between 3.7 and 5.8 percent of the ice sheet area.

  13. Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin - A balance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maximum and minimum estimates are made of the drainage basin feeding the Jakobshavns Glacier by using surface elevation maps derived from Seasat altimetry. Benson's (1962) net balance measurements are used to calculate the balance flow within the basin. Comparisons of the balance flux at the terminus with estimates of actual flux suggest the basin is in overall equilibrium or slightly thickening. This agrees with measurements along the nearby EGIG traverse. Balance velocities accelerate rapidly within 100 km of the coast. Farther upstream, balance velocities are consistent with both measured velocities along the EGIG traverse and calculated deformation velocities. It is estimated that Jakobshavns Glacier discharges between 4.8 and 7.6 percent of the annual net balance over Greenland and drains between 3.7 and 5.8 percent of the ice sheet area.

  14. Drainage basins and channel incision on Mars.

    PubMed

    Aharonson, Oded; Zuber, Maria T; Rothman, Daniel H; Schorghofer, Norbert; Whipple, Kelin X

    2002-02-19

    Measurements acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. By analogy with terrestrial examples, groundwater sapping may have played an important role in the incision. Longitudinally flat floor segments may provide a direct indication of lithologic layers in the bedrock, altering subsurface hydrology. However, it is unlikely that floor levels are entirely due to inherited structures due to their planar cross-cutting relations. These conclusions are based on previously unavailable observations, including extensive piece-wise linear longitudinal profiles, frequent knickpoints, hanging valleys, and small basin concavity exponents.

  15. Multiobjective Statistical Method for Interior Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimes, Y. Y.; Loparo, K. A.; Olenik, S. C.; Nanda, S. K.

    1980-06-01

    In this paper the design of a levee drainage system is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem in a probabilistic framework. The statistical nature of the problem is reflected by the probabilistic behavior of rainfall and river stage events in any given month. The multiobjective approach allows for the incorporation of noncommensurable objectives such as aesthetics, economics, and social issues into the optimization problem, providing a more realistic quantification of the impact of a flood or high water situation in an interior basin. A new method referred to as the multiobjective statistical method, which integrates statistical attributes with multiobjective optimization methodologies such as the surrogate worth trade-off method, is developed in this paper. A case study using data from the Moline area in Illinois suggests the use of the procedure.

  16. Vertical Analysis of Martian Drainage Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; OHara, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a vertical analysis of drainage basins on Mars that were computationally extracted from DEMs based on the MOLA data. Longitudinal profiles of main streams are calculated and the slope-area relation is established for 20 basins coming from assorted martian locations. An identical analysis is done for 19 terrestrial river basins. Our results show that, in comparison to terrestrial basins, martian basins have more linear longitudinal profiles, more frequent existence of knickpoints, predominance of asymmetric location of the main stream in the basin, and smaller values of concavity exponent. This suggests a limited role for surface runoff on the global scale. However, two basins extracted from the slopes of martian volcanoes show a strong similarity to terrestrial basins, indicating a possible local role for the process of surface runoff.

  17. Cold air drainage flows subsidize montane valley ecosystem productivity.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Oishi, A Christopher; Miniat, Chelcy Ford

    2016-12-01

    In mountainous areas, cold air drainage from high to low elevations has pronounced effects on local temperature, which is a critical driver of many ecosystem processes, including carbon uptake and storage. Here, we leverage new approaches for interpreting ecosystem carbon flux observations in complex terrain to quantify the links between macro-climate condition, drainage flows, local microclimate, and ecosystem carbon cycling in a southern Appalachian valley. Data from multiple long-running climate stations and multiple eddy covariance flux towers are combined with simple models for ecosystem carbon fluxes. We show that cold air drainage into the valley suppresses local temperature by several degrees at night and for several hours before and after sunset, leading to reductions in growing season respiration on the order of ~8%. As a result, we estimate that drainage flows increase growing season and annual net carbon uptake in the valley by >10% and >15%, respectively, via effects on microclimate that are not be adequately represented in regional- and global-scale terrestrial ecosystem models. Analyses driven by chamber-based estimates of soil and plant respiration reveal cold air drainage effects on ecosystem respiration are dominated by reductions to the respiration of aboveground biomass. We further show that cold air drainage proceeds more readily when cloud cover and humidity are low, resulting in the greatest enhancements to net carbon uptake in the valley under clear, cloud-free (i.e., drought-like) conditions. This is a counterintuitive result that is neither observed nor predicted outside of the valley, where nocturnal temperature and respiration increase during dry periods. This result should motivate efforts to explore how topographic flows may buffer eco-physiological processes from macroscale climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Macro and trace elements in Common Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) mushroom from the European background areas in Poland: Composition, accumulation, dietary exposure and data review for species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Drewnowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an up-to-date information on accumulation, occurrence, intake and possible health risks associated with noxious metallic elements (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) among mineral constituents (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr and Zn) contained in Common Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) mushrooms, a species subjected to a broad use within the domestic market of Poland and widely exported abroad, and presents a short review of data from the available literature. The tasty values of C. cibarius seem to be more rated than the essential minerals contained in its flesh and nominally taken with 1,000 g of fresh fruiting bodies eaten per capita annually, while the contents of toxic or potentially toxic metals, such as Cd, Pb, Hg and Ag, are much below the tolerance limits.

  20. Drainage reorganization during mountain building in the river system of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struth, Lucía; Babault, Julien; Teixell, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is a thick-skinned thrust-fold belt that is characterized by two topographic domains: (1) the axial zone, a high altitude plateau (the Sabana de Bogotá, 2500 masl) with low local relief and dominated by longitudinal rivers, and (2) the Cordillera flanks, where local relief exceeds 1000 m and transverse rivers dominate. On the basis of an analysis of digital topography and river parameters combined with a review of paleodrainage data, we show that the accumulation of shortening and crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny triggered a process of fluvial reorganization in the Cordillera. Owing to a progressive increase of the regional slope, the drainage network evolves from longitudinal to transverse-dominated, a process that is still active at present. This study provides the idea of progressive divide migration toward the inner part of the mountain belt, by which the area of the Sabana de Bogotá plateau is decreasing, the flanks increase in area, and ultimately transverse rivers will probably dominate the drainage of the Cordillera.

  1. Ice-dammed lake drainage in Greenland and the implications on the surrounding bedrock and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, S. A.; Bjork, A. A.; Nielsen, K.

    2016-12-01

    Drainage of ice-dammed lakes is regularly observed along the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. However, the speed of the drainage events and implications can vary depending on the size of the lakes and the local settings. Our main focus area is Lake Tinninilik, dammed by Sarqardliup sermia in West Greenland. We use air- and satellite-borne laser- and radar altimetry, supplemented with Landsat imagery, to derive the lake drainage pattern and combine these observations with DEMs from aerial imagery to derive lake volume changes. In 2010 the lake drained within two months and water level dropped by c. 50 m, resulting in drainage of c. 1.53 km3 of water. Here, we assess the implication of drainage on the solid bedrock using Regional ElAstic Rebound calculator (REAR), and on the glacier damming the lake by comparing to altimetry observations.

  2. Removing soluble phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters using FGD gypsum filters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Decades of applying chicken litter to meet nitrogen demand has led to accumulation of phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula. This legacy P that now approaches levels up to ten times the agronomic optimum is a major source of P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Ches...

  3. Management of sediment and erosion processes in boreal headwaters affected by peatland drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marttila, H.; Tammela, S.; Kløve, B.

    2009-04-01

    Peatland drainage for forestry, agriculture, peat harvesting and urban infrastructure has been altered landscape in Finland. Pristine peatlands and headwaters provide important hydrological and ecological functions that can be lost after drainage. The drainage has resulted in increase of forest resources but also negative environmental effects including changes in runoffs, erosion processes, siltation and eutrophication. The changes that can occur after drainage are, however, complex and must be better understood if the negative impacts of drainage are to be reduced or prevented. Especially erosion and transport processes of organic peat sediment are not well understood (Marttila and Kløve, 2008). Methods for controlling the sediment load include erosion and transport control practices in the catchment area (Marttila and Kløve, 2009; Tammela et al. 2009). The presentation/poster will present methods and preliminary results project from Northern Finland. The issues especially covered are sediment erosion and transport and methods to restore and reduce impacts of peatland drainage in boreal headwaters. Keywords: sediment transport, erosion, peatland drainage, organic and inorganic sediment, stream and catchment restoration, management, environment References: Marttila, H. and Kløve. B. 2008. Erosion and delivery of deposited peat sediment. Water Resources Research. 44 (6). Marttila, H. Kløve. B. 2009. Retention of sediment and nutrient loads with peak runoff control. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering (in press). Tammela, S. Marttila, H. and Kløve. B. 2009. Effect and design of an underminer structure on flow distribution and local bed topography (submitted).

  4. Preoperative Drainage for Malignant Biliary Strictures: Is It Time for Self-Expanding Metallic Stents?

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Jason; Ho, Shiaw-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Palliation of jaundice improves the general health of the patient and, therefore, surgical outcomes. Because of the complexity and location of strictures, especially proximally, drainage has been accompanied by increased morbidity due to sepsis. Another concern is the provocation of an inflammatory and fibrotic reaction around the area of stent placement. Preoperative biliary drainage with self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) insertion can be achieved via a percutaneous method or through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A recently published multicenter randomized Dutch study has shown increased morbidity with preoperative biliary drainage. A Cochrane meta-analysis has also shown a significantly increased complication rate with preoperative drainage. However, few of these studies have used a SEMS, which allows better biliary drainage. No randomized controlled trials have compared preoperative deployment of SEMS versus conventional plastic stents. The outcomes of biliary drainage also depend on the location of the obstruction, namely the difficulty with proximal compared to distal strictures. Pathophysiologically, palliation of jaundice will benefit all patients awaiting surgery. However, preoperative drainage often results in increased morbidity because of procedure-related sepsis. The use of SEMS may change the outcome of preoperative biliary drainage dramatically. PMID:25674520

  5. [Simple cholecystectomy without drainage. A dilemma?].

    PubMed

    Macellari, G; Baraldi, U; Giustina, A; David, P; Parigi, M; De Angelis, E

    1980-04-30

    A retrospective study was carried out to show the uselessness of the routine employment of the drainage after simple cholecystectomy. 1425 patients underwent cholecystectomy because for cholelithiasis; of these 164 (13%) were drained because of adhesions, concomitant pancreatitis, inadvertent damage, empiema, gangrena and perforation of the gallbladder. In no case of the 1261 patients without drainage it has been possible to demonstrate the presence of one of those complications for which the use of a drainage after simple cholecystectomy is commonly advised.

  6. Ice-Blocked Drainage: Problems and Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    1983 USA Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.’ ".Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 "" " •" • .;; ~.* .P-.- .-":- Ice-blocked drainage : Problems...railroads,. - 0 airfields, and other public works. Among the causes of these ,, , .-.. , headaches are drainage facilities that become blocked by ice...Many ice problems can be avoided by good drainage design. - Maintenance personnel have made many worthwhile sugges- *. tions to designers, based on

  7. Accumulation of DOC in Low Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (LPLC) area: is it related to higher production under high N:P ratio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauriac, R.; Moutin, T.; Baklouti, M.

    2010-09-01

    The biogeochemistry of carbon and nutrients (N, P) in the surface layer of the ocean strongly depends on the interaction between C, N and P at the cell level and at the population level where interaction between primary producers (phytoplankton) and remineralizers (heterotrophic bacteria) impact the overall stock and dynamics of organic carbon. To understand these interactions in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea, we implemented, using Eco3M, a multi-element, steady state, mechanistic model. This cell-based model intend to represent the growth of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria under various amount of nutrients. As a results, it displays the expected biogeochemical characteristics of the system and give us insight on the expected interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria both in term of competition for inorganic nutrients and in term of commensalism for organic carbon. In this study, we found a good quantitative agreement between model results and literrature data for stocks and fluxes of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition, for phytoplankton we show how the uncoupling between carbon production and growth could impact the overall DOC dynamic and based on these results, we proposed a new explanantion for the observed DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  9. Seasonal reorganization of subglacial drainage inferred from measurements in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Shulamit; Sharp, Martin; Hubbard, Bryn; Smart, Chris; Ketterling, Brad; Willis, Ian

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the formation of a major subglacial drainage channel on the behaviour of the subglacial drainage system of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, was investigated using measurements of borehole water level and the electrical conductivity and turbidity of basal meltwaters. Electrical conductivity profiles were also measured within borehole water columns to identify the water sources driving water level changes, and to determine patterns of water circulation in boreholes. Prior to channel formation, boreholes showed idiosyncratic and poorly coordinated behaviour. Diurnal water level fluctuations were small and driven by supraglacial/englacial water inputs, even when boreholes were connected to a subglacial drainage system. This system appeared to consist of hydraulically impermeable patches interspersed with storage spaces, and transmitted a very low water flux. Drainage reorganization, which occurred around 31 July, 1993, in response to rapidly rising meltwater and rainfall inputs, seems to have involved the creation of a connection between an incipient channel and a well-established channelized system located further down-glacier. Once a major channel existed within the area of the borehole array, borehole water level fluctuations were forced by discharge-related changes in channel water pressure, although a diversity of responses was observed. These included (i) synchronous, (ii) damped and lagged, (iii) inverse, and (iv) alternating inverse/lagged responses. Synchronous responses occurred in boreholes connected directly to the channel, while damped and lagged responses occurred in boreholes connected to it by a more resistive drainage system. Pressure variations within the channel resulted in diurnal transfer of mechanical support for the ice overburden between connected and unconnected areas of the bed, producing inverse and alternating patterns of water level response.

  10. The spatial distribution and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in steppe soils around three mining areas in Xilinhot in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfei; Liu, Honglin; Liu, Guixiang

    2017-09-20

    Metal deposition has become a major environmental problem in China due to its adverse effects on human and ecosystem health, particularly in Inner Mongolia, where frequent dust storms (due to steppe degradation and desertification) and soil pollution (associated with the increasing mining activities) have occurred in recent decades. To assess spatial distribution of heavy metals and the influences of mining activities on geochemical behavior of heavy metals in soils, soil samples with depth of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm at each site were collected from different directions in the vicinity of three mines (coal mine, gold mine, and fluorite mine) in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China. Six elements (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Ni) in the soils were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results indicated that the average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Ni in the soil of the study area around three mines were lower than the second class level of the National Soil Environment Safety Standard, but mostly were higher than the background value of soil in the Inner Mongolia. Northwest, southwest, and northeast wind directions have a great influence on the distribution of metals in coal, gold, and fluorite mine area, respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in coal, gold, and fluorite increased with the distance from the center of the mine, then reached a peak, then decreased gradually. The vertical mobility of metals in soil profiles was slightly significant for Cd > Cr > Zn > Ni in coal mine area and was not significant in gold and fluorite mines. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis, coupled with correlation coefficient analysis, showed that Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni in the mining area came from the same source, while Zn and Pb came from the other source. That the sources of heavy metals in the mining area were discussed would not only enhance our

  11. [Lung cancer and lymph drainage].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is lymphophile and may involve lymph nodes (LN) belonging to lung lymph drainage. LN metastases are figured within stations numbered 1 to 14. These stations are located along lymph vessels. The lymph vessels and the LN are forming together anatomical chains. Lymph vessels are valved and pulsatile and travel to the cervical venous confluence where they pour the lung lymph into the blood circulation. They may be totally or partly nodeless along their travel, anastomose with each other around the trachea, and connect with the thoracic duct within the mediastinum. Within the anatomical LN chains, LN are variable in number and in size from one individual to another. They may be absent from one or several stations of the international mapping. Stations are located along the anatomical chains: pulmonary ligament (9), tracheal bifurcation(8 and 7), right paratracheal (4R, 2R and 1), preaortic (5 and 6), left paratracheal (4L, 2L and 1). Station 3 is located on 2 differents chains (phrenic and right esophagotracheal). Station 10 are located at the beginning of the mediastinal lymph nodes chains. Each chain connects with the blood circulation, anastomoses with he neighbouring chains and behave as an own entity whatever the number of its LN. International station mapping misknowns this anatomy and occults the true pronostic value of lung lymph drainage.

  12. Fluid Drainage from Porous Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhong; Soh, Beatrice; Huppert, Herbert; Stone, Howard; Stone Group Team

    2012-11-01

    We report theoretical and experimental studies to describe buoyancy-driven fluid drainage from a porous medium. We first study homogeneous porous systems. To investigate the influence of heterogeneities, we consider the case where the permeability varies transverse to the flow direction, exemplified by a V-shaped Hele-Shaw cell. Finally, we analyze a model where both the permeability and the porosity vary transverse to the flow direction. In each case, a self-similar solution for the shape of the gravity current is found and a power-law behavior in time is derived for the mass remaining in the system. Laboratory experiments are conducted in homogeneous and V-shaped Hele-Shaw cells, and the measured profile shapes and the mass remaining in the cells agree well with our model predictions. Our study provides new insights into drainage processes such as may occur in a variety of natural and industrial activities including the geological storage of carbon dioxide. This work is supported by a grant from Carbon Mitigation Initiative at Princeton University.

  13. Drainage in a rising foam.

    PubMed

    Yazhgur, Pavel; Rio, Emmanuelle; Rouyer, Florence; Pigeonneau, Franck; Salonen, Anniina

    2016-01-21

    Rising foams created by continuously blowing gas into a surfactant solution are widely used in many technical processes, such as flotation. The prediction of the liquid fraction profile in such flowing foams is of particular importance since this parameter controls the stability and the rheology of the final product. Using drift flux analysis and recently developed semi-empirical expressions for foam permeability and osmotic pressure, we build a model predicting the liquid fraction profile as a function of height. The theoretical profiles are very different if the interfaces are considered as mobile or rigid, but all of our experimental profiles are described by the model with mobile interfaces. Even the systems with dodecanol are well known to behave as rigid in forced drainage experiments. This is because in rising foams the liquid fraction profile is fixed by the flux at the bottom of the foam. Here the foam is wet with higher permeability and the interfaces are not in equilibrium. These results demonstrate once again that it is not only the surfactant system that controls the mobility of the interface, but also the hydrodynamic problem under consideration. For example liquid flow through the foam during generation or in forced drainage is intrinsically different.

  14. Modeling Antarctic subglacial lake filling and drainage cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-07-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  15. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  16. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  17. Diffusion of microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) from the reservoir of Isahaya Bay, Japan, into the marine and surrounding ecosystems as a result of large-scale drainage.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tohru; Umehara, Akira; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki

    2014-12-15

    In the artificial reservoir of the Isahaya reclaimed land, Nagasaki, Japan, algal blooms have become an annual event, dominated primarily by the microcystin (MC) producing cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Although the majority of MCs are either degraded by bacteria or washed out to sea, some remain in the sediment of the reservoir and bay throughout the year. As a result, they also accumulate in aquatic organisms (mullet, oyster, etc.) that inhabit the reservoir and surrounding areas, as well as midge flies that spend their larval period in the bottom of the reservoir. Accordingly, MCs also accumulate in the predators of these organisms, allowing the toxin to spread from the hydrosphere to terrestrial ecosystems. The most effective method for resolving this potentially dangerous condition is to introduce seawater into the reservoir by opening the drainage gates at high tide. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of mine drainage: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Blowes, D.W; Ptacek, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of mineral resources requires access through underground workings, or open pit operations, or through drillholes for solution mining. Additionally, mineral processing can generate large quantities of waste, including mill tailings, waste rock and refinery wastes, heap leach pads, and slag. Thus, through mining and mineral processing activities, large surface areas of sulfide minerals can be exposed to oxygen, water, and microbes, resulting in accelerated oxidation of sulfide and other minerals and the potential for the generation of low-quality drainage. The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine wastes is accelerated by microbial catalysis of the oxidation of aqueous ferrous iron and sulfide. These reactions, particularly when combined with evaporation, can lead to extremely acidic drainage and very high concentrations of dissolved constituents. Although acid mine drainage is the most prevalent and damaging environmental concern associated with mining activities, generation of saline, basic and neutral drainage containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals, non-metals, and metalloids has recently been recognized as a potential environmental concern. Acid neutralization reactions through the dissolution of carbonate, hydroxide, and silicate minerals and formation of secondary aluminum and ferric hydroxide phases can moderate the effects of acid generation and enhance the formation of secondary hydrated iron and aluminum minerals which may lessen the concentration of dissolved metals. Numerical models provide powerful tools for assessing impacts of these reactions on water quality.

  19. Impact of Drainage Networks on Cholera Outbreaks in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Yoshinari; Cheelo, Meetwell

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between precipitation patterns and cholera outbreaks and the preventative roles of drainage networks against outbreaks in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods. We collected data on 6542 registered cholera patients in the 2003–2004 outbreak season and on 6045 cholera patients in the 2005–2006 season. Correlations between monthly cholera incidences and amount of precipitation were examined. The distribution pattern of the disease was analyzed by a kriging spatial analysis method. We analyzed cholera case distribution and spatiotemporal cluster by using 2590 cholera cases traced with a global positioning system in the 2005–2006 season. The association between drainage networks and cholera cases was analyzed with regression analysis. Results. Increased precipitation was associated with the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, and insufficient drainage networks were statistically associated with cholera incidences. Conclusions. Insufficient coverage of drainage networks elevated the risk of cholera outbreaks. Integrated development is required to upgrade high-risk areas with sufficient infrastructure for a long-term cholera prevention strategy. PMID:19762668

  20. [VC and DCE in groundwater and drainage channel water].

    PubMed

    Ackermann, A

    2004-12-01

    In an area used merely for gardening in a downland moor, which is partly transformed to an industrial estate, accidentally a contamination of a drainage channel with VOC's - predominantly chloroethylene (vinyl chloride [VC]) and 1.2-cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) - was found. The ascending ground water leaks into the drainage channels. The dissolved harmful substances (water solubility of VC is 1.6 g/l) can reach the radix range of plants and fruit bosks and can theoretically be incorporated with the water influx. Additionally the water from the drainage channels can be used to water the crops. Six gardens and a housing were involved. In the groundwater of the mainly concerned region max. 5,000 microg/l VOC's (quite predominantly VC and DCE) was measured from 147 samples. In the drainage channel water max. 2,500 microg/l was measured from 52 samples (limit value according to the drinking water ordinance is 10 microg/l). In the sediment of the channel with approximately 60,000 microg/kg VOC was found in dry matter (6 samples). We describe, how the consumer protection dept. dealt with this unexpected situation and what measures were taken. The impact on human health by the contaminated ground and channel water or by means of contaminated plants are determined for tree fruits, potatoes, bulbs and carrots. The soil air was contaminated, but in buildings no harmful compounds were detectioned.

  1. Assessment of environmental and health risks in former polymetallic ore mining and smelting area, Slovakia: Spatial distribution and accumulation of mercury in four different ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Árvay, Július; Demková, Lenka; Hauptvogl, Martin; Michalko, Miloslav; Bajčan, Daniel; Stanovič, Radovan; Tomáš, Ján; Hrstková, Miroslava; Trebichalský, Pavol

    2017-10-01

    Former long-term mining and smelting of pollymetallic ores in the Middle Spiš area caused a serious contamination problem of the environment with heavy metals and metalloids, especially mercury (Hg). Several studies have reported concentration of Hg in the area but this paper provides first detailed characterization of Hg contamination of different environmental components in agricultural, forest, grassland and urban ecosystems. The ecosystems are in different distances from emission sources - former mercury and copper smelting plants in NE Slovakia. Total Hg content was studied in soil/substrate samples (n = 234) and characteristic biological samples (Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer, Boletus edulis Bull., Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Opat.) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, Triticum aestivum (L.), Poa pratensis (L.)) (n = 234) collected in the above-mentioned ecosystems. The level of contamination and environmental risks were assessed by contamination factor (Cf), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and potential environmental risk index (PER). To determine the level of transition of Hg from abiotic to biotic environment, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was used. To determine a health risk resulting from regular and long-term consumption of the locally available species, the results of the Hg content were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for Hg defined by World Health Organization. The results suggest that almost 63% of the area belong to the very high risk category and 80% of the sampling sites shown very high contamination factor. Geoaccumulation index showed that almost 30% of the area is very strongly contaminated and only 8% is not contaminated with Hg. Spearman's correlation relationship confirmed that the values of PER, BCF, Cf and Igeo decreased with an increasing distance from the pollution source. The percentage of contribution to PTWI ranged between 5.76-69.0% for adults and 11.5-138% for children

  2. Conceptual design report for site drainage control

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Mound Plant (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H) Upgrades Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by facility activities. The first project of this multiphase program is now in the final stages of construction, and the second project is currently under design. Four additional projects, one of which is presented in this report, are in the conceptual design stage. At Mound, 22 soil zones have become contaminated with radioactive material. These zones cover approximately 20 percent of the total area of developed property at the site. During a storm event, the rainwater washes contaminated soil from these zones into the storm sewer system. These radioactive contaminants may then be discharged along with the stormwater into the Great Miami River via the Miami Erie Canal. This conceptual design report (CDR), Site Drainage Control, the fourth project in the ES&H program, describes a project that will provide improvements and much needed repairs to inadequate and deteriorating portions of the storm drainage system on the developed property. The project also will provide a stormwater retention facility capable of storing the stormwater runoff, from the developed property, resulting from a 100-year storm event. These improvements will permit the effective control and monitoring of stormwater to prevent the spread of radioactive contaminants from contaminated soil zones and will provide a means to collect and contain accidental spills of hazardous substances.

  3. [The accumulation of the technogenic radionuclides by mushrooms in the area affected by the activity of the Krasnoyarsk mining-and-chemical industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Dement'ev, D V; Bondareva, L G

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide content was measured in mushrooms collected in different sites situated in the zone of the radiation influence on the Mining-and-Chemical Combine at Zheleznogorsk and on the control site, near Krasnoyarsk, in 2002-2004. The analytical investigations of fruiting bodies of 12 mushroom species have revealed three gamma-emitting radionuclides: 7Be, 40K (natural) and 137Cs (artificial). It was found that only three species contain 7Be; activity concentration of 40K is not species- and site-dependent, averaging 1600 Bq/kg. All collected samples contain 137Cs, and its accumulation by mushrooms is species-specific. Suillus concentrates more 137Cs activity than other species and can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination with radiocesium. The average activity concentration of 137Cs in Suillus granulatus collected in the sites subjected only to aerosol discharges of the MCC is more than twice higher than 137Cs content of the mushrooms collected in the control site--"Krasnoyarsk". The maximum activity concentration of 137Cs in Suillus samples collected in the sites that receive 137Cs with the flood water is an order of magnitude higher, amounting to 8624 Bq/kg. The analysis of the radionuclide distribution in a mushroom shows that 40K activity concentration is the same in caps and stems of Suillus, and 137Cs concentration in Suillus caps is 1.7-2.3 times higher than in stems. Binding of radionuclides by mushroom biomass was determined by chemical fractionation; it was found that the highest activities of 137Cs and 40K are in the exchange-adsorption fraction (56 to 71% of the total content of a radionuclide) and in the organic fraction (23 to 37%). Calculations were made for determination of the coefficients of 40K and 137Cs transfer from the soil to the fruiting body of Suillus.

  4. Impact assessment of subsurface drainage on waterlogged and saline lands.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, Abdul R; Ghazaw, Yousry Mahmoud; Niazi, Muhammed F; Hashmi, Hashim N

    2011-01-01

    Waterlogging and salinity due to seepage from canals have polluted land and environment in various parts of Pakistan. A sustainable environment requires urgent remedial measures for this problem. The research in this paper presents the impacts of the Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad on the twin problem of waterlogging and salinity. Monitoring of the project was made on regular basis. The key performance indicators for the project include the lowering of water table, improvement of water quality and soil salinity, increase in area under cultivation, cropping intensity, and socioeconomic status of the project population. Data regarding water levels and discharge from the drain pipes were collected to monitor the impact on waterlogging. Soil samples were tested to evaluate the impact of drainage on land. It has been found that the percentage of the contaminated land in the project area has considerably been decreased, while the cropping intensities have been increased.

  5. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  6. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Ya