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Sample records for accumulated fatigue damage

  1. Fatigue damage accumulation in various metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the latest understanding of the fatigue behavior of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The emphasis is on the development of an understanding of different fatigue damage mechanisms and why and how they occur. The fatigue failure modes in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites are controlled by the three constituents of the system: fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. The relative strains to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix will determine the failure mode. Several examples of matrix, fiber, and self-similar damage growth dominated fatigue damage are given for several metal matrix composite systems. Composite analysis, failure modes, and damage modeling are discussed. Boron/aluminum, silicon-carbide/aluminum, FP/aluminum, and borsic/titanium metal matrix composites are discussed.

  2. A Modified Nonlinear Damage Accumulation Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Considering Load Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Yuan, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Many structures are subjected to variable amplitude loading in engineering practice. The foundation of fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude loading is how to deal with the fatigue damage accumulation. A nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation model to consider the effects of load sequences was proposed in earlier literature, but the model cannot consider the load interaction effects, and sometimes it makes a major error. A modified nonlinear damage accumulation model is proposed in this paper to account for the load interaction effects. Experimental data of two metallic materials are used to validate the proposed model. The agreement between the model prediction and experimental data is observed, and the predictions by proposed model are more possibly in accordance with experimental data than that by primary model and Miner's rule. Comparison between the predicted cumulative damage by the proposed model and an existing model shows that the proposed model predictions can meet the accuracy requirement of the engineering project and it can be used to predict the fatigue life of welded aluminum alloy joint of Electric Multiple Units (EMU); meanwhile, the accuracy of approximation can be obtained from the proposed model though more simple computing process and less material parameters calling for extensive testing than the existing model. PMID:24574866

  3. The effect of pseudo-accumulation in the measurement of fatigue laser-induced damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melninkaitis, A.; Mirauskas, J.; Jupé, M.; Ristau, D.; Arenberg, J. W.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2008-10-01

    Laser-induced damage threshold determination as a function of the number of incident pulses on a specific optic is a classic problem in laser damage studies. There are several models of the fundamental mechanisms explaining the fatigue laser damage behavior including temperature accumulation and changes of electronic or chemical material structure. Herewith we discuss the effects of unstable laser radiation on S-on-1 laser-induced damage probability. Numerical simulations of S-on-1 measurements for specific cases of defect densities, spot sizes and beam jitters are performed. It is demonstrated that the statistical effects of "pseudo-accumulation" reasoned by unstable laser radiation in transparent dielectrics containing nanometer sized defects leads to accumulation-like behavior. The magnitudes of the random beam walking and the energy fluctuations are directly related to the damage probability. Experimental results are also introduced to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. Isothermal Fatigue, Damage Accumulation, and Life Prediction of a Woven PMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the characterization of the fully reversed fatigue behavior exhibited by a carbon fiber/polyimide resin, woven laminate at room and elevated temperatures. Nondestructive video edge view microscopy and destructive sectioning techniques were used to study the microscopic damage mechanisms that evolved. The residual elastic stiffness was monitored and recorded throughout the fatigue life of the coupon. In addition, residual compressive strength tests were conducted on fatigue coupons with various degrees of damage as quantified by stiffness reduction. Experimental results indicated that the monotonic tensile properties were only minimally influenced by temperature, while the monotonic compressive and fully reversed fatigue properties displayed noticeable reductions due to the elevated temperature. The stiffness degradation, as a function of cycles, consisted of three stages; a short-lived high degradation period, a constant degradation rate segment composing the majority of the life, and a final stage demonstrating an increasing rate of degradation up to failure. Concerning the residual compressive strength tests at room and elevated temperatures, the elevated temperature coupons appeared much more sensitive to damage. At elevated temperatures, coupons experienced a much larger loss in compressive strength when compared to room temperature coupons with equivalent damage. The fatigue damage accumulation law proposed for the model incorporates a scalar representation for damage, but admits a multiaxial, anisotropic evolutionary law. The model predicts the current damage (as quantified by residual stiffness) and remnant life of a composite that has undergone a known load at temperature. The damage/life model is dependent on the applied multiaxial stress state as well as temperature. Comparisons between the model and data showed good predictive capabilities concerning stiffness degradation and cycles to failure.

  5. Evaluation of fatigue damage accumulation in composites via linear and nonlinear guided wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinling; Chillara, Vamshi; Cho, Hwanjeong; Qiu, Jinhao; Lissenden, Cliff

    2016-02-01

    For non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fatigue damage accumulation in composites, this research proposed a combined linear and a nonlinear ultrasonic guided wave method. For the linear Lamb waves approach, a laser-generation based imaging system (LGBI) is utilized to measure the phase velocities of guided waves in composites. The elastic moduli of the specimen are then obtained by inverting the measured phase velocities using genetic algorithms (GAs). The variation of the above two parameters (phase velocity and elastic moduli), together with the guided wave amplitudes, are then observed during the fatigue process. Nonlinear second harmonics in composites are studied theoretically and numerically. A third-order strain energy function of transversely isotropic materials is expressed by five invariants of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. Results enable intelligent selection of primary modes for cumulative second harmonics generation. Meanwhile, finite element simulations are conducted to characterize second harmonics in light of the theory.

  6. Subrupture Tendon Fatigue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Laudier, Damien M.; Shine, Jean H.; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Jepsen, Karl J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Flatow, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical and microstructural bases of tendon fatigue, by which damage accumulates and contributes to degradation, are poorly understood. To investigate the tendon fatigue process, rat flexor digitorum longus tendons were cyclically loaded (1–16 N) until reaching one of three levels of fatigue damage, defined as peak clamp-to-clamp strain magnitudes representing key intervals in the fatigue life: i) Low (6.0%–7.0%); ii) Moderate (8.5%–9.5%); and iii) High (11.0%–12.0%). Stiffness, hysteresis, and clamp-to-clamp strain were assessed diagnostically (by cyclic loading at 1–8 N) before and after fatigue loading and following an unloaded recovery period to identify mechanical parameters as measures of damage. Results showed that tendon clamp-to-clamp strain increased from pre- to post-fatigue loading significantly and progressively with the fatigue damage level (p≤0.010). In contrast, changes in both stiffness and hysteresis were significant only at the High fatigue level (p≤0.043). Correlative microstructural analyses showed that Low level of fatigue was characterized by isolated, transverse patterns of kinked fiber deformations. At higher fatigue levels, tendons exhibited fiber dissociation and localized ruptures of the fibers. Histomorphometric analysis showed that damage area fraction increased significantly with fatigue level (p≤0.048). The current findings characterized the sequential, microstructural events that underlie the tendon fatigue process and indicate that tendon deformation can be used to accurately assess the progression of damage accumulation in tendons. PMID:18683881

  7. An advanced test technique to quantify thermomechanical fatigue damage accumulation in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanical test technique was developed to assist in quantifying the accumulation of damage in composite materials during thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) cycling. This was accomplished by incorporating definitive elastic mechanical property measurements into an ongoing load-controlled TMF test without disturbing the test specimen or significantly altering the test conditions. The technique allows two fundamental composite properties consisting of the isothermal elastic static moduli and the macroscopic coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to be measured and collected as functions of the TMF cycles. The specific implementation was incorporated into the commonly employed idealized in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycles. However, the techniques discussed could be easily implemented into any form of load-controlled TMF mission cycle. By quantifying the degradations of these properties, tremendous insights are gained concerning the progression of macroscopic composite damage and often times the progression of damage within a given constituent. This information should also be useful for the characterization and essential for the verification of analytical damage modeling methodologies. Several examples utilizing this test technique are given for three different fiber lay-ups of titanium metal matrix composites.

  8. Evaluation of micro-damage accumulation in holed plain-woven CFRP composite under fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jia; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Hojo, Masaki

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence method was used to detect the micro-damage caused by fatigue in a plain-woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Fluorescence measurement is a method which estimates micro-damage by measuring fluorescent intensity change inside materials. The principle is, larger micro-damage means larger plastic strain, thus more space in that damaged spot which allows more fluorescent dyes coming in the material. By detecting fluorescent intensity in CFRP layer by layer using confocal laser microscopy, micro-damage can be estimated. Results show that there's a good relationship between micro-damage and fluorescent intensity gradient.

  9. Dependence of microelastic-plastic nonlinearity of martensitic stainless steel on fatigue damage accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-09-15

    Self-organized substructural arrangements of dislocations formed during cyclic stress-induced fatigue of metals produce substantial changes in the material microelastic-plastic nonlinearity, a quantitative measure of which is the nonlinearity parameter {beta} extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contributions to {beta} from the substructural evolution of dislocations and crack growth for fatigued martensitic 410Cb stainless steel are calculated from the Cantrell model [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 460, 757 (2004)] as a function of percent full fatigue life to fracture. A wave interaction factor f{sub WI} is introduced into the model to account experimentally for the relative volume of fatigue damage included in the total volume of material swept out by an interrogating acoustic wave. For cyclic stress-controlled loading at 551 MPa and f{sub WI}=0.013 the model predicts a monotonic increase in {beta} from dislocation substructures of almost 100% from the virgin state to roughly 95% full life. Negligible contributions from cracks are predicted in this range of fatigue life. However, during the last 5% of fatigue life the model predicts a rapid monotonic increase of {beta} by several thousand percent that is dominated by crack growth. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements of 410Cb stainless steel samples fatigued in uniaxial, stress-controlled cyclic loading at 551 MPa from zero to full tensile load with a measured f{sub WI} of 0.013.

  10. Dependence of Microelastic-plastic Nonlinearity of Martensitic Stainless Steel on Fatigue Damage Accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Self-organized substructural arrangements of dislocations formed in wavy slip metals during cyclic stress-induced fatigue produce substantial changes in the material microelastic-plastic nonlinearity, a quantitative measure of which is the nonlinearity parameter Beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contributions to Beta from the substructural evolution of dislocations and crack growth for fatigued martensitic 410Cb stainless steel are calculated from the Cantrell model as a function of percent full fatigue life to fracture. A wave interaction factor f(sub WI) is introduced into the model to account experimentally for the relative volume of material fatigue damage included in the volume of material swept out by an interrogating acoustic wave. For cyclic stress-controlled loading at 551 MPa and f(sub WI) = 0.013 the model predicts a monotonic increase in Beta from dislocation substructures of almost 100 percent from the virgin state to roughly 95 percent full life. Negligible contributions from cracks are predicted in this range of fatigue life. However, over the last five percent of fatigue life the model predicts a rapid monotonic increase of Beta by several thousand percent that is dominated by crack growth. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements of 410Cb stainless steel samples fatigued in uniaxial, stress-controlled cyclic loading at 551 MPa from zero to full tensile load with a measured f(sub WI) of 0.013.

  11. Micro/meso scale fatigue damage accumulation monitoring using nonlinear acoustic vibro-modulation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei; Donskoy, Dimitri; Chudnovsky, Alexander; Golovin, Edward; Agarwala, Vinod S.

    2006-03-01

    Monitoring the incipient damage at the earliest possible stage is essential for predicting structural performance and remaining life of structural components. Existing prognostic methodologies incorporate conventional SHM and NDE techniques responsive to cracks and delaminations resulted from the irreversible material fracture and disintegration at the macro-scale. There is an increasing need for technologies that could allow for monitoring material degradation at the micro/meso scale before the onset of the macro-scale fracture. In this contribution, we report results of the real-time monitoring of the material micro/meso scale degradation using the nonlinear acoustic vibro-modulation technique. The technique explores nonlinear acoustic interaction of high frequency ultrasound and low frequency structural vibration at the site of the incipient damage. The indicator of the damage severity, nonlinear acoustic damage index (DI), was measured in real time during the strain-controlled three-point bending fatigue test of aluminum and steel specimens. Nondestructively, degradation of the specimen was revealed through the increase in the DI, which correlated well with the respective decrease in the specimen's stiffness. Destructive SEM examination confirmed sensitivity of the DI to the incipient micro/meso scale damage and advocated for utilizing the vibro-modulation approach for assessment of material degradation before fracture.

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Fatigue Damage Accumulation in Wavy Slip Metals from Acoustic Harmonic Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive, analytical treatment is presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of a stress perturbation with dislocation substructures (veins and persistent slip bands) and cracks that evolve during high-cycle fatigue of wavy slip metals. The nonlinear interaction is quantified by a material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contribution to beta from the substructures is obtained from the analysis of Cantrell [Cantrell, J. H., 2004, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 460, 757]. The contribution to beta from cracks is obtained by applying the Paris law for crack propagation to the Nazarov-Sutin crack nonlinearity equation [Nazarov, V. E., and Sutin, A. M., 1997, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 3349]. The nonlinearity parameter resulting from the two contributions is predicted to increase monotonically by hundreds of percent during fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. The increase in beta during the first 80-90 percent of fatigue life is dominated by the evolution of dislocation substructures, while the last 10-20 percent is dominated by crack growth. The model is applied to the fatigue of aluminium alloy 2024-T4 in stress-controlled loading at 276MPa for which experimental data are reported. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.

  13. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  14. How surface damage removal affects fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeelani, S.; Scott, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the removal of work hardened surface layers from specimens of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy and AISI-4130 steel on their fatigue lives has been investigated. Specimens were fatigued at selected stress levels for a given number of cycles, and the surface layer was removed followed by subsequent fatigue cycling. Results confirm that when a material is subjected to fatigue loading, damage accumulates in the surface layers in the form of work hardening. Removal of the surface layer brings the specimen back to its pre-fatigued condition.

  15. Long-term reliability of single-crystal silicon thin films: the influence of environment on the fatigue damage accumulation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierron, Olivier N., II; Muhlstein, Christopher L.

    2004-12-01

    Single-crystal silicon thin films were forced to resonate at high frequency (~40 kHz) in different environments to study the long-term durability of this structural material used in microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The fatigue characterization structure consists of a notched cantilever beam attached to a plate shaped mass and is actuated at resonance, creating fully reversed, constant amplitude, sinusoidal stresses at the notch root. The dynamic behavior of the resonating structure has been meticulously quantified to allow accurate stress measurements from the knowledge of the driving voltage amplitude and the calculation of the quality factors in air and vacuum. In addition, the change in resonant frequency is periodically monitored for long-life specimens. Fatigue failure was observed for specimens tested in humid air and medium vacuum. In air, the stress-life (S-N) curve confirms the unique fatigue behavior already attributed to silicon thin films. In vacuum, the strength of the specimens appears to increase, and fatigue failure is delayed. Fracture surface examination reveals distinct features on the fracture surfaces of long-life fatigued specimens, not found in quasistatic failure, that are clear indications of initiation regions. The decrease rate in resonant frequency during cycling is demonstrated to be related to damage accumulation rate, and is strongly sensitive to both stress amplitude and humidity. The different currently proposed mechanisms are discussed in light of this new set of experimental evidence.

  16. Long-term reliability of single-crystal silicon thin films: the influence of environment on the fatigue damage accumulation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierron, Olivier N.; Muhlstein, Christopher L.

    2005-01-01

    Single-crystal silicon thin films were forced to resonate at high frequency (~40 kHz) in different environments to study the long-term durability of this structural material used in microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The fatigue characterization structure consists of a notched cantilever beam attached to a plate shaped mass and is actuated at resonance, creating fully reversed, constant amplitude, sinusoidal stresses at the notch root. The dynamic behavior of the resonating structure has been meticulously quantified to allow accurate stress measurements from the knowledge of the driving voltage amplitude and the calculation of the quality factors in air and vacuum. In addition, the change in resonant frequency is periodically monitored for long-life specimens. Fatigue failure was observed for specimens tested in humid air and medium vacuum. In air, the stress-life (S-N) curve confirms the unique fatigue behavior already attributed to silicon thin films. In vacuum, the strength of the specimens appears to increase, and fatigue failure is delayed. Fracture surface examination reveals distinct features on the fracture surfaces of long-life fatigued specimens, not found in quasistatic failure, that are clear indications of initiation regions. The decrease rate in resonant frequency during cycling is demonstrated to be related to damage accumulation rate, and is strongly sensitive to both stress amplitude and humidity. The different currently proposed mechanisms are discussed in light of this new set of experimental evidence.

  17. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Program (FATIG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    FATIG computes fatigue damage/fatigue life using the stress rms (root mean square) value, the total number of cycles, and S-N curve parameters. The damage is computed by the following methods: (a) traditional method using Miner s rule with stress cycles determined from a Rayleigh distribution up to 3*sigma; and (b) classical fatigue damage formula involving the Gamma function, which is derived from the integral version of Miner's rule. The integration is carried out over all stress amplitudes. This software solves the problem of probabilistic fatigue damage using the integral form of the Palmgren-Miner rule. The software computes fatigue life using an approach involving all stress amplitudes, up to N*sigma, as specified by the user. It can be used in the design of structural components subjected to random dynamic loading, or by any stress analyst with minimal training for fatigue life estimates of structural components.

  18. Modeling Fatigue Damage in Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2009-10-30

    This paper applies a fatigue damage model recently developed for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to predict the modulus reduction and fatigue lifetime of glass/polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) specimens. The fatigue model uses a multiscale mechanistic approach to describe fatigue damage accumulation in these materials subjected to cyclic loading. Micromechanical modeling using a modified Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach combined with averaging techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions is performed to establish the stiffness reduction relation for the composite as a function of the microcrack volume fraction. Next, continuum damage mechanics and a thermodynamic formulation are used to derive the constitutive relations and the damage evolution law. The fatigue damage model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code and has been applied to analyze fatigue of the studied glass/PA6,6 specimens. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.

  19. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  20. Mechanisms of fatigue damage in boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile fatigue tests were conducted on several laminates of boron/aluminum (6061-0). In laminates with 0 deg fibers on the outside, an analysis that identifies "shakedown" conditions predicted the stress amplitude below which no fatigue damage accumulated. A fatigue damage accumulation model which relates matrix fatigue cracking and the overall laminate properties is described. A model for the saturation damage stage development is presented, that identical laminates, tested in directions 90 deg apart (such that one layup has 90 deg outer plies and the other 0 deg), have different fatigue behaviors due to the stacking sequence. The 90 deg plies on the surface develop cracks earlier than predicted by shakedown. An attempt was made to explain this stacking sequence effect. Variable load history effects on the fatigue damage response were investigated. Tests reveal that for a given stress ratio the specimen seeks the saturation damage state for the largest stress range to which it is subjected. It was also found that little damage is generated by shifting a given stress range down, whereas significant damage may be created by shifting it upward. The laminate stresses were always tensile.

  1. Development of the electrochemical fatigue sensor for evaluating fatigue damage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.F.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.Z.; DeLuccia, J.; Laird, C.

    1999-07-01

    The Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (EFS) is a device which operates by an electrochemical-mechanical interaction and which can sense the type and extent of fatigue damage both before and after crack initiation. It was initially explored through studies on soft metals. Here the authors report efforts to determine the ability of the device to read damage in hardened commercial alloys: 7075 aluminum alloy, 4130 steel and Ti-6Al-4V. They also demonstrate that the device, which uses an electrolytic medium, does not degrade the fatigue properties if care is used in electrolyte selection.

  2. Apparent damage accumulation in cancellous bone using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, a neural network model is developed to simulate the accumulation of apparent fatigue damage of 3D trabecular bone architecture at a given bone site during cyclic loading. The method is based on five steps: (i) performing suitable numerical experiments to simulate fatigue accumulation of a 3D micro-CT trabecular bone samples taken from proximal femur for different combinations of loading conditions; (ii) averaging the sample outputs in terms of apparent damage at whole specimen level based on local tissue damage; (iii) preparation of a proper set of corresponding input-output data to train the network to identify apparent damage evolution; (iv) training the neural network based on the results of step (iii); (v) application of the neural network as a tool to estimate rapidly the apparent damage evolution at a given bone site. The proposed NN model can be incorporated into finite element codes to perform fatigue damage simulation at continuum level including some morphological factors and some bone material properties. The proposed neural network based multiscale approach is the first model, to the author's knowledge, that incorporates both finite element analysis and neural network computation to rapidly simulate multilevel fatigue of bone. This is beneficial to develop enhanced finite element models to investigate the role of damage accumulation on bone damage repair during remodelling. PMID:21616468

  3. Finite element prediction of fatigue damage growth in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha; Frikha, Sana; Toumi, Hechmi; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic stresses applied to bones generate fatigue damage that affects the bone stiffness and its elastic modulus. This paper proposes a finite element model for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation and failure in cancellous bone at continuum scale. The model is based on continuum damage mechanics and incorporates crack closure effects in compression. The propagation of the cracks is completely simulated throughout the damaged area. In this case, the stiffness of the broken element is reduced by 98% to ensure no stress-carrying capacities of completely damaged elements. Once a crack is initiated, the propagation direction is simulated by the propagation of the broken elements of the mesh. The proposed model suggests that damage evolves over a real physical time variable (cycles). In order to reduce the computation time, the integration of the damage growth rate is based on the cycle blocks approach. In this approach, the real number of cycles is reduced (divided) into equivalent blocks of cycles. Damage accumulation is computed over the cycle blocks and then extrapolated over the corresponding real cycles. The results show a clear difference between local tensile and compressive stresses on damage accumulation. Incorporating stiffness reduction also produces a redistribution of the peak stresses in the damaged region, which results in a delay in damage fracture. PMID:26077722

  4. Predictions Of Fatigue Damage From Strain Histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sire, Robert A.; Besuner, Philip M.; Toomey, Tim

    1989-01-01

    Semiempirical mathematical model of fatigue damage in stressed objects uses experimental histories of strains in those objects to predict fatigue lives. Accounts for initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks on cycle-by-cycle basis. Measured strain history first digitized, then converted to history of turning-point strains for purposes of analysis. Data between turning points not used. When model calibrated against proper test data for each type of object characterized, its predictions of fatigue lives superior to statistical models as one based on root-mean-square strain.

  5. The relationship between observed fatigue damage and life estimation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurath, Peter; Socie, Darrell F.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the surface of laboratory specimens subjected to axial and torsional fatigue loadings has resulted in the identification of three damage fatigue phenomena: crack nucleation, shear crack growth, and tensile crack growth. Material, microstructure, state of stress/strain, and loading amplitude all influence which of the three types of fatigue damage occurs during a dominant fatigue life fraction. Fatigue damage maps are employed to summarize the experimental observations. Appropriate bulk stress/strain damage parameters are suggested to model fatigue damage for the dominant fatigue life fraction. Extension of the damage map concept to more complex loadings is presented.

  6. Effects of fatigue induced damage on the longitudinal fracture resistance of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lloyd; Codrington, John; Parkinson, Ian

    2014-07-01

    As a composite material, cortical bone accumulates fatigue microdamage through the repetitive loading of everyday activity (e.g. walking). The accumulation of fatigue microdamage is thought to contribute to the occurrence of fragility fractures in older people. Therefore it is beneficial to understand the relationship between microcrack accumulation and the fracture resistance of cortical bone. Twenty longitudinally orientated compact tension fracture specimens were machined from a single bovine femur, ten specimens were assigned to both the control and fatigue damaged groups. The damaged group underwent a fatigue loading protocol to induce microdamage which was assessed via fluorescent microscopy. Following fatigue loading, non-linear fracture resistance tests were undertaken on both the control and damaged groups using the J-integral method. The interaction of the crack path with the fatigue induced damage and inherent toughening mechanisms were then observed using fluorescent microscopy. The results of this study show that fatigue induced damage reduces the initiation toughness of cortical bone and the growth toughness within the damage zone by three distinct mechanisms of fatigue-fracture interaction. Further analysis of the J-integral fracture resistance showed both the elastic and plastic component were reduced in the damaged group. For the elastic component this was attributed to a decreased number of ligament bridges in the crack wake while for the plastic component this was attributed to the presence of pre-existing fatigue microcracks preventing energy absorption by the formation of new microcracks. PMID:24715332

  7. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/-) and Postn(+/+) mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+) mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+) mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/-) mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+). Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-), but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-), and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/-) mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+), which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn(-/-) showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures. PMID

  8. Periostin Deficiency Increases Bone Damage and Impairs Injury Response to Fatigue Loading in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J.; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn-/- and Postn+/+ mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn+/+ mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn+/+ mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn-/- mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn+/+. Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn-/-, but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn-/- , and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn-/- mice. Contrary to Postn+/+ , which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn-/- showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures. PMID:24167618

  9. Double Linear Damage Rule for Fatigue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G.; Manson, S.

    1985-01-01

    Double Linear Damage Rule (DLDR) method for use by structural designers to determine fatigue-crack-initiation life when structure subjected to unsteady, variable-amplitude cyclic loadings. Method calculates in advance of service how many loading cycles imposed on structural component before macroscopic crack initiates. Approach eventually used in design of high performance systems and incorporated into design handbooks and codes.

  10. Brittleness Effect on Rock Fatigue Damage Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati, Hamid Reza; Ghazvinian, Abdolhadi

    2014-09-01

    The damage evolution mechanism of rocks is one of the most important aspects in studying of rock fatigue behavior. Fatigue damage evolution of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness were considered in the present study. Intensive experimental tests were conducted on the chosen rock samples and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used in some of them to monitor the fracturing process. Experimental tests indicated that brittleness strongly influences damage evolution of rocks in the course of static and dynamic loading. AE monitoring revealed that micro-crack density induced by the applied loads during different stages of the failure processes increases as rock brittleness increases. Also, results of fatigue tests on the three rock types indicated that the rock with the most induced micro-cracks during loading cycles has the least fatigue life. Furthermore, the condition of failure surfaces of the studied rocks samples, subjected to dynamic and static loading, were evaluated and it was concluded that the roughness of failure surfaces is influenced by loading types and rock brittleness. Dynamic failure surfaces were rougher than static ones and low brittle rock demonstrate a smoother failure surface compared to high brittle rock.

  11. Time-dependent damage in predictions of fatigue behaviour of normal and healing ligaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Gail M.; Bailey, Soraya J.; Schwab, Timothy D.

    2015-08-01

    Ligaments are dense fibrous tissues that connect bones across a joint and are exposed daily to creep and fatigue loading. Ligaments are tensile load-bearing tissues; therefore, fatigue loading will have a component of time-dependent damage from the non-zero mean stress and cycle-dependent damage from the oscillating stress. If time-dependent damage is not sufficient to completely predict the fatigue response, then cycle-dependent damage could be an important contributor. Using data from normal ligaments (current study and Thornton et al., Clin. Biomech. 22:932-940, 2007a) and healing ligaments (Thornton and Bailey, J. Biomech. Eng. 135:091004-1-091004-6, 2013), creep data was used to predict the fatigue response considering time-dependent damage. Relationships between creep lifetime and test stress or initial strain were modelled using exponential or power-law regression. In order to predict fatigue lifetimes, constant rates of damage were assumed and time-varying stresses were introduced into the expressions for time-dependent damage from creep. Then, the predictions of fatigue lifetime were compared with curvefits to the fatigue data where exponential or power-law regressions were used to determine the relationship between fatigue lifetime and test stress or initial strain. The fatigue prediction based on time-dependent damage alone greatly overestimated fatigue lifetime suggesting that time-dependent damage alone cannot account for all of the damage accumulated during fatigue and that cycle-dependent damage has an important role. At lower stress and strain, time-dependent damage was a greater relative contributor for normal ligaments than healing ligaments; however, cycle-dependent damage was a greater relative contributor with incremental increases in stress or strain for normal ligaments than healing ligaments.

  12. Accumulated damage process of thermal sprayed coating under rolling contact by acoustic emission technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Zhou, Zhen-yu; Piao, Zhong-yu

    2016-07-01

    The accumulated damage process of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) of plasma-sprayed coatings was investigated. The influences of surface roughness, loading condition, and stress cycle frequency on the accumulated damage status of the coatings were discussed. A ball-ondisc machine was employed to conduct RCF experiments. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was introduced to monitor the RCF process of the coatings. AE signal characteristics were investigated to reveal the accumulated damage process. Result showed that the polished coating would resist the asperity contact and remit accumulated damage. The RCF lifetime would then extend. Heavy load would aggravate the accumulated damage status and induce surface fracture. Wear became the main failure mode that reduced the RCF lifetime. Frequent stress cycle would aggravate the accumulated damage status and induce interface fracture. Fatigue then became the main failure mode that also reduced the RCF lifetime.

  13. Life prediction modeling based on cyclic damage accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature, low cycle fatigue life prediction method was developed. This method, Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA), was developed for use in predicting the crack initiation lifetime of gas turbine engine materials, where initiation was defined as a 0.030 inch surface length crack. A principal engineering feature of the CDA method is the minimum data base required for implementation. Model constants can be evaluated through a few simple specimen tests such as monotonic loading and rapic cycle fatigue. The method was expanded to account for the effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loadings such as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, waveshapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. A significant data base was generated on the behavior of the cast nickel-base superalloy B1900+Hf, including hundreds of specimen tests under such loading conditions. This information is being used to refine and extend the CDA life prediction model, which is now nearing completion. The model is also being verified using additional specimen tests on wrought INCO 718, and the final version of the model is expected to be adaptable to most any high-temperature alloy. The model is currently available in the form of equations and related constants. A proposed contract addition will make the model available in the near future in the form of a computer code to potential users.

  14. Fatigue damage monitoring for basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites using acoustic emission technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Li, Hui; Qu, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) is a structural material with superior mechanical properties. In this study, unidirectional BFRP laminates with 14 layers are made with the hand lay-up method. Then, the acoustic emission technique (AE) combined with the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) technique is employed to monitor the fatigue damage evolution of the BFRP plates in the fatigue loading tests. Time-frequency analysis using the wavelet transform technique is proposed to analyze the received AE signal instead of the peak frequency method. A comparison between AE signals and SEM images indicates that the multi-frequency peaks picked from the time-frequency curves of AE signals reflect the accumulated fatigue damage evolution and fatigue damage patterns. Furthermore, seven damage patterns, that is, matrix cracking, delamination, fiber fracture and their combinations, are identified from the time-frequency curves of the AE signals.

  15. 77 FR 4890 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures, and Damage Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Fatigue Evaluation for Metallic Structures'' (76 FR 75435), published December 2, 2011. In the ``Composite... Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures'' (76 FR 74655). On December 2, 2011... Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures, and Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation...

  16. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  17. Damage and fatigue described by a fractional derivative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Michele; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    As in [1], damage is associated with fatigue that a material undergoes. In this paper, because we work with viscoelastic solids represented by a fractional model, damage is described by the order of the fractional derivative, which represents the phase field satisfying Ginzburg-Landau equation, which describes the evolution of damage. Finally, in our model, damage is caused, not only by fatigue, but also directly by a source related to environmental factors and described by a positive time function.

  18. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  19. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  20. Fatigue Damage in CFRP Woven Fabric Composites through Dynamic Modulus Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaki Miyasaka; K. L. Telschow

    2004-07-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantial advantages over metallic materials for the structural applications subjected to fatigue loading. With the increasing use of these composites, it is required to understand their mechanical response to cyclic loading (1)-(4). Our major concern in this work is to macroscopically evaluate the damage development in composites during fatigue loading. For this purpose, we examine what effect the fatigue damage may have on the material properties and how they can be related mathematically to each other. In general, as the damage initiates in composite materials and grows during cyclic loading, material properties such as modulus, residual strength and strain would vary and, in many cases, they may be significantly reduced because of the progressive accumulation of cracks. Therefore, the damage can be characterized by the change in material properties, which is expected to be available for non-destructive evaluation of the fatigue damage development in composites. Here, the tension-tension fatigue tests are firstly conducted on the plain woven fabric carbon fiber composites for different loading levels. In the fatigue tests, the dynamic elastic moduli are measured on real-time, which will decrease with an increasing number of cycles due to the degradation of stiffness. Then, the damage function presenting the damage development during fatigue loading is determined from the dynamic elastic moduli thus obtained, from which the damage function is formulated in terms of a number of cycles and an applied loading level. Finally, the damage function is shown to be applied for predicting the remaining lifetime of the CFRP composites subjected to two-stress level fatigue loading.

  1. Impact damage and fatigue behavior of gamma TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, T.S.; Jones, J.W.; Pollock, T.M.; Steif, P.S.; Rubal, M.P.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between impact damage and the fatigue behavior of gamma titanium aluminide has been examined. Axial fatigue specimens fabricated from cast Ti-47.9Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy and Ti-47.3Al-2.2Nb-0.5Mn-0.4W-0.4Mo-0.23Si alloy were impacted under controlled conditions with various indentor shapes to simulate manufacturing related damage in low pressure turbine blades. Damage was quantified and related to impact parameters. A measure of the ambient temperature fatigue strength in the damaged specimens was obtained by standard fatigue testing employing a step-loading approach. Fractographic studies were performed to differentiate impact damage from subsequent fatigue crack growth and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the dependence of fatigue strength on the severity of impact damage. A threshold-based fracture mechanics analysis of crack advance from damage zones, and its use in fatigue failure strength prediction, has been developed.

  2. Fatigue-Induced Damage in Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chih-Pin; Yuan, Tao; Dmowski, Wojciech; Wang, Gong-Yao; Freels, Matt; Liaw, Peter K.; Li, Ran; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the effect of “fatigue” on the fatigue behavior and atomic structure of Zr-based BMGs. Fatigue experiments on the failed-by-fatigue samples indicate that the remnants generally have similar or longer fatigue life than the as-cast samples. Meanwhile, the pair-distribution-function (PDF) analysis of the as-cast and post-fatigue samples showed very small changes of local atomic structures. These observations suggest that the fatigue life of the 6-mm in-diameter Zr-based BMG is dominated by the number of pre-existing crack-initiation sites in the sample. Once the crack initiates in the specimen, the fatigue-induced damage is accumulated locally on these initiated sites, while the rest of the region deforms elastically. The results suggest that the fatigue failure of BMGs under compression-compression fatigue experiments is a defect-controlled process. The present work indicates the significance of the improved fatigue resistance with decreasing the sample size. PMID:23999496

  3. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) will be discussed. Results from titanium matrix/silicon-carbide fiber composites will be the primary topic of discussion. Results have been obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers has been indentified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow many fiber spacings in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  4. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) is discussed. Results from titanium matrix silicon carbide fiber composites is the primary topic of discussion. Results were obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers was identified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  5. Fatigue strength and evaluation of creep damage during fatigue cycling of Inconel Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, A.; Thiele, U.; O'Donnell, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    Evaluation of high strain rate and corresponding low strain rate tests indicate no creep-fatigue interaction. For T greater than or equal to 900/sup 0/C, creep damage predominates during the cyclic straining. For tests in which creep damage is largely suppressed - for example in high-frequency reverse bend fatigue tests - the cycles to fatigue failure were found to increase directly with the degree of suppression of creep damage. However, a practical limit exists for suppression of creep damage at 1100/sup 0/C; at that temperature, even for the high frequency reverse bend tests (approx. 1000 rpm with ..sigma.. = 12.3% s/sup -1/), the creep damage predominated over the fatigue damage.

  6. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology, and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  7. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of each stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 32 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested quasi-statically and in fatigue, and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  8. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of the stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 37 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested in fatigue and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  9. Topology optimization in damage governed low cycle fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmorat, Boris; Desmorat, Rodrigue

    2008-05-01

    Topology optimization is applied here to discuss an optimization problem of fatigue resistance. Fatigue lifetime is maximized by optimizing the shape of a structure in cyclic plasticity combined with Lemaitre damage law. The topology optimization algorithm is detailed. A 3D numerical example is given. To cite this article: B. Desmorat, R. Desmorat, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  10. Mean stress and the exhaustion of fatigue-damage resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovits, Avraham

    1989-01-01

    Mean-stress effects on fatigue life are critical in isothermal and thermomechanically loaded materials and composites. Unfortunately, existing mean-stress life-prediction methods do not incorporate physical fatigue damage mechanisms. An objective is to examine the relation between mean-stress induced damage (as measured by acoustic emission) and existing life-prediction methods. Acoustic emission instrumentation has indicated that, as with static yielding, fatigue damage results from dislocation buildup and motion until dislocation saturation is reached, after which void formation and coalescence predominate. Correlation of damage processes with similar mechanisms under monotonic loading led to a reinterpretation of Goodman diagrams for 40 alloys and a modification of Morrow's formulation for life prediction under mean stresses. Further testing, using acoustic emission to monitor dislocation dynamics, can generate data for developing a more general model for fatigue under mean stress.

  11. Assessment of material fatigue damage using nonlinear vibro-modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei; Donskoy, Dimitri; Chudnovsky, Alexander; Wu, Hudson

    2001-05-01

    Heavy periodic loads exerted on structural materials often lead to fatigue damage (material degradation at microscale) which may finally trigger irreversible fracture process. Conventional NDT techniques detect only the latter, and there is an increasing need for new tools to assess fatigue damage at the earliest possible stage, i.e., before fracture. This paper presents experimental results of early damage characterization using an innovative nonlinear vibro-modulation technique (VMT) [Donskoy et al., NDT&E Int. 34 (2001)]. In the experiments, fatigue damage was initiated in steel, aluminum, and carbon-carbon composite specimens during strain-controlled three-point bending high-cycling fatigue tests. The damage progress was independently monitored using dataflow from the testing machine and the real-time nonlinear vibro-modulation measurements. The tests demonstrated that the reduction in the specimens' stiffness (direct indication of damage accumulation) correlates well with the increase in the VMT's nonlinear damage index. These results confirm that VMT could offer new opportunities for early damage detection and remaining life prediction. [Work supported by NAVAIR.

  12. Nondestructive determination of fatigue crack damage in composites using vibration tests.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibenedetto, A. T.; Gauchel, J. V.; Thomas, R. L.; Barlow, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The vibration response of glass reinforced epoxy and polyester laminates was investigated. The complex modulus and the damping capacity were measured as fatigue crack damage accumulated. Changes in the Young's modulus as well as the damping capacity correlated with the amount of crack damage. The damping was especially sensitive to debonding of the reinforcement from the resin matrix. Measurement of these vibration response changes shows promise as a means to nondestructively test the structural integrity of filament-reinforced composite structural members.

  13. A probabilistic fatigue analysis of multiple site damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, S. M.; Ruff, D.; Hillberry, B. M.; Mccabe, G.; Grandt, A. F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The variability in initial crack size and fatigue crack growth is incorporated in a probabilistic model that is used to predict the fatigue lives for unstiffened aluminum alloy panels containing multiple site damage (MSD). The uncertainty of the damage in the MSD panel is represented by a distribution of fatigue crack lengths that are analytically derived from equivalent initial flaw sizes. The variability in fatigue crack growth rate is characterized by stochastic descriptions of crack growth parameters for a modified Paris crack growth law. A Monte-Carlo simulation explicitly describes the MSD panel by randomly selecting values from the stochastic variables and then grows the MSD cracks with a deterministic fatigue model until the panel fails. Different simulations investigate the influences of the fatigue variability on the distributions of remaining fatigue lives. Six cases that consider fixed and variable conditions of initial crack size and fatigue crack growth rate are examined. The crack size distribution exhibited a dominant effect on the remaining fatigue life distribution, and the variable crack growth rate exhibited a lesser effect on the distribution. In addition, the probabilistic model predicted that only a small percentage of the life remains after a lead crack develops in the MSD panel.

  14. Sources of fatigue damage to passive yaw wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Laino, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Using an integrated computer analysis approach developed at the University of Utah, fatigue damage sources to passive yaw wind turbine blades have been investigated. Models of a rigid hub and teetering hub machine reveal the parameters important to the fatigue design of each type. The teetering hub proved much less susceptible to fatigue damage from normal operation loads. As a result, extreme events were critical to the teetering hub fatigue life. The rigid hub blades experienced extremely large gyroscopic load cycles induced by rapid yaw rates during normal operation. These yaw rates stem from turbulence activity which is shown to be dependent upon atmospheric stability. Investigation revealed that increasing yaw damping is an effective way of significantly reducing these gyroscopic fatigue loads.

  15. Fatigue damage mechanisms in boron-aluminium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between fatigue and shakedown in metal matrix composites is investigated theoretically and experimentally for unidirectional and laminated 6061 Al-B materials. It is shown that no fatigue damage takes place if the applied stress range is such that the material remains elastic, or shakes down, i.e., resumes elastic cyclic straining after a small number of plastic strain cycles. Fatigue damage occurs only in specimens subjected to stress ranges which cause sustained cyclic plastic straining in the aluminum matrix. If the applied stress range is smaller than that required for fatigue failure, after about 10 to the 6th cycles a saturation damage state is reached which remains essentially unchanged with increasing number of cycles.

  16. An empirical modified fatigue damage model for impacted GFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, S.; Hassan, M. A.; Bushroa, A. R.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the residual strength of GFRP laminates following a low-velocity impact event under cyclic loading. The residual strength is calculated using a linear fatigue damage model. According to an investigation into the effect of low-velocity impact on the fatigue behavior of laminates, it seems laminate fatigue life decreases after impact. By normalizing the fatigue stress against undamaged static strength, the Fatigue Damage parameter “FD” is presented with a linear relationship as its slope which is a linear function of the initial impact energy; meanwhile, the constants were attained from experimental data. FD is implemented into a plane-stress continuum damage mechanics based model for GFRP composite laminates, in order to predict damage threshold in composite structures. An S-N curve is implemented to indicate the fatigue behavior for 2 mm thickness encompassing both undamaged and impacted samples. A decline in lifespan is evident when the impact energy level increases. Finally, the FD is intended to capture the unique GFRP composite characteristics.

  17. Research on fatigue damage detection for wind turbine blade based on high-spatial-resolution DPP-BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Li, Hui

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a fatigue damage detection system used for wind turbine blade is successfully developed by using highspatial- resolution differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) sensing system. A piece of polarization-maintaining optical fiber is bonded on the blade surface to form the distributed sensing network. A DPP-BOTDA system, with a spatial resolution of 20cm and sampling interval of 1cm, is adopted to measuring distributed strain and detecting fatigue damage of wind turbine blade during fatigue test using the differential pulse pair of 39.5ns/41.5ns. Strain and the Brillouin gain spectra changes from undamaged state to fatigue failure are experimentally presented. The experimental results reveal that fatigue damage changes the strain distribution especially around the high strain area, and the width, amplitude and central frequency of the Brillouin gain spectra are sensitive to fatigue damage as the stiffness degradation and accumulated cracks change local strain gradient. As the damage becomes larger, the width of the Brillouin gain spectra becomes broader. Consequently, location and size of fatigue damage could be estimated. The developed system shows its potentiality for developing highly reliable wind turbine monitoring system as the effectiveness of damage detection and distributed sensing.

  18. Oxidative DNA damage accumulation in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Farinati, F; Cardin, R; Degan, P; Rugge, M; Di, M; Bonvicini, P; Naccarato, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial, multistep process, in which chronic inflammation plays a major role. 
Aims—In order to ascertain whether free radical mediated oxidative DNA damage is involved in such a process, concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a mutagenic/carcinogenic adduct, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an indirect measure of free radical mediated damage, were determined in biopsy specimens from patients undergoing endoscopy. 
Patients—Eighty eight patients were divided into histological subgroups as follows: 27 with chronic non-atrophic gastritis, 41 with atrophic gastritis, six with gastric cancer, and 14 unaffected controls. 
Methods—Intestinal metaplasia, Helicobacter pylori infection, and disease activity were semiquantitatively scored. 8OHdG concentrations were assessed by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and TBARS concentrations were fluorimetrically assayed. 
Results—8OHdG concentrations (mean number of adducts/105 dG residues) were significantly higher in chronic atrophic gastritis (p=0.0009). Significantly higher concentrations were also detected in the presence of severe disease activity (p=0.02), intestinal metaplasia (p=0.035), and H pylori infection (p=0.001). TBARS concentrations were also higher in atrophic gastritis, though not significantly so. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, 8OHdG concentrations correlated best with the presence and severity of H pylori infection (r=0.53, p=0.002). 
Conclusions—Chronic gastritis is characterised by the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage with mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. H pylori infection is the major determinant for DNA adduct formation. 

 Keywords: free radicals; oxidative DNA damage; gastric carcinogenesis; precancerous changes; peroxidative damage PMID:9577340

  19. Effect of Load Phase Angle on Wind Turbine Blade Fatigue Damage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    White, D. L.; Musial, W. D.

    2003-11-01

    This paper examines the importance of phase angle variations with respect to fatigue damage. The operating loads on a generic conventional three-bladed upwind 1.5-MW wind turbine blade were analyzed over a range of operating conditions, and an aggregate probability distribution for the actual phase angles between the in-plane (lead-lag) and out-of-plane (flap) loads was determined. Using a finite element model of a generic blade and Miner's Rule, the accumulated theoretical damage (based on axial strains) resulting from a fatigue test with variable phase angles was compared to the damage resulting from a fatigue test with a constant phase angle. The nodal damage distribution at specific blade cross-sections are compared for the constant and variable phase angle cases. The sequence effects of various phase angle progressions were also considered. For this analysis, the finite element results were processed using the nonlinear Marco-Starkey damage accumulation model. Each phase angle sequence was constrained to have the same overall phase angle distribution and the same total number of cycles but the order in which the phase angles were applied was varied.

  20. Optimization of fatigue damage indication in ferromagnetic low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, Ondřej; Kadlecová, Jana; Vértesy, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue damage was investigated by the method of magnetic adaptive testing (MAT), which is based on the systematic measurement and evaluation of minor magnetic hysteresis loops. A large number of magnetic measurements were performed on a single reference series of low carbon steel flat samples, which were fatigued by cyclic bending in an identical way, up to an increasing level of fatigue damage. The measurements of the magnetic properties of these samples were repeated under varied conditions, including speed of magnetization of the samples, sample temperature during the measurement, choice of the evaluated signal, frequency of the voltage sampling, and range of the applied amplitudes of the magnetizing field/current. Special attention was turned to the influence of the thickness of the non-ferromagnetic spacers positioned between the surface of the samples and the flat fronts of the attached magnetizing yokes. On one hand, the spacers decrease the values of the induced signal and its derivatives, but on the other hand they substantially increase the reproducibility of the measurement and positively influence the shapes of the resulting degradation curves. Optimum conditions for the magnetic measurement of the fatigue damage were searched, found, and recommended. The results indicate the reliable applicability of MAT to detect early stages of the material fatigue, and to predict its residual lifetime.

  1. A novel damage index for fatigue damage detection in a laminated composites using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Daigo

    A well-established structural health monitoring (SHM) technique, the Lamb wave based approach, is used for fatigue damage identification in a laminated composite. A novel damage index, 'normalized correlation moment' (NCM) which is composed of the nth moment of the cross correlation of the baseline and comparison waves, was used as damage index for monitoring damage in composites and compared with the signal difference coefficient (SDC) which is one of the most commonly used damage indices. Composite specimens were fabricated by the hand layup method by followed by compression. Piezo electric disks mounted on composite specimens were used as actuators and sensors. Three point bending fatigue tests were carried out on an intact composite laminate and a delaminated composite laminate with [06/904/06] orientation. Finite element analysis was performed to test the validity of SDC and NCM for fatigue damage.

  2. 14 CFR 27.573 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of... Requirements Fatigue Evaluation § 27.573 Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft... practice, the applicant must do a fatigue evaluation in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section....

  3. 14 CFR 29.573 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of... Requirements Fatigue Evaluation § 29.573 Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft... practice, the applicant must do a fatigue evaluation in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section....

  4. Quantitative study of fretting fatigue damage in shot peened titanium-aluminum-vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Sonia A.

    Fretting fatigue damage has been known to be the origin of premature failure in some of the aerospace engine components. The blade/disk assemblies, for example have been particularly susceptible to fretting induced failure. Several nondestructive evaluation techniques are being used to detect the cracks due to fretting fatigue damage. Although partial success has been achieved in detection of cracks, research is lacking in the area of detection of precursors to the development of cracks due fretting fatigue damage. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to develop a methodology based on x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements for quantitative nondestructive characterization of accumulated fretting fatigue damage. To achieve the goal a systematic experimental study of the characteristics of the residual stress due to surface treatments of shot peening (SP), Laser Shock Peening (LSP) and Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB), used in the aerospace industry was conducted. The residual stress in LSP and LPB was found to be complex involving shear stress and spatial non-uniformity. On the other hand in shot peening it was found to be least complex. More over it is the most cost effective and hence often used surface treatment in the industry. In order to gain an understanding of the effect of shot peening parameters on the fretting fatigue life, experiments were conducted on samples with four different peening intensities (0, 4, 7 and 10 A) and two surface coverage (100% and 400%). It was observed that the fretting fatigue life increases with the increasing peening intensity, and increase in surface coverage beyond 100% has virtually no effect. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) observation of fractured surface was utilized to identify crack initiation. On all of the fretting fatigued specimens relaxation of residual stress was observed and it increased with increasing number of cycles. A complete relaxation was observed before failure. To obtain an

  5. On the Use of Infrared Thermography for Analysis of Fatigue Damage in Ti6Al4V-Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2014-08-01

    The present work is aimed at comparatively studying fatigue damage evolution of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam-welded (LBW) joint and the base metal (BM) of Ti6Al4V alloy subjected to cyclic loading. To reveal crack nucleation and propagation during the fatigue process, in situ fatigue was generated using infrared measurement methods. The results indicate that the rate of damage accumulated in the LBW joint was higher than in the BM specimens during a fatigue test, which decreased the fatigue life of the LBW joint. This observation is attributable to the LBW joint fusion zone microstructure, which has a higher void nucleation and growth rate compared with the BM microstructure.

  6. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  7. 77 FR 55105 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... entitled ``Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage'' (77 FR 30877), which corrected a final rule published November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69746). In that technical amendment, the FAA intended to correct... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 121 and 129 RIN 2120-AI05 Aging Airplane Program:...

  8. Fatigue Damage Mechanisms in Advanced Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Rhymer, Donald W.; St.Clair, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates (HTCL) are a type of hybrid composite laminate with promise for high-speed aerospace applications, specifically designed for improved damage tolerance and strength at high-temperature (350 F, 177 C). However, in previous testing, HTCL demonstrated a propensity to excessive delamination at the titanium/PMC interface following titanium cracking. An advanced HTCL has been constructed with an emphasis on strengthening this interface, combining a PETI-5/IM7 PMC with Ti-15-3 foils prepared with an alkaline-perborate surface treatment. This paper discusses how the fatigue capabilities of the "advanced" HTCL compare to the first generation HTCL which was not modified for interface optimization, in both tension-tension (R = 0.1) and tension-compression (R=-0.2). The advanced HTCL under did not demonstrate a significant improvement in fatigue life, in either tension-tension or tension-compression loading. However, the advanced HTCL proved much more damage tolerant. The R = 0.1 tests revealed the advanced HTCL to increase the fatigue life following initial titanium ply damage up to 10X that of the initial HTCL at certain stress levels. The damage progression following the initial ply damage demonstrated the effect of the strengthened PMC/titanium interface. Acetate film replication of the advanced HTCL edges showed a propensity for some fibers in the adjacent PMC layers to fail at the point of titanium crack formation, suppressing delamination at the Ti/PMC interface. The inspection of failure surfaces validated these findings, revealing PMC fibers bonded to the majority of the titanium surfaces. Tension compression fatigue (R = -0.2) demonstrated the same trends in cycles between initial damage and failure, damage progression, and failure surfaces. Moreover, in possessing a higher resistance to delamination, the advanced HTCL did not exhibit buckling following initial titanium ply cracking under compression unlike the initial HTCL.

  9. Sliding Contact Fatigue Damage in Layered Ceramic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Thompson, Van P.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Porcelain veneered restorations often chip and fracture from repeated occlusal loading, making fatigue studies relevant. Most fatigue studies are limited to uniaxial loading without sliding motion. We hypothesize that biaxial loading (contact-load-slide-liftoff, simulating a masticatory cycle) as compared to uniaxial loading accelerates the fatigue of layered ceramics. Monolithic glass plates were epoxy joined to polycarbonate substrates as a transparent model for an all-ceramic crown on dentin. Uniaxial and biaxial cyclic contact was applied through a hard sphere in water with a mouth-motion machine. The uniaxial (contact-load-hold-liftoff) and traditional R-ratio fatigue (indenter never leaves the specimen surface) produced a similar lifespan, while biaxial fatigue was more severe. The accelerated crack growth rate in biaxial fatigue is attributed to enhanced tensile stresses at the trailing edges of a moving indenter. Fracture mechanics descriptions for damage evolution in brittle materials loaded repeatedly with a sliding sphere are provided. Clinical relevance is addressed. PMID:17959894

  10. Widespread fatigue damage monitoring: Issues and concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is intended to illustrate the considerable effect that small in-service undetectable multi-site-damage (MSD) can have on the residual strength capability of aging aircraft structures. In general, very few people in the industry believe that tiny cracks of undetectable size are a problem because they know that many aircraft have been able to survive much larger damage. In fact they have been certified for this large damage capability. However, this is not the issue. The real issue is the effect the tiny cracks, at multiple sites, have on the large damage capability which the industry has become accustomed to expect and which the aircraft have been certified to sustain. The concern is that this message does not appear to be fully understood by many people outside the fracture community. The prime purpose of this paper, therefore, has been to convey this message by describing in simple terms the net section yielding phenomenon in ductile materials which causes loss in lead crack residual strength in the presence of MSD. The explanation continues with a number of examples on complex stiffened structures, using the results of previous finite element analyses, which illustrate that the effect of MSD is extremely sensitive to structural configuration. It is hoped that those members of the aviation community who believe that tiny cracks are not a problem will read this paper very carefully.

  11. Fatigue damage development of various CFRP-laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, K.; Baron, CH.

    1988-01-01

    The chronic strength and fatigue behavior of a woven carbon-fiber reinforced laminate in a balanced eight-shaft satin weave style was compared to nonwoven laminates with an equivalent cross-ply layup. Half the fibers were arranged in the direction of the load and the other half perpendicular to it. Two types of nonwoven laminates consisting of continuous fibers and aligned discontinuous fibers, both produced from carbon fiber prepregs, were studied. The cross-ply laminate with continuous fiber showed the best characteristics with regard to both static strength and fatigue. The similarities and differences in damage mechanisms in the laminates are described.

  12. Inspecting for widespread fatigue damage: Is partial debonding the key?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, John

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results indicate that cracks can initiate, grow, and coalesce more rapidly in fuselage lap joints that have experienced partial or complete debonding. Computational analysis in this paper shows that stress concentrations and stress intensity factors at the rivet holes are far less severe when the bond is intact. Debonding hastens the initiation of widespread fatigue cracks and significantly increases crack growth rate. Thus, debonded regions serve as "breeding grounds" for widespread fatigue damage. Therefore, the effectiveness of lap joint inspection programs may be enhanced if detailed inspections are focused on areas in which debonding has been detected.

  13. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Use in Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous wrp to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in Life Extending Controls (LEC) studies. The work is based on zero mean stress local strain cyclic damage modeling. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modeling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models are also presented. Application of these models to LEC applications is considered. Progress toward a nonzero mean stress based continuum model is presented. Also, new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are also derived for this case.

  14. Fatigue damage prognosis using affine arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbaguidi, Audrey; Kim, Daewon

    2014-02-01

    Among the essential steps to be taken in structural health monitoring systems, damage prognosis would be the field that is least investigated due to the complexity of the uncertainties. This paper presents the possibility of using Affine Arithmetic for uncertainty propagation of crack damage in damage prognosis. The structures examined are thin rectangular plates made of titanium alloys with central mode I cracks and a composite plate with an internal delamination caused by mixed mode I and II fracture modes, under a harmonic uniaxial loading condition. The model-based method for crack growth rates are considered using the Paris Erdogan law model for the isotropic plates and the delamination growth law model proposed by Kardomateas for the composite plate. The parameters for both models are randomly taken and their uncertainties are considered as defined by an interval instead of a probability distribution. A Monte Carlo method is also applied to check whether Affine Arithmetic (AA) leads to tight bounds on the lifetime of the structure.

  15. Application of cyclic damage accumulation life prediction model to high temperature components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A high temperature, low cycle fatigue life prediction method was developed. This method, Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA), was developed for use in predicting the crack initiation lifetime of gas turbine engine materials, but it can be applied to other materials as well. The method is designed to account for the effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loading such as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, waveshapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features of this model were developed to make it practical for application to actual component analysis, such as the ability to handle nonisothermal loading (including TMF), arbitrary cycle paths, and multiple damage modes. The CDA life prediction model was derived from extensive specimen tests conducted on cast nickel-base superalloy B1900 + Hf. These included both monotonic tests (tensile and creep) and strain-controlled fatigue experiments (uniaxial, biaxial, TMF, mixed creep-fatigue, and controlled mean stress). Additional specimen tests were conducted on wrought INCO 718 to verify the applicability of the final CDA model to other high-temperature alloys. The model will be available to potential users in the near future in the form of a FORTRAN-77 computer program.

  16. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  17. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  18. Fatigue damage initiation in Waspaloy under complex cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Latif, A.; Ferney, V.; Saanouni, K.

    1999-07-01

    The low-cycle fatigue damage initiation i n Waspaloy under complex cyclic loading (out-of-phase) is studied from experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Special emphasis is put on the transgranular damage development and results are compared to those reproduced in the literature. A physico-phenomenological model based on slip theory is used to predict the damage initiation lives as well as the directional aspect of the damage distribution. In this model, the micro-damage is supposed to initiate and then evolve on the activated crystallographic slip systems. The theoretical results are compared to both the experimental ones concerning the same material (Waspaloy) as well as other experimental results extracted from the literature.

  19. Deformation history and load sequence effects on cumulative fatigue damage and life predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Julie

    Fatigue loading seldom involves constant amplitude loading. This is especially true in the cooling systems of nuclear power plants, typically made of stainless steel, where thermal fluctuations and water turbulent flow create variable amplitude loads, with presence of mean stresses and overloads. These complex loading sequences lead to the formation of networks of microcracks (crazing) that can propagate. As stainless steel is a material with strong deformation history effects and phase transformation resulting from plastic straining, such load sequence and variable amplitude loading effects are significant to its fatigue behavior and life predictions. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cyclic deformation on fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304L as a deformation history sensitive material and determine how to quantify and accumulate fatigue damage to enable life predictions under variable amplitude loading conditions for such materials. A comprehensive experimental program including testing under fully-reversed, as well as mean stress and/or mean strain conditions, with initial or periodic overloads, along with step testing and random loading histories was conducted on two grades of stainless steel 304L, under both strain-controlled and load-controlled conditions. To facilitate comparisons with a material without deformation history effects, similar tests were also carried out on aluminum 7075-T6. Experimental results are discussed, including peculiarities observed with stainless steel behavior, such as a phenomenon, referred to as secondary hardening characterized by a continuous increase in the stress response in a strain-controlled test and often leading to runout fatigue life. Possible mechanisms for secondary hardening observed in some tests are also discussed. The behavior of aluminum is shown not to be affected by preloading, whereas the behavior of stainless steel is greatly influenced by prior loading. Mean stress relaxation in

  20. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fatigue and Thermal Damage in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of evaluating composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a structure, an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb wave measurements can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper describes two studies which monitor fatigue damage and two studies which monitor thermal damage in composites using Lamb waves. In the fatigue studies, the Lamb wave velocity is compared to modulus measurements obtained using strain gage measurements in the first experiment and the velocity is monitored along with the crack density in the second. In the thermal damage studies, one examines samples which were exposed to varying temperatures for a three minute duration and the second includes rapid thermal damage in composites by intense laser beams. In all studies, the Lamb wave velocity is demonstrated to be an excellent method to monitor damage in composites.

  1. Thermal fatigue damage of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Mitra, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rotti, C.; Ray, K. K.

    2013-11-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to examine thermal fatigue damage (TFD) in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys used in High Heat Flux components of Tokamak and its subsystems. Thermal fatigue experiments have been carried out between 290 °C and 30 °C, which is analogous to the condition of service application on two Cu-Cr-Zr alloys having different aging treatments. The extents of TFD have been examined by standard measurements of electrical conductivity, lattice strain, residual stress and dynamic elastic modulus, supplemented by characterizations of microstructure and determination of hardness and tensile properties. The results lead to infer that the relative amounts of damage are different in the two alloys which are further dependent on their aging conditions; the reasons for the observed difference have been explained. The operative mechanisms of TFD are revealed to be as formation and subsequent coalescence of microvoids, and/or initiation and growth of microcracks.

  2. Fatigue Crack Growth Database for Damage Tolerance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.; Shivakumar, V.; Cardinal, J. W.; Williams, L. C.; McKeighan, P. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project was to begin the process of developing a fatigue crack growth database (FCGD) of metallic materials for use in damage tolerance analysis of aircraft structure. For this initial effort, crack growth rate data in the NASGRO (Registered trademark) database, the United States Air Force Damage Tolerant Design Handbook, and other publicly available sources were examined and used to develop a database that characterizes crack growth behavior for specific applications (materials). The focus of this effort was on materials for general commercial aircraft applications, including large transport airplanes, small transport commuter airplanes, general aviation airplanes, and rotorcraft. The end products of this project are the FCGD software and this report. The specific goal of this effort was to present fatigue crack growth data in three usable formats: (1) NASGRO equation parameters, (2) Walker equation parameters, and (3) tabular data points. The development of this FCGD will begin the process of developing a consistent set of standard fatigue crack growth material properties. It is envisioned that the end product of the process will be a general repository for credible and well-documented fracture properties that may be used as a default standard in damage tolerance analyses.

  3. Nonlinear ultrasound modelling and validation of fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, G. P. Malfense; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Onder, E.; Meo, M.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear ultrasound techniques have shown greater sensitivity to microcracks and they can be used to detect structural damages at their early stages. However, there is still a lack of numerical models available in commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools that are able to simulate the interaction of elastic waves with the materials nonlinear behaviour. In this study, a nonlinear constitutive material model was developed to predict the structural response under continuous harmonic excitation of a fatigued isotropic sample that showed anharmonic effects. Particularly, by means of Landau's theory and Kelvin tensorial representation, this model provided an understanding of the elastic nonlinear phenomena such as the second harmonic generation in three-dimensional solid media. The numerical scheme was implemented and evaluated using a commercially available FEA software LS-DYNA, and it showed a good numerical characterisation of the second harmonic amplitude generated by the damaged region known as the nonlinear response area (NRA). Since this process requires only the experimental second-order nonlinear parameter and rough damage size estimation as an input, it does not need any baseline testing with the undamaged structure or any dynamic modelling of the fatigue crack growth. To validate this numerical model, the second-order nonlinear parameter was experimentally evaluated at various points over the fatigue life of an aluminium (AA6082-T6) coupon and the crack propagation was measured using an optical microscope. A good correlation was achieved between the experimental set-up and the nonlinear constitutive model.

  4. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... evaluation of the strength, detail design, and fabrication must show that catastrophic failure due to...

  5. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... evaluation of the strength, detail design, and fabrication must show that catastrophic failure due to...

  6. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... evaluation of the strength, detail design, and fabrication must show that catastrophic failure due to...

  7. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue... evaluation of the strength, detail design, and fabrication must show that catastrophic failure due to...

  8. Modeling of thermo-mechanical fatigue and damage in shape memory alloy axial actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Hartl, Darren J.; Chemisky, Yves; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2015-04-01

    The aerospace, automotive, and energy industries have seen the potential benefits of using shape memory alloys (SMAs) as solid state actuators. Thus far, however, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components or over-designed due to a lack of understanding regarding how SMAs undergo thermomechanical or actuation fatigue and the inability to accurately predict failure in an actuator during use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the actuation fatigue response of Nickel-Titanium-Hafnium (NiTiHf) axial actuators and, in turn, use this characterization to predict failure and monitor damage in dogbone actuators undergoing various thermomechanical loading paths. Calibration data was collected from constant load, full cycle tests ranging from 200-600MPa. Subsequently, actuator lifetimes were predicted for four additional loading paths. These loading paths consisted of linearly varying load with full transformation (300-500MPa) and step loads which transition from zero stress to 300-400MPa at various martensitic volume fractions. Thermal cycling was achieved via resistive heating and convective cooling and was controlled via a state machine developed in LabVIEW. A previously developed fatigue damage model, which is formulated such that the damage accumulation rate is general in terms of its dependence on current and local stress and actuation strain states, was utilized. This form allows the model to be utilized for specimens undergoing complex loading paths. Agreement between experiments and simulations is discussed.

  9. The effect of yield strength and ductility to fatigue damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The cumulative damage of aluminium alloys with different yield strength and various ductility due to seismic loads was studied. The responses of an idealized beam with a centered mass at one end and fixed at the other end to El Centro's and Taft's earthquakes are computed by assuming that the alloys are perfectly elastoplastic materials and by using numerical technique. Consequently, the corresponding residual plastic strain can be obtained from the stress-strain relationship. The revised Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage theorem is utilized to calculate the fatigue damage. The numerical results show that in certain cases, the high ductility materials are more resistant to seismic loads than the high yield strength materials. The results also show that if a structure collapse during the earthquake, the collapse always occurs in the very early stage.

  10. Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.; Ashcroft, I. A.

    2011-07-01

    Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.

  11. A study of fatigue damage mechanisms in Waspaloy from 25 to 800 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, B. A.; Jayaraman, N.; Antolovich, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of various microstructures on the fatigue and damage accumulation behavior of Waspaloy, a nickel-base alloy commonly used in aircraft engines. Shearing was the dominant deformation mode in specimens with coarse grains and small (50-80 A) gamma prime particles, whereas Orowan looping was dominant in fine-grained specimens with large (about 900 A) gamma prime particles. At temperatures up to 500 C, cracks initiated transgranularly, while at 800 C the failure process was intergranular for both coarse-grained and fine-grained specimens. At temperatures above 500 C, a significant decrease in the fatigue life was observed for both coarse-grained and fine-grained material.

  12. Damage evolution in metal matrix composites subjected to thermomechanical fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Hurtado, L.D.; Helms, K.L.E.

    1995-05-01

    A thermomechanical analysis of unidirectional continuous fiber metal matrix composites is presented. The analysis includes the effects of processing induced residual thermal stresses, interface cracking, and inelastic matrix behavior on damage evolution. Due to the complexity of the nonlinear effects, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. The interface fracture is modeled by a nonlinear constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized and results are presented for a four-ply unidirectional SCS-6/{beta}21S titanium composite under high temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue.

  13. Transition from dislocation glide to creep controlled damage in fatigued thin Cu films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, C.; Volkert, C. A.

    2013-09-01

    The ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of supported Cu films with thicknesses between 40 and 360 nm has been investigated using a novel atomic force microscope (AFM)-based resonance method. The damage created under strain controlled fatigue loading is investigated as a function of applied strain, film thickness, and cycle numbers up to 5 × 1010. For films thicker than 100 nm, extrusions and boundary cracks limit the fatigue performance but only appear above a threshold in the applied strain amplitude which scales inversely with the square root of the film thickness. The extrusion formation is attributed to dislocation activation. The grain boundary cracks are replaced by grain boundary grooves in films of 100 nm and thinner. The grooves are believed to form by diffusion mediated creep processes, similar to observations at higher temperatures but here driven by cyclic stresses and capillarity, and become detectable once the accumulated plastic strain exceeds a critical value. These results indicate that due to creep processes, thinner films can be less resistant to fatigue than thicker films, particularly for large cycle numbers.

  14. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  15. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  16. Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    The need for safe, lightweight, less expensive, and more reliable launch vehicle components is being driven by the competitiveness of the commercial launch market. The United States has lost 2/3 of the commercial lunch market to Europe. As low cost Russian and Chinese vehicles become available, the US market share could be reduced even further. This international climate is driving the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program at NASA. The goal of the SSTO program is to radically reduce the cost of safe, routine transportation to and from space with a totally reusable launch vehicle designed for low-cost aircraft-like operations. Achieving this goal will require more efficient uses of materials. Composite materials can provide this program with the material and structural efficiencies needed to stay competitive in the international launch market place. In satellite systems the high specific properties, design flexibility, improved corrosion and wear resistance, increased fatigue life, and low coefficient of thermal expansion that are characteristic of composite materials can all be used to improve the overall satellite performance. Some of the satellites that may be able to take advantage of these performance characteristics are the Tethered Satellite Systems (TOSCIFER, AIRSEDS, TSS2, SEDS1, and SEDS2), AXAF, GRO, and the next generation Hubble Space Telescope. These materials can also be utilized in projects at the NASAIMSFC Space Optics Technology and System Center of Excellence. The successful implementation of composite materials requires accurate performance characterization. Materials characterization data for composite materials is typically generated using flat coupons of finite width. At the free edge of these coupons the stress state is exacerbated by the presence of stiffness and geometric discontinuities. The exacerbated stress state has been shown to dominate the damage accumulation in these materials and to have a profound affect on the material constants

  17. Fatigue and Mechanical Damage Propagation in Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banan, Roshanak

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are generally exposed to high magnitude road-induced vibrations and impact loads, frequent humidity-temperature loading cycles, and freeze/thaw stresses when employed in automotive applications. The resultant mechanical stresses can play a significant role in the evolution of mechanical defects in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The focus of this research is to investigate fatigue challenges due to humidity-temperature (hygrothermal) cycles and vibrations and their effects on damage evolution in PEM fuel cells. To achieve this goal, this thesis is divided into three parts that provide insight into damage propagation in the MEA under i) hygrothermal cycles, ii) external applied vibrations, and iii) a combination of both to simulate realistic automotive conditions. A finite element damage model based on cohesive zone theory was developed to simulate the propagation of micro-scale defects (cracks and delaminations) in the MEA under fuel cell operating conditions. It was found that the micro-defects can propagate to critical states under start-up and shut-down cycles, prior to reaching the desired lifespan of the fuel cell. The simultaneous presence of hygrothermal cycles and vibrations severely intensified damage propagation and resulted in considerably large defects within 75% of the fuel cell life expectancy. However, the order of generated damage was found to be larger under hygrothermal cycles than vibrations. Under hygrothermal cycles, membrane crack propagation was more severe compared to delamination propagation. Conversely, the degrading influence of vibrations was more significant on delaminations. The presence of an anode/cathode channel offset under the combined loadings lead to a 2.5-fold increase in the delamination length compared to the aligned-channel case. The developed model can be used to investigate the damage behaviour of current materials employed in fuel cells as well as to evaluate the

  18. Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of fatigue microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Matthew D; Li, Jiliang; Turnbull, Travis L; Burr, David B; Niebur, Glen L; Roeder, Ryan K

    2011-03-01

    Conventional methods used to image and quantify microdamage accumulation in bone are limited to histological sections, which are inherently invasive, destructive, two-dimensional, and tedious. These limitations inhibit investigation of microdamage accumulation with respect to volumetric spatial variation in mechanical loading, bone mineral density, and microarchitecture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate non-destructive, three-dimensional (3-D) detection of microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to validate micro-CT measurements against conventional histological methods. Unloaded controls and specimens loaded in cyclic uniaxial tension to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus were labeled with a precipitated BaSO₄ stain for micro-CT and basic fuchsin for histomorphometry. Linear microcracks were similarly labeled by BaSO₄ and basic fuchsin as shown by backscattered electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The higher X-ray attenuation of BaSO₄ relative to the bone extracellular matrix provided enhanced contrast for the detection of damage that was otherwise not able to be detected by micro-CT prior to staining. Therefore, contrast-enhanced micro-CT was able to nondestructively detect the presence, 3-D spatial location, and accumulation of fatigue microdamage in human cortical bone specimens in vitro. Microdamage accumulation was quantified on segmented micro-CT reconstructions as the ratio of BaSO₄ stain volume (SV) to total bone volume (BV). The amount of microdamage measured by both micro-CT (SV/BV) and histomorphometry (Cr.N, Cr.Dn, Cr.S.Dn) progressively increased from unloaded controls to specimens loaded to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus (p < 0.001). Group means for micro-CT measurements of damage accumulation were strongly correlated to those using histomorphometry (p < 0.05), validating the new methods. Limitations of the new

  19. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in titanium 6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeelani, S.; Ghebremedhin, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using titanium 6Al-4V alloy under stress ratios of -1, 0, and negative infinity. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's (1945) and Kramer's (1974) equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high mixed, high-low, and high-low mixed stress sequences has revealed close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than does the popularly used Miner's rule.

  20. Investigation of Gear and Bearing Fatigue Damage Using Debris Particle Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to spur gears, spiral bevel gears, and rolling element bearings. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig, Spiral Bevel Gear Test Facility, and the 500hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. During each test, data from an online, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of pitting damage. Results indicate oil debris alone cannot discriminate between bearing and gear fatigue damage.

  1. 77 FR 30877 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage,'' (75 FR 69746). In that final rule the FAA revised the... actions (see Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations, 72 FR 70486). Change to Table 1 of Sec... Administration 14 CFR Parts 26, 121, and 129 RIN 2120-AI05 Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue...

  2. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation of commuter category airplanes. 23.574 Section 23.574 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes. For commuter category airplanes— (a) Metallic damage tolerance....

  3. 75 FR 793 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...This proposal would revise airworthiness standards for type certification requirements of normal and transport category rotorcraft. The amendment would require evaluation of fatigue and residual static strength of composite rotorcraft structures using a damage tolerance evaluation, or a fatigue evaluation, if the applicant establishes that a damage tolerance evaluation is impractical. The......

  4. Dose rate effects during damage accumulation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-11-01

    The authors combine molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study damage accumulation and dose rate effects during irradiation of silicon. They obtain the initial stage of the damage produced by heavy and light ions using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While heavy ions like As or Pt induce amorphization by single ion impact, light ions like B only produce point defects or small clusters of defects. The amorphous pockets generated by heavy ions are stable below room temperature and recrystallize at temperatures below the threshold for recrystallization of a planar amorphous-crystalline interface. The damage accumulation during light ion irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo model for defect diffusion. In this approach, the authors study the damage in the lattice as a function of dose and dose rate. A strong reduction in the total number of defects left in the lattice is observed for lower dose rates.

  5. Dose rate effects during damage accumulation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-01-01

    We combine molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study damage accumulation and dose rate effects during irradiation of Silicon. We obtain the initial stage of the damage produced by heavy and light ions using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While heavy ions like As or Pt induce amorphization by single ion impact, light ions like B only produce point defects or small clusters of defects. The amorphous pockets generated by heavy ions are stable below room temperature and recrystallize at temperatures below the threshold for recrystallization of a planar amorphous-crystalline interface. The damage accumulation during light ion irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo model for defect diffusion. In this approach, we study the damage in the lattice as a function of dose and dose rate. A strong reduction in the total number of defects left in the lattice is observed for lower dose rates.

  6. A SMALL-SCALE DAMAGE APPROACH TO PREDICT FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN CERAMIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-05-19

    This paper proposes a small-scale damage modeling approach to predict fatigue crack growth in ceramic materials. A fatigue damage model is formulated that uses two variables. One variable is the scalar damage variable governing the reduction of stiffness, and the other is the number of cycles. The damage evolution law is obtained based on thermodynamics of continuous media and a damage criterion containing a damage threshold function that depends on the damage variable and the cyclic loading parameters. The model has been implemented into the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in a modified boundary layer (MBL) modeling approach to analyze fatigue crack growth in a small fracture process zone situated at an initial crack tip. The model application is illustrated through an analysis of fatigue crack growth in an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia material.

  7. Estimation of Temperature Conductivity Coefficient Impact upon Fatigue Damage of Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibik, V.; Galeeva, A.

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we consider the peculiarities of adhesive wear of cutting tools. Simulation of heat flows in the cutting zone showed that, as thermal conduction and heat conductivity of tool material grow, the heat flows from the front and back surfaces to tool holder will increase and so, the temperature of the contact areas of the tool will lower. When estimating the adhesive wear rate of cemented-carbide tool under the cutting rates corresponding to the cutting temperature of up to 900 °C, it is necessary to take the fatigue character of adhesive wear into consideration. The process of accumulation and development of fatigue damage is associated with micro- and macroplastic flowing of material, which is determined by the processes of initiation, motion, generation, and elimination of line defects - dislocations. Density of dislocations grows with increase of the loading cycles amount and increase of load amplitude. Growth of dislocations density leads to loosening of material, formation of micro- and macrocracks. The heat capacity of material grows as the loosening continues. In the given paper the authors prove theoretically that temperature conductivity coefficient which is associated with heat capacity of material, decreases as fatigue wear grows.

  8. Fatigue damage in cross-ply titanium metal matrix composites containing center holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.; Bigelow, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The development of fatigue damage in (0/90) sub SCS-6/TI-15-3 laminates containing center holes was studied. Stress levels required for crack initiation in the matrix were predicted using an effective strain parameter and compared to experimental results. Damage progression was monitored at various stages of fatigue loading. In general, a saturated state of damage consisting of matrix cracks and fiber matrix debonding was obtained which reduced the composite modulus. Matrix cracks were bridged by the 0 deg fibers. The fatigue limit (stress causing catastrophic fracture of the laminates) was also determined. The static and post fatigue residual strengths were accurately predicted using a three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The matrix damage that occurred during fatigue loading significantly reduced the notched strength.

  9. Fatigue damage assessment of high-usage in-service aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosinyi, Bao Rasebolai

    As the commercial and military aircraft fleets continue to age, there is a growing concern that multiple-site damage (MSD) can compromise structural integrity. Multiple site damage is the simultaneous occurrence of many small cracks at independent structural locations, and is the natural result of fatigue, corrosion, fretting and other possible damage mechanisms. These MSD cracks may linkup and form a fatigue lead crack of critical length. The presence of MSD also reduces the structure's ability to withstand longer cracks. The objective of the current study is to assess, both experimentally and analytically, MSD formation and growth in the lap joint of curved panels removed from a retired aircraft. A Boeing 727-232 airplane owned and operated by Delta Air Lines, and retired at its design service goal, was selected for the study. Two panels removed from the left-hand side of the fuselage crown, near stringer 4L, were subjected to extended fatigue testing using the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center. The state of MSD was continuously assessed using several nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. Damage to the load attachment points of the first panel resulted in termination of the fatigue test at 43,500 fatigue cycles, before cracks had developed in the lap joint. The fatigue test for the second panel was initially conducted under simulated in-service loading conditions for 120,000 cycles, and no cracks were detected in the skin of the panel test section. Artificial damage was then introduced into the panel at selected rivets in the critical (lower) rivet row, and the fatigue loads were increased. Visually detectable crack growth from the artificial notches was first seen after 133,000 cycles. The resulting lead crack grew along the lower rivet row, eventually forming an 11.8" long unstable crack after 141,771 cycles, at which point the

  10. Acousto-ultrasonics-based fatigue damage characterization: Linear versus nonlinear signal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhongqing; Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Cheng, Li; Wang, Qiang; Qing, Xinlin

    2014-03-01

    Engineering structures are prone to fatigue damage over service lifespan, entailing early detection and continuous monitoring of the fatigue damage from its initiation through growth. A hybrid approach for characterizing fatigue damage was developed, using two genres of damage indices constructed based on the linear and the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves. The feasibility, precision and practicability of using linear and nonlinear signal features, for quantitatively evaluating multiple barely visible fatigue cracks in a metallic structure, was compared. Miniaturized piezoelectric elements were networked to actively generate and acquire acousto-ultrasonic waves. The active sensing, in conjunction with a diagnostic imaging algorithm, enabled quantitative evaluation of fatigue damage and facilitated embeddable health monitoring. Results unveiled that the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves outperform their linear counterparts in terms of the detectability. Despite the deficiency in perceiving small-scale damage and the possibility of conveying false alarms, linear features show advantages in noise tolerance and therefore superior practicability. The comparison has consequently motivated an amalgamation of linear and nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves, targeting the prediction of multi-scale damage ranging from microscopic fatigue cracks to macroscopic gross damage.

  11. Cumulative creep-fatigue damage evolution in an austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of cumulative creep-fatigue damage has been developed which is based on the use of damage curve equations to describe the evolution of creep-fatigue damage for four basic creep-fatigue cycle types. These cycle types correspond to the four fundamental cycles of the Strain Range Partitioning Life Prediction approach of Manson, Halford, and Hirschberg. A concept referred to as Damage Coupling is introduced to analytically account for the differences in the nature of the damage introduced by each cycle type. For application of this model, the cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of type 316 stainless steel at 816 C has been experimentally established for the two-level loading cases involving fatigue and creep-fatigue, in various permutations. The tests were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first, for a controlled number of cycles, and the higher life (lower strain) cycling was conducted at the second level, to failure. The proposed model correlated the majority of the observed cumulative creep-fatigue data.

  12. Microstructure: Property correlation. [multiaxial fatigue damage evolution in waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, N.

    1990-01-01

    Strain controlled torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) low cycle fatigue behavior of Waspaloy was studied at room temperature as a function of heat treatment. Biaxial tests were conducted under proportional (when the axial and torsional strain cycles are in-phase) and non-proportional (when the axial and torsional strain cycles are 90 deg out-of-phase) cyclic conditions. The deformation behavior under these different cyclic conditions were evaluated by slip trace analysis. For this, a Schmidt-type factor was defined for multiaxial loading conditions and it was shown that when the slip deformation is predominant, non-proportional cycles are more damaging than proportional or pure axial or torsional cycles. This was attributed to the fact that under non-proportional cyclic conditions, deformation was through multiple slip as opposed single slip for other loading conditions, which gave rise to increased hardening. The total life for a given test condition was found to be independent of heat treatment. This was interpreted as being due to the differences in the cycles to initiation and propagation of cracks.

  13. 14 CFR 27.573 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures. 27.573 Section 27.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Fatigue Evaluation §...

  14. 14 CFR 29.573 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures. 29.573 Section 29.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Fatigue Evaluation...

  15. Evaluation of a threshold-based model of fatigue in gamma titanium aluminide following impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Trevor Scott

    2000-10-01

    Recent interest in gamma titanium aluminide (gamma-TiAl) for use in gas turbine engine applications has centered on the low density and good elevated temperature strength retention of gamma-TiAl compared to current materials. However, the relatively low ductility and fracture toughness of gamma-TiAl leads to serious concerns regarding its ability to resist impact damage. Furthermore, the limited fatigue crack growth resistance of gamma-TiAl means that the potential for fatigue failures resulting from impact damage is real if a damage tolerant design approach is used. A threshold-based design approach may be required if fatigue crack growth from potential impact sites is to be avoided. The objective of the present research is to examine the feasibility of a threshold-based approach for the design of a gamma-TiAl low-pressure turbine blade subjected to both assembly-related impact damage and foreign object damage. Specimens of three different gamma-TiAl alloys were damaged in such a way as to simulate anticipated impact damage for a turbine blade. Step-loading fatigue tests were conducted at both room temperature and 600°C. In terms of the assembly-related impact damage, the results indicate that there is reasonably good agreement between the threshold-based predictions of the fatigue strength of damaged specimens and the measured data. However, some discrepancies do exist. In the case of very lightly damaged specimens, prediction of the resulting fatigue strength requires that a very conservative small-crack fatigue threshold be used. Consequently, the allowable design conditions are significantly reduced. For severely damaged specimens, an analytical approach found that the potential effects of residual stresses may be related to the discrepancies observed between the threshold-based model and measured fatigue strength data. In the case of foreign object damage, a good correlation was observed between impacts resulting in large cracks and a long-crack threshold

  16. Fatigue crack growth spectrum simplification: Facilitation of on-board damage prognosis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Matthew Adam

    2009-12-01

    Better lifetime predictions of systems subjected to fatigue loading are needed in support of the optimization of the costs of life-cycle engineering. In particular, the climate is especially encouraging for the development of safer aircraft. One issue is that aircraft experience complex fatigue loading and current methods for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation rely on intensive computational tools that are not currently carried onboard during flight. These tools rely on complex models that are made more difficult by the complicated load spectra themselves. This presents an overhead burden as offline analysis must be performed at an offsite facility. This architecture is thus unable to provide online, timely information for on-board use. The direct objective of this research was to facilitate the real-time fatigue damage assessments of on-board systems with a particular emphasis on aging aircraft. To achieve the objective, the goal of this research was to simplify flight spectra. Variable-amplitude spectra, in which the load changes on a cycle-by-cycle basis, cannot readily be supported by an onboard system because the models required to predict fatigue crack growth during variable-amplitude loading are too complicated. They are too complicated because variable-amplitude fatigue crack growth analysis must be performed on a cycle-by-cycle basis as no closed-form solution exists. This makes these calculations too time-consuming and requires impractical, heavy onboard systems or offsite facilities. The hypothesis is to replace a variable-amplitude spectrum with an equivalent constant-amplitude spectrum. The advantage is a dramatic reduction in the complexity of the problem so that damage predictions can be made onboard by simple, fast calculations in real-time without the need to add additional weight to the aircraft. The intent is to reduce the computational burden and facilitate on-board projection of damage evolution and prediction for the accurate

  17. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements with EMATs for detecting pre-cracking fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, A.; Capps, M.; Duffer, C.; Feiger, J.; Robinson, K.; Hollingshaus, B.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for measuring material degradation using nonlinear acoustics. The importance of this measurement is that prior efforts have shown that the degree of acoustic nonlinearity increases as a function of fatigue damage accumulation. By exploiting this physical mechanism, there is the potential to develop methods for measuring the remaining life of critical components. The challenge with existing approaches for measuring acoustic nonlinearity is that primarily they have only been shown to be successful in a laboratory setting. This paper presents a potential approach for field measurement of acoustic nonlinearity that utilizes Rayleigh waves generated from electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). Rayleigh waves have unique advantages because the sound propagates along the surface, allowing for application on complex engineering structures. EMATs were used in place of traditional piezoelectric transducers because the sound is generated directly in the metallic structure, eliminating the need for sound coupling fluids that are a source of variability. Custom EMATs were developed and nonlinearity measurements were performed on 410 stainless steel specimens that were subjected to a fatigue process. Some experiments showed an increase in the acoustic nonlinearity of up to 500% compared to the unfatigued value. Other experiments had too much scatter and did not show this relationship consistently due to unanticipated challenges in producing repeatable measurements. Lessons learned from the project effort will be presented to potentially improve the repeatability of the measurement approach. If the scatter can be reduced, this EMAT-based technique could result in a field deployable prognosis tool.

  18. Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Friction Stir Spot Welded Cross-Tension Joints Under Repeated Two-Step Force Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy-A-Ka, Sutep; Ogawa, Yuki; Akebono, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Sugeta, Atsushi; Sun, Yufeng; Fujii, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates an approach to evaluate the fatigue damage of FSSW cross-tension specimens under two-step force amplitude conditions. In fatigue tests with repeated two-step force amplitude, the fatigue limit of the welded joint disappeared. However, the fatigue damage evaluation using the modified Miner's rule erred too much on the side of safety, as the modified Miner's rule tends to overestimate the damage by applied forces below the fatigue limit. Thus, it was determined that, within the testing conditions used in this study, the fatigue damage evaluation using Haibach's method yielded an accurate evaluation. In the case where significant plastic deformation caused by the applied force occurred near the welded zone, the cumulative fatigue damage value based on Miner's rule was often larger than unity. Therefore, it is important to consider a cumulative damage estimation that takes into account the effect of pre-strain from the high force amplitude.

  19. Fatigue damage prognosis of a cruciform structure under biaxial random and flight profile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Peralta, Pedro; Quech, Dan

    2010-04-01

    The accurate estimation of fatigue life of metallic structural components in service environments is still a challenge for the aircraft designer or fleet manager. Majority of the current available fatigue life prediction models has deficiency to accurately predict damage under random or flight profile service loads. The inherent accuracy is due to the stochastic nature of crack propagation in metallic structure. In addition, currently no generic prediction model available accounting the load interaction effects due to variable loading. In the present paper we discus the use of a Generic Bayesian framework based Gaussian process approach to probabilistically predict the fatigue damage under complex random and flight profile loading.

  20. Fatigue damage evaluation of plain woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) modified with MFC (micro-fibrillated cellulose) by thermo-elastic damage analysis (TDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Ryohei; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate characteristics of fatigue damage of CFRP modified with MFC by TDA under tensile cyclic loading. In this paper, fatigue life of CFRP modified with MFC was investigated under cyclic loading. Characteristics of fatigue damage of CFRP modified with MFC were evaluated by thermo-elastic damage analysis. Maximum improvement in fatigue life was also obtained under cyclic loading when epoxy matrix was enhanced with 0.3wt% of MFC as well as under static loading. Result of TDA showed same tendency as the result of fatigue test, and the result of TDA well expressed the fatigue damage behavior of plain woven CFRP plate. Eventually, TDA was effective for clear understanding the degree of fatigue damage progression of CFRP modified with MFC.

  1. Comparative study of radiation damage accumulation in Cu and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caturla, M. J.; Soneda, N.; Alonso, E.; Wirth, B. D.; Díaz de la Rubia, T.; Perlado, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Bcc and fcc metals exhibit significant differences in behavior when exposed to neutron or heavy ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that damage in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) is visible in copper irradiated to very low doses, but that no damage is visible in iron irradiated to the same total dose. In order to understand and quantify this difference in behavior, we have simulated damage production and accumulation in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. We use 20 keV primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) at a homologous temperature of 0.25 of the melting point. The primary damage state was calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) with empirical, embedded-atom interatomic potentials. Damage accumulation was modeled using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm to follow the evolution of all defects produced in the cascades. The diffusivities and binding energies of defects are input data for this simulation and were either extracted from experiments, the literature, or calculated using MD. MD simulations reveal that vacancy clusters are produced within the cascade core in the case of copper. In iron, most of the vacancies do not cluster during cooling of the cascade core and are available for diffusion. In addition, self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are produced in copper cascades but those observed in iron are smaller in number and size. The combined MD/kMC simulations reveal that the visible cluster densities obtained as a function of dose are at least one order of magnitude lower in Fe than in Cu. We compare the results with experimental measurements of cluster density and find excellent agreement between the simulations and experiments when small interstitial clusters are considered to be mobile as suggested by recent MD simulations.

  2. Numerical Simulation for Predicting Fatigue Damage Progress in Notched CFRP Laminates by Using Cohesive Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Tomonaga; Yashiro, Shigeki

    This study proposes the cohesive zone model (CZM) for predicting fatigue damage growth in notched carbon-fiber-reinforced composite plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. In this model, damage growth in the fracture process of cohesive elements due to cyclic loading is represented by the conventional damage mechanics model. We preliminarily investigated whether this model can appropriately express fatigue damage growth for a circular crack embedded in isotropic solid material. This investigation demonstrated that this model could reproduce the results with the well-established fracture mechanics model plus the Paris' law by tuning adjustable parameters. We then numerically investigated the damage process in notched CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with those in experiments reported by Spearing et al. (Compos. Sci. Technol. 1992). The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results, which exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (e.g., splits, transverse cracks and delaminations) near the notches.

  3. Comparative study of approaches to assess damage in thermally fatigued Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Mitra, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rotti, C.; Ray, K. K.

    2016-06-01

    For the first time the nature of response of thermal fatigue damage (TFD) in Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloys, considered for the High Heat Flux components of Tokamak and its subsystems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor application has been studied. Temperature cycling between 290 °C and 30 °C, similar to the service condition, has been carried out on two differently aged Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloys. The TFD has been assessed by damage mechanics approach using damage parameters, and by surface characteristics. The damage parameters increase exponentially during initial fatigue cycles and saturates, whilst surface characteristics shows continuous increase with increase in thermal fatigue cycles. Damages are different in the aged alloys depending upon the aging conditions.

  4. A coupled/uncoupled deformation and fatigue damage algorithm utilizing the finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, T.E.; Arnold, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    A fatigue damage computational algorithm utilizing a multiaxial, isothermal, continuum based fatigue damage model for unidirectional metal matrix composites has been implemented into the commercial finite element code MARC using MARC user subroutines. Damage is introduced into the finite element solution through the concept of effective stress which fully couples the fatigue damage calculations with the finite element deformation solution. An axisymmetric stress analysis was performed on a circumferentially reinforced ring, wherein both the matrix cladding and the composite core were assumed to behave elastic-perfectly plastic. The composite core behavior was represented using Hill's anisotropic continuum based plasticity model, and similarly, the matrix cladding was represented by an isotropic plasticity model. Results are presented in the form of S-N curves and damage distribution plots.

  5. A coupled/uncoupled deformation and fatigue damage algorithm utilizing the finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, Thomas E.; Arnold, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    A fatigue damage computational algorithm utilizing a multiaxial, isothermal, continuum based fatigue damage model for unidirectional metal matrix composites has been implemented into the commercial finite element code MARC using MARC user subroutines. Damage is introduced into the finite element solution through the concept of effective stress which fully couples the fatigue damage calculations with the finite element deformation solution. An axisymmetric stress analysis was performed on a circumferentially reinforced ring, wherein both the matrix cladding and the composite core were assumed to behave elastic-perfectly plastic. The composite core behavior was represented using Hill's anisotropic continuum based plasticity model, and similarly, the matrix cladding was represented by an isotropic plasticity model. Results are presented in the form of S-N curves and damage distribution plots.

  6. Damage mechanisms in bithermal and thermomechanical fatigue of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Halford, Gary R.

    1992-01-01

    Post failure fractographic and metallographic studies were conducted on Haynes 188 specimens fatigued under bithermal and thermomechanical loading conditions between 316 and 760 C. Bithermal fatigue specimens examined included those tested under high strain rate in-phase and out-phase, tensile creep in-phase, and compressive creep out-of-phase loading conditions. Specimens tested under in-phase and out-of-phase thermomechanical fatigue were also examined. The nature of failure mode (transgrandular versus intergranular), the topography of the fracture surface, and the roles of oxidation and metallurgical changes were studied for each type of bithermal and thermomechanical test.

  7. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  8. Differential continuum damage mechanics models for creep and fatigue of unidirectional metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Kruch, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three multiaxial isothermal continuum damage mechanics models for creep, fatigue, and creep/fatigue interaction of a unidirectional metal matrix composite volume element are presented, only one of which will be discussed in depth. Each model is phenomenological and stress based, with varying degrees of complexity to accurately predict the initiation and propagation of intergranular and transgranular defects over a wide range of loading conditions. The development of these models is founded on the definition of an initially transversely isotropic fatigue limit surface, static fracture surface, normalized stress amplitude function and isochronous creep damage failure surface, from which both fatigue and creep damage evolutionary laws can be obtained. The anisotropy of each model is defined through physically meaningful invariants reflecting the local stress and material orientation. All three transversely isotropic models have been shown, when taken to their isotropic limit, to directly simplify to previously developed and validated creep and fatigue continuum damage theories. Results of a nondimensional parametric study illustrate (1) the flexibility of the present formulation when attempting to characterize a large class of composite materials, and (2) its ability to predict anticipated qualitative trends in the fatigue behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites. Additionally, the potential for the inclusion of various micromechanical effects (e.g., fiber/matrix bond strength, fiber volume fraction, etc.), into the phenomenological anisotropic parameters is noted, as well as a detailed discussion regarding the necessary exploratory and characterization experiments needed to utilize the featured damage theories.

  9. Effect of Impact Damage on the Fatigue Response of TiAl Alloy-ABB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Nazmy, M. Y.; Staubli, M.; Clemens, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gamma-TiAl to withstand potential foreign or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma-TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. In the present study, the impact resistance of TiAl alloy ABB-2 was determined and compared to the impact resistance of Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr. Specimens were impacted with four different impact conditions with impact energies ranging from 0.22 to 6.09 J. After impacting, the impact damage was characterized by crack lengths on both the front and backside of the impact. Due to the flat nature of gamma-TiAl's S-N (stress vs. cycles to failure) curve, step fatigue tests were used to determine the fatigue strength after impacting. Impact damage increased with increasing impact energy and led to a reduction in the fatigue strength of the alloy. For similar crack lengths, the fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 was similar to the fatigue strength of impacted Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, even though the tensile properties of the two alloys are significantly different. Similar to Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, ABB-2 showed a classical mean stress dependence on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 could be accurately predicted using a threshold analysis.

  10. 14 CFR 25.571 - Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 25.571 Section 25.571 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., manufacturing defects, or accidental damage, will be avoided throughout the operational life of the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.571 - Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 25.571 Section 25.571 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... damage, will be avoided throughout the operational life of the airplane. This evaluation must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.571 - Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 25.571 Section 25.571 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., manufacturing defects, or accidental damage, will be avoided throughout the operational life of the...

  13. 14 CFR 25.571 - Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 25.571 Section 25.571 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., manufacturing defects, or accidental damage, will be avoided throughout the operational life of the...

  14. Fatigue life performance comparisons of tapered roller bearings with debris-damaged raceways{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, H.P.; Zantopulos, H.

    1995-09-01

    Debris-contaminated lubrication environments is inherent in many equipment applications and requires mechanical components that, as much as possible, are resistant to the potential effects of debris particles. Bearing fatigue life performance comparisons were made for various bearing materials and manufacturer origin, in order to assess the variability in performance of debris-damaged raceways. The evaluation was conducted using a repeatable debris-damaging process prior to fatigue testing of each group of bearings. The performance results reveal wide variations in the impact that debris damage can have on various bearing products and materials. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution of unnotched titanium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Her, Yung-Chiun

    Fatigue crack initiation, multiplication, matrix crack density evolution, and stiffness reduction of several unnotched SCS-6 silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium and titanium aluminide matrix composites have been investigated experimentally and analytically. The effects of the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer and fiber coating on fatigue crack initiation life, crack growth rate, and fatigue damage evolution of the composites were examined. Growth behavior of small fatigue cracks in TMCs was also studied carefully. It was found that fatigue crack initiation and multiplication of TMCs are strongly influenced by the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer. Fatigue crack will not develop from the micro-notches in the interfacial reaction layer until the thickness of the reaction layer exceeds a critical value. Matrix crack growth rate is affected by the applied stress level, however, it appears to be independent of the matrix material and heat treatment. The combined effects of fatigue crack multiplication and propagation result in stiffness degradation of the composites. The Ag/Ta duplex fiber coating significantly improves the transverse tensile and flexural creep resistance of the SCS-6/Ti-25-10 composite. However, the Ag/Ta-coated composite exhibits a shorter crack initiation life, higher number of matrix cracks, and higher crack growth rate than the uncoated composite. The embrittlement of the residual Ag/Ta layer suggests that Ag is not an effective diffusion barrier to prevent the interdiffusion of atomic species across the interface. The high interfacial cracking density and high interfacial bond strength in the Ag/Ta-coated SCS-6/Tisb3Al composite are believed to be responsible for its poor fatigue damage tolerance. For titanium alloys, the threshold intensity factor range, Delta Ksbth, for small fatigue cracks in the matrix alloys of TMCs has been determined to be between 0.9 ˜ 1.0 MPa*msp{1/2} which is much lower than that for long

  16. Improving Fatigue Damage Resistance of Alumina through Surface Grading

    PubMed Central

    Ren, L.; Liu, L.; Bhowmick, S.; Gerbig, Y.B.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Porcelain-veneered alumina crown restorations often fail from bulk fracture resulting from radial cracks that initiate at the cementation surface with repeated flexure of the stiffer crown layers on the soft dentin support. We hypothesized that bulk fracture may be substantially mitigated by grading the elastic modulus at the crown surfaces. In this study, we fabricated graded structures by infiltrating glass into dense alumina plates, resulting in a diminished modulus at the surface layers. The plates were then bonded to polycarbonate substrates and subjected to fatigue loading in water. Tests were terminated when fracture occurred at the cementation tensile surface or at the fatigue endurance limit (1 million cycles). Infiltrated specimens showed a significant increase in fatigue fracture loads over non-infiltrated controls. Our results indicate that controlled elastic gradients at the surface could be highly beneficial in the design of fracture-resistant alumina crowns. PMID:21555776

  17. Simplification of Fatigue Test Requirements for Damage Tolerance of Composite Interstage Launch Vehicle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of fatigue loading of structures composed of composite materials is considered in a requirements document that is currently in place for manned launch vehicles. By taking into account the short life of these parts, coupled with design considerations, it is demonstrated that the necessary coupon level fatigue data collapse to a static case. Data from a literature review of past studies that examined compressive fatigue loading after impact and data generated from this experimental study are presented to support this finding. Damage growth, in the form of infrared thermography, was difficult to detect due to rapid degradation of compressive properties once damage growth initiated. Unrealistically high fatigue amplitudes were needed to fail 5 of 15 specimens before 10,000 cycles were reached. Since a typical vehicle structure, such as the Ares I interstage, only experiences a few cycles near limit load, it is concluded that static compression after impact (CAI) strength data will suffice for most launch vehicle structures.

  18. An Intelligent Sensor System for Monitoring Fatigue Damage in Welded Steel Components

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, B.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, F. Michael

    2005-04-09

    A system for monitoring fatigue damage in steel components is described. The sensor, a thin steel sheet with a pre-crack in it, is attached to the component. Its crack length increases by fatigue in service and is recorded using a microcontroller. Measurement is accomplished using conductive tracks in a circuit whose output voltage changes when the crack propagates past a track. Data stored in memory can be remotely downloaded using Bluetooth{sup TM} technology to a PC.

  19. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-05-28

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A “mountain shape” correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The “mountain shape” correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  20. Analysis and prediction of Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A technique was developed to calculate the stress intensity factor for multiple interacting cracks. The analysis was verified through comparison with accepted methods of calculating stress intensity factors. The technique was incorporated into a fatigue crack growth prediction model and used to predict the fatigue crack growth life for multiple-site damage (MSD). The analysis was verified through comparison with experiments conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with multiple cracks. Configuration with nearly equal and unequal crack distribution were examined. The fatigue crack growth predictions agreed within 20 percent of the experimental lives for all crack configurations considered.

  1. Damage-based life prediction model for uniaxial low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-08-01

    Based on the experimental observations for the uniaxial low-cycle stress fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy microtubes (Song et al 2015 Smart Mater. Struct. 24 075004) and a new definition of damage variable corresponding to the variation of accumulated dissipation energy, a phenomenological damage model is proposed to describe the damage evolution of the NiTi microtubes during cyclic loading. Then, with a failure criterion of Dc = 1, the fatigue lives of the NiTi microtubes are predicted by the damage-based model, the predicted lives are in good agreement with the experimental ones, and all of the points are located within an error band of 1.5 times.

  2. Characterization of exposure dependent fatigue crack growth kinetics and damage mechanisms for aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Yunjo

    The effect of environmental exposure [given by the ratio of water vapor pressure to the loading frequency (PH2O/f)] on fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and damage mechanisms has been investigated for Al-Cu-Li/Mg alloys tested at constant stress intensity range (DeltaK = KMAX - KMIN). Different exposure dependences of the FCGR are explained by H-embrittlement and 3 rate-limiting processes that are similar for each alloy and aging condition. It is shown that the dislocation slip character (heterogeneous planar vs. wavy) controls FCGR at low to moderate exposures, rather than alloy composition and strengthening precipitate reactivity. However, the benefit of planar slip is significantly reduced at higher exposures. An SEM-based electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)/stereology method was used to successfully quantify changes in fatigue fracture surface crystallography as a function of exposure for a peak aged Al-Cu-Li alloy and an under-aged Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Near-{111} slip band cracking (SBC) observed under high vacuum conditions is gradually replaced by near-{001}/{011} and high index, {hkl}, cracking planes as PH2O/f is increased. The complete absence of near-{111} SBC at higher exposures suggests H enhanced decohesion rather than slip based damage process enhanced by H. This conclusion was substantiated by direct TEM observation. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling was used to produce thin foils for TEM, which successfully revealed the underlying dislocation structure at the crack surface and within surrounding materials in under-aged Al-Cu-Mg tested at exposure conditions of ˜10 -8 and 50 Pa·sec. Both conditions exhibit a similar layer of dislocation cells just below the fracture surface which abruptly changes to localized slip bands away from the fracture surface, confirming the presence of a strain gradient at the crack tip. However, the thickness of the substructure layer and slip band width observed at ˜10-8 Pa·sec was larger than those observed at 50 Pa

  3. An investigation on low frequency fatigue damage of mooring lines applied in a semi-submersible platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Junfeng; Wang, Shuqing; Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the fatigue life of mooring systems is important for deep water structures. In this paper, a comprehensive fatigue analysis is conducted on the mooring lines applied in a semi-submersible platform with special focus on the low frequency (LF) fatigue damage. Several influential factors, including water depth, wave spectral parameters, and riser system, are considered. Numerical simulation of a semi-submersible platform with the mooring/riser system is executed under different conditions, and the fatigue damage of mooring lines is assessed by using the time domain analysis method as a benchmark. The effects of these factors on the mooring line tension and the fatigue damage are investigated and discussed in detail. Research results indicate that the LF fatigue damage only accounts for a very small portion of the total damage, although the LF components dominate the global motion response and the mooring line tension of the semi-submersible platform. However, it is demonstrated that the LF fatigue damage is clearly affected by the influential factors. The increase in water depth and spectral peak periods, and the existence of risers can weaken the contribution of the LF components to the mooring line fatigue damage, while the fatigue damage due to the LF components increases with the increase of significant wave height.

  4. Evaluation of Creep-Fatigue Damage Based on Simplified Model Test Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Tianlei; Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I

    2013-01-01

    Current methods used in the ASME Code, Subsection NH for the evaluation of creep-fatigue damage are based on the separation of elevated temperature cyclic damage into two parts, creep damage and fatigue damage. This presents difficulties in both evaluation of test data and determination of cyclic damage in design. To avoid these difficulties, an alternative approach was identified, called the Simplified Model Test or SMT approach based on the use of creep-fatigue hold time test data from test specimens with elastic follow-up conservatively designed to bound the response of general structural components of interest. A key feature of the methodology is the use of the results of elastic analysis directly in design evaluation similar to current methods in the ASME Code, Subsection NB. Although originally developed for current material included in Subsection NH, recent interest in the application of Alloy 617 for components operating at very high temperatures has caused renewed interest in the SMT approach because it provides an alternative to the proposed restriction on the use of current Subsection NH simplified methods at very high temperatures. A comprehensive review and assessment of five representative simplified methods for creep-fatigue damage evaluation is presented in Asayama [1]. In this review the SMT methodology was identified as the best long term approach but the need for test data precluded its near term implementation. Asayama and Jetter [2] is a summary of the more comprehensive report by Asayama [1] with a summary of the SMT approach presented by Jetter [3].

  5. The application of the load-stroke hysteresis technique for evaluating fatigue damage development

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, T.; Reifsnider, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    A new experimental method was developed to measure hysteresis loss during a fatigue test from the load and stroke signals of a standard servo-hydraulic materials testing system. The method was used to characterize changes in properties and performance induced by long-term cyclic loading. Advantages of the load-stroke hysteresis measurement include: (1) contact with the specimen is not required, (2) the fatigue test is not interrupted for data collection, (3) the measured quantity (the hysteresis loop area) is directly related to the (damage) events that alter material properties and life, and (4) a quantitative measure of damage extent and development rate is obtained. The method was used to evaluate damage development during fatigue tests of polymeric composite laminates with unidirectional and angle-ply fiber orientations. The hysteresis loop measurements were used to identify the different stages of damage development and the different damage mechanisms (matrix cracking, delamination, and fiber fracture) in the material systems. The results from the hysteresis technique were correlated with conventional NDE methods such as dynamic signal analysis and specimen surface temperature measurements. It was found that the load-stroke hysteresis technique was especially sensitive to the fiber fracture, the most difficult type of damage process to interrogate in-situ. The hysteresis technique may provide a valuable method for predicting fatigue failure in composite specimens.

  6. Use of atomic force microscopy for characterizing damage evolution during fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, Laurent

    2000-10-01

    A study of the development of surface fatigue damage in PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel and copper by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed. AFM observations allow highly automated, quantitative characterization of surface deformation with a resolution of 5 nm or better, which is ideal for understanding fatigue damage evolution. A secondary objective was to establish a correlation between fatigue life exhausted and impedance spectroscopy. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted both in high and low cycle fatigue regimes, and interruptions of the fatigue tests allowed characterizing the evolution of the surface upset at various life-fractions. In the low strain amplitude tests on stainless steel (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.0026%), surface damage occurred in the shape of narrow streaks at the interface between martensite laths where reverted austenite was present. The streaks eventually coalesced to form crack nuclei. In high strain amplitude tests (Deltaepsilon pl/2 = 0.049%), fatigue surface damage was essentially dominated by the formation of extrusions. In copper, both low (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.061%) and high (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.134%) strain amplitude tests showed the formation of slip bands (mainly extrusions) across entire grains. Protrusions were present only in copper specimens tested at the high strain amplitude. Crack nucleation in the low strain amplitude tests occurred in both materials at the interface between a region that sustained a high level of deformation and one with little evidence of surface upset. This commonality between these two materials that are otherwise very dissimilar in nature suggests a universal scheme for location of fatigue crack nucleation sites during HCF. A procedure was developed in this study to quantitatively characterize the amount of irreversible surface strain. The proposed formalism is applicable to any material, independently of the type of surface damage, and leads to a criterion for crack nucleation based on

  7. Fatigue damage assessment in 7075 and 7050 aluminum alloys at low cyclic stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malast, Mary Kathryn

    Dynamic loads from buffeting, shock waves, and separated flow cause aircraft structural fatigue. Increases in aircraft performance cause sonic high cycle fatigue (HCF) in structural components. The accuracy of HCF damage predictions and fracture mechanics analysis has been limited in the past by the maximum cyclic rate of fatigue test equipment. Constant load amplitude axial fatigue data has previously been acquired at rates on the order of 100 Hz or less. Understanding HCF damage mechanisms has been hindered by this limitation. Recent improvements in test technology and analysis methods have made axial HCF experiments practical. X-ray diffraction line broadening analysis is used here to quantify microstructural changes in 7075-T651 and 7050-T7451 precipitation hardened aluminum alloys after exposure to fatigue loading. The Stokes deconvolution and Warren-Averbach method are used to compute size and strain broadening from line broadened X-ray diffraction patterns. Changes in domain size, strain, domain size anisotropy, and particle size distribution are used to assess fatigue in the alloys. Mechanisms which account for the observed microstructural changes are proposed. Peak splitting produces double maxima in the X-ray diffraction data. Double maxima are previously reported in the literature. Possible sources of the double maxima in precipitation hardened aluminum alloys are considered. In addition to assessing fatigue related microstructural changes in 7075 and 7050 aluminum alloys, the line broadening method applied to fatigue related assessment of these alloys is determined to be a promising approach. The method may have application to evaluation of aircraft in production. Possible applications and future work needed to apply the line broadening method to damage evaluation of engineering problems are proposed.

  8. Death rates reflect accumulating brain damage in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Duane B; Brancato, Carolina L; Prior, Andrew E; Shelton, Peter M J; Sheehy, Matt R J

    2005-09-22

    We present the results of the first quantitative, whole-lifespan study of the relationship between age-specific neurolipofuscin concentration and natural mortality rate in any organism. In a convenient laboratory animal, the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, we find an unusual delayed-onset neurolipofuscin accumulation pattern that is highly correlated with exponentially accelerating age-specific Gompertz-Makeham death rates in both males (r=0.93, p=0.0064) and females (r=0.97, p=0.0052). We then test the conservation of this association by aggregating the locust results with available population-specific data for a range of other terrestrial, freshwater, marine, tropical and temperate arthropods whose longevities span three orders of magnitude. This synthesis shows that the strong association between neurolipofuscin deposition and natural mortality is a phylogenetically and environmentally widespread phenomenon (r=0.96, p < 0.0001). These results highlight neurolipofuscin as a unique and outstanding integral biomarker of ageing. They also offer compelling evidence for the proposal that, in vital organs like the brain, either the accumulation of toxic garbage in the form of lipofuscin itself, or the particular molecular reactions underlying lipofuscinogenesis, including free-radical damage, are the primary events in senescence. PMID:16191601

  9. Fatigue damage criteria - Matrix, fibers and interfaces of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  10. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weiliang; Shen, Yanfeng; Qu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Li; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  11. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weiliang Qu, Wenzhong E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Xiao, Li E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Shen, Yanfeng Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  12. Damage development during low cycle fatigue of carbon-black loaded SBR. [Styrene butadiene rubber containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon black

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.; Goldberg, A.; Hiromoto, D.; Patt, J.

    1984-06-18

    Fatigue of elastomers is a subject that has received considerable study over the years. This paper explores the problem of damage accumulation in a series of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based compounds containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon-black under conditions in which a limited number of higher stress cycles have been applied to the material (referred to here as low cycle fatigue). Damage development in elastomers can take many forms. Generally speaking, one can classify the degradation as mechanical or chemical in origin. The most obvious form of mechanical damage is flaw or cut growth, while typical examples of chemical damage include chain scission or thermal oxidation. The fatigue crack growth relationship given in Equation 1 obviously only applies to flaw growth. However, it does an excellent job of following the data and exhibits the threshold behavior observed in both SBR and SBR-35 at room temperature. At higher temperatures, the damaged material shows an increasing deviation from threshold behavior. The obvious implication is that some thermally activated damage mechanism is degrading the material. In previous work, carbon-black loaded SBR subjected to a high temperature, high stress environment was shown to undergo a thermal-mechanical oxidation process. Certainly, this process is a candidate for a damage mechanism in these studies. 6 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  13. Fatigue analysis of multiple site damage at a row of holes in a wide panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Kimberley; Grandt, Alten F., Jr.; Moukawsher, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with predicting the fatigue life of unstiffened panels which contain multiple site damage (MSD). The initial damage consists of through-the-thickness cracks emanating from a row of holes in the center of a finite width panel. A fracture mechanics analysis has been developed to predict the growth, interaction, and coalescence of the various cracks which propagate in the panel. A strain-life analysis incorporating Neuber's rule for notches, and Miner's rule for cumulative damage, is also employed to predict crack initiation for holes without initial cracking. This analysis is compared with the results of a series of fatigue tests on 2024-T3 aluminum panels, and is shown to do an excellent job of predicting the influence of MSD on the fatigue life of nine inch wide specimens. Having established confidence in the ability to analyze the influence of MSD on fatigue life, a parametric study is conducted to examine the influence of various MSD scenarios in an unstiffened panel. The numerical study considered 135 cases in all, with the parametric variables being the applied cyclic stress level, the lead crack geometry, and the number and location of MSD cracks. The numerical analysis provides details for the manner in which lead cracks and MSD cracks grow and coalesce leading to final failure. The results indicate that MSD located adjacent to lead cracks is the most damaging configuration, while for cases without lead cracks, MSD clusters which are not separated by uncracked holes are most damaging.

  14. Fatigue analysis of multiple site damage at a row of holes in a wide panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhler, Kimberley; Grandt, Alten F., Jr.; Moukawsher, E. J.

    1994-09-01

    This paper is concerned with predicting the fatigue life of unstiffened panels which contain multiple site damage (MSD). The initial damage consists of through-the-thickness cracks emanating from a row of holes in the center of a finite width panel. A fracture mechanics analysis has been developed to predict the growth, interaction, and coalescence of the various cracks which propagate in the panel. A strain-life analysis incorporating Neuber's rule for notches, and Miner's rule for cumulative damage, is also employed to predict crack initiation for holes without initial cracking. This analysis is compared with the results of a series of fatigue tests on 2024-T3 aluminum panels, and is shown to do an excellent job of predicting the influence of MSD on the fatigue life of nine inch wide specimens. Having established confidence in the ability to analyze the influence of MSD on fatigue life, a parametric study is conducted to examine the influence of various MSD scenarios in an unstiffened panel. The numerical study considered 135 cases in all, with the parametric variables being the applied cyclic stress level, the lead crack geometry, and the number and location of MSD cracks. The numerical analysis provides details for the manner in which lead cracks and MSD cracks grow and coalesce leading to final failure. The results indicate that MSD located adjacent to lead cracks is the most damaging configuration, while for cases without lead cracks, MSD clusters which are not separated by uncracked holes are most damaging.

  15. Experimental and analytical study of fatigue damage in notched graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Both tension and compression fatigue behaviors were investigated in four notched graphite/epoxy laminates. After fatigue loading, specimens were examined for damage type and location using visual inspection, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultrasonic C-scans, and X-radiography. Delamination and ply cracking were found to be the dominant types of fatigue damage. In general, ply cracks did not propagate into adjacent plies of differing fiber orientation. To help understand the varied fatigue observations, the interlaminar stress distribution was calculated with finite element analysis for the regions around the hole and along the straight free edge. Comparison of observed delamination locations with the calculated stresses indicated that both interlaminar shear and peel stresses must be considered when predicting delamination. The effects of the fatigue cycling on residual strength and stiffness were measured for some specimens of each laminate type. Fatigue loading generally caused only small stiffness losses. In all cases, residual strengths were greater than or equal to the virgin strengths.

  16. Modeling nonlinearities of ultrasonic waves for fatigue damage characterization: theory, simulation, and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Qiang; Cheng, Li; Qing, Xinlin

    2014-03-01

    A dedicated modeling technique for comprehending nonlinear characteristics of ultrasonic waves traversing in a fatigued medium was developed, based on a retrofitted constitutive relation of the medium by considering the nonlinearities originated from material, fatigue damage, as well as the "breathing" motion of fatigue cracks. Piezoelectric wafers, for exciting and acquiring ultrasonic waves, were integrated in the model. The extracted nonlinearities were calibrated by virtue of an acoustic nonlinearity parameter. The modeling technique was validated experimentally, and the results showed satisfactory consistency in between, both revealing: the developed modeling approach is able to faithfully simulate fatigue crack-incurred nonlinearities manifested in ultrasonic waves; a cumulative growth of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter with increasing wave propagation distance exists; such a parameter acquired via a sensing path is nonlinearly related to the offset distance from the fatigue crack to that sensing path; and neither the incidence angle of the probing wave nor the length of the sensing path impacts on the parameter significantly. This study has yielded a quantitative characterization strategy for fatigue cracks using embeddable piezoelectric sensor networks, facilitating deployment of structural health monitoring which is capable of identifying small-scale damage at an embryo stage and surveilling its growth continuously. PMID:24156928

  17. Observations of fatigue crack initiation and damage growth in notched titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Rajiv A.; Johnson, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize damage initiation and growth in notched titanium matrix composites at room temperature. Double edge notched or center open hole SCS-6/Ti-15-3 specimens containing 0 deg plies or containing both 0 and 90 deg plies were fatigued. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated (ASF) and in heat-treated conditions. A local strain criterion using unnotched specimen fatigue data was successful in predicting fatigue damage initiation. The initiation stress level was accurately predicted for both a double edge notched unidirectional specimen and a cross-plied center hole specimen. The fatigue produced long multiple cracks growing from the notches. These fatigue cracks were only in the matrix material and did not break the fibers in their path. The combination of matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding appears to greatly reduce the stress concentration around the notches. The laminates that were heat treated showed a different crack growth pattern. In the ASF specimens, matrix cracks had a more tortuous path and showed considerable more crack branching. For the same specimen geometry and cyclic stress, the (0/90/0) laminate with a hole had far superior fatigue resistance than the matrix only specimen with a hole.

  18. Observations of fatigue crack initiation and damage growth in notched titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, R. A.; Johnson, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize damage initiation and growth in notched titanium matrix composites at room temperature. Double edge notched or center open hole SCS-6/Ti-15-3 specimens containing 0 deg plies or containing both 0 and 90 deg plies were fatigued. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated (ASF) and in heat-treated conditions. A local strain criterion using unnotched specimen fatigue data was successful in predicting fatigue damage initiation. The initiation stress level was accurately predicted for both a double edge notched unidirectional specimen and a cross-plied center hole specimen. The fatigue produced long multiple cracks growing from the notches. These fatigue cracks were only in the matrix material and did not break the fibers in their path. The combination of matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding appears to greatly reduce the stress concentration around the notches. The laminates that were heat treated showed a different crack growth pattern. In the ASF specimens, matrix cracks had a more tortuous path and showed considerable more crack branching. For the same specimen geometry and cyclic stress, the (0/90/0) laminate with a hole had far superior fatigue resistance than the matrix only specimen with a hole.

  19. Real-time sensing of fatigue crack damage for information-based decision and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Eric Evans

    Information-based decision and control for structures that are subject to failure by fatigue cracking is based on the following notion: Maintenance, usage scheduling, and control parameter tuning can be optimized through real time knowledge of the current state of fatigue crack damage. Additionally, if the material properties of a mechanical structure can be identified within a smaller range, then the remaining life prediction of that structure will be substantially more accurate. Information-based decision systems can rely one physical models, estimation of material properties, exact knowledge of usage history, and sensor data to synthesize an accurate snapshot of the current state of damage and the likely remaining life of a structure under given assumed loading. The work outlined in this thesis is structured to enhance the development of information-based decision and control systems. This is achieved by constructing a test facility for laboratory experiments on real-time damage sensing. This test facility makes use of a methodology that has been formulated for fatigue crack model parameter estimation and significantly improves the quality of predictions of remaining life. Specifically, the thesis focuses on development of an on-line fatigue crack damage sensing and life prediction system that is built upon the disciplines of Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. A major part of the research effort has been expended to design and fabricate a test apparatus which allows: (i) measurement and recording of statistical data for fatigue crack growth in metallic materials via different sensing techniques; and (ii) identification of stochastic model parameters for prediction of fatigue crack damage. To this end, this thesis describes the test apparatus and the associated instrumentation based on four different sensing techniques, namely, traveling optical microscopy, ultrasonic flaw detection, Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD), and fiber

  20. Mechanisms controlling fatigue damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Damage in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite materials can be quite complex since there are a number of different constituents (fiber, matrix, and the fiber/matrix interface) that can fail. Multidirectional lay-ups have an even greater number of possible damage orientations and mechanisms. Based on the simplifying assumption of equivalent constituent strain states in the absence of damage, a strain based failure criteria may be applied to determine when and where initial damage will occur. Based on the relative strain to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix, the possible damage mechanisms of an MMC can be grouped into three categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, and (3) self-similar damage growth. A fourth type of damage development, fiber/matrix interface failure, is dependent on the relative strength of the fiber/matrix interface and the matrix yield strength. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  1. Cyclic fatigue damage characteristics observed for simple loadings extended to multiaxial life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David J.; Kurath, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Fully reversed uniaxial strain controlled fatigue tests were performed on smooth cylindrical specimens made of 304 stainless steel. Fatigue life data and cracking observations for uniaxial tests were compared with life data and cracking behavior observed in fully reversed torsional tests. It was determined that the product of maximum principle strain amplitude and maximum principle stress provided the best correlation of fatigue lives for these two loading conditions. Implementation of this parameter is in agreement with observed physical damage and it accounts for the variation of stress-strain response, which is unique to specific loading conditions. Biaxial fatigue tests were conducted on tubular specimens employing both in-phase and out-of-phase tension torsion cyclic strain paths. Cracking observations indicated that the physical damage which occurred in the biaxial tests was similar to the damage observed in uniaxial and torsional tests. The Smith, Watson, and Topper parameter was then extended to predict the fatigue lives resulting from the more complex loading conditions.

  2. On the Effect of Ramp Rate in Damage Accumulation of the CPV Die-Attach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N. S.; Silverman, T. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    It is commonly understood that thermal cycling at high temperature ramp rates may activate unrepresentative failure mechanisms. Increasing the temperature ramp rate of thermal cycling, however, could dramatically reduce the test time required to achieve an equivalent amount of thermal fatigue damage, thereby reducing overall test time. Therefore, the effect of temperature ramp rate on physical damage in the CPV die-attach is investigated. Finite Element Model (FEM) simulations of thermal fatigue and thermal cycling experiments are made to determine if the amount of damage calculated results in a corresponding amount of physical damage measured to the die-attach for a variety of fast temperature ramp rates. Preliminary experimental results are in good agreement with simulations and reinforce the potential of increasing temperature ramp rates. Characterization of the microstructure and resulting fatigue crack in the die-attach suggest a similar failure mechanism across all ramp rates tested.

  3. Thermography Inspection for Early Detection of Composite Damage in Structures During Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Parker, F. Raymond; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Christopher W.; Bly, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are commonly tested under controlled loading. Understanding the initiation and progression of composite damage under load is critical for validating design concepts and structural analysis tools. Thermal nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is used to detect and characterize damage in composite structures during fatigue loading. A difference image processing algorithm is demonstrated to enhance damage detection and characterization by removing thermal variations not associated with defects. In addition, a one-dimensional multilayered thermal model is used to characterize damage. Lastly, the thermography results are compared to other inspections such as non-immersion ultrasonic inspections and computed tomography X-ray.

  4. Prediction of Corrosion Fatigue Damages for Turbine Blades Subjecting to Randomly Distributed Power System Unbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Hshiung

    In this paper, a fatigue damage estimation procedure is implemented by integrating the results of an EPRI and a GE testing reports as well as a shareware developed by the Oslo University, which is incorporated with a verified transient simulation program developed by the Aberdeen University to study the effects of power system unbalance on turbine blade damaging. Based on the Weibull distribution in the negative sequence current (I2) and the operational environment containing 22% NaCl, the probability level of fatigue life as well as the reliability against fatigue failure for the long blades of low-pressure (LP) turbine are evaluated. It is shown that even though the blades could withstand the most serious impact arising from three-phase-to-ground fault, still it cannot guarantee adequate long-term reliability in the normal operational condition.

  5. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Barashev, Aleksandr; Golubov, Stanislav I

    2008-09-01

    Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

  6. The Characteristics of Fatigue Damage in the Fuselage Riveted Lap Splice Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive data base has been developed to form the physical basis for new analytical methodology to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint. The results of detailed destructive examinations have been cataloged to describe the physical nature of MSD in the lap splice joint. ne catalog includes a detailed description, e.g., crack initiation, growth rates, size, location, and fracture morphology, of fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint structure. Detailed examinations were conducted on a lap splice joint panel removed from a full scale fuselage test article after completing a 60,000 cycle pressure test. The panel contained a four bay region that exhibited visible outer skin cracks and regions of crack link-up along the upper rivet row. Destructive examinations revealed undetected fatigue damage in the outer skin, inner skin, and tear strap regions. Outer skin fatigue cracks were found to initiate by fretting damage along the faying surface. The cracks grew along the faying surface to a length equivalent to two to three skin thicknesses before penetrating the outboard surface of the outer skin. Analysis of fracture surface marker bands produced during full scale testing revealed that all upper rivet row fatigue cracks contained in a dim bay region grow at similar rates; this important result suggests that fracture mechanics based methods can be used to predict the growth of outer skin fatigue cracks in lap splice structure. Results are presented showing the affects of MSD and out-of-plane pressure loads on outer skin crack link-up.

  7. 14 CFR 23.573 - Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 23.573 Section 23.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... operational life of the airplane must be consistent with the initial detectability and subsequent growth...

  8. 14 CFR 23.573 - Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 23.573 Section 23.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... operational life of the airplane must be consistent with the initial detectability and subsequent growth...

  9. 14 CFR 23.573 - Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 23.573 Section 23.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... operational life of the airplane must be consistent with the initial detectability and subsequent growth...

  10. 14 CFR 23.573 - Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 23.573 Section 23.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... operational life of the airplane must be consistent with the initial detectability and subsequent growth...

  11. 14 CFR 23.573 - Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 23.573 Section 23.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... operational life of the airplane must be consistent with the initial detectability and subsequent growth...

  12. A fatigue damage estimator using RBF, backpropagation, and CID4 neural algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Tjia, Robert E.; Liu, Ning

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue damage estimation using neural networks is described in the paper. Attention is focused on the method of data generation for both the training and test data used by radial basis function (RBF), backpropagation, and CID4 algorithms used in this study. The performance results of the three neural algorithms are analyzed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses in training.

  13. Fatigue-damage evolution and damage-induced reduction of critical current of a Nb3Al superconducting composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, S.; Sekino, F.; Sawada, T.; Ohno, H.; Hojo, M.; Tanaka, M.; Okuda, H.; Koganeya, M.; Hayashi, K.; Yamada, Y.; Ayai, N.; Watanabe, K.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the fatigue-damage mechanism of a Nb3Al superconducting composite at room temperature, and the influences of the fatigue damages introduced at room temperature on the critical current at 4.2 K and the residual strength at room temperature. The main (largest) fatigue crack arose first in the clad copper and then extended into the inner core with an increasing number of stress cycles. The cracking of the Nb3Al filaments in the core region occurred at a late stage (around 60-90% of the fatigue life). Once the fracture of the core occurred, it extended very quickly, resulting in a quick reduction in critical current and the residual strength with increasing stress cycles. Such a behaviour was accounted for by the crack growth calculated from the S-N curves (the relation of the maximum stress to the number of stress cycles at failure) combined with the Paris law. The size and distribution of the subcracks along the specimen length, and therefore the reduction in critical current of the region apart from the main crack, were dependent on the maximum stress level. The large subcracks causing fracture of the Nb3Al filaments were formed when the maximum stress was around 300-460 MPa, resulting in large reduction in critical current, but not when the maximum stress was outside such a stress range.

  14. The influence of cement mantle thickness and stem geometry on fatigue damage in two different cemented hip femoral prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Simões, J A

    2009-11-13

    Experimental models can be used for pre-clinical testing of cemented and other type of hip replacements. Total hip replacement (THR) failure scenarios include, among others, cement damage accumulation and the assessment of accurate stress and strain magnitudes at the cement mantle interfaces (stem-cement and cement-bone) can be used to predict mechanical failure. The aseptic loosening scenario in cemented hip replacements is currently not fully understood, and methods of evaluating medical devices must be developed to improve clinical performance. Different results and conclusions concerning the cement micro-cracking mechanism have been reported. The aim of this study was to verify the in vitro behavior of two cemented femoral stems with respect to fatigue crack formation. Fatigue crack damage was assessed at the medial, lateral, anterior and posterior sides of the Lubinus SPII and Charnley stems. All stems were loaded and tested in stair climbing fatigue loading during one million cycles at 2 Hz. After the experiments each implanted synthetic femur was sectioned and analyzed. We observed more damage (cracks per area) for the Lubinus SPII stem, mainly on the proximal part of the cement mantle. The micro-cracking formation initiated in the stem-cement interface and grew towards the direction of cortical bone of the femur. Overall, the cement-bone interface seems to be crucial for the success of the hip replacement. The Charnley stem provoked more damage on the cement-bone interface. A failure index (maximum length of crack/maximum thickness of cement) considered was higher for the cement-stem interface of the Lubinus SPII stem. For a cement mantle thickness higher than 5 mm, cracking initiated at the cement-bone interface and depended on the opening canal process (reaming procedure and instrumentation). The analysis also showed that fatigue-induced damage on the cement mantle, increasing proximally, and depended on the axial position of the stem. The cement

  15. Locating fatigue damage using temporal signal features of nonlinear Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Lu, Ye; Sohn, Hoon; Qing, Xinlin

    2015-08-01

    The temporal signal features of linear guided waves, as typified by the time-of-flight (ToF), have been exploited intensively for identifying damage, with proven effectiveness in locating gross damage in particular. Upon re-visiting the conventional, ToF-based detection philosophy, the present study extends the use of temporal signal processing to the realm of nonlinear Lamb waves, so as to reap the high sensitivity of nonlinear Lamb waves to small-scale damage (e.g., fatigue cracks), and the efficacy of temporal signal processing in locating damage. Nonlinear wave features (i.e., higher-order harmonics) are extracted using networked, miniaturized piezoelectric wafers, and reverted to the time domain for damage localization. The proposed approach circumvents the deficiencies of using Lamb wave features for evaluating undersized damage, which are either undiscernible in time-series analysis or lacking in temporal information in spectral analysis. A probabilistic imaging algorithm is introduced to supplement the approach, facilitating the presentation of identification results in an intuitive manner. Through numerical simulation and then experimental validation, two damage indices (DIs) are comparatively constructed, based, respectively, on linear and nonlinear temporal features of Lamb waves, and used to locate fatigue damage near a rivet hole of an aluminum plate. Results corroborate the feasibility and effectiveness of using temporal signal features of nonlinear Lamb waves to locate small-scale fatigue damage, with enhanced accuracy compared with linear ToF-based detection. Taking a step further, a synthesized detection strategy is formulated by amalgamating the two DIs, targeting continuous and adaptive monitoring of damage from its onset to macroscopic formation.

  16. Fatigue damage study in aluminum-2024 T3 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Milton W.

    1992-01-01

    The grain structure of aluminum 2024, a commonly used commercial alloy is investigated, and these findings are correlated with the fatigue property of the material. Samples of aluminum 2024 were polished and etched in different reagents. Optical micrographs (at 500X) of samples etched in Keller's reagent revealed grain boundaries as well as some particles present in the microstructure. Normal x-ray scans of samples etched for different intervals of time in Keller's reagent indicate no significant variations in diffraction peak positions; however, the width of the rocking curve increased with the time of etching. These results are consistent with the direct dependence of the width of the rocking curve on the range of grain orientation. Etching removes the preferred orientation layer of the sample produced by polishing; thereby, causing the width to increase.

  17. Fatigue Life Prediction of Steel Bridges for Extreme Loading Using a New Damage Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunananda, Pallaha Athawudagedara Kamal; Ohga, Mitao; Dissanayake, Punchi Bandage Ranjith; Siriwardane, Siriwardane Arachchilage Sudath Chaminda

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) damage caused by normal traffic loading is one of the major modes of failures in steel bridges. During bridge service life, there are extreme loading situations such as typhoons, earthquakes which cause higher amplitude loading than normal traffic loading. Due to this reason, critical members could undergo overstress cycles in the plastic range. Therefore, such members are subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) during these situations while subjecting to HCF in serviceable condition. Bridges, which are not seriously damaged, generally continue to be functioned after these extreme loading situations and fatigue life estimation is required to ensure their safety. Therefore, this paper presents a new damage indicator based fatigue model to predict life of steel bridges due to combined effect of extreme and normal traffic loadings. It consists of a modified strain life curve and a strain based damage indicator. Both the strain life curve and the damage indicator are newly proposed in the study. Modified strain life curve consists of Coffin Manson relation in the LCF regime and a new strain life curve in the HCF regime. Damage variable is based on von Mises equivalent strain and modified by factors to consider effects of loading non proportionality and loading path in multiaxial stress state. The new damage indicator can capture the loading sequence effect. The proposed model is verified with experimental test results of combined HCF and LCF of three materials; S304L stainless steel, Haynes 188 (a Cobolt superalloy) and S45C steel obtained from the literature. The verification of experimental results confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  18. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage for SUS316 by Using Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2009-03-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods for an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method using the differential pick-up coil, and so on. We are researching also those two methods in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. In addition, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site because the special magnetizer is unnecessary. But, these methods have some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the former needs a special magnetizer and the latter's output signal is small. On the other hand, it is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the assessment method of fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316) that uses the change by fatigue of the inductance of the pancake type coil measured with the LCR meter is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  19. An experimental investigation of fatigue damage in aluminum 2024-T3 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Milton W.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are finding increasing use in the aerospace and automobile industries due to their attractive low density-high modulus and low density-high strength characteristics. Unfortunately, cyclic stress-strain deformation alters the microstructure of the material. These structural changes can lead to fatigue damage and ultimately service failure. Therefore, in order to assess the integrity of the alloy, a correlation between fatigue damage and a measurable microstructural property is needed. Aluminum 2024-T3, a commonly used commercial alloy, contains many grains (individual crystals) of various orientations. The sizes and orientations of these grains are known to affect the strength, hardness, and magnetic permeability of polycrystalline alloys and metals; therefore, perhaps a relationship between a grain property and the fatigue state can be established. Tension-compression cycling in aluminum alloys can also induce changes in their dislocation densities. These changes can be studied from measurements of the electrical resistivities of the materials. Consequently, the goals of this investigation were: to study the grain orientation of aluminum 2024-T3 and to seek a correlation between the grain orientation and the fatigue state of the material; and to measure the electrical resistivities of fatigued samples of aluminum 2024-T3 and to interpret the findings.

  20. Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep. Fatigue is a lack of energy and motivation. Drowsiness and apathy (a feeling of not caring ... fatigue symptoms, and your lifestyle, habits, and feelings. Tests that may be ordered include the following: Blood ...

  1. A Coupled/Uncoupled Computational Scheme for Deformation and Fatigue Damage Analysis of Unidirectional Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, Thomas E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Saleeb, Atef F.

    1997-01-01

    A fatigue damage computational algorithm utilizing a multiaxial, isothermal, continuum-based fatigue damage model for unidirectional metal-matrix composites has been implemented into the commercial finite element code MARC using MARC user subroutines. Damage is introduced into the finite element solution through the concept of effective stress that fully couples the fatigue damage calculations with the finite element deformation solution. Two applications using the fatigue damage algorithm are presented. First, an axisymmetric stress analysis of a circumferentially reinforced ring, wherein both the matrix cladding and the composite core were assumed to behave elastic-perfectly plastic. Second, a micromechanics analysis of a fiber/matrix unit cell using both the finite element method and the generalized method of cells (GMC). Results are presented in the form of S-N curves and damage distribution plots.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Fatigue Damage Progression in Postbuckled Single Stringer Composite Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisagni, Chiara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    The durability and damage tolerance of postbuckled composite structures are not yet completely understood, and remain difficult to predict due to the nonlinearity of the geometric response and its interaction with local damage modes. A research effort was conducted to investigate experimentally the quasi-static and fatigue damage progression in a single-stringer compression (SSC) specimen. Three specimens were manufactured with a hat-stiffener, and an initial defect was introduced with a Teflon film embedded between one flange of the stringer and the skin. One of the specimens was tested under quasi-static compressive loading, while the remaining two specimens were tested by cycling in postbuckling. The tests were performed at the NASA Langley Research Center under controlled conditions and with instrumentation that allows a precise evaluation of the postbuckling response and of the damage modes. Three-dimensional digital image correlation VIC-3D systems were used to provide full field displacements and strains on the skin and the stringer. Passive thermal monitoring was conducted during the fatigue tests using an infrared camera that showed the location of the delamination front while the specimen was being cycled. The live information from the thermography was used to stop the fatigue tests at critical stages of the damage evolution to allow detailed ultrasonic scans.

  3. Real Time Fatigue Damage Growth Assessment of a Composite Three-Stringer Panel Using Passive Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Horne, Michael R.; Bly, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue testing of advanced composite structures is critical to validate both structural designs and damage prediction models. In-situ inspection methods are necessary to track damage onset and growth as a function of load cycles. Passive thermography is a large area, noncontact inspection technique that is used to detect composite damage onset and growth in real time as a function of fatigue cycles. The thermal images are acquired in synchronicity to the applied compressive load using a dual infrared camera acquisition system for full (front and back) coverage. Image processing algorithms are investigated to increase defect contrast areas. The thermal results are compared to non-immersion ultrasound inspections and acoustic emission data.

  4. Estimation of Fatigue Damage for AN Austenitic Stainless Steel (SUS304) Using a Pancake Type Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Nagato, S.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2008-02-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods of an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method, and so on. Those two methods are researched also in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. However, this method has the disadvantage to need a special magnetizer. Then, this method cannot be easily used at the job site such as the factory. On the other hand, as the special magnetizer is unnecessary, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site. But, this method has some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the output signal of this method is small. And the surface state of the specimen strongly influences the noise component of the output signal. It is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the method of evaluation of fatigue damage of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) by using a change of an inductance of a pancake type coil is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  5. Low cost corrosion damage mitigation and improved fatigue performance of low plasticity burnished 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevéy, Paul S.; Cammett, John

    2001-10-01

    Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been investigated as a surface enhancement process and corrosion mitigation method for aging aircraft structural applications. Compressive residual stresses reaching the alloy yield strength and extending to a depth of 1.25 mm (0.050 in.) deeper than typical corrosion damage is achievable. Excellent surface finish can be achieved with no detectable metallurgical damage to surface and subsurface material. Salt fog exposures of 100 and 500 h reduced the fatigue strength at 2×106 cycles by 50%. The LPB of the corroded surface, without removal of the corrosion product or pitted material, restored the 2×106 fatigue strength to greater than that of the original machined surface. The fatigue strength of the corroded material in the finite life regime (104 to 106 cycles) after LPB was 140 MPa (20 ksi) higher than the original uncorroded alloy and increased the life by an order of magnitude. Ease of adaptation to computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools allows LPB processing at costs and speeds comparable to machining operations. Low plasticity burnishing offers a promising new technology for mitigation of corrosion damage and improved fatigue life of aircraft structural components with significant cost and time savings over current practices.

  6. Fatigue damage simulation of a laminated composite plate with a central hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Larry B.; Liu, Bangyan

    A FEM technique is here used in conjunction with a modulus-degradation model to simulate the progression of damage in a laminated composite plate, which has a central hole and is subjected to tension-tension fatigue loading, as a function of load level and number of load cycles. Analytical models are developed to predict the residual elastic moduli changes that are due to both matrix cracking and delamination. The scheme as a whole is sufficiently general for application to numerous additional problems involving fatigue-loaded composites with stress concentrations.

  7. A model for predicting damage induced fatigue life of laminated composite structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David H.; Lo, David C.; Georgiou, Ioannis T.; Harris, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting the life of laminated composite structural components subjected to fatigue induced microstructural damage. The model uses the concept of continuum damage mechanics, wherein the effects of microcracks are incorporated into a damage dependent lamination theory instead of treating each crack as an internal boundary. Internal variables are formulated to account for the effects of both matrix cracks and internal delaminations. Evolution laws for determining the damage variables as functions of ply stresses are proposed, and comparisons of predicted damage evolution are made to experiment. In addition, predicted stiffness losses, as well as ply stresses are shown as functions of damage state for a variety of stacking sequences.

  8. Post-Impact Fatigue Damage Monitoring Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chow-Shing; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Yang, Shi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that impact damage to composite materials can be revealed by embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) as a broadening and splitting of the latter's characteristic narrow peak reflected spectrum. The current work further subjected the impact damaged composite to cyclic loading and found that the FBG spectrum gradually submerged into a rise of background intensity as internal damages progressed. By skipping the impact, directing the impact to positions away from the FBG and examining the extracted fibers, we concluded that the above change is not a result of deterioration/damage of the sensor. It is caused solely by the damages initiated in the composite by the impact and aggravated by fatigue loading. Evolution of the grating spectrum may therefore be used to monitor qualitatively the development of the incurred damages. PMID:24594609

  9. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.

    PubMed

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-11-16

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered: 'only creep', 'only damage' or 'creep and damage'. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

  10. Fatigue damage modeling for coated single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, David M.

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature, low-cycle fatigue life prediction method for coated single crystal nickel-base superalloys is being developed. The method is being developed for use in predicting crack initiation life of coated single crystal turbine airfoils. Although the models are being developed using coated single crystal PWA 1480, they should be readily adaptable to other coated nickel-base single crystal materials. The coatings choosen for this effort were of two generic types: a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY overlay, designated PWA 286, and an aluminide diffusion, designated PWA 273. In order to predict the useful crack initiation life of airfoils, the constitutive and failure behavior of the coating/substrate combination must be taken into account. Coatings alter the airfoil surface microstructure and are a primary source from which cracks originate. The adopted life prediction approach addresses this complexity by separating the coating and single crystal crack initiation regimes. This provides a flexible means for using different life model formulations for the coating and single crystal materials. At the completion of this program, all constitutive and life model formulations will be available in equation form and as software. The software will use the MARC general purpose finite element code to drive the constitutive models and calculate life parameters.

  11. Early stage fatigue damage occurs in bovine tendon fascicles in the absence of changes in mechanics at either the gross or micro-structural level.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer H; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel R C

    2014-10-01

    Many tendon injuries are believed to result from repetitive motion or overuse, leading to the accumulation of micro-damage over time. In vitro fatigue loading can be used to characterise damage during repeated use and investigate how this may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. This study considered the effect of fatigue loading on fascicles from two functionally distinct bovine tendons: the digital extensor and deep digital flexor. Micro-scale extension mechanisms were investigated in fascicles before or after a period of cyclic creep loading, comparing two different measurement techniques - the displacement of a photo-bleached grid and the use of nuclei as fiducial markers. Whilst visual damage was clearly identified after only 300 cycles of creep loading, these visual changes did not affect either gross fascicle mechanics or fascicle microstructural extension mechanisms over the 900 fatigue cycles investigated. However, significantly greater fibre sliding was measured when observing grid deformation rather than the analysis of nuclei movement. Measurement of microstructural extension with both techniques was localised and this may explain the absence of change in microstructural deformation in response to fatigue loading. Alternatively, the data may demonstrate that fascicles can withstand a degree of matrix disruption with no impact on mechanics. Whilst use of a photo-bleached grid to directly measure the collagen is the best indicator of matrix deformation, nuclei tracking may provide a better measure of the strain perceived directly by the cells. PMID:25001495

  12. Early stage fatigue damage occurs in bovine tendon fascicles in the absence of changes in mechanics at either the gross or micro-structural level

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jennifer H.; Riley, Graham P.; Screen, Hazel R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Many tendon injuries are believed to result from repetitive motion or overuse, leading to the accumulation of micro-damage over time. In vitro fatigue loading can be used to characterise damage during repeated use and investigate how this may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. This study considered the effect of fatigue loading on fascicles from two functionally distinct bovine tendons: the digital extensor and deep digital flexor. Micro-scale extension mechanisms were investigated in fascicles before or after a period of cyclic creep loading, comparing two different measurement techniques – the displacement of a photo-bleached grid and the use of nuclei as fiducial markers. Whilst visual damage was clearly identified after only 300 cycles of creep loading, these visual changes did not affect either gross fascicle mechanics or fascicle microstructural extension mechanisms over the 900 fatigue cycles investigated. However, significantly greater fibre sliding was measured when observing grid deformation rather than the analysis of nuclei movement. Measurement of microstructural extension with both techniques was localised and this may explain the absence of change in microstructural deformation in response to fatigue loading. Alternatively, the data may demonstrate that fascicles can withstand a degree of matrix disruption with no impact on mechanics. Whilst use of a photo-bleached grid to directly measure the collagen is the best indicator of matrix deformation, nuclei tracking may provide a better measure of the strain perceived directly by the cells. PMID:25001495

  13. Self-sealing of thermal fatigue and mechanical damage in fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Jericho L.

    Fiber reinforced composite tanks provide a promising method of storage for liquid oxygen and hydrogen for aerospace applications. The inherent thermal fatigue of these vessels leads to the formation of microcracks, which allow gas phase leakage across the tank walls. In this dissertation, self-healing functionality is imparted to a structural composite to effectively seal microcracks induced by both mechanical and thermal loading cycles. Two different microencapsulated healing chemistries are investigated in woven glass fiber/epoxy and uni-weave carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Self-healing of mechanically induced damage was first studied in a room temperature cured plain weave E-glass/epoxy composite with encapsulated dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) monomer and wax protected Grubbs' catalyst healing components. A controlled amount of microcracking was introduced through cyclic indentation of opposing surfaces of the composite. The resulting damage zone was proportional to the indentation load. Healing was assessed through the use of a pressure cell apparatus to detect nitrogen flow through the thickness direction of the damaged composite. Successful healing resulted in a perfect seal, with no measurable gas flow. The effect of DCPD microcapsule size (51 microm and 18 microm) and concentration (0--12.2 wt%) on the self-sealing ability was investigated. Composite specimens with 6.5 wt% 51 microm capsules sealed 67% of the time, compared to 13% for the control panels without healing components. A thermally stable, dual microcapsule healing chemistry comprised of silanol terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) plus a crosslinking agent and a tin catalyst was employed to allow higher composite processing temperatures. The microcapsules were incorporated into a satin weave E-glass fiber/epoxy composite processed at 120°C to yield a glass transition temperature of 127°C. Self-sealing ability after mechanical damage was assessed for different microcapsule sizees (25 microm and 42

  14. The influence of tensile fatigue damage on residual compressive strength of woven composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrovic, M.; Carman, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The long term mechanical fatigue of a Celion G30-500/PMR-15 woven composite system is investigated to study the interrelationship between thermo-mechanical properties, namely the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and the compressive strength. Residual compressive strength measurements (IITRI fixture) conducted on specimens subjected to tension-tension fatigue cycling indicate that this material property is sensitive to cracks and delaminations which form during mechanical cycling. Measured compressive strength degradation are as large as 49% for this material undergoing mechanical fatigue cycling with TEC degradation as large as 61%. Experimental results show that a correlation exists between TEC measurements and compressive strength. This correlation suggests that TEC measurements may be used as a damage evaluation technique.

  15. Damage Assessment of Heat Resistant Steels through Electron BackScatter Diffraction Strain Analysis under Creep and Creep-Fatigue Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Kimachi, Hirohisa; Tsuboi, Toshiki; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Shotaro; Mizutani, Yoshiki

    EBSD(Electron BackScatter Diffraction) analyses were conducted for studying the quantitative microstructural metrics of creep and creep-fatigue damage for austenitic SUS304HTB boiler tube steel and ferritic Mod.9Cr piping steel. KAM(Kernel Average Misorientation) maps and GOS(Grain Orientation Spread) maps were obtained for these samples and the area averaged values KAMave and GOSave were obtained. While the increasing trends of these misorientation metrics were observed for SUS304HTB steel, the decreasing trends were observed for damaged Mod.9Cr steel with extensive recovery of subgrain structure. To establish more universal parameter representing the accumulation of damage to compensate these opposite trends, the EBSD strain parameters were introduced for converting the misorientation changes into the quantities representing accumulated permanent strains during creep and creep-fatigue damage process. As KAM values were dependent on the pixel size (inversely proportional to the observation magnification) and the permanent strain could be expressed as the shear strain which was the product of dislocation density, Burgers vector and dislocation movement distance, two KAM strain parameters MεKAMnet and MεδKAMave were introduced as the sum of product of the noise subtracted KAMnet and the absolute change from initial value δKAMave with dislocation movement distance divided by pixel size. MεδKAMave parameter showed better relationship both with creep strain in creep tests and accumulated creep strain range in creep-fatigue tests. This parameter can be used as the strain-based damage evaluation and detector of final failure.

  16. Monitoring of fatigue damage in composite lap-joints using guided waves and FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Oleksii; Khomenko, Anton; Koricho, Ermias; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2016-02-01

    Adhesive bonding is being increasingly employed in many applications as it offers possibility of light-weighting and efficient multi-material joining along with reduction in time and cost of manufacturing. However, failure initiation and progression in critical components like joints, specifically in fatigue loading is not well understood, which necessitates reliable NDE and SHM techniques to ensure structural integrity. In this work, concurrent guided wave (GW) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor measurements were used to monitor fatigue damage in adhesively bonded composite lap-joints. In the present set-up, one FBG sensor was strategically embedded in the adhesive bond-line of a lap-joint, while two other FBGs were bonded on the surface of the adherends. Full spectral responses of FBG sensors were collected and compared at specific intervals of fatigue loading. In parallel, guided waves were actuated and sensed using PZT wafers mounted on the composite adherends. Experimental results demonstrated that time-of-flight (ToF) of the fundamental modes transmitted through the bond-line and spectral response of FBG sensors were sensitive to fatigue loading and damage. Combination of guided wave and FBG measurements provided the desired redundancy and synergy in the data to evaluate the degradation in bond-line properties. Measurements taken in the presence of continuously applied load replicated the in-situ/service conditions. The approach shows promise in understanding the behavior of bonded joints subjected to complex loading.

  17. Effect of Buckling Modes on the Fatigue Life and Damage Tolerance of Stiffened Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    The postbuckling response and the collapse of composite specimens with a co-cured hat stringer are investigated experimentally and numerically. These specimens are designed to evaluate the postbuckling response and the effect of an embedded defect on the collapse load and the mode of failure. Tests performed using controlled conditions and detailed instrumentation demonstrate that the damage tolerance, fatigue life, and collapse loads are closely tied with the mode of the postbuckling deformation, which can be different between two nominally identical specimens. Modes that tend to open skin/stringer defects are the most damaging to the structure. However, skin/stringer bond defects can also propagate under shearing modes. In the proposed paper, the effects of initial shape imperfections on the postbuckling modes and the interaction between different postbuckling deformations and the propagation of skin/stringer bond defects under quasi-static or fatigue loads will be examined.

  18. A continuum damage model of fatigue-induced damage in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A model is presented which predicts the stress-strain behavior of continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites in the presence of microstructural damage. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses internal state variables to characterize the various damage modes. The associated internal state variable growth laws are mathematical models of the loading history induced development of microstructural damage. The model is demonstrated by using it to predict the response of damaged AS-4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate panels.

  19. The strainrange conversion principle for treating cumulative fatigue damage in the creep range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    A formula is derived for combining effects of successive hysteresis loops in the creep range of materials when one loop has excess tensile creep, while the other contains excess compressive creep. The resultant effect resembles single loops involving balanced tensile and compressive creep. The attempt to use the Interaction Damage Rule as a tool in combining loops of non-equal size and complex strainrange content has led to important new concepts useful in future studies of creep-fatigue. It turns out that the Interaction Damage Rule is basically an expression of how a set of hysteresis loops involving only single generic strains can combine to produce the same micromechanistic damage as the loop containing the combined strainranges which it analyzes. Making use of the underlying concept of Strainrange Partitioning that only the strainrange content of a hysteresis loop governs fatigue life, not order of introducing strainranges, a rational derivation of the Interaction Damage Rule is provided, showing also how it can effectively be used to synthesize independent loops and determine both damaging and healing effects.

  20. Model-Based Fatigue Prognosis of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Exhibiting Concurrent Damage Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbetta, M.; Sbarufatti, C.; Saxena, A.; Giglio, M.; Goebel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics of large composite structures is a topic of increasing interest in the field of structural health monitoring for aerospace, civil, and mechanical systems. Along with recent advancements in real-time structural health data acquisition and processing for damage detection and characterization, model-based stochastic methods for life prediction are showing promising results in the literature. Among various model-based approaches, particle-filtering algorithms are particularly capable in coping with uncertainties associated with the process. These include uncertainties about information on the damage extent and the inherent uncertainties of the damage propagation process. Some efforts have shown successful applications of particle filtering-based frameworks for predicting the matrix crack evolution and structural stiffness degradation caused by repetitive fatigue loads. Effects of other damage modes such as delamination, however, are not incorporated in these works. It is well established that delamination and matrix cracks not only co-exist in most laminate structures during the fatigue degradation process but also affect each other's progression. Furthermore, delamination significantly alters the stress-state in the laminates and accelerates the material degradation leading to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the work presented herein proposes a particle filtering-based framework for predicting a structure's remaining useful life with consideration of multiple co-existing damage-mechanisms. The framework uses an energy-based model from the composite modeling literature. The multiple damage-mode model has been shown to suitably estimate the energy release rate of cross-ply laminates as affected by matrix cracks and delamination modes. The model is also able to estimate the reduction in stiffness of the damaged laminate. This information is then used in the algorithms for life prediction capabilities. First, a brief summary of the energy-based damage model

  1. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO2-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozulin, A. A.; Narikovich, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.; Leitsin, V. N.; Kulkov, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO2-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91-0.98, 0.8-0.83, and 0.73-0.77 MPa of the static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 105 stress cycles is in the range 33-34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.

  2. Fatigue damage of notched boron/epoxy laminates under constant-amplitude loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roderick, G. L.; Whitcomb, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Fatigue damage in (0, plus or minus 45) and (0, plus or minus 45, 90) boron/epoxy laminates was studied with X-ray radiography and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, limited tests for residual strength and stiffness were performed. Initially, fatigue damage in both (0, plus or minus 45) and (0, plus or minus 45, 90) laminates occurred as intralaminar cracks around the edge of the hole. Then, whenever further damage developed, intralaminar cracks in the plus or minus 45-deg plies began to propagate from the edge of the hole. Finally, in both types of laminates, primarily plus or minus 45-deg fibers broke (prior to two-piece failure) where intralaminar cracks in the plus or minus 45-deg plies had occurred. In the (0, plus or minus 45) laminates, the 45-deg plies developed intralaminar and transthickness cracks along lines parallel to the loading axis and tangent to the hole in the test specimen. This damage, which was most pronounced under compressive loads, had little effect on either strength or stiffness. In contrast, in the (0, plus or minus 45, 90) laminates, the plus or minus 45-deg plies developed intralaminar cracks transverse to the loading axis.

  3. Damage repair in CMSX-4 alloy without fatigue life reduction penalty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Masakazu; Ohtera, Issei; Harada, Yoshio

    2004-02-01

    The microstructural changes in a single-crystal Ni-base superalloy, CMSX-4, that might occur during the processes of repair and recoating of hot section components for advanced gas turbines were studied. It is shown that the cellular γ/γ‧ microstructure is formed when the material is subjected to local plastic straining, followed by the reheat treatments during the course of damage recovery. The formation of cellular microstructure in the material led to the remarkably reduced fatigue strength. In order to reduce or prevent the preceding undesirable effect resulting from cellular microstructure, a new method based on applying overlay coating technique was developed. The method is based on an idea that the alloying elements that are depleted in base alloys could be supplemented via the overlay coating. An X alloy, which contains grain boundary strengthening elements, was selected and coated on the CMSX-4 with the cellular microstructure by low-pressure plasma spraying. The fatigue tests on the coated CMSX-4 specimens demonstrated the effectiveness of the method. The observations of the crack initiation site, the fatigue fracture mode, the crack density in the cellular transformed area, and the crack propagation morphologies near the prior interface strongly supported the validity of this approach. The method is expected to build a road to a so-called damage cure (or recovery) coating.

  4. Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemotherapy and radiation Recovering from major surgery Anxiety, stress, or depression Staying up too late Drinking too much alcohol or too many caffeinated drinks Pregnancy One disorder that causes extreme fatigue is chronic ...

  5. Room Temperature Tensile Behavior and Damage Accumulation of Hi-Nicalon Reinforced SiC Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, G. N.; Gyekenyesi, J. Z.

    1998-01-01

    Composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon fibers, BN interphases, and different SiC matrices were studied in tension at room temperature. Composites with SiC matrices processed by CVI and melt infiltration were compared. Monotonic and load/unload/reload tensile hysteresis experiments were performed. A modal acoustic emission (AE) analyzer was used to monitor damage accumulation during the tensile test. Post test polishing of the tensile gage sections was performed to determine the extent of cracking. The occurrence and location of cracking could easily be determined using modal AE. The loss of modulus could also effectively be determined from the change in the velocity of sound across the sample. Finally, the stresses where cracks appear to intersect the load-bearing fibers correspond with high temperature low cycle fatigue run out stresses for these materials.

  6. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear tooth pitting fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4) were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters performed average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant amount of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  7. Development of advanced structural analysis methodologies for predicting widespread fatigue damage in aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    NASA is developing a 'tool box' that includes a number of advanced structural analysis computer codes which, taken together, represent the comprehensive fracture mechanics capability required to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage. These structural analysis tools have complementary and specialized capabilities ranging from a finite-element-based stress-analysis code for two- and three-dimensional built-up structures with cracks to a fatigue and fracture analysis code that uses stress-intensity factors and material-property data found in 'look-up' tables or from equations. NASA is conducting critical experiments necessary to verify the predictive capabilities of the codes, and these tests represent a first step in the technology-validation and industry-acceptance processes. NASA has established cooperative programs with aircraft manufacturers to facilitate the comprehensive transfer of this technology by making these advanced structural analysis codes available to industry.

  8. Performance optimization of a diagnostic system based upon a simulated strain field for fatigue damage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarufatti, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2013-11-01

    The work presented hereafter is about the development of a diagnostic system for crack damage detection, localization and quantification on a typical metallic aeronautical structure (skin stiffened through riveted stringers). Crack detection and characterization are based upon strain field sensitivity to damage. The structural diagnosis is carried out by a dedicated smart algorithm (Artificial Neural Network) which is trained on a database of Finite Element simulations relative to damaged and undamaged conditions, providing the system with an accurate predictor at low overall cost. The algorithm, trained on numerical damage experience, is used in a simulated environment to provide reliable preliminary information concerning the algorithm performances for damage diagnosis, thus further reducing the experimental costs and efforts associated with the development and optimization of such systems. The same algorithm has been tested on real experimental strain patterns acquired during real fatigue crack propagation, thus verifying the capability of the numerically trained algorithm for anomaly detection, damage assessment and localization on a real complex structure. The load variability, the discrepancy between the Finite Element Model and the real structure, and the uncertainty in the algorithm training process have been addressed in order to enhance the robustness of the system inference process. Some further algorithm training strategies are discussed, aimed at minimizing the risk for false alarms while maintaining a high probability of damage detection.

  9. Direct evidence of "damage accumulation" in cement mantles surrounding femoral hip stems retrieved at autopsy: cement damage correlates with duration of use and BMI.

    PubMed

    Race, A; Miller, M A; Izant, T H; Mann, K A

    2011-09-01

    The "damage accumulation" phenomenon has not been quantitatively demonstrated in clinical cement mantles surrounding femoral hip stems. We stained transverse sections of 11 postmortem retrieved femoral hip components fixed with cement using fluorescent dye-penetrant and quantified cement damage, voids, and cement-bone interface gaps in epifluorescence and white light micrographs. Crack density (Cr.Dn), crack length-density (Cr.Ln.Dn), porosity, and cement-bone interface gap fraction (c/b-gap%) were calculated, normalized by mantle area. Multiple regression tests showed that cement damage (Cr.Ln.Dn. & Cr.Dn.) was significantly positively correlated (r(2)=0.98, p<0.001) with "duration of use" and body mass index ("BMI") but not cement mantle "porosity". There were significant interactions: "duration of use"*"BMI" was strongly predictive (p<0.005) of Cr.Dn.; and "duration of use"*"porosity" was predictive (p=0.04) of Cr.Ln.Dn. Stem related cracks accounted for approximately one fifth of Cr.Dn and one third of Cr.Ln.Dn. The mean c/b-gap% was 13.8% but it did not correlate (r(2)=0.01, p=0.8) with duration of use. We concluded that duration-dependent fatigue damage accumulation occurred during in vivo use. BMI strongly influenced cement crack length and the rate of new crack formation over time. Voids did not increase the rate of crack initiation but appeared to have promoted crack growth over time. Although not progressive, substantial bone resorption at the cement-bone interface appeared to be common. PMID:21802085

  10. Investigation of Bearing Fatigue Damage Life Prediction Using Oil Debris Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Bolander, Nathan; Haynes, Chris; Toms, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Research was performed to determine if a diagnostic tool for detecting fatigue damage of helicopter tapered roller bearings can be used to determine remaining useful life (RUL). The taper roller bearings under study were installed on the tail gearbox (TGB) output shaft of UH- 60M helicopters, removed from the helicopters and subsequently installed in a bearing spall propagation test rig. The diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data during spall progression tests on four bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of pitting damage. Results from the four bearings tested indicate that measuring the debris generated when a bearing outer race begins to spall can be used to indicate bearing damage progression and remaining bearing life.

  11. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Critical Design, Control, and Fault Prognosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous with respect to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in critical design, Life Extending Control and fault prognosis. The work is based on the local strain cyclic damage modeling method. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modelling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models is also presented. Progress toward a non-zero mean stress based is presented. Also new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are derived for this case. Application of the various models to design, control, and fault prognosis is considered.

  12. An investigation of rolling-sliding contact fatigue damage of carburized gear steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Patrick C.

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in RSCF performance between vacuum and gas carburized steels as well as to investigate the evolution of damage (wear and microstructure changes) leading to pitting. Vacuum and gas carburizing was performed on two gear steels (4120 and 4320) at 1010°C. The carburized specimens were tested in the as-carburized condition using a RSCF machine designed and built at the Colorado School of Mines. The tests were conducted at 3.2 GPa nominal Hertzian contact stress, based on pure rolling, 100°C, and using a negative twenty percent slide ratio. Tests were conducted to pitting failure for each condition for a comparison of the average fatigue lives. Pure rolling tests were also conducted, and were suspended at the same number of cycles as the average RSCF life for a comparison of fatigue damage developed by RCF and RSCF. Incremental tests were suspended at 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles for the vacuum carburized steels to evaluate the wear and damage developed during the initial cycles of RSCF testing and to relate the wear and damage to pitting resistance. Incremental damage was not investigated for gas carburizing due to the limited number of available specimens. The vacuum carburized samples showed a decreased pitting fatigue resistance over the gas carburized samples, possibly due to the presence of bainite in the vacuum carburized cases. Pitting was observed to initiate from surface micropitting and microcracking. A microstructural change induced by contact fatigue, butterflies, was shown to contribute to micropitting and microcracking. Incremental testing revealed that the formation of a microcrack preceded and was necessary for the formation of the butterfly features, and that the butterfly features developed between 10,000 and 100,000 cycles. The orientation and depth of butterfly formation was shown to be dependent upon the application of traction stresses from sliding. RSCF butterflies formed

  13. Monitoring Damage Accumulation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai H.

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection and accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites. Woven silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composites (CMC) possess unique properties such as high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, improved toughness, and good environmental stability (oxidation resistance), making them particularly suitable for hot structure applications. In specific, CMCs could be applied to hot section components of gas turbines [1], aerojet engines [2], thermal protection systems [3], and hot control surfaces [4]. The benefits of implementing these materials include reduced cooling air requirements, lower weight, simpler component design, longer service life, and higher thrust [5]. It has been identified in NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program that the SiC/SiC CMC has the most promise for high temperature, high oxidation applications [6]. One of the critical issues in the successful application of CMCs is on-board or insitu assessment of the damage state and an accurate prediction of the remaining service life of a particular component. This is of great concern, since most CMC components envisioned for aerospace applications will be exposed to harsh environments and play a key role in the vehicle s safety. On-line health monitoring can enable prediction of remaining life; thus resulting in improved safety and reliability of structural components. Monitoring can also allow for appropriate corrections to be made in real time, therefore leading to the prevention of catastrophic failures. Most conventional nondestructive

  14. Activation of bone remodeling after fatigue: differential response to linear microcracks and diffuse damage.

    PubMed

    Herman, B C; Cardoso, L; Majeska, R J; Jepsen, K J; Schaffler, M B

    2010-10-01

    Recent experiments point to two predominant forms of fatigue microdamage in bone: linear microcracks (tens to a few hundred microns in length) and "diffuse damage" (patches of diffuse stain uptake in fatigued bone comprised of clusters of sublamellar-sized cracks). The physiological relevance of diffuse damage in activating bone remodeling is not known. In this study microdamage amount and type were varied to assess whether linear or diffuse microdamage has similar effects on the activation of intracortical resorption. Activation of resorption was correlated to the number of linear microcracks (Cr.Dn) in the bone (R(2)=0.60, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no activation of resorption in response to diffuse microdamage alone. Furthermore, there was no significant change in osteocyte viability in response to diffuse microdamage, suggesting that osteocyte apoptosis, which is known to activate remodeling at typical linear microcracks in bone, does not result from sublamellar damage. These findings indicate that inability of diffuse microdamage to activate resorption may be due to lack of a focal injury response. Finally, we found that duration of loading does not affect the remodeling response. In conclusion, our data indicate that osteocytes activate resorption in response to linear microcracks but not diffuse microdamage, perhaps due to lack of a focal injury-induced apoptotic response. PMID:20633708

  15. Characterization of Fatigue Damage for Bonded Composite Skin/Stringer Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Isabelle; Cvitkovich, Michael; Krueger, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue damage was characterized in specimens which consisted of a tapered composite flange bonded onto a composite skin. Quasi-static tension tests were performed first to determine the failure load. Subsequently, tension fatigue tests were performed at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the failure load to evaluate the debonding mechanisms. For four specimens, the cycling loading was stopped at intervals. Photographs of the polished specimen edges were taken under a light microscope to document the damage. At two diagonally opposite corners of the flange, a delamination appeared to initiate at the flange tip from a matrix crack in the top 45deg skin ply and propagated at the top 45deg/-45deg skin ply interface. At the other two diagonally opposite corners, a delamination running in the bondline initiated from a matrix crack in the adhesive pocket. In addition, two specimens were cut longitudinally into several sections. Micrographs revealed a more complex pattern inside the specimen where the two delamination patterns observed at the edges are present simultaneously across most of the width of the specimen. The observations suggest that a more sophisticated nondestructive evaluation technique is required to capture the complex damage pattern of matrix cracking and multi-level delaminations.

  16. Multitechnique monitoring of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded composite lap-joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias; Khomenko, Anton; Dib, Gerges; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2015-03-01

    The requirement for reduced structural weight has driven the development of adhesively bonded joints. However, a major issue preventing their full acceptance is the initiation of premature failure in the form of a disbond between adherends, mainly due to fatigue, manufacturing flaws or impact damage. This work presents the integrated approach for in-situ monitoring of degradation of the adhesive bond in the GFRP composite lap-joint using ultrasonic guided waves and dynamic measurements from strategically embedded FBG sensors. Guided waves are actuated with surface mounted piezoelectric elements and mode tuning is used to provide high sensitivity to the degradation of the adhesive layer parameters. Composite lap-joints are subjected to fatigue loading, and data from piezoceramic transducers are collected at regular intervals to evaluate the progression of damage. Results demonstrate that quasi-static loading affects guided wave measurements considerably, but FBG sensors can be used to monitor the applied load levels and residual strains in the adhesive bond. The proposed technique shows promise for determining the post-damage stiffness of adhesively bonded joints.

  17. Damage progression during static and fatigue loading in metal matrix composites, volumes 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bakuckas, J.G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to gain a rational understanding of the damage initiation and progression in a variety of metal matrix composites (MMC) during both static and fatigue loading. An extensive two prong investigation involving experimental and analytical phases was undertaken in order to characterize damage progression in center notched MMC. Experimentally, the crack tip damage growth was studied utilizing several techniques including optical observations, use of the laser interferometric displacement gauge, acoustic emission, and fractography. The effects of heat treatment, constituents, and laminate configuration are addressed. In the analytical phase, the mechanics which govern the onset of damage formation in center cracked unidirectional MMC monolayers are predicted. A unique analytical technique to numerically simulate the subsequent damage progression is presented which manifests the individual microfailure mechanisms and their interaction in the evolution of the failure process ahead of an existing crack. Numerical simulations of the failure process was performed in several center-cracked unidirectional monolayered composites. The numerical simulations are correlated with experimental results in terms of the observed failure process, the notched strength, and load-COD data. Excellent agreement between the optical observations and the numerical simulation of the failure process was obtained. The numerical simulations captured the salient features observed in the sequential failure process. When correlated with the experimental results, the numerical simulations provided a better insight into the failure process in MMC. The appropriate selection of constituent components in the development of damage tolerant MMC for a particular application can be achieved by using this numerical technique.

  18. Monitoring Thermal Fatigue Damage In Nuclear Power Plant Materials Using Acoustic Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-04-26

    Proactive aging management of nuclear power plant passive components requires technologies to enable monitoring and accurate quantification of material condition at early stages of degradation (i.e., pre-macrocrack). Acoustic emission (AE) is well-suited to continuous monitoring of component degradation and is proposed as a method to monitor degradation during accelerated thermal fatigue tests. A key consideration is the ability to separate degradation responses from external sources such as water spray induced during thermal fatigue testing. Water spray provides a significant background of acoustic signals, which can overwhelm AE signals caused by degradation. Analysis of AE signal frequency and energy is proposed in this work as a means for separating degradation signals from background sources. Encouraging results were obtained by applying both frequency and energy filters to preliminary data. The analysis of signals filtered using frequency and energy provides signatures exhibiting several characteristics that are consistent with degradation accumulation in materials. Future work is planned to enable verification of the efficacy of AE for thermal fatigue crack initiation detection. While the emphasis has been placed on the use of AE for crack initiation detection during accelerated aging tests, this work also has implications with respect to the use of AE as a primary tool for early degradation monitoring in nuclear power plant materials. The development of NDE tools for characterization of aging in materials can also benefit from the use of a technology such as AE which can continuously monitor and detect crack initiation during accelerated aging tests.

  19. Computational Model of Alpha-Decay Damage Accumulation in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, Howard L.; Weber, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic-scale computer simulations are used to study defect accumulation and amorphization due to alpha decay in zircon (ZrSiO4). The displacement cascades, which represent 234U recoil nuclei from alpha-decay of 238Pu in zircon, are generated using a crystalline binary collision model, and the stochastic production of defects in the crystal lattice, recombination of defects, and the identification of amorphous regions are followed within the framework of a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. Within the model, amorphous regions are identified as those having a critical density of Zr vacancies. The simulation predicts the interstitial content and amorphous fraction as functions of dose that are consistent with experimental data at 300 K for 238Pu-doped zircon, which indicate that the kinetic Monte Carlo model for behavior in zircon at 300 K is reasonable.

  20. Applications of nonequilibrium melting concept to damage-accumulation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    The authors recent study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation led to the successful development of a unified thermodynamic description of disorder-induced amorphization and heat-induced melting, based on a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion. The generalized criterion requires that the melting temperature of a defective crystal decreases with increasing static atomic disorder. Hence, any crystal can melt at temperatures below the melting point of its perfect crystalline state when driven far from equilibrium by introducing critical amounts of misfitting solute atoms and lattice imperfections, radiation damage, and/or tensile stresses. This conceptual approach to nonequilibrium melting provides new insight into long-standing materials problems such as brittle fracture, embrittlement, and environmentally-induced cracking, for example irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  1. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIP OF TISSUE BEHAVIOR WITH DAMAGE ACCUMULATION OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Acuna, Rae; Dong, Xuanliang; Rong, Qiguo; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    Microdamage accumulation has been identified as a major conduit for bone tissues to absorb fracture energy. Due to the poor understanding of its underlying mechanism, however, an adequate constitutive relationship between damage accumulation and the mechanical behavior of bone has not yet been established. In this study, the constitutive relationship between the damage accumulation induced by overload and the evolution of mechanical properties of bone with incremental deformation was established based on the experimental results obtained from a novel progressive loading protocol developed in our laboratory. First, a decayed exponential model was proposed to capture the damage accumulation (modulus loss) with increasing applied strain. Next, a power law function was proposed to represent the progression of plastic deformation with damage accumulation. Finally, a linear combination of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function and Debye function was used to depict the viscoelastic behavior of bone associated with damage accumulation. The results of this study may help develop a constitutive model for predicting the mechanical behavior of cortical bone tissues. PMID:20472239

  2. The Protective Role of Symmetric Stem Cell Division on the Accumulation of Heritable Damage

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Peter T.; Lander, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric—in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not—or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces the lifetime risk of accumulating phenotypically silent heritable damage (mutations or aberrant epigenetic changes) in individual stem cells. This effect is greatest in rapidly cycling tissues subject to accelerating rates of damage accumulation over time, a scenario that describes the progression of many cancers. A decrease in the rate of cellular damage accumulation may be an important factor favoring symmetric patterns of stem cell division. PMID:25121484

  3. The protective role of symmetric stem cell division on the accumulation of heritable damage.

    PubMed

    McHale, Peter T; Lander, Arthur D

    2014-08-01

    Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric-in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not-or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces the lifetime risk of accumulating phenotypically silent heritable damage (mutations or aberrant epigenetic changes) in individual stem cells. This effect is greatest in rapidly cycling tissues subject to accelerating rates of damage accumulation over time, a scenario that describes the progression of many cancers. A decrease in the rate of cellular damage accumulation may be an important factor favoring symmetric patterns of stem cell division. PMID:25121484

  4. Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue can be a symptom of anemia, particularly iron-deficiency anemia . Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin, the substance in red blood ... tissues and to your baby. Your need for iron increases during pregnancy because of the needs of ...

  5. An overview of elevated temperature damage mechanisms and fatigue behavior of a unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Gayda, John

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of a unidirectionally reinforced titanium matrix composite (TMC), SiC/Ti-15-3, was thoroughly characterized to support life prediction modeling of advanced TMC disks designed for gas turbine engine applications. The results of this coupon-level experimental investigation are reviewed. On a stress basis, the isothermal fatigue behavior of the (0 deg) TMC revealed significant improvements over the unreinforced matrix. In contrast, the (90 deg) TMC exhibited degraded properties and lives for similar comparisons. This was attributed to the weak fiber/matrix interfacial bond. Encasing the (0 deg) TMC with a Ti-15-3 case did not affect isothermal fatigue lives at higher strain levels. However, at lower strain levels, rapid initiation and propagation of large fatigue cracks in the case degraded the fatigue lives. Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) lives were significantly reduced for the (0 deg) TMC when compared to isothermal lives. At high strains, in-phase TMF produced extremely short lives. This degradation was attributed to fiber overload failures brought about by stress relaxation in the matrix. At low strains, out-of-phase TMF conditions became life limiting. Environment-assisted surface cracking was found to accelerate fatigue failure. This produced extensive matrix damage with minimal fiber damage. For the (90 deg) TMC, TMF conditions did not promote an additional degradation in cyclic life beyond that observed under isothermal conditions.

  6. Fatigue Damage Characterization by NDT in Polypropylene/Glass Fibre Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Paulo N. B.; Ferreira, José A. M.; Richardson, Mel O. W.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene composite in which the fatigue damage was investigated in terms of residual stiffness and temperature rise. Thermographic and acoustic emission techniques were used to aid the interpretation the fatigue damage mechanisms. Different laminates were tested. For one series, all the layers have one of the two fibre directions oriented with the axis of the plate. For the other two series layer distribution was obtained with the following laminate orientation in respect to the axis of the sheet: +45°/0°/-45°/0°/+45°/0°/-45° and +30°/-30°/+30°/0°/+30°/-30°/+30°. It was possible to conclude that the residual stiffness and temperature rise can be used to predict final failure of a structure and/or component. With thermographic technique it is possible to obtain temperature maps and the precise site where the failure will occur.

  7. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  8. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface

    PubMed Central

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-01

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage, or micro cracks, and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered; ‘only creep’, ‘only damage’ or ‘creep and damage’. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

  9. Combining Passive Thermography and Acoustic Emission for Large Area Fatigue Damage Growth Assessment of a Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.Keywords: Thermal nondestructive evaluation, fatigue damage detection, aerospace composite inspection, acoustic emission, passive thermography

  10. Analytical modeling of contact acoustic nonlinearity of guided waves and its application to evaluating severity of fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Su, Zhongqing

    2016-04-01

    Targeting quantitative estimate of fatigue damage, a dedicated analytical model was developed based on the modal decomposition method and the variational principle. The model well interprets the contact acoustic nonlinearity induced by a "breathing" crack in a two-dimensional scenario, and the nonlinear characteristics of guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) (e.g., reflection, transmission, mode conversion and high-order generation) when GUWs traversing the crack. Based on the model, a second-order reflection index was defined. Using the index, a fatigue damage evaluation framework was established, showing demonstrated capacity of estimating the severity of fatigue damage in a quantitative manner. The approach, in principle, does not entail a benchmarking process against baseline signals pre-acquired from pristine counterparts. The results obtained using the analytical modeling were compared with those from finite element simulation, showing good coincidence. Limitations of the model were also discussed.

  11. Experimental Investigations on Fatigue Damage and Residual Properties of Interacting Notched Woven E-Glass/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskara Rao, Pathakokila; Rama Krishna, Avasarala; Ramji, Koona; Satya Devi, Ambadipudi

    2015-10-01

    The interacting notched laminates of plain weave E-glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were fatigued at predetermined frequency in tension-tension to investigate the fatigue damage and residual properties. The results from stress-life curves summarize that damage growing around the notches due to stress concentration is the underlying cause for the variation in fatigue strengths among the geometrically different specimens considered. The residual strength and modulus decay with respect to cycle number at 50 % of the ultimate tensile strength were investigated. It is evident from the experimental data that the residual strength decreases with cycle number and increases due to redistribution of stress around the notches. The detailed study of the damage development under cyclic loads also explains the causes of modulus reduction for all the laminate geometries.

  12. Damage Monitoring of Unidirectional C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composite under Cyclic Fatigue Loading using A Hysteresis Loss Energy-Based Damage Parameter at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The damage evolution of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) under cyclic fatigue loading has been investigated using a hysteresis loss energy-based damage parameter at room and elevated temperatures. The experimental fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy versus cycle number have been analyzed. By comparing the experimental fatigue hysteresis loss energy with theoretical computational values, the interface shear stress corresponding to different cycle number and peak stress has been estimated. The experimental evolution of fatigue hysteresis loss energy and fatigue hysteresis loss energy-based damage parameter versus cycle number has been predicted for unidirectional C/SiC composite at room and elevated temperatures. The predicted results of interface shear stress degradation, stress-strain hysteresis loops corresponding to different number of applied cycles, fatigue hysteresis loss energy and fatigue hysteresis loss energy-based damage parameter as a functions of cycle number agreed with experimental data. It was found that the fatigue hysteresis energy-based parameter can be used to monitor the fatigue damage evolution and predict the fatigue life of fiber-reinforced CMCs.

  13. Damage Monitoring of Unidirectional C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composite under Cyclic Fatigue Loading using A Hysteresis Loss Energy-Based Damage Parameter at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-06-01

    The damage evolution of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) under cyclic fatigue loading has been investigated using a hysteresis loss energy-based damage parameter at room and elevated temperatures. The experimental fatigue hysteresis modulus and fatigue hysteresis loss energy versus cycle number have been analyzed. By comparing the experimental fatigue hysteresis loss energy with theoretical computational values, the interface shear stress corresponding to different cycle number and peak stress has been estimated. The experimental evolution of fatigue hysteresis loss energy and fatigue hysteresis loss energy-based damage parameter versus cycle number has been predicted for unidirectional C/SiC composite at room and elevated temperatures. The predicted results of interface shear stress degradation, stress-strain hysteresis loops corresponding to different number of applied cycles, fatigue hysteresis loss energy and fatigue hysteresis loss energy-based damage parameter as a functions of cycle number agreed with experimental data. It was found that the fatigue hysteresis energy-based parameter can be used to monitor the fatigue damage evolution and predict the fatigue life of fiber-reinforced CMCs.

  14. Ductile Damage and Fatigue Behavior of Semi-Finished Tailored Blanks for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besserer, Hans-Bernward; Hildenbrand, Philipp; Gerstein, Gregory; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian; Merklein, Marion; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    To produce parts from sheet metal with thickened functional elements, bulk forming operations can be employed. For this new process class, the term sheet-bulk metal forming has been established recently. Since sheet-bulk metal forming processes such as orbital forming generates triaxial stress and strain states, ductile damage is induced in the form of voids in the microstructure. Typical parts will experience cyclic loads during service, and thus, the influence of ductile damage on the fatigue life of parts manufactured by orbital forming is of interest. Both the formation and growth of voids were characterized following this forming process and then compared to the as-received condition of the ferritic deep drawing steel DC04 chosen for this study. Subsequent to the forming operation, the specimens were fatigued and the evolution of ductile damage and the rearrangement of the dislocation networks occurring during cyclic loading were determined. It was shown, that despite an increased ductile damage due to the forming process, the induced strain hardening has a positive effect on the fatigue life of the material. However, by analyzing the fatigued specimens a development of the ductile damage by an increasing number of voids and a change in the void shape were detected.

  15. Modal Acoustic Emission of Damage Accumulation in Woven SiC/SiC at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites exhibit significant nonlinear stress-strain behavior that makes them attractive as potential materials for many high temperature applications. The mechanisms for this nonlinear stress-strain behavior are all associated with various types of damage in the composites, e.g. transverse matrix cracks and individual fiber failures. Modal acoustic emission has been employed to aid in discerning the damage accumulation that occurs during elevated temperature tensile stress-rupture of woven Hi-Nicalon fiber, BN interphase, SiC matrix composites. It is shown that modal acoustic emission is an effective monitor of the relative damage accumulation in the composites and locator of the damage and failure events as a function of strain (stress), time at temperature, and temperature gradients along the length of the elevated temperature test specimen.

  16. Experimental Verification of a Progressive Damage Model for IM7/5260 Laminates Subjected to Tension-Tension Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The durability and damage tolerance of laminated composites are critical design considerations for airframe composite structures. Therefore, the ability to model damage initiation and growth and predict the life of laminated composites is necessary to achieve structurally efficient and economical designs. The purpose of this research is to experimentally verify the application of a continuum damage model to predict progressive damage development in a toughened material system. Damage due to monotonic and tension-tension fatigue was documented for IM7/5260 graphite/bismaleimide laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables to predict stiffness loss in unnotched laminates. A damage dependent finite element code predicted the stiffness loss for notched laminates with good agreement to experimental data. It was concluded that the continuum damage model can adequately predict matrix damage progression in notched and unnotched laminates as a function of loading history and laminate stacking sequence.

  17. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear-tooth-pitting-fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4 [Ed. 's note: See Appendix A-Definitions D were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters perfomu:d average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant 8lDOunt of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  18. Re-examination of cumulative fatigue damage analysis - An engineering perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A method which has evolved in the laboratories for the past 20 yr is re-examined with the intent of improving its accuracy and simplicity of application to engineering problems. Several modifications are introduced both to the analytical formulation of the Damage Curve Approach, and to the procedure for modifying this approach to achieve a Double Linear Damage Rule formulation which immensely simplifies the calculation. Improvements are also introduced in the treatment of mean stress for determining fatigue life of the individual events that enter into a complex loading history. While the procedure is completely consistent with the results of numerous two level tests that have been conducted on many materials, it is still necessary to verify applicability to complex loading histories. Caution is expressed that certain phenomenon can also influence the applicability - for example, unusual deformation and fracture modes inherent in complex loading especially if stresses are multiaxial. Residual stresses at crack tips, and metallurgical factors are also important in creating departures from the cumulative damage theories; examples of departures are provided.

  19. Re-examination of cumulative fatigue damage analysis: An engineering perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A method which has evolved in our laboratories for the past 20 yr is re-examined with the intent of improving its accuracy and simplicity of application to engineering problems. Several modifications are introduced both to the analytical formulation of the Damage Curve Approach, and to the procedure for modifying this approach to achieve a Double Linear Damage Rule formulation which immensely simplifies the calculation. Improvements are also introduced in the treatment of mean stress for determining fatigue life of the individual events that enter into a complex loading history. While the procedure is completely consistent with the results of numerous two level tests that have been conducted on many materials, it is still necessary to verify applicability to complex loading histories. Caution is expressed that certain phenomena can also influence the applicability - for example, unusual deformation and fracture modes inherent in complex loading - especially if stresses are multiaxial. Residual stresses at crack tips, and metallurgical factors are also important in creating departures from the cumulative damage theories; examples of departures are provided.

  20. Optical sensing of the fatigue damage state of CFRP under realistic aeronautical load sequences.

    PubMed

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arconada, Álvaro; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical sensing methodology to estimate the fatigue damage state of structures made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), by measuring variations on the surface roughness. Variable amplitude loads (VAL), which represent realistic loads during aeronautical missions of fighter aircraft (FALSTAFF) have been applied to coupons until failure. Stiffness degradation and surface roughness variations have been measured during the life of the coupons obtaining a Pearson correlation of 0.75 between both variables. The data were compared with a previous study for Constant Amplitude Load (CAL) obtaining similar results. Conclusions suggest that the surface roughness measured in strategic zones is a useful technique for structural health monitoring of CFRP structures, and that it is independent of the type of load applied. Surface roughness can be measured in the field by optical techniques such as speckle, confocal perfilometers and interferometry, among others. PMID:25760056

  1. Torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) fatigue damage mechanisms in Waspaloy at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, N.; Ditmars, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Strain controlled torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) low cycle fatigue behavior of Waspaloy was studied at room temperature as a function of heat treatment. Biaxial tests were conducted under proportional and nonproportional cyclic conditions. The deformation behavior under these different cyclic conditions was evaluated by slip trace analysis. For this, a Schmidt-type factor was defined for multiaxial loading conditions, and it was shown that when the slip deformation is predominant, nonproportional cycles are more damaging than proportional or pure axial or torsional cycles. This was attributed to the fact that under nonproportional cyclic conditions, deformation was through multiple slip, as opposed to single slip for other loading conditions, which gave rise to increased hardening. The total life for a given test condition was found to be independent of heat treatment. This was interpreted as being due to the differences in the cycles to initiation and propagation of cracks.

  2. Optical Sensing of the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP under Realistic Aeronautical Load Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arconada, Álvaro; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical sensing methodology to estimate the fatigue damage state of structures made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), by measuring variations on the surface roughness. Variable amplitude loads (VAL), which represent realistic loads during aeronautical missions of fighter aircraft (FALSTAFF) have been applied to coupons until failure. Stiffness degradation and surface roughness variations have been measured during the life of the coupons obtaining a Pearson correlation of 0.75 between both variables. The data were compared with a previous study for Constant Amplitude Load (CAL) obtaining similar results. Conclusions suggest that the surface roughness measured in strategic zones is a useful technique for structural health monitoring of CFRP structures, and that it is independent of the type of load applied. Surface roughness can be measured in the field by optical techniques such as speckle, confocal perfilometers and interferometry, among others. PMID:25760056

  3. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  4. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  5. Multidisciplinary design optimization of a fighter aircraft with damage tolerance constraints and a probabilistic model of the fatigue environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Albert Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) was considered in the global design optimization of an aircraft wing structure. Residual strength and fatigue life requirements, based on the damage tolerance philosophy, were investigated as new design constraints. In general, accurate fatigue prediction is difficult if the load environment is not known with a high degree of certainty. To address this issue, a probabilistic approach was used to describe the uncertain load environment. Probabilistic load spectra models were developed from flight recorder data. The global/local finite element approach allowed local fatigue requirements to be considered in the global design optimization. AFGROW fatigue crack growth analysis provided a new strength criterion for satisfying damage tolerance requirements within a global optimization environment. Initial research with the ASTROS program used the probabilistic load model and this damage tolerance constraint to optimize cracked skin panels on the lower wing of a fighter/attack aircraft. For an aerodynamic and structural model similar to an F-16, ASTROS simulated symmetric and asymmetric maneuvers during the optimization. Symmetric maneuvers, without underwing stores, produced the highest stresses and drove the optimization of the inboard lower wing skin. Asymmetric maneuvers, with underwing stores, affected the optimum thickness of the outboard hard points. Subsequent design optimizations included von Mises stress, aileron effectiveness, and lift effectiveness constraints simultaneously. This optimization was driven by the DTA and von Mises stress constraints and, therefore, DTA requirements can have an active role to play in preliminary aircraft design.

  6. 18 CFR 367.2282 - Account 228.2, Accumulated provision for injuries and damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 228.2, Accumulated provision for injuries and damages. 367.2282 Section 367.2282 Conservation of Power and Water.... (c) Recoveries or reimbursements for losses charged to this account must be credited to this...

  7. 18 CFR 367.2282 - Account 228.2, Accumulated provision for injuries and damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 228.2, Accumulated provision for injuries and damages. 367.2282 Section 367.2282 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...

  8. Damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni-based concentrated solid-solution alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Irradiation-induced damage accumulation in Ni0.8Fe0.2 and Ni0.8Cr0.2 alloys by using molecular dynamics simulations to assess possible enhanced radiation-resistance in these face-centered cubic (fcc), single-phase, concentrated solid-solution alloys, as compared with pure fcc Ni.

  9. Effects of multiaxial stress state and saltwater on fatigue damage and failure of glass/epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng

    2007-12-01

    Fiber composites used in advanced mechanical systems are generally subjected to cyclic loading with multiaxial stress state. Thus multiaxial fatigue is a subject of major importance in design and evaluation of long-term performance of composite structures and components. Theoretical work was initially performed to address the fundamental issues of damage evolution and material degradation in glass/epoxy composites subject to multiaxial cyclic stresses. A continuum damage mechanics formulation based on irreversible thermodynamics was used to construct multiaxial cyclic constitutive equations of the composite. With coupling of damage anisotropy and multiaxial stress state and using Gibb's free energy function, damage driving force was determined. Based on the second principle of thermodynamics, evolution equations were also obtained to describe the change of the damage state in the composite under multiaxial fatigue loading. A newly introduced failure-life theory was employed for the fiber composite, based on anisotropic nature of composite strength property and distinct mechanisms of microcrack formation and growth under different multiaxial cyclic stresses. A driving force for fatigue failure was formulated with a governing function, involving combined cyclic shear and transverse tensile stresses along the weakest principal material plane of the composite. Multiaxial fatigue life of the composite was related to the forcing function using a power-law. A formulation of thermomechanical response of a fiber composite based on the general thermodynamics theory was proposed to establish a model that can couple water sorption, applied stress and damage in the composite. Starting from general Gibbs free energy, constitutive equations, which describe the relationships between state variables and corresponding driving forces, were derived. The evolution laws that describe relationships of damage driving force-damage evolution and chemical potential gradient-water flux were

  10. The mitochondrial theory of aging: do damaged mitochondria accumulate by delayed degradation?

    PubMed

    Kowald, A

    1999-08-01

    The mitochondrial theory of aging states that the slow accumulation of impaired mitochondria is the driving force of the aging process. In recent years, this theory has gained new support with the discovery of age-related mitochondrial DNA deletions. However, the underlying mechanism of the accumulation of defective mitochondria remained unclear. This has changed recently with the proposal of de Grey that damaged mitochondria have a decreased degradation rate. The resulting increase in biological half-life would be a strong selection advantage leading to the accumulation of defective mitochondria. In this article, I summarize current ideas on how damaged organelles can build up in a cell as well as the shortcomings of these ideas. Then the new hypothesis and its justification are described. It appears that de Grey's hypothesis is a very promising concept that elegantly solves inconsistencies of current models and is in accordance with experimental findings. PMID:10530786

  11. Simulation of long-term fatigue damage in bioprosthetic heart valves: effects of leaflet and stent elastic properties

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    One of the major failure modes of bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) is noncalcific structural deterioration due to fatigue of the tissue leaflets; yet, the mechanisms of fatigue are not well understood. BHV durability is primarily assessed based on visual inspection of the leaflets following accelerated wear testing. In this study, we developed a computational framework to simulate BHV leaflet fatigue, which is both efficient and quantitative, making it an attractive alternative to traditional accelerated wear testing. We utilize a phenomenological soft tissue fatigue damage model developed previously to describe the stress softening and permanent set of the glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium leaflets in BHVs subjected to cyclic loading. A parametric study was conducted to determine the effects of altered leaflet and stent elastic properties on the fatigue of the leaflets. The simulation results show that heterogeneity of the leaflet elastic properties, poor leaflet coaptation, and little stent-tip deflection may accelerate leaflet fatigue, which agrees with clinical findings. Therefore, the developed framework may be an invaluable tool for evaluating leaflet durability in new tissue valve designs, including traditional BHVs as well as new transcatheter valves. PMID:24092257

  12. Simulation of long-term fatigue damage in bioprosthetic heart valves: effects of leaflet and stent elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei

    2014-08-01

    One of the major failure modes of bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) is noncalcific structural deterioration due to fatigue of the tissue leaflets; yet, the mechanisms of fatigue are not well understood. BHV durability is primarily assessed based on visual inspection of the leaflets following accelerated wear testing. In this study, we developed a computational framework to simulate BHV leaflet fatigue, which is both efficient and quantitative, making it an attractive alternative to traditional accelerated wear testing. We utilize a phenomenological soft tissue fatigue damage model developed previously to describe the stress softening and permanent set of the glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium leaflets in BHVs subjected to cyclic loading. A parametric study was conducted to determine the effects of altered leaflet and stent elastic properties on the fatigue of the leaflets. The simulation results show that heterogeneity of the leaflet elastic properties, poor leaflet coaptation, and little stent-tip deflection may accelerate leaflet fatigue, which agrees with clinical findings. Therefore, the developed framework may be an invaluable tool for evaluating leaflet durability in new tissue valve designs, including traditional BHVs as well as new transcatheter valves. PMID:24092257

  13. Prediction of damage evolution in continuous fiber metal matrix composites subjected to fatigue loading

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.; Helms, K.; Lagoudas, D.

    1995-08-01

    A life prediction model is being developed by the authors for application to metal matrix composites (MMC`s). The systems under study are continuous silicon carbide fibers imbedded in titanium matrix. The model utilizes a computationally based framework based on thermodynamics and continuum mechanics, and accounts for matrix inelasticity, damage evolution, and environmental degradation due to oxidation. The computational model utilizes the finite element method, and an evolutionary analysis of a unit cell is accomplished via a time stepping algorithm. The computational scheme accounts for damage growth such as fiber-matrix debonding, surface cracking, and matrix cracking via the inclusion of cohesive zone elements in the unit cell. These elements are located based on experimental evidence also obtained by the authors. The current paper outlines the formulation utilized by the authors to solve this problem, and recent results are discussed. Specifically, results are given for a four-ply unidirectional composite subjected to cyclic fatigue loading at 650{degrees}C both in air and inert gas. The effects of oxidation on the life of the composite are predicted with the model, and the results are compared to limited experimental results.

  14. Cross-flow VIV-induced fatigue damage of deepwater steel catenary riser at touch-down point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun-peng; Tang, Wen-yong; Xue, Hong-xiang

    2014-03-01

    A prediction model of the deepwater steel catenary riser VIV is proposed based on the forced oscillation test data, taking into account the riser-seafloor interaction for the cross-flow VIV-induced fatigue damage at touch-down point (TDP). The model will give more reasonable simulation of SCR response near TDP than the previous pinned truncation model. In the present model, the hysteretic riser-soil interaction model is simplified as the linear spring and damper to simulate the seafloor, and the damping is obtained according to the dissipative power during one periodic riser-soil interaction. In order to validate the model, the comparison with the field measurement and the results predicted by Shear 7 program of a full-scale steel catenary riser is carried out. The main induced modes, mode frequencies and response amplitude are in a good agreement. Furthermore, the parametric studies are carried out to broaden the understanding of the fatigue damage sensitivity to the upper end in-plane offset and seabed characteristics. In addition, the fatigue stress comparison at TDP between the truncation riser model and the present full riser model shows that the existence of touch-down zones is very important for the fatigue damage assessment of steel catenary riser at TDP.

  15. Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in brain mitochondria in mouse model of hereditary ferritinopathy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoling; Vidal, Ruben; Englander, Ella W

    2010-07-19

    Tissue iron content is strictly regulated to concomitantly satisfy specialized metabolic requirements and avoid toxicity. Ferritin, a multi-subunit iron storage protein, is central to maintenance of iron homeostasis in the brain. Mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL)-encoding gene underlie the autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disease, neuroferritinopathy/hereditary ferritinopathy (HF). HF is characterized by progressive accumulation of ferritin and iron. To gain insight into mechanisms by which FTL mutations promote neurodegeneration, a transgenic mouse, expressing human mutant form of FTL, was recently generated. The FTL mouse exhibits buildup of iron in the brain and presents manifestations of oxidative stress reminiscent of the human disease. Here, we asked whether oxidative DNA damage accumulates in the FTL mouse brain. Long-range PCR (L-PCR) amplification-mediated DNA damage detection assays revealed that the integrity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the brain was significantly compromised in the 12- but not 6-month-old FTL mice. Furthermore, L-PCR employed in conjunction with DNA modifying enzymes, which target specific DNA adducts, revealed the types of oxidative adducts accumulating in mtDNA in the FTL brain. Consistently with DNA damage predicted to form under conditions of excessive oxidative stress, detected adducts include, oxidized guanines, abasic sites and strand breaks. Elevated mtDNA damage may impair mitochondrial function and brain energetics and in the long term contribute to neuronal loss and exacerbate neurodegeneration in HF. PMID:20478358

  16. Assessment of damage accumulation in thermal barrier coatings using a fluorescent dye infiltration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, B.; Jordan, E.; Gell, M.; Geary, A.

    1999-03-01

    Thermal barrier coatings, used extensively on hot section gas turbine engine components, weaken and spall after repeated thermal exposure during normal engine operation. A new technique has been developed, involving the use of vacuum impregnation of the porous ceramic with a mixture of epoxy and fluorescent dye (rhodamine-B) and the ASTM C 633 79 direct pull test, to preserve and reveal incipient damage and accumulated damage prior to spallation in thermal barrier coatings. Excellent definition of damage is provided by the dye in electron beam physical vapor deposited coatings, but the damage is more difficult to distinguish in the highly porous plasma coatings. Image processing is used to quantify the area fraction of debonding. For the electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia coating evaluated, a local area fraction of debonding of up to 20% was observed at 80% of spallation life.

  17. Use of Acoustic Emission to Monitor Progressive Damage Accumulation in Kevlar (R) 49 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Andrade, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during intermittent load hold tensile testing of epoxy impregnated Kevlar(Registeres TradeMark) 49 (K/Ep) composite strands were analyzed to monitor progressive damage during the approach to tensile failure. Insight into the progressive damage of K/Ep strands was gained by monitoring AE event rate and energy. Source location based on energy attenuation and arrival time data was used to discern between significant AE attributable to microstructural damage and spurious AE attributable to noise. One of the significant findings was the observation of increasing violation of the Kaiser effect (Felicity ratio < 1.0) with damage accumulation. The efficacy of three different intermittent load hold stress schedules that allowed the Felicity ratio to be determined analytically is discussed.

  18. Damage Accumulation in Cyclically-Loaded Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites Monitored by Acoustic Emission

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, D. G.; Dassios, K. G.; Kordatos, E. Z.; Matikas, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Barium osumilite (BMAS) ceramic matrix composites reinforced with SiC-Tyranno fibers are tested in a cyclic loading protocol. Broadband acoustic emission (AE) sensors are used for monitoring the occurrence of different possible damage mechanisms. Improved use of AE indices is proposed by excluding low-severity signals based on waveform parameters, rather than only threshold criteria. The application of such improvements enhances the accuracy of the indices as accumulated damage descriptors. RA-value, duration, and signal energy follow the extension cycles indicating moments of maximum or minimum strain, while the frequency content of the AE signals proves very sensitive to the pull-out mechanism. PMID:24381524

  19. Modelling of processes of damage accumulation and multiscale fracture in rock mass with excavations at mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, M. O.; Makarov, P. V.; Peryshkin, A. Yu.; Evtushenko, E. P.; Orlov, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of 2D and 3D modelling of damage accumulation in rock mass elements are represented in the paper. The estimations of the initial (general) and set steps of roof caving are obtained for the lava conditions of Alardinskaya mine, OAS "YuzhKuzbassUgol". The results of modelling give a good agreement with empirical estimations of roof caving steps for the flat-dipping coal seams.

  20. The effects of damage accumulation on the tensile strength and toughness of compact bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Baumann, Melissa; McCabe, Laura R

    2013-03-15

    Damage accumulation in compact bovine femur subjected to uniaxial tensile loading was examined by strong light illumination effects of microcracking. Imaging was done using a high-speed camera capturing image at 200 to 1500FPS. The tensile tests were performed in a multipurpose tensile testing system with cross-head speeds ranging from 0.5 to 10mm/min which leads to strain rates of 0.0001 to 0.0012s(-1) (physiologically relevant to walking and running Hansen et al., 2008). The post-failure images were then examined in a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and effects of microstructure, strain rate, and orientation were evaluated. Correlation of the high-speed images with stress-strain curves indicated that optically visible microcracks were most likely initiated at yielding, and the specimens with dispersed microcracks exhibited a higher energy-absorption capacity compared to the specimens with coalesced local cracks. It was found that damage accumulation negatively correlates to strain rate and that transverse specimens exhibited a different failure pattern compared to the longitudinal specimens. Strain hardening and softening were found in the longitudinal and transverse specimens respectively. The microcracking in the transverse specimens instantly increased to peak after yielding compared to the gradual growth until failure in the longitudinal specimens. The average Young's modulus (21.5GPa) and ultimate stress (93.5MPa) of the specimens loaded in the longitudinal direction were more than twice that of the specimens (10.9GPa and 36.2MPa respectively) loaded in the transverse direction. The current technique has shown potential in relating damage accumulation real time in bone samples subjected to tensile loading condition. This information will be helpful in relating the role of micro damage accumulation in initiating failure and/or remodeling in bone. PMID:23337851

  1. Damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni-based concentrated solid-solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Irradiation-induced damage accumulation in Ni0.8Fe0.2 and Ni0.8Cr0.2 alloys by using molecular dynamics simulations to assess possible enhanced radiation-resistance in these face-centered cubic (fcc), single-phase, concentrated solid-solution alloys, as compared with pure fcc Ni.

  2. Fatigue creep damage at the cement-bone interface: an experimental and a micro-mechanical finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface under tensile fatigue loading using finite element analysis (FEA) and to understand the underlying mechanisms that play a role in the fatigue behavior of this interface. Laboratory cement-bone specimens were subjected to a tensile fatigue load, while local displacements and crack growth on the specimen's surface were monitored. FEA models were created from these specimens based upon micro-computed tomography data. To accurately model interfacial gaps at the interface between the bone and cement, a custom-written erosion algorithm was applied to the bone model. A fatigue load was simulated in the FEA models while monitoring the local displacements and crack propagation. The results showed the FEA models were able to capture the general experimental creep damage behavior and creep stages of the interface. Consistent with the experiments, the majority of the deformation took place at the contact interface. Additionally, the FEA models predicted fatigue crack patterns similar to experimental findings. Experimental surface cracks correlated moderately with FEA surface cracks (r2=0.43), but did not correlate with the simulated crack volume fraction (r2=0.06). Although there was no relationship between experimental surface cracks and experimental creep damage displacement (r2=0.07), there was a strong relationship between the FEA crack volume fraction and the FEA creep damage displacement (r2=0.76). This study shows the additional value of FEA of the cement-bone interface relative to experimental studies and can therefore be used to optimize its mechanical properties. PMID:19682690

  3. Characterization of failure processes in tungsten copper composites under fatigue loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yong-Suk; Verrilli, Michael J.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    1989-01-01

    A fractographic and metallographic investigation was performed on specimens of a tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite (9 vol percent), which had experienced fatigue failures at elevated temperatures. Major failure modes and possible failure mechanisms, with an emphasis placed on characterizing fatigue damage accumulation, were determined. Metallography of specimens fatigued under isothermal cyclic loading suggested that fatigue damage initiates in the matrix. Cracks nucleated within the copper matrix at grain boundaries, and they propagated through cavity coalescence. The growing cracks subsequently interacted with the reinforcing tungsten fibers, producing a localized ductile fiber failure. Examinations of interrupted tests before final failure confirmed the suggested fatigue damage processes.

  4. Damage development under compression-compression fatigue loading in a stitched uniwoven graphite/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy E.; Morris, Don H.; Masters, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Damage initiation and growth under compression-compression fatigue loading were investigated for a stitched uniweave material system with an underlying AS4/3501-6 quasi-isotropic layup. Performance of unnotched specimens having stitch rows at either 0 degree or 90 degrees to the loading direction was compared. Special attention was given to the effects of stitching related manufacturing defects. Damage evaluation techniques included edge replication, stiffness monitoring, x-ray radiography, residual compressive strength, and laminate sectioning. It was found that the manufacturing defect of inclined stitches had the greatest adverse effect on material performance. Zero degree and 90 degree specimen performances were generally the same. While the stitches were the source of damage initiation, they also slowed damage propagation both along the length and across the width and affected through-the-thickness damage growth. A pinched layer zone formed by the stitches particularly affected damage initiation and growth. The compressive failure mode was transverse shear for all specimens, both in static compression and fatigue cycling effects.

  5. DNA-damage accumulation and replicative arrest in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Musich, Phillip R; Zou, Yue

    2011-12-01

    A common feature of progeria syndromes is a premature aging phenotype and an enhanced accumulation of DNA damage arising from a compromised repair system. HGPS (Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome) is a severe form of progeria in which patients accumulate progerin, a mutant lamin A protein derived from a splicing variant of the lamin A/C gene (LMNA). Progerin causes chromatin perturbations which result in the formation of DSBs (double-strand breaks) and abnormal DDR (DNA-damage response). In the present article, we review recent findings which resolve some mechanistic details of how progerin may disrupt DDR pathways in HGPS cells. We propose that progerin accumulation results in disruption of functions of some replication and repair factors, causing the mislocalization of XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum group A) protein to the replication forks, replication fork stalling and, subsequently, DNA DSBs. The binding of XPA to the stalled forks excludes normal binding by repair proteins, leading to DSB accumulation, which activates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) checkpoints, and arresting cell-cycle progression. PMID:22103522

  6. Stochastic propagation of an array of parallel cracks: Exploratory work on matrix fatigue damage in composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Williford, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    Transverse cracking of polymeric matrix materials is an important fatigue damage mechanism in continuous-fiber composite laminates. The propagation of an array of these cracks is a stochastic problem usually treated by Monte Carlo methods. However, this exploratory work proposes an alternative approach wherein the Monte Carlo method is replaced by a more closed-form recursion relation based on fractional Brownian motion.'' A fractal scaling equation is also proposed as a substitute for the more empirical Paris equation describing individual crack growth in this approach. Preliminary calculations indicate that the new recursion relation is capable of reproducing the primary features of transverse matrix fatigue cracking behavior. Although not yet fully tested or verified, this cursion relation may eventually be useful for real-time applications such as monitoring damage in aircraft structures.

  7. Combining passive thermography and acoustic emission for large area fatigue damage growth assessment of a composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-05-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.

  8. FUS is phosphorylated by DNA-PK and accumulates in the cytoplasm after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiudong; Holler, Christopher J; Taylor, Georgia; Hudson, Kathryn F; Watkins, William; Gearing, Marla; Ito, Daisuke; Murray, Melissa E; Dickson, Dennis W; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Kukar, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Abnormal cytoplasmic accumulation of Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) in neurons defines subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FUS is a member of the FET protein family that includes Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) and TATA-binding protein-associated factor 2N (TAF15). FET proteins are predominantly localized to the nucleus, where they bind RNA and DNA to modulate transcription, mRNA splicing, and DNA repair. In ALS cases with FUS inclusions (ALS-FUS), mutations in the FUS gene cause disease, whereas FTLD cases with FUS inclusions (FTLD-FUS) do not harbor FUS mutations. Notably, in FTLD-FUS, all FET proteins accumulate with their nuclear import receptor Transportin 1 (TRN1), in contrast ALS-FUS inclusions are exclusively positive for FUS. In the present study, we show that induction of DNA damage replicates several pathologic hallmarks of FTLD-FUS in immortalized human cells and primary human neurons and astrocytes. Treatment with the antibiotic calicheamicin γ1, which causes DNA double-strand breaks, leads to the cytoplasmic accumulation of FUS, TAF15, EWS, and TRN1. Moreover, cytoplasmic translocation of FUS is mediated by phosphorylation of its N terminus by the DNA-dependent protein kinase. Finally, we observed elevated levels of phospho-H2AX in FTLD-FUS brains, indicating that DNA damage occurs in patients. Together, our data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for FUS localization in cells and suggest that DNA damage may contribute to the accumulation of FET proteins observed in human FTLD-FUS cases, but not in ALS-FUS. PMID:24899704

  9. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Martin L.; Talmage, Mellisa J.; David L. McDowell; West, Neil; Gullett, Philip Michael; Miller, David C.; Spark, Kevin; Diao, Jiankuai; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K.

    2006-10-01

    titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

  10. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Wendy; Ho, Michelle Liane; Desai, Rajiv; Tham, Andrea; Chen, Robert Yuzen; Kung, Sunny; Elabd, Christian; Conboy, Irina M

    2013-01-01

    The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging. PMID:23704914

  11. Neuronal damage and calcium accumulation following transient cerebral ischemia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Inoue, T.; Kato, H.; Kogure, K.; Murakami, M. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of neuronal damage following transient cerebral ischemia in the rat model of four-vessel occlusion utilizing light microscopy as well as {sup 45}Ca-autoradiography. Transient ischemia was induced for 30 min. The animals were allowed to survive for 7 d after ischemia. In the animals subjected to ischemia, the most frequently and seriously damaged areas were the paramedian region of hippocampus, the hippocampal CA1 sector, and the dorsolateral part of striatum, followed by the inferior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the frontal cortex, and the thalamus, which were moderate damaged. Furthermore, the cerebellar Purkinje neurons, the hippocampal CA4 sector, the medial geniculate body, and the hippocampal CA3 sector were slightly affected. {sup 45}Ca-autoradiographyic study also revealed calcium accumulation in the identical sites of ischemic neuronal damage, except for the frontal cortex. Regional cerebral blood flow during 10 min of ischemia was severely decreased in selectively vulnerable areas. The blood flow in the medial geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the inferior colliculus, and the cerebellum was less pronounced than that in the selectively vulnerable areas. The present study demonstrates that transient cerebral ischemia can produce significant neuronal damage not only in the selectively vulnerable regions, but also in the brainstem.

  12. Predicting Fatigue Lives Under Complex Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Nelson, R. S.; Janitor, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) computer program performs high-temperature, low-cycle-fatigue life prediction for materials analysis. Designed to account for effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loadings involving such factors as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, wave-shapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features practical for application to actual component analysis using modern finite-element or boundary-element methods. Although developed for use in predicting crack-initiation lifetimes of gas-turbine-engine materials, also applied to other materials as well. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  14. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C.; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A.; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  15. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  16. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Autophagosome Accumulation through Multiple Mechanisms: Lysosome Impairment, Mitochondrial Damage, and ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Hongqiu; Liang, Xin; Zhang, Jinxie; Tao, Wei; Zhu, Xianbing; Chang, Danfeng; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Mei, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite (iron oxide, Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been widely used for drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previous studies have shown that many metal-based nanoparticles including Fe3O4 nanoparticles can induce autophagosome accumulation in treated cells. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. To investigate the biosafety of Fe3O4 and PLGA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, some experiments related to the mechanism of autophagy induction by these nanoparticles have been investigated. In this study, the results showed that Fe3O4, PLGA-coated Fe3O4, and PLGA nanoparticles could be taken up by the cells through cellular endocytosis. Fe3O4 nanoparticles extensively impair lysosomes and lead to the accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes, while PLGA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles reduce this destructive effect on lysosomes. Moreover, Fe3O4 nanoparticles could also cause mitochondrial damage and ER and Golgi body stresses, which induce autophagy, while PLGA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles reduce the destructive effect on these organelles. Thus, the Fe3O4 nanoparticle-induced autophagosome accumulation may be caused by multiple mechanisms. The autophagosome accumulation induced by Fe3O4 was also investigated. The Fe3O4, PLGA-coated Fe3O4, and PLGA nanoparticle-treated mice were sacrificed to evaluate the toxicity of these nanoparticles on the mice. The data showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticle treated mice would lead to the extensive accumulation of autophagosomes in the kidney and spleen in comparison to the PLGA-coated Fe3O4 and PLGA nanoparticles. Our data clarifies the mechanism by which Fe3O4 induces autophagosome accumulation and the mechanism of its toxicity on cell organelles and mice organs. These findings may have an important impact on the clinical application of Fe3O4 based nanoparticles. PMID:27287467

  17. Zoledronate Attenuates Accumulation of DNA Damage in Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Protects Their Function

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Juhi; Mohanty, Sindhu T.; Madan, Sanjeev; Fernandes, James A.; Hal Ebetino, F.; Russell, R. Graham G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergo a decline in function following ex vivo expansion and exposure to irradiation. This has been associated with accumulation of DNA damage and has important implications for tissue engineering approaches or in patients receiving radiotherapy. Therefore, interventions, which limit accumulation of DNA damage in MSC, are of clinical significance. We were intrigued by findings showing that zoledronate (ZOL), an anti‐resorptive nitrogen containing bisphosphonate, significantly extended survival in patients affected by osteoporosis. The effect was too large to be simply due to the prevention of fractures. Moreover, in combination with statins, it extended the lifespan in a mouse model of Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome. Therefore, we asked whether ZOL was able to extend the lifespan of human MSC and whether this was due to reduced accumulation of DNA damage, one of the important mechanisms of aging. Here, we show that this was the case both following expansion and irradiation, preserving their ability to proliferate and differentiate in vitro. In addition, administration of ZOL before irradiation protected the survival of mesenchymal progenitors in mice. Through mechanistic studies, we were able to show that inhibition of mTOR signaling, a pathway involved in longevity and cancer, was responsible for these effects. Our data open up new opportunities to protect MSC from the side effects of radiotherapy in cancer patients and during ex vivo expansion for regenerative medicine approaches. Given that ZOL is already in clinical use with a good safety profile, these opportunities can be readily translated for patient benefit. Stem Cells 2016;34:756–767 PMID:26679354

  18. Furfural induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and cellular damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Biofuels offer a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuel. However, current methods are not sufficient and the technology required in order to use lignocellulosic biomass as a fermentation substrate faces several challenges. One challenge is the need for a robust fermentative microorganism that can tolerate the inhibitors present during lignocellulosic fermentation. These inhibitors include the furan aldehyde, furfural, which is released as a byproduct of pentose dehydration during the weak acid pretreatment of lignocellulose. In order to survive in the presence of furfural, yeast cells need not only to reduce furfural to the less toxic furan methanol, but also to protect themselves and repair any damage caused by the furfural. Since furfural tolerance in yeast requires a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and the PPP is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance, we decided to investigate whether or not furfural induces ROS and its related cellular damage in yeast. Results We demonstrated that furfural induces the accumulation of ROS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, furfural was shown to cause cellular damage that is consistent with ROS accumulation in cells which includes damage to mitochondria and vacuole membranes, the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear chromatin. The furfural-induced damage is less severe when yeast are grown in a furfural concentration (25 mM) that allows for eventual growth after an extended lag compared to a concentration of furfural (50 mM) that prevents growth. Conclusion These data suggest that when yeast cells encounter the inhibitor furfural, they not only need to reduce furfural into furan methanol but also to protect themselves from the cellular effects of furfural and repair any damage caused. The reduced cellular damage seen at 25 mM furfural compared to 50 mM furfural may be linked to the observation that at 25 mM furfural yeast were able to exit the furfural-induced lag phase and resume

  19. Bumetanide increases manganese accumulation in the brain of rats with liver damage.

    PubMed

    Montes, Sergio; Castro-Chávez, Armando; Florian-Soto, Circe; Heras-Romero, Yessica; Ríos, Camilo; Rivera-Mancía, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication in cases of liver damage; it results from several factors, including the accumulation of toxic substances in the brain, e.g. manganese, ammonia and glutamine. We have previously reported that manganese favors ammonia and glutamine accumulation in the brain of cirrhotic rats, and we suggested that such effect could be mediated by manganese-elicited activation of the NKCC1 (Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1). To test this hypothesis, we used bumetanide, an NKCC1 blocker prescribed to treat ascites in cirrhotic patients; we expected that if NKCC1 was responsible for manganese-mediated ammonia buildup and the subsequent glutamine accumulation, bumetanide could counteract such effect and improve motor coordination. In addition, we considered essential to test the effect of bumetanide on manganese brain levels. We used a model of liver damage in rats, consisting in bile-duct ligation. Animals were exposed to manganese in the drinking water (1 mg/ml) for two weeks and ammonia in the food (20% w/w of ammonia acetate) during the second week after surgery. Bumetanide was administered intraperitoneally in the course of the ammonia treatment. We measured glutamine and manganese in three brain regions: frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum. Bumetanide produced no effect on glutamine accumulation; however, because of bumetanide treatment, manganese was increased in the brain, and also the activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase in plasma; thus, we consider that the influence of bumetanide and similar diuretics on liver function and manganese homeostasis should be further studied. PMID:26851372

  20. Development of an Image-based Multi-Scale Finite Element Approach to Predict Fatigue Damage in Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Amir

    Image-based simulation of complex materials is a very important tool for understanding their mechanical behavior and an effective tool for successful design of composite materials. In this thesis an image-based multi-scale finite element approach is developed to predict the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. In this approach the "up-scaling" and homogenization of each scale to the next is critically designed to improve accuracy. In addition to this multi-scale efficiency, this study introduces an approach for consideration of particle contacts at each of the scales in which mineral particles exist. One of the most important pavement distresses which seriously affects the pavement performance is fatigue cracking. As this cracking generally takes place in the binder phase of the asphalt mixture, the binder fatigue behavior is assumed to be one of the main factors influencing the overall pavement fatigue performance. It is also known that aggregate gradation, mixture volumetric properties, and filler type and concentration can affect damage initiation and progression in the asphalt mixtures. This study was conducted to develop a tool to characterize the damage properties of the asphalt mixtures at all scales. In the present study the Viscoelastic continuum damage model is implemented into the well-known finite element software ABAQUS via the user material subroutine (UMAT) in order to simulate the state of damage in the binder phase under the repeated uniaxial sinusoidal loading. The inputs are based on the experimentally derived measurements for the binder properties. For the scales of mastic and mortar, the artificially 2-Dimensional images of mastic and mortar scales were generated and used to characterize the properties of those scales. Finally, the 2D scanned images of asphalt mixtures are used to study the asphalt mixture fatigue behavior under loading. In order to validate the proposed model, the experimental test results and the simulation results were

  1. Damage accumulation in MgO irradiated with MeV Au ions at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller-Perea, Diana; Debelle, Aurélien; Thomé, Lionel; Behar, Moni

    2016-09-01

    The damage accumulation process in MgO single crystals under medium-energy heavy ion irradiation (1.2 MeV Au) at fluences up to 4 × 1014 cm-2 has been studied at three different temperatures: 573, 773, and 1073 K. Disorder depth profiles have been determined through the use of the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling configuration (RBS/C). The analysis of the RBS/C data reveals two steps in the MgO damage process, irrespective of the temperature. However, we find that for increasing irradiation temperature, the damage level decreases and the fluence at which the second step takes place increases. A shift of the damage peak at increasing fluence is observed for the three temperatures, although the position of the peak depends on the temperature. These results can be explained by an enhanced defect mobility which facilitates defect migration and may favor defect annealing. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps confirm the results obtained with the RBS/C technique.

  2. Damage Accumulation and Annealing in 6H-SiC Irradiated with Si+

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; McCready, David E.

    1998-10-01

    Damage accumulation and annealing in 6H-silicon carbide (alpha-SiC) single crystals have been studied in situ using 2.0 MeV HeRBS in a <0001>-axial channeling geometry (RBS/C). The damage was induced by 550 keV Si ion implantation (30 degrees off normal) at a temperature of -110 degrees C, and the damage recovery was investigated by subsequent isochromal annealing (20 min) over the temperature range from -110 degrees C to 900 degrees C. At ion fluences below 7.5 X 10 13 Si/cm (0.04 dpa in the damage peak), only point defects appear to be created. Furthermore, the defects on the Si sublattice can be completely recovered by thermal annealing at room temperature (RT), and recovery of defects on the C sublattice is suggested. At higher fluences of 6.6 x 10 15 Si/cm (-90 degrees C), an amorphous layer is created from the surface to a depth of 0.6 mu-m. Because of recovery processes at the buried crystalline-amorphous interface, the apparent thickness of this amorphous layer decreases slightly (<10%) with increasing temperature over the range from -90 degrees C to 600 degrees C.

  3. Age- and diet-associated metabolome remodeling characterizes the aging process driven by damage accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Avanesov, Andrei S; Ma, Siming; Pierce, Kerry A; Yim, Sun Hee; Lee, Byung Cheon; Clish, Clary B; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-01-01

    Aging is thought to be associated with increased molecular damage, but representative markers vary across conditions and organisms, making it difficult to assess properties of cumulative damage throughout lifespan. We used nontargeted metabolite profiling to follow age-associated trajectories of >15,000 metabolites in Drosophila subjected to control and lifespan-extending diets. We find that aging is associated with increased metabolite diversity and low-abundance molecules, suggesting they include cumulative damage. Remarkably, the number of detected compounds leveled-off in late-life, and this pattern associated with survivorship. Fourteen percent of metabolites showed age-associated changes, which decelerated in late-life and long-lived flies. In contrast, known metabolites changed in abundance similarly to nontargeted metabolites and transcripts, but did not increase in diversity. Targeted profiling also revealed slower metabolism and accumulation of lifespan-limiting molecules. Thus, aging is characterized by gradual metabolome remodeling, and condition- and advanced age-associated deceleration of this remodeling is linked to mortality and molecular damage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02077.001 PMID:24843015

  4. Modeling of Non-Contact Acousto-Thermal Signature Interrogation (ncats) of Fatigue Damage in TI-6AL-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Steven A.; Sathish, Shamachary; Jata, Kumar V.; Welter, John T.

    2009-03-01

    Non-Contact Acousto-Thermal Signatures (NCATS) is a new method of Nondestructive Evaluation of materials involving the thermal response to high intensity sound. The method differs from traditional thermography in that a portion of the induced heat loading occurs from conversion of acoustic to thermal energy. Studies of fatigue samples indicate that the magnitude of the internal heat generation is a function of fatigue damage level. An analytical linear damped acoustic layer model is developed to specify the internal heat generation as a function of insonification amplitude, material damping, and sample geometry. The internal heat generation predicted by the model is compared to that calculated in a Finite Element analysis. The acoustic model is combined with the thermal diffusion equation to create a model for time temperature response curves.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL DAMAGE DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE CREEP-FATIGUE OF A NICKEL ALLOY

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Carroll; M.C. Carroll; C. Cabet; R.N. Wright

    2013-02-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests that include hold times up to 9000 s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 950 degrees C. The fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain, owing to the mechanisms resulting in a change in fracture mode from transgranular in pure fatigue to intergranular in creep–fatigue. Increases in the tensile hold duration beyond an initial value were not detrimental to the creep–fatigue resistance. An analysis of the evolving failure modes was facilitated by interrupting tests during cycling for ex situ microstructural investigation.

  6. Effect of spectral shape on acoustic fatigue life estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for estimating fatigue life due to random loading are briefly reviewed. These methods include a probabilistic approach in which the expected value of the rate of damage accumulation is computed by integrating over the probability density of damaging events and a method which consists of analyzing the response time history to count damaging events. It is noted that it is necessary to employ a time domain approach to perform Rainflow counting, while simple peak counting may be accomplished using the probabilistic method. Data obtained indicate that Rainflow counting produces significantly different fatigue life predictions than other methods that are commonly used in acoustic fatigue predictions. When low-frequency oscillations are present in a signal along with high-frequency components, peak counting will produce substantially shorter fatigue lives than Rainflow counting. It is concluded that Rainflow counting is capable of providing reliable fatigue life predictions for acoustic fatigue studies.

  7. Intracellular accumulation of indium ions released from nanoparticles induces oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Due to the widespread use of indium tin oxide (ITO), it is important to investigate its effect on human health. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs), indium chloride (InCl3) and tin chloride (SnCl3) using human lung epithelial A549 cells. Transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were employed to study cellular ITO NP uptake. Interestingly, greater uptake of ITO NPs was observed, as compared with soluble salts. ITO NP species released could be divided into two types: 'indium release ITO' or 'tin release ITO'. We incubated A549 cells with indium release ITO, tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2 and investigated oxidative stress, proinflammatory response, cytotoxicity and DNA damage. We found that intracellular reactive oxygen species were increased in cells incubated with indium release ITO, but not tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2. Messenger RNA and protein levels of the inflammatory marker, interleukin-8, also increased following exposure to indium release ITO. Furthermore, the alkaline comet assay revealed that intracellular accumulation of indium ions induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of ionic indium, but not ionic tin, from ITO NPs in the intracellular matrix has extensive cellular effects. PMID:26378248

  8. Intraneuronal Amyloid β Accumulation and Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nunomura, Akihiko; Tamaoki, Toshio; Tanaka, Koich; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Masao; Hayashi, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Shimohama, Shun; Lee, Hyoung-gon; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A.; Perry, George

    2010-01-01

    An in situ approach was used to identify amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and oxidative damage to nucleic acids in postmortem brain tissue of the hippocampal formation from subjects with Alzheimer disease. When carboxyl-terminal specific antibodies directed against Aβ40 and Aβ42 were used for immunocytochemical analyses, Aβ42 was especially apparent within the neuronal cytoplasm, at sites not detected by the antibody specific to Aβ-oligomer. In comparison to the Aβ42-positive neurons, neurons bearing oxidative damage to nucleic acids were more widely distributed in the hippocampus. Comparative density measurements of the immunoreactivity revealed that levels of intraneuronal Aβ42 were inversely correlated with levels of intraneuronal 8-hydroxyguanosine, an oxidized nucleoside (r = − 0.61, p < 0.02). Together with recent evidence that the Aβ peptide can act as an antioxidant, these results suggest that intraneuronal accumulation of non-oligomeric Aβ may be a compensatory response in neurons to oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. PMID:20034567

  9. Effect of composition on damage accumulation in ternary ZnO-based oxides implanted with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Hallen, A.; Du, X. L.

    2010-08-15

    Thin films of wurtzite Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (x{<=}0.3) grown by molecular beam epitaxy and wurtzite Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (x{<=}0.05) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were implanted at room temperature with 150 keV Er{sup +} ions and 200 keV Au{sup +} ions in a wide dose range. Damage accumulation was studied by Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry. Results show that the film composition affects the damage accumulation behavior in both MgZnO and CdZnO dramatically. In particular, increasing the Mg content in MgZnO results in enhanced damage accumulation in the region between the bulk and surface damage peaks characteristically distinguished in the pure ZnO. However, the overall damage accumulation in MgZnO layers, as well as in pure ZnO, exhibits saturation with increasing ion dose and MgZnO cannot be amorphized even at the highest ion dose used (3x10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}). Increasing the Cd content in CdZnO affects the saturation stage of the damage accumulation and leads to an enhancement of damage production in both Cd and Zn sublattices.

  10. Thermomechanical Fatigue Damage/Failure Mechanisms in SCS-6/Timetal 21S [0/90](Sub S) Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) deformation, damage, and life behaviors of SCS6/Timetal 21S (0/90)s were investigated under zero-tension conditions. In-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) loadings were investigated with a temperature cycle from 150 to 650 deg C. An advanced TMF test technique was used to quantify mechanically damage progression. The technique incorporated explicit measurements of the macroscopic (1) isothermal static moduli at the temperature extremes of the TMF cycle and (2) coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as functions of the TMF cycles. The importance of thermal property degradation and its relevance to accurate post-test data analysis and interpretation is briefly addressed. Extensive fractography and metallography were conducted on specimens from failed and interrupted tests to characterize the extent of damage at the microstructure level. Fatigue life results indicated trends analogous to those established for similar unidirectional(0) reinforced titanium matrix composite systems. High stress IP and mid to low stress OP loading conditions were life-limiting in comparison to maximum temperature isothermal conditions. Dominant damage mechanisms changed with cycle type. Damage resulting from IP TMF conditions produced measurable decreases in static moduli but only minimal changes in the CTE. Metallography on interrupted and failed specimens revealed extensive (0) fiber cracking with sparse matrix damage. No surface initiated matrix cracks were present. Comparable OP TMF conditions initiated environment enhanced surface cracking and matrix cracking initiated at (90) fiber/matrix (F/M) interfaces. Notable static moduli and CTE degradations were measured. Fractography and metallography revealed that the transverse cracks originating from the surface and (90) F/M interfaces tended to converge and coalesce at the (0) fibers.

  11. Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Analysis of a Hybrid Composite Tapered Flexbeam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffrey R.; Dobyns, Al

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of nonlinear tapered composite flexbeams under combined axial tension and cyclic bending loading was studied using coupon test specimens and finite element (FE) analyses. The flexbeams used a hybrid material system of graphite/epoxy and glass/epoxy and had internal dropped plies, dropped in an overlapping stepwise pattern. Two material configurations, differing only in the use of glass or graphite plies in the continuous plies near the midplane, were studied. Test specimens were cut from a full-size helicopter tail-rotor flexbeam and were tested in a hydraulic load frame under combined constant axialtension load and transverse cyclic bending loads. The first determination damage observed in the specimens occurred at the area around the tip of the outermost ply-drop group in the tapered region of the flexbeam, near the thick end. Delaminations grew slowly and stably, toward the thick end of the flexbeam, at the interfaces above and below the dropped-ply region. A 2D finite element model of the flexbeam was developed. The model was analyzed using a geometrically non-linear analysis with both the ANSYS and ABAQUS FE codes. The global responses of each analysis agreed well with the test results. The ANSYS model was used to calculate strain energy release rates (G) for delaminations initiating at two different ply-ending locations. The results showed that delaminations were more inclined to grow at the locations where they were observed in the test specimens. Both ANSYS and ABAQUS were used to calculate G values associated with delamination initiating at the observed location but growing in different interfaces, either above or below the ply-ending group toward the thick end, or toward the thin end from the tip of the resin pocket. The different analysis codes generated the same trends and comparable peak values, within 5-11 % for each delamination path. Both codes showed that delamination toward the thick region was largely mode II, and toward the thin

  12. Tensile Creep and Fatigue of Sylramic-iBN Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites: Retained Properties, Damage Development, and Failure Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Greg; Gowayed, yasser; Miller, Robert; Ojard, Greg; Ahmad, Jalees; Santhosh, Unni; John, Reji

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the elevated temperature tensile creep, fatigue, rupture, and retained properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) envisioned for use in gas turbine engine applications are essential for component design and life-prediction. In order to quantify the effect of stress, time, temperature, and oxidation for a state-of-the-art composite system, a wide variety of tensile creep, dwell fatigue, and cyclic fatigue experiments were performed in air at 1204 C for the SiC/SiC CMC system consisting of Sylramic-iBN SiC fibers, BN fiber interphase coating, and slurry-cast melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC-based matrix. Tests were either taken to failure or interrupted. Interrupted tests were then mechanically tested at room temperature to determine the residual properties. The retained properties of most of the composites subjected to tensile creep or fatigue were usually within 20% of the as-produced strength and 10% of the as-produced elastic modulus. It was observed that during creep, residual stresses in the composite are altered to some extent which results in an increased compressive stress in the matrix upon cooling and a subsequent increased stress required to form matrix cracks. Microscopy of polished sections and the fracture surfaces of specimens which failed during stressed-oxidation or after the room-temperature retained property test was performed on some of the specimens in order to quantify the nature and extent of damage accumulation that occurred during the test. It was discovered that the distribution of stress-dependent matrix cracking at 1204 C was similar to the as-produced composites at room temperature; however, matrix crack growth occurred over time and typically did not appear to propagate through thickness except at final failure crack. Failure of the composites was due to either oxidation-induced unbridged crack growth, which dominated the higher stress regime (> 179 MPa) or controlled by degradation of the fibers, probably caused by

  13. [Compassion fatigue: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Fu, Chia-Yun; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2011-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term in nursing. This term describes mood swings experienced by healthcare providers that are both complex in origin and intensify over time due to cumulative stress. Quality of care can be affected if compassion fatigue goes untreated. This paper presents a concept analysis of compassion fatigue using Walker & Avant's method. Results show the defining attributes of compassion fatigue to include: 1. accumulated patient and family suffering; 2. sufferer unable to release built-up stresses effectively; and 3. negative effects on physical, psychological, and spiritual health. Identified antecedents of compassion fatigue included: (1) working as a healthcare provider; (2) investing sympathy in others over a long period of time; and (3) ignoring stress symptoms and personal emotional needs over time. Identified consequences of compassion fatigue included: (1) decreased coping ability; (2) damage / destruction of patient relationship; and (3) increased medical care costs. This study conducted a concept analysis to offer a better understanding of the concept of compassion fatigue and provide a reference for nursing practice and compassion fatigue-related nursing research. PMID:21455900

  14. Characterization of Damage Progression in SCS-6/timetal 21S (0)4 Under Thermomechanical Fatigue Loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation was performed at a single maximum cyclic stress (sigma max) level to physically characterize the progression of thermomechanical fatigue (lW) damage in continuously reinforced (0 deg) SCS-6/Timetal 21S, a titanium matrix composite. In-phase (IP) and out of-phase (OP) loadings were investigated at sigma max = 1000 MPa with a temperature cycle from 150 to 6500 C. Damage progression, in terms of macroscopic property degradation, was experimentally quantified through an advanced TMF test methodology which incorporates explicit measurements of the isothermal static moduli at the TMF temperature extremes and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as functions of the TMF cycles. Detailed characterization of the physical damage progression at the microstructural level was performed by interrupting multiple TMF tests at various stages of mechanical property degradation and analyzing the microstructure through extensive destructive metallography. Further, the extent of damage was also quantified through residual static strength measurements. Results indicated that damage initiation occurred very early in cyclic life (N less than 0.1Nf) for both the IP and OP TMF loadings. IP TMF damage was found to be dominated by fiber breakage with a physical damage progression in the microstructure which was difficult to quantify. OP TMF loadings produced matrix cracking exclusively associated with surface initiations. Here, damage progression was easily distinguished in terms of both the number of cracks and their relative inward progressions toward the outer fiber rows with increased cycling. The point at which the leading cracks reached the outer fiber rows (when localized fiber/matrix de-bonding and matrix crack bridging occurred) appeared to be reflected in the macroscopic property degradation curves.

  15. Damage Accumulation in SiC/SiC Composites with 3D Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee-Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The formation and propagation of multiple matrix cracks in relatively dense ceramic matrix composites when subjected to increasing tensile stress is necessary for high strength and tough composites. However, the occurrence of matrix cracks at low stresses may limit the usefulness of some non-oxide composite systems when subjected to oxidizing environments for long times at stresses sufficient to cause matrix cracking. For SiC fiber-reinforced composites with two-dimensional woven architectures and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix and melt-infiltrated (MI) Si/SiC matrix composites, the matrix cracking behavior has been fairly well characterized for different fiber-types and woven architectures. It was found that the occurrence, degree, and growth of matrix cracks depends on the material properties of the composite constituents as well as other physical properties of the composite or architecture, e.g., matrix porosity and size of the fiber bundle. In this study, matrix cracking in SiC fiber reinforced, melt-infiltrated SiC composites with a 3D orthogonal architecture was determined for specimens tested in tension at room temperature. Acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the matrix cracking activity, which was later confirmed by microscopic examination of specimens that had failed. The determination of the exact location of AE demonstrated that initial cracking occurred in the matrix rich regions when a large z-direction fiber bundle was used. For specimens with large z-direction fiber tows, the earliest matrix cracking could occur at half the stress for standard 2D woven composites with similar constituents. Damage accumulation in 3D architecture composites will be compared to damage accumulation in 2D architecture composites and discussed with respect to modeling composite stress-strain behavior and use of these composites at elevated temperatures.

  16. High cycles fatigue damage of CFRP plates clamped by bolts for axial coupling joint with off-set angle during rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooka, Kazuaki; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru; Umeda, Shinichi; Fujii, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    This study discussed the change of residual fracture torque and the fatigue damage process of thin CFRP plates clamped by bolts for axial coupling joint, in which flexible deformation was allowed in the direction of off-set angle by the deflection of the CFRP plates while effective stiffness was obtained in rotational direction. Mechanically laminated 4 layers of the CFRP plates were repeatedly deflected during the rotation of axial coupling, when two axes were jointed with 3 degree of off-set angle, in which number of revolution was 1,800 rpm (30Hz of loading frequency). At first, the fracture morphology of specimen and the residual fracture torque was investigated after 1.0×107 cycles of repeated revolutions. The reduction ratio of spring constant was also determined by simple bending test after the fatigue. The residual fracture torque of the joint was determined on the rotational test machine after 1.0×107 cycles of fatigue. After rotations of cyclic fatigue, fiber breaking and wear of matrix were observed around the fixed parts compressed by washers for setting bolts. The reduction of spring constant of the CFRP plates was caused by the initiation of cyclic fatigue damages around the fixed parts, when the axial coupling joint was rotated with off-set angle. It was found that residual fracture torque of the joint was related with the specific fatigue damage of the CFRP observed in this study.

  17. 77 FR 50576 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures; OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures,'' published in the Federal Register (76 FR... impractical. In a correction document (77 FR 4890), published February 1, 2012, the FAA revised the DATES... requirements in Sec. Sec. 27.573 and 29.573. Issued in Washington, DC, on August 13, 2012. Lirio Liu,...

  18. Recombination affects accumulation of damaging and disease-associated mutations in human populations.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Julie G; Hodgkinson, Alan; Idaghdour, Youssef; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Gbeha, Elias; Hip-Ki, Elodie; Awadalla, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Many decades of theory have demonstrated that, in non-recombining systems, slightly deleterious mutations accumulate non-reversibly, potentially driving the extinction of many asexual species. Non-recombining chromosomes in sexual organisms are thought to have degenerated in a similar fashion; however, it is not clear the extent to which damaging mutations accumulate along chromosomes with highly variable rates of crossing over. Using high-coverage sequencing data from over 1,400 individuals in the 1000 Genomes and CARTaGENE projects, we show that recombination rate modulates the distribution of putatively deleterious variants across the entire human genome. Exons in regions of low recombination are significantly enriched for deleterious and disease-associated variants, a signature varying in strength across worldwide human populations with different demographic histories. Regions with low recombination rates are enriched for highly conserved genes with essential cellular functions and show an excess of mutations with demonstrated effects on health, a phenomenon likely affecting disease susceptibility in humans. PMID:25685891

  19. Ametabolic embryos of Artemia franciscana accumulate DNA damage during prolonged anoxia.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    Encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to survive prolonged periods of anoxia even when fully hydrated. During this time there is no metabolism, raising the question of how embryos tolerate spontaneous, hydrolytic DNA damage such as depurination. When incubated at 28 degrees C and 40 degrees C for several weeks, hydrated anoxic embryos were found to accumulate abasic sites in their DNA with k=5.8x10(-11) s(-1) and 2.8x10(-10) s(-1), respectively. In both cases this is about 3-fold slower than expected from published observations on purified DNA. However, purified calf thymus DNA incubated under similar anoxic conditions at pH 6.3, the intracellular pH of anoxic cysts, also depurinated more slowly than predicted (about 1.7-fold), suggesting that cysts may in fact accumulate abasic sites only slightly more slowly than purified DNA. Upon reoxygenation of cysts stored under N(2) for 30 weeks at 28 degrees C, the number of abasic sites per 10(4) bp DNA fell from 21.1+/-4.0 to 9.8+/-2.0 by 12 h and to 6.2+/-2.1 by 24 h. Larvae hatched after 48 h and 72 h had only 0.59+/-0.17 and 0.48+/-0.07 abasic sites per 10(4) bp, respectively, suggesting that repair of these lesions had largely taken place before hatching commenced. Thus, unlike bacterial spores, Artemia cysts appear to have no specific protective mechanism beyond what might be afforded by chromatin structure to limit spontaneous depurination, and rely on the repair of accumulated lesions during the period between reoxygenation and hatching. PMID:19251993

  20. Cockayne syndrome group B protein prevents the accumulation of damaged mitochondria by promoting mitochondrial autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Sykora, Peter; Maynard, Scott; Lin, Ping-Chang; Minor, Robin K.; Wilson III, David M.; Cooper, Marcus; Spencer, Richard; de Cabo, Rafael; Croteau, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating autosomal recessive disease characterized by neurodegeneration, cachexia, and accelerated aging. 80% of the cases are caused by mutations in the CS complementation group B (CSB) gene known to be involved in DNA repair and transcription. Recent evidence indicates that CSB is present in mitochondria, where it associates with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We report an increase in metabolism in the CSBm/m mouse model and CSB-deficient cells. Mitochondrial content is increased in CSB-deficient cells, whereas autophagy is down-regulated, presumably as a result of defects in the recruitment of P62 and mitochondrial ubiquitination. CSB-deficient cells show increased free radical production and an accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Accordingly, treatment with the autophagic stimulators lithium chloride or rapamycin reverses the bioenergetic phenotype of CSB-deficient cells. Our data imply that CSB acts as an mtDNA damage sensor, inducing mitochondrial autophagy in response to stress, and that pharmacological modulators of autophagy are potential treatment options for this accelerated aging phenotype. PMID:22473955

  1. Observation of microscopic damage accumulation in brittle solids subjected to dynamic compressive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Xia, K.; Zheng, H.

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic failure of brittle materials is a fundamental physical problem that has significantly impacts to many science and engineering disciplines. As the first and the most important step towards the full understanding of this problem, one has to observe dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids. In this work, we proposed a methodology to do that and demonstrated it by studying the dynamic compressive damage evolution of a granitic rock loaded with a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system. To ensure consistency of the experimental results, we used cylindrical rock samples fabricated from the same rock core and subjected them to identical incident loading pulse. Using a special soft recovery technique, we stopped the dynamic loading on the samples at different strain levels, ranging from 0.3% to 1.4%. Therefore, we were able to recover intact samples loaded all the way to the post-peak deformation stage. The recovered samples were subsequently examined with X-ray micro-CT scanning machine. Three dimensional microcrack network induced by the dynamic loading was observed and the evolution of microcracks as a function of the dynamic loading strain was obtained.

  2. Computationally-efficient stochastic cluster dynamics method for modeling damage accumulation in irradiated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Tuan L.; Marian, Jaime; Bulatov, Vasily V.; Hosemann, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An improved version of a recently developed stochastic cluster dynamics (SCD) method (Marian and Bulatov, 2012) [6] is introduced as an alternative to rate theory (RT) methods for solving coupled ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems for irradiation damage simulations. SCD circumvents by design the curse of dimensionality of the variable space that renders traditional ODE-based RT approaches inefficient when handling complex defect population comprised of multiple (more than two) defect species. Several improvements introduced here enable efficient and accurate simulations of irradiated materials up to realistic (high) damage doses characteristic of next-generation nuclear systems. The first improvement is a procedure for efficiently updating the defect reaction-network and event selection in the context of a dynamically expanding reaction-network. Next is a novel implementation of the τ-leaping method that speeds up SCD simulations by advancing the state of the reaction network in large time increments when appropriate. Lastly, a volume rescaling procedure is introduced to control the computational complexity of the expanding reaction-network through occasional reductions of the defect population while maintaining accurate statistics. The enhanced SCD method is then applied to model defect cluster accumulation in iron thin films subjected to triple ion-beam (Fe3+, He+ and H+) irradiations, for which standard RT or spatially-resolved kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are prohibitively expensive.

  3. Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

    2006-03-06

    The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

  4. Effects of foreign object damage from small hard particles on the high-cycle fatigue life of titanium-(6)aluminum-(4)vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamrick, Joseph L., II

    Thin rectangular samples of Ti-6Al-4V were damaged by four methods to represent foreign object damage found in turbine engine blades: (1) impact with 2 mm. and 5 mm diameter glass spheres at 305 m/s, (2) impact with 2 mm and 4 mm diameter steel spheres at 305 m/s, (3) quasi-static displacement controlled indentation using steel chisels with 1 mm, 2 nun and 5 mm diameter tips and (4) shearing notches with a 2 mm. diameter chisel point under a quasi-static loading condition. Finite element analysis was used to study the relationship between the stress state created by the plastic damage and the fatigue strength. A new method of quantifying the amount of plastic damage from multiple methods was developed. The fatigue strength required for crack initiation at 10E7 cycles was found to be a function of the total depth from the edge of the undeformed specimen up to the end of the plastically deformed zone. For damage depths less than 1750 mum, the reduction in fatigue strength is proportional to the depth of total damage. For depths > 1750 mum, there appears to be a threshold value of fatigue strength.

  5. Assessment of the service life of structural steels by using degradation models with allowance for fatigue and creep of the material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, I. A.; Egunov, V. V.; Igumnov, L. A.; Kazakov, D. A.; Korotkikh, Yu. G.; Mitenkov, F. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed within the framework of equations of damaged medium mechanics to describe the processes of viscoplastic straining and damage accumulation in structural steels with allowance for fatigue and creep of the material. A model of damage summation due to interaction of low-cycle fatigue and creep of the material is proposed. Material parameters and scalar functions of equations of mechanics of damaged media are determined. Viscoplastic straining and fatigue-induced damage accumulation in 08Kh18N10T and 12Kh18N9 are studied numerically, and the data obtained are compared with available results of physical experiments.

  6. Numerical Prediction of Fatigue Damage Progress in Holed CFRP Laminates Using Cohesive Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Shigeki; Okabe, Tomonaga

    This study presents a numerical simulation to predict damage progress in notched composite laminates under cyclic loading by using a cohesive zone model. A damage-mechanics concept was introduced directly into the fracture process in the cohesive elements in order to express crack growth by cyclic loading. This approach then conformed to the established damage mechanics and facilitated understanding the procedure and reducing computation costs. We numerically investigated the damage progress in holed CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with experiment results. The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results that exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (splits, transverse cracks, and delamination) near the hole. A numerical study indicated that the change in the distribution of in-plane shear stress due to delamination induced the extension of splits and transverse cracks near the hole.

  7. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered

  8. Evaluation of fatigue damage in steels using Preisach model analysis of magnetic hysteresis measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Melikhov, Y. Y.; Kadlecová, J.; Perevertov, O. V.; Tomáš, I.; Ring, A. P.; Jiles, D. C.

    2001-04-01

    The Preisach model analysis of magnetic hysteresis measurements has been applied to evaluate the microstructural changes in steels subjected to cyclic loading. Families of hysteresis loops were measured to obtain the Preisach-like functions. Barkhausen effect signals were also measured. The Preisach representation was found to be more sensitive to the increase in the number of stress cycles during the stable fatigue stage than the traditional hysteresis loop properties and Barkhausen effect signals.

  9. Detection of Fatigue Damage Prior to Crack Initiation withScanning SQUID Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Morris Jr., J.W.; Lee, Seungkyun; Clarke, John

    2005-11-07

    The remanence fields of fatigued ferritic steel specimens were measured using a scanning microscope based on a high transition temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The results show an overall increase of remanence until dislocation density saturates and an additional local remanence increase after saturation during cyclic loading. Because of the combined magnetic and spatial resolution of the SQUID microscope, these local changes of dislocation structures can be detected before a crack actually initiates, and identify the sites where crack nucleation will occur.

  10. Fatigue life until small cracks in aircraft structures: Durability and damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schijve, J.

    1994-01-01

    Crack initiation in notched elements occurs very early in the fatigue life. This is also true for riveted lap joints, an important fatigue critical element of a pressurized fuselage structure. Crack nucleation in a riveted lap joint can occur at different locations, depending on the riveting operation. It can occur at the edge of the rivet hole, at a small distance away from the hole, but still with subsequent crack growth through the hole, and ahead of the hole with a crack no longer passing through the hole. Moreover, crack nucleation can occur in the top row at the countersunk holes (outer sheet) or in the bottom row at the non-countersunk holes. Fractographic evidence is shown. The initial growth of the small cracks occurs as an (invisible) part through crack. As a consequence, predictions on the crack initiation life are problematic. After a though crack is present, the major part of the fatigue life has been consumed. There is still an apparent lack of empirical data on crack growth and residual strength of riveted lap joints, five years after the Aloha accident. Such data are very much necessary for further developments of prediction models. Some test results are presented.

  11. Quantifying the Thermal Fatigue of CPV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    A method is presented to quantify thermal fatigue in the CPV die-attach from meteorological data. A comparative; study between cities demonstrates a significant difference in the accumulated damage. These differences are most; sensitive to the number of larger (ΔT) thermal cycles experienced for a location. High frequency data (<1/min) may; be required to most accurately employ this method.

  12. Accumulation of p21 proteins at DNA damage sites independent of p53 and core NHEJ factors following irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} p21 accumulated rapidly at laser-irradiated sites via its C-terminal region. {yields} p21 colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and the DSB sensor Ku80. {yields} Accumulation of p21 is dependent on PCNA, but not p53 and the NHEJ core factors. {yields} Accumulation activity of p21 was conserved among human and animal cells. {yields} p21 is a useful tool as a detection marker of DNA damaged sites. -- Abstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 plays key roles in p53-dependent DNA-damage responses, i.e., cell cycle checkpoints, senescence, or apoptosis. p21 might also play a role in DNA repair. p21 foci arise at heavy-ion-irradiated DNA-double-strand break (DSB) sites, which are mainly repaired by nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ). However, no mechanisms of p21 accumulation at double-strand break (DSB) sites have been clarified in detail. Recent works indicate that Ku70 and Ku80 are essential for the accumulation of other NHEJ core factors, e.g., DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and XLF, and other DNA damage response factors, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that p21 foci arise at laser-irradiated sites in cells from various tissues from various species. The accumulation of EGFP-p21 was detected in not only normal cells, but also transformed or cancer cells. Our results also showed that EGFP-p21 accumulated rapidly at irradiated sites, and colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. On the other hand, the accumulation occurred in Ku70-, Ku80-, or DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines and in human papillomavirus 18-positive cells, whereas the p21 mutant without the PCNA-binding region (EGFP-p21(1-146)) failed to accumulate at the irradiated sites. These findings suggest that the accumulation of p21, but not functional p53 and the NHEJ core factors, is dependent on PCNA. These findings also suggest that the accumulation activity of p21 at DNA damaged sites is conserved among human and animal cells, and p21 is a useful

  13. Influence of Prior Fatigue Damage on Tensile Properties of 316L(N) Stainless Steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, K.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, the effect of prior low-cycle fatigue (LCF) damage on the tensile properties of 316L(N) stainless steel (SS) and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were systematically investigated. The LCF tests were interrupted at 5, 10, 30, and 50 pct of the total fatigue life followed by tensile tests on the same specimens at the same strain rate (3 × 10-3 s-1) and temperatures of 300 K, 823 K, and 873 K (27 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C). Prior strain cycling at elevated temperatures had remarkable effect on the tensile properties of both cyclically hardening and cyclically softening materials. An exponential relationship between the yield stress and the amount of pre-strain cycles is obtained for both the materials. The initial drastic change in the yield strength values up to 10 pct of fatigue life may be due to the microstructural changes that lead to hardening or softening in 316L(N) SS and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, respectively. Saturation in the yield strength values beyond 10 pct of fatigue life has practical importance for remnant fatigue life assessment. Evolution of fatigue damage in both the 316L(N) SS and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was analyzed using the surface replica technique.

  14. Fatigue Damage in Notched Composite Laminates Under Tension-Tension Cyclic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinchcomb, W. W.; Henneke, E. G.; Reifsnider, K. L.; Kress, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results are given of an investigation to determine the damage states which develop in graphite epoxy laminates with center holes due to tension-tension cyclic loads, to determine the influence of stacking sequence on the initiation and interaction of damage modes and the process of damage development, and to establish the relationships between the damage states and the strength, stiffness, and life of the laminates. Two quasi-isotropic laminates were selected to give different distributions of interlaminar stresses around the hole. The laminates were tested under cyclic loads (R=0.1, 10 Hz) at maximum stresses ranging between 60 and 95 percent of the notched tensile strength.

  15. In situ X-ray monitoring of damage accumulation in SiC/RBSN tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    The room-temperature tensile testing of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) composite specimens was monitored by using in-situ X-ray film radiography. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading provided data on the effect of preexisting volume flaws (high density impurities, and local density variations) on the fracture behavior of composites. Results from (O)1, (O)3, (O)5, and (O)8 composite specimens showed that X-ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulations during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, and fiber pullout were imaged throughout the tensile loading history of the specimens. Further, in-situ film radiography was found to be a helpful and practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the SiC fiber and the RBSN matrix by the matrix crack spacing method. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post-test radiography can provide for a greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior, a verification of related experimental procedures, and a validation and development of related analytical models.

  16. In situ X-ray monitoring of damage accumulation in SiC/RBSN tensile specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Baaklini, G.Y.; Bhatt, R.T.

    1991-08-01

    The room-temperature tensile testing of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) composite specimens was monitored by using in-situ X-ray film radiography. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading provided data on the effect of preexisting volume flaws (high density impurities, and local density variations) on the fracture behavior of composites. Results from (O)1, (O)3, (O)5, and (O)8 composite specimens showed that X-ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulations during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, and fiber pullout were imaged throughout the tensile loading history of the specimens. Further, in-situ film radiography was found to be a helpful and practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the SiC fiber and the RBSN matrix by the matrix crack spacing method. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post-test radiography can provide for a greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior, a verification of related experimental procedures, and a validation and development of related analytical models. 14 refs.

  17. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Prognosis Using a Surrogate Model Trained Via 3D Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Leser, William P.; Warner, James E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing inverse uncertainty quantification techniques, structural health monitoring can be integrated with damage progression models to form probabilistic predictions of a structure's remaining useful life. However, damage evolution in realistic structures is physically complex. Accurately representing this behavior requires high-fidelity models which are typically computationally prohibitive. In the present work, a high-fidelity finite element model is represented by a surrogate model, reducing computation times. The new approach is used with damage diagnosis data to form a probabilistic prediction of remaining useful life for a test specimen under mixed-mode conditions.

  18. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations. PMID:25583872

  19. On the feasibility of nonlinear assessment of fatigue damage in hardened IN718 specimens based on non-collinear shear wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that various ultrasonic wave mixing techniques can be exploited for assessing the nonlinearity of both intact and damaged materials. It has been reported that one particular type of ultrasonic wave mixing, non-collinear shear wave mixing, is sensitive to the excess nonlinearity caused by plastic deformation and low-cycle fatigue in Al2014-T4 aluminum alloy. In this study we investigated the feasibility of using the same non-collinear shear wave mixing technique to detect plastic deformation and fatigue damage in fully hardened IN718 engine alloy specimens. We implemented numerous technical improvements over the earlier developed non-collinear shear wave mixing system to improve its detection sensitivity and image resolution. In spite of these enhancements, we found that in fully hardened IN718 this technique is sensitive only to plastic deformation and, to a much lesser degree, to highly accelerated low-cycle fatigue, but it is not sensitive to either typical low-cycle fatigue or high-cycle fatigue. These observations highlight a potential deficiency in our current understanding of nonlinear material-wave interaction and suggest that further research is needed to explain why certain classes of dislocation networks remain hidden from this type of inspection.

  20. Frozen human cells can record radiation damage accumulated during space flight: mutation induction and radioadaptation.

    PubMed

    Yatagai, Fumio; Honma, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Akihisa; Omori, Katsunori; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Ukai, Akiko; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Abe, Tomoko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Takeo; Gordon, Alasdair; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the space-radiation effects separately from other space-environmental effects such as microgravity, frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were sent to the "Kibo" module of the International Space Station (ISS), preserved under frozen condition during the mission and finally recovered to Earth (after a total of 134 days flight, 72 mSv). Biological assays were performed on the cells recovered to Earth. We observed a tendency of increase (2.3-fold) in thymidine kinase deficient (TK(-)) mutations over the ground control. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis on the mutants also demonstrated a tendency of increase in proportion of the large deletion (beyond the TK locus) events, 6/41 in the in-flight samples and 1/17 in the ground control. Furthermore, in-flight samples exhibited 48% of the ground-control level in TK(-) mutation frequency upon exposure to a subsequent 2 Gy dose of X-rays, suggesting a tendency of radioadaptation when compared with the ground-control samples. The tendency of radioadaptation was also supported by the post-flight assays on DNA double-strand break repair: a 1.8- and 1.7-fold higher efficiency of in-flight samples compared to ground control via non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination, respectively. These observations suggest that this system can be used as a biodosimeter, because DNA damage generated by space radiation is considered to be accumulated in the cells preserved frozen during the mission, Furthermore, this system is also suggested to be applicable for evaluating various cellular responses to low-dose space radiation, providing a better understanding of biological space-radiation effects as well as estimation of health influences of future space explores. PMID:21161544

  1. Formation, Accumulation, and Hydrolysis of Endogenous and Exogenous Formaldehyde-Induced DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Hartwell, Hadley J; Moeller, Benjamin C; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Kracko, Dean; Bodnar, Wanda M; Starr, Thomas B; Swenberg, James A

    2015-07-01

    Formaldehyde is not only a widely used chemical with well-known carcinogenicity but is also a normal metabolite of living cells. It thus poses unique challenges for understanding risks associated with exposure. N(2-)hydroxymethyl-dG (N(2)-HOMe-dG) is the main formaldehyde-induced DNA mono-adduct, which together with DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) and toxicity-induced cell proliferation, play important roles in a mutagenic mode of action for cancer. In this study, N(2)-HOMe-dG was shown to be an excellent biomarker for direct adduction of formaldehyde to DNA and the hydrolysis of DPCs. The use of inhaled [(13)CD2]-formaldehyde exposures of rats and primates coupled with ultrasensitive nano ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry permitted accurate determinations of endogenous and exogenous formaldehyde DNA damage. The results show that inhaled formaldehyde only reached rat and monkey noses, but not tissues distant to the site of initial contact. The amounts of exogenous adducts were remarkably lower than those of endogenous adducts in exposed nasal epithelium. Moreover, exogenous adducts accumulated in rat nasal epithelium over the 28-days exposure to reach steady-state concentrations, followed by elimination with a half-life (t1/2) of 7.1 days. Additionally, we examined artifact formation during DNA preparation to ensure the accuracy of nonlabeled N(2)-HOMe-dG measurements. These novel findings provide critical new data for understanding major issues identified by the National Research Council Review of the 2010 Environmental Protection Agency's Draft Integrated Risk Information System Formaldehyde Risk Assessment. They support a data-driven need for reflection on whether risks have been overestimated for inhaled formaldehyde, whereas underappreciating endogenous formaldehyde as the primary source of exposure that results in bone marrow toxicity and leukemia in susceptible humans and rodents deficient in DNA repair. PMID:25904104

  2. Effect of ply constraint on fatigue damage development in composite material laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.; Yeung, P.; Masters, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the effects of constraint on the response of composite materials can be classified as (1) in-plane effects, and (2) through-the-thickness effects; with in-plane constraint being the principal contributor to notched strength and changes in notched strength under quasi-static loading. It is also determined that the constraint situations that produce the greatest static strength do not minimize the extent of damage that develops under either static or cyclic loading, and that through-the-thickness constraint controls the pattern and spacing of transverse cracks in the characteristic damage state that determines those of strength and stress in unnotched laminates. It is concluded that the mode and the extent of damage in notched and unnotched constrained plies is governed by the stress state in those plies, as determined by the constraining ones, and the relationship of stress and strength states.

  3. Reducing fatigue damage for ships in transit through structured decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.M.; Fackler, P.L.; Pacifici, K.; Murphy, K.D.; Nichols, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Research in structural monitoring has focused primarily on drawing inference about the health of a structure from the structure’s response to ambient or applied excitation. Knowledge of the current state can then be used to predict structural integrity at a future time and, in principle, allows one to take action to improve safety, minimize ownership costs, and/or increase the operating envelope. While much time and effort has been devoted toward data collection and system identification, research to-date has largely avoided the question of how to choose an optimal maintenance plan. This work describes a structured decision making (SDM) process for taking available information (loading data, model output, etc.) and producing a plan of action for maintaining the structure. SDM allows the practitioner to specify his/her objectives and then solves for the decision that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes those objectives. To demonstrate, we consider the problem of a Naval vessel transiting a fixed distance in varying sea-state conditions. The physics of this problem are such that minimizing transit time increases the probability of fatigue failure in the structural supports. It is shown how SDM produces the optimal trip plan in the sense that it minimizes both transit time and probability of failure in the manner of our choosing (i.e., through a user-defined cost function). The example illustrates the benefit of SDM over heuristic approaches to maintaining the vessel.

  4. Application of aluminum foil for ``strain sensing'' at fatigue damage evaluation of carbon fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Sergey; Burkov, Mikhail; Lyubutin, Pavel; Altukhov, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Surface layer of a loaded solid is an individual structural level of deformation that was shown numerously within concept of physical mesomechanics. This gives rise to advance in its deformation development under loading as well as allows using this phenomenon to sense the strain induced structure changes. It is of specific importance for composite materials since they are highly heterogeneous while estimating their mechanical state is a topical applied problem. Fatigue tests of carbon fiber composite specimens were carried out for cyclic deformation estimation with the use of strain sensors made of thin (80 μm) aluminum foil glued to the specimen's surface. The surface images were captured by DSLR camera mounted onto an optical microscope. Strain relief to form during cyclic loading was numerically estimated using different parameters: dispersion, mean square error, universal image quality index, fractal dimension and energy of Fourier spectrum. The results are discussed in view of deformation mismatch in thin foil and bulk specimen and are offered to be applied for the development of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) approach.

  5. Acoustic Emission and Damage Accumulation for Various Woven C/SiC Composites Tested in Tension at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Petko, Jeanne; Kiser, James D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modal acoustic emission (AE) has proven to be an excellent technique to monitor damage accumulation in ceramic matrix composites. In this study, AE was used to monitor tensile load-unload-reload hysteresis tests for a variety of C fiber reinforced, SiC matrix composites. C/SiC composites were reinforced with T300 and IM7 fibers, had C, multilayer, or pseudo-porous C interphases, and had chemical vapor infiltrated SiC or melt-infiltrated SiC matrices. All of the composites exhibited considerable AE during testing. The extent and nature of the AE activity will be analyzed and discussed in light of matrix cracking and the variety of composite constituents. It is hoped that understanding the nature of stress dependent damage accumulation in these materials can be of use in life modeling for these types of composites.

  6. Acoustic Emission and Damage Accumulation for Various Woven C/SiC Composites Tested in Tension at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory; Petko, Jeanne; Kiser, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Modal acoustic emission (AE) has proven to be an excellent technique to monitor damage accumulation in ceramic matrix composites. In this study, AE was used to monitor tensile load-unload-reload hysteresis tests for a variety of C fiber reinforced, Sic matrix composites. C/SiC composites were reinforced with T-300 and IM7 fibers, had C, multilayer, or pseudo-porous C interphases, and had chemical vapor infiltrated Sic or melt-infiltrated SiC matrices. All of the composites exhibited considerable AE during testing. The extent and nature of the AE activity will be analyzed and discussed in light of matrix cracking and the variety of composite constituents. It is hoped that understanding the nature of stress-dependent damage accumulation in these materials can be of use in life-modeling for these types of composites.

  7. A model for the formation of fatigue striations and its relationship with small fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth process involves damage accumulation and crack extension. The two sub-processes that lead to fatigue crack extension were quantified separately in a recent model for small fatigue crack growth applicable to engineering alloys. Here, we report the results of an experimental investigation to assess the assumptions of that model. The fatigue striation formation in an aluminum alloy is modeled and it is verified that the number of cycles required for striation formation is related to the cyclic crack tip opening displacement and that the striation spacing is related to the monotonic crack tip displacement. It is demonstrated that extensive cyclic crack tip plasticity in the aluminum alloy causes a reduction in the magnitude of the slope of the fatigue crack propagation curves. The implications of these results on the fatigue crack propagation lifetime calculations are identified.

  8. Study of Damage and Fracture Toughness Due to Influence of Creep and Fatigue of Commercially Pure Copper by Monotonic and Cyclic Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabita; Prakash, Raghu V.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness is the ability of a component containing a flow to resist fracture. In the current study, the Ball indentation (BI) test technique, which is well acknowledged as an alternative approach to evaluate mechanical properties of materials due to its semi-nondestructive, fast, and high accurate qualities is used to estimate damage and the fracture toughness for copper samples subjected to varying levels of creep and fatigue. The indentation fracture toughness shows the degradation of Cu samples when they are subjected to different creep conditions. Axial fatigue cycling increases the strength at the mid-gauge section compared to other regions of the samples due to initial strain hardening. The advancement of indentation depth with indentation fatigue cycles experiences transient stage, i.e., jump in indentation depth has been observed, which may be an indication of failure and followed by a steady state with almost constant depth propagation with indentation cycles.

  9. Isothermal Damage and Fatigue Behavior of SCS-6/Timetal 21S [0/90](Sub S) Composite at 650 Deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The isothermal fatigue damage and life behaviors of SCS-6/Timetal 21S (0/90)s were investigated at 650 C. Strain ratcheting and degradation of the composite's static elastic modulus were carefully monitored as functions of cycles to indicate damage progression. Extensive fractographic and metallographic analyses were conducted to determine damage/failure mechanisms. Resulting fatigue lives show considerable reductions in comparison to (0) reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to comparable conditions. Notable stiffness degradations were found to occur after the first cycle of loading, even at relatively low maximum stress levels, where cyclic lives are greater than 25,000 cycles. This was attributed to the extremely weak fiber/matrix bond which fails under relatively low transverse loads. Stiffness degradations incurred on first cycle loadings and degradations thereafter were found to increase with increasing maximum stress. Environmental effects associated with oxidation of the (90) fiber interfaces clearly played a role in the damage mechanisms as fracture surfaces revealed environment assisted matrix cracking along the (90) fibers. Metallographic analysis indicated that all observable matrix fatigue cracks initiated at the (90) fiber/matrix interfaces. Global de-bonding in the loading direction was found along the (90) fibers. No surface initiated cracks were evident and minimal if any (0) fiber cracking was visible.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4, 410Cb stainless steel, and IN100 nickel-base superalloy specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2009-03-01

    Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter β extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The β parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4 and 410 Cb stainless steel specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

  12. Modeling Thermal Fatigue in CPV Cell Assemblies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T. J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    A finite element model has been created to quantify the thermal fatigue damage of the CPV die attach. Simulations are used to compare to results of empirical thermal fatigue equations originally developed for accelerated chamber cycling. While the empirical equations show promise when extrapolated to the lower temperature cycles characteristic of weather-induced temperature changes in the CPV die attach, it is demonstrated that their damage does not accumulate linearly: the damage a particular cycle contributes depends on the preceding cycles. Simulations of modeled CPV cell temperature histories provided for direct comparison of the FEM and empirical methods, and for calculation of equivalent times provided by standard accelerated test sequences.

  13. Determining equivalent damage loading for full-scale wind turbine blade fatigue tests

    SciTech Connect

    Freebury, G.; Musial, W.

    2000-03-13

    This paper describes a simplified method for converting wind turbine rotor design loads into equivalent-damage, constant-amplitude loads and load ratios for both flap and lead-lag directions. It is an iterative method that was developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using Palmgren-Miner's linear damage principles. The general method is unique because it does not presume that any information about the materials or blade structural properties is precisely known. According to this method, the loads are never converted to stresses. Instead, a family of M-N curves (moment vs. cycles) is defined with reasonable boundaries for load-amplitude and slope. An optimization program iterates and converges on the constant amplitude test load and load ratio that minimizes the sensitivity to the range of M-N curves for each blade section. The authors constrained the general method to match the NedWind 25 design condition for the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) blade testing pro gram. SMT participants agreed to use the fixed S-N slope of m = 10 from the original design to produce consistent test-loads among the laboratories. Unconstrained, the general method suggests that slightly higher test loads should be used for the NedWind 25 blade design spectrum. NedWind 25 blade test loads were computed for lead-lag and flap under single-axis and two-axis loading.

  14. Fatigue Life and Short Crack Behavior in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy; Interactions of Foreign Object Damage, Stress, and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Behzad

    2008-04-01

    High-cycle fatigue (HCF) failures associated with foreign object damage (FOD) in turbine engines of military aircrafts have been of major concern for the aeronautic industry in recent years. The present work is focused on characterizing the effects of FOD on crack initiation and small crack growth of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy at ambient and also elevated temperatures. Results show that the preferred crack initiation site depends on applied stress and temperature as maximum fractions of cracks emanating from the simulated damage site, and naturally initiated cracks are observed at 25 °C under the maximum stress of 700 MPa and at 300 °C under the maximum stress of 300 MPa. The fatigue crack growth rate is influenced by increasing temperature, and the FCG rate at 300 °C is higher than that at room temperature under the same Δ K, whereas this effect for FOD-site initiated cracks is not so remarkable. This observation seems to be due to the effect of stress relaxation at 300 °C. Results also indicate that fatigue crack initiation life ( N i ) and fatigue life ( N f ) are expressed by three-parameter Weibull distribution function.

  15. Analysis of the Static and Fatigue Strenght of a Damage Tolerant 3D-Reinforced Joining Technology on Composite Single Lap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. C.; Drechsler, K.; Hombergsmeier, E.

    2012-07-01

    The increasing usage of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) in aerospace together with the constant drive for fuel efficiency and lightweight design have imposed new challenges in next generation structural assemblies and load transfer efficient joining methods. To address this issue, an innovative technology, denominated Redundant High Efficiency Assembly (RHEA) joints, is introduced as a high-performance lightweight joint that combines efficient load transfer with good damage tolerance. A review of the ongoing research involving the RHEA joint technology, its through-thickness reinforcement concept and the results of quasi-static and fatigue tensile investigations of single lap shear specimens are exposed and discussed. Improvements in ultimate static load, maximum joint deformation, damage tolerance and fatigue life are encountered when comparing the performance of the RHEA lap shear joints to co-bonded reference specimens.

  16. Multiaxial fatigue criteria for AISI 304 and 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel at 538/sup 0/C with applications to strain-range partitioning and linear summation of creep and fatigue damage

    SciTech Connect

    Blass, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved multiaxial fatigue failure criterion was developed based on the results of combined axial-torsional strain cycling tests of AISI 304 and 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel conducted at 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). The formulation of this criterion involves the shear and normal components of inelastic strain range on the planes of maximum inelastic shear strain range. Optimum values of certain parameters contained in the formulation were obtained for each material by the method of least squares. The ability of this criterion to correlate the test results was compared with that of the usual (Mises) equivalent inelastic strain range criterion. An improved definition of equivalent inelastic strain range resulting from these considerations was used to generalize the theory of Strain Range Partitioning to multiaxial stress-strain conditions and was also applied to the linear summation of creep and fatigue damage.

  17. Electrical Resistance as a NDE Technique to Monitor Processing and Damage Accumulation in SiC/SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are suitable for high temperature structural applications such as turbine airfoils and hypersonic thermal protection systems. The employment of these materials in such applications is limited by the ability to process components reliable and to accurately monitor and predict damage evolution that leads to failure under stressed-oxidation conditions. Current nondestructive methods such as ultrasound, x-ray, and thermal imaging are limited in their ability to quantify small scale, transverse, in-plane, matrix cracks developed over long-time creep and fatigue conditions. Electrical resistance of SiC/SiC composites is one technique that shows special promise towards this end. Since both the matrix and the fibers are conductive, changes in matrix or fiber properties should relate to changes in electrical conductivity along the length of a specimen or part. Initial efforts to quantify the electrical resistance of different fiber and different matrix SiC/SiC composites will be presented. Also, the effect of matrix cracking on electrical resistivity for several composite systems will be presented. The implications towards electrical resistance as a technique applied to composite processing, damage detection, and life-modeling will be discussed.

  18. One damage law for different mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, J.; Sermage, J. P.

    1997-07-01

    We consider here a general three-dimensional kinetic damage law. It uses the thermodynamic of irreversible processes formalism and the phenomenological aspects of isotropic damage. It gives the damage rate as a function of its associated variable, the strain energy density release rate and the accumulated plastic strain rate. Associated with different plastic constitutive equations, this damage law takes into account brittle damage, ductile damage, low and high cycle fatigue and creep damage. In this paper we mainly focus on creep-fatigue interaction and high cycle fatigue. Associated to a viscoplastic constitutive equation having kinematic hardening, the damage law gives the non linear creep-fatigue interaction. The agreement with experiments is good. Associated to plastic constitutive equations also having kinematic hardening but introduced in a micromechanical two scale model based on the self-consistent scheme, it models the non linear accumulation of damage induced by a succession of sequences of different amplitudes as well as the effect of the mean stress and the influence of non proportional loading.

  19. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses.more » With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.« less

  20. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses. With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.

  1. An engineering approach to the prediction of fatigue behavior of unnotched/notched fiber reinforced composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, S. V.; Mclaughlin, P. V., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An engineering approach is proposed for predicting unnotched/notched laminate fatigue behavior from basic lamina fatigue data. The fatigue analysis procedure was used to determine the laminate property (strength/stiffness) degradation as a function of fatigue cycles in uniaxial tension and in plane shear. These properties were then introduced into the failure model for a notched laminate to obtain damage growth, residual strength, and failure mode. The approach is thus essentially a combination of the cumulative damage accumulation (akin to the Miner-Palmgren hypothesis and its derivatives) and the damage growth rate (similar to the fracture mechanics approach) philosophies. An analysis/experiment correlation appears to confirm the basic postulates of material wearout and the predictability of laminate fatigue properties from lamina fatigue data.

  2. A Nonlinear Reduced Order Method for Prediction of Acoustic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to assess the quality of high-cycle-fatigue life estimation via a reduced order method, for structures undergoing geometrically nonlinear random vibrations. Modal reduction is performed with several different suites of basis functions. After numerically solving the reduced order system equations of motion, the physical displacement time history is obtained by an inverse transformation and stresses are recovered. Stress ranges obtained through the rainflow counting procedure are used in a linear damage accumulation method to yield fatigue estimates. Fatigue life estimates obtained using various basis functions in the reduced order method are compared with those obtained from numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom.

  3. Systemic DNA Damage Accumulation Under in Vivo Tumor Growth can be Inhibited by the Antioxidant Tempol

    PubMed Central

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ferguson, Nicholas F.; Kryston, Thomas B.; Parekh, Palak; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recently we found that mice bearing subcutaneous non-metastatic tumors exhibited elevated levels of two types of complex DNA damage, i.e., double-strand breaks and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in various tissues throughout the body, both adjacent to and distant from the tumor site. This DNA damage was dependent on CCL2, a cytokine involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages, suggesting that this systemic DNA damage was mediated via tumor-induced chronic inflammatory responses involving cytokines, activation of macrophages, and consequent free radical production. If free radicals are involved, then a diet containing an antioxidant may decrease the distant DNA damage. Results Here we repeated our standard protocol in cohorts of two syngeneic tumor-bearing C57BL/6NCr mice that were on a Tempol-supplemented diet. We show that double-strand break and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesion levels were considerably decreased, about 2-3 fold, in the majority of tissues studied from the tumor-bearing mice fed the antioxidant Tempol compared to the control tumor-bearing mice. Similar results were also observed in nude mice suggesting that the Tempol effects are independent of functioning adaptive immunity. Conclusions This is the first in vivo study demonstrating the effect of a dietary antioxidant on abscopal DNA damage in tissues distant from a localized source of genotoxic stress. These findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of genomic instability and carcinogenesis caused by chronic stress-induced systemic DNA damage and for developing preventative strategies. PMID:25069035

  4. Development of an analytic procedure to calculate damage accumulation in composites during low velocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, E. A.; Goering, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized procedure was developed to model the response of a laminated composite plate subjected to low velocity impact. The methodology incorporated transient dynamics finite element analysis coupled with composite layer and interlaminar stress predictions. Damage was predicted using a stress based failure criteria and incorporated into the solution as stiffness modifications. The force-displacement relation between the impactor and plate was modelled with a nonlinear contact spring similar to Hertzian contact. Analyses performed predicted ply damage early in the impact event when the displacement fields were characteristic of high frequency flexurable response.

  5. Cluster dynamics models of irradiation damage accumulation in ferritic iron. I. Trap mediated interstitial cluster diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kohnert, Aaron A.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-04-21

    The microstructure that develops under low temperature irradiation in ferritic alloys is dominated by a high density of small (2–5 nm) defects. These defects have been widely observed to move via occasional discrete hops during in situ thin film irradiation experiments. Cluster dynamics models are used to describe the formation of these defects as an aggregation process of smaller clusters created as primary damage. Multiple assumptions regarding the mobility of these damage features are tested in the models, both with and without explicit consideration of such irradiation induced hops. Comparison with experimental data regarding the density of these defects demonstrates the importance of including such motions in a valid model. In particular, discrete hops inform the limited dependence of defect density on irradiation temperature observed in experiments, which the model was otherwise incapable of producing.

  6. Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures

  7. Fatigue and fatigue crack growth processes in hard tissues: The importance of age and surface integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majd, Hessam

    With the progressive increase in partially and fully dentate seniors, fracture has become an increasingly common form of restored tooth failure. Dentin undergoes progressive changes in microstructure with patient age, and studies are now suggesting that there is a reduction in fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth resistance of this tissue. This dissertation explores aging of dentin, the influence of flaws that are introduced during restorative processes on the fatigue properties of dentin, and proposes models for characterizing the damage initiation and growth process during fatigue of dentin. Results from this investigation show that the fatigue crack growth properties (Paris Law parameters (C, m) andDeltaKth) of human dentin undergo the most significant changes at a patient age of 42 years. Based on the fatigue crack growth responses, three age groups were established including young (age≤33), aged (34≤age ≤49) and old (50≤age) patients for further analysis. There were significant differences in the initiation and growth behavior between the tissues of patients from the three age groups. With regards to the influence of restorative processes, there was no influence on the quasi-static responses of dentin. However, the endurance limit of dentin treated with the dental burs (28 MPa) and abrasive air jet (35 MPa) were approximately 36% and 20% lower than that of the control (44 MPa), respectively. Both cutting processes caused a significant reduction (p≤0.0001) in fatigue strength. An accumulative damage model was developed to characterize fatigue of the control and bur treated dentin as well as provide a model for fatigue life prediction. The damage models were derived as a function of number of loading cycles (N), and ratio of applied stress to ultimate strength (r). The developed models provide estimations for the initial state of damage, the state of damage during the life, as well as the damage accumulation rate for cyclic loading of dentin

  8. The high frequency fatigue behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Nikhilesh

    Many potential applications for continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCMCs), such as gas turbines and heat exchangers, will involve high frequency cyclic loading (75 Hz or higher). While most of the work in the area of fatigue of CFCMCs has concentrated on low frequency behavior, it has been shown that fatigue at high frequencies can exacerbate the accumulation of microstructural damage and significantly decrease fatigue life. "Soft" matrix composites with strong interface bonding provided superior resistance to high frequency fatigue damage. Nicalon/SiCON composites with strong interfacial bonding between the fibers and matrix exhibited very little internal heating during high frequency fatigue loading. This composite system exhibited excellent fatigue life, with fatigue runout at 10sp7 cycles occurring for stresses close to 80% of the ultimate strength (at a loading frequency of 100 Hz). Thick fiber coatings may be more effective in reducing the amount of fiber wear and damage which occur during high frequency fatigue. More effective lubrication at the fiber/matrix interface was achieved with thicker carbon coatings in Nicalon/C/SiC composites subjected to high frequency fatigue loading. Composites with thicker coatings exhibited substantially lower frictional heating and had much higher fatigue lives. The effect of laminate stacking sequence had a significant effect on the high frequency fatigue behavior of CFCMCs. In SCS-6/Sisb3Nsb4 composites, frictional heating in angle-ply laminates (±45) was substantially higher than that in cross-ply laminates (0/90). Since the angle-ply had a lower stiffness, matrix microcracking in this composite was more predominant. Finally, preliminary fatigue damage mechanism maps for CFCMCs were developed. These maps provided a means to identify which fatigue mechanisms were operating at a given stress level and number of cycles.

  9. Disease Activity and Damage are not Associated with Increased Levels of Fatigue in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients from LUMINA LXVII, a Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Paula I.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; McGwin, Gerald; Crews, Kendra Q.; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with increased levels of fatigue over the course of the disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients from LUMINA (Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture), a longitudinal multiethnic cohort. Methods Patients with SLE (American College of Rheumatology revised and updated criteria), age ≥16 years, disease duration ≤ 5 years at entry into the cohort (T0), of Hispanic (Texan or Puerto Rican), African America or Caucasian ethnicity, were studied. The association between socioeconomic-demographic, health behaviors, behavioral and psychological, functional and clinical characteristics and fatigue was examined using generalized estimating equations to account for the longitudinal nature of the data. Results Five-hundred and fifteen patients (~91% female) contributed 2,609 visits to these analyses; there were: 93 (18.1%) Texan Hispanics, 101 (19.6%) Puerto Rican Hispanics, 169 (32.8%) African Americans, and 152 (29.5%) Caucasians; the patients mean (SD) age and follow up time were 37.2 (12.0) and 4.7 (3.2) years, respectively. Variables associated with increased levels of fatigue in the multivariable analyses were Caucasian ethnicity, the presence of constitutional symptoms(fever, weight loss), higher levels of pain, of abnormal illness-related behaviors and of helplessness (p’s between 0.0018 and <0.0001). Conclusions The presence of pain, abnormal illness-related behaviors, helplessness and constitutional manifestations were associated with increased levels of fatigue; however, lupus specific measures, such as disease activity and damage were not. Interventions aimed at decreasing fatigue need to take into account these findings. PMID:19714612

  10. Bone fatigue and its implications for injuries in racehorses.

    PubMed

    Martig, S; Chen, W; Lee, P V S; Whitton, R C

    2014-07-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common cause of lost training days and wastage in racehorses. Many bone injuries are a consequence of repeated high loading during fast work, resulting in chronic damage accumulation and material fatigue of bone. The highest joint loads occur in the fetlock, which is also the most common site of subchondral bone injury in racehorses. Microcracks in the subchondral bone at sites where intra-articular fractures and palmar osteochondral disease occur are similar to the fatigue damage detected experimentally after repeated loading of bone. Fatigue is a process that has undergone much study in material science in order to avoid catastrophic failure of engineering structures. The term 'fatigue life' refers to the numbers of cycles of loading that can be sustained before failure occurs. Fatigue life decreases exponentially with increasing load. This is important in horses as loads within the limb increase with increasing speed. Bone adapts to increased loading by modelling to maintain the strains within the bone at a safe level. Bone also repairs fatigued matrix through remodelling. Fatigue injuries develop when microdamage accumulates faster than remodelling can repair. Remodelling of the equine metacarpus is reduced during race training and accelerated during rest periods. The first phase of remodelling is bone resorption, which weakens the bone through increased porosity. A bone that is porous following a rest period may fail earlier than a fully adapted bone. Maximising bone adaptation is an important part of training young racehorses. However, even well-adapted bones accumulate microdamage and require ongoing remodelling. If remodelling inhibition at the extremes of training is unavoidable then the duration of exposure to high-speed work needs to be limited and appropriate rest periods instituted. Further research is warranted to elucidate the effect of fast-speed work and rest on bone damage accumulation and repair. PMID:24528139

  11. Evaluating Changes in Tendon Crimp with Fatigue Loading as an ex vivo Structural Assessment of Tendon Damage

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Benjamin R.; Zuskov, Andrey; Sarver, Joseph J.; Buckley, Mark R.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The complex structure of tendons relates to their mechanical properties. Previous research has associated the waviness of collagen fibers (crimp) during quasi-static tensile loading to tensile mechanics, but less is known about the role of fatigue loading on crimp properties. In this study (IACUC approved), mouse patellar tendons were fatigue loaded while an integrated plane polariscope simultaneously assessed crimp properties. We demonstrate a novel structural mechanism whereby tendon crimp amplitude and frequency are altered with fatigue loading. In particular, fatigue loading increased the crimp amplitude across the tendon width and length, and these structural alterations were shown to be both region and load dependent. The change in crimp amplitude was strongly correlated to mechanical tissue laxity (defined as the ratio of displacement and gauge length relative to the first cycle of fatigue loading assessed at constant load throughout testing), at all loads and regions evaluated. Together, this study highlights the role of fatigue loading on tendon crimp properties as a function of load applied and region evaluated, and offers an additional structural mechanism for mechanical alterations that may lead to ultimate tendon failure. PMID:25773654

  12. Accumulation of oxidatively generated DNA damage in the brain: a mechanism of neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuji; Lee, Heung M; Greeley, George H; Englander, Ella W

    2007-02-01

    Unrepaired or erroneously repaired DNA lesions drive genomic instability and contribute to cellular and organ decline. Since delayed neuropathologies are common in survivors of smoke inhalation injuries, we asked whether the integrity of brain DNA might be compromised by acute exposure to combustion smoke. Although many studies demonstrate that the brain is equipped to repair oxidatively damaged DNA, to date, the capacity for accurate DNA repair under conditions of disrupted oxygenation and oxidative stress has not been defined. We show that DNA adducts detectable by their ability to block PCR amplification form in the rat hippocampus after acute exposure to smoke. To identify the different types of adducts and to dissect their temporal formation and repair profiles in vivo in the brain, we used DNA-modifying enzymes to convert specific adducts into strand breaks prior to PCR amplification. Using this strategy, we detected formation of oxidative DNA adducts early on after smoke inhalation, while mismatched bases emerged at the later recovery times, potentially due to an erroneous DNA repair process. Erroneous repair can be mutagenic and because the initial smoke-induced oxidative damage to DNA is extensive, compromised fidelity of DNA repair may underlie neurotoxicity and contribute to delayed death of hippocampal neurons. PMID:17210451

  13. Cluster dynamics models of irradiation damage accumulation in ferritic iron. II. Effects of reaction dimensionality

    SciTech Connect

    Kohnert, Aaron A.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-04-21

    The black dot damage features which develop in iron at low temperatures exhibit significant mobility during in situ irradiation experiments via a series of discrete, intermittent, long range hops. By incorporating this mobility into cluster dynamics models, the temperature dependence of such damage structures can be explained with a surprising degree of accuracy. Such motion, however, is one dimensional in nature. This aspect of the physics has not been fully considered in prior models. This article describes one dimensional reaction kinetics in the context of cluster dynamics and applies them to the black dot problem. This allows both a more detailed description of the mechanisms by which defects execute irradiation-induced hops while allowing a full examination of the importance of kinetic assumptions in accurately assessing the development of this irradiation microstructure. Results are presented to demonstrate whether one dimensional diffusion alters the dependence of the defect population on factors such as temperature and defect hop length. Finally, the size of interstitial loops that develop is shown to depend on the extent of the reaction volumes between interstitial clusters, as well as the dimensionality of these interactions.

  14. Mechanisms of strain accumulation and damage development during creep of prestrained 316 stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilshire, B.; Willis, M.

    2004-02-01

    The effects of prestraining at room temperature and at the creep temperature of 848 K, as well as the responses to stress reductions during creep, have been studied for 316 stainless steels varying in composition and initial microstructure. The results are analyzed by contrasting the strengthening effects achieved by introducing high dislocation densities prior to creep exposure with the deleterious effects, which can occur when prestraining causes premature void nucleation at grain boundaries. In addition, by recognizing the differing contributions made by the grain interiors and the grain boundary zones to the overall rates of creep strain accumulation, a consistent explanation is provided for the diverse creep behavior patterns reported for different metals and alloys after various prestraining treatments.

  15. Ideal sinks are not always ideal. Radiation damage accumulation in nanocomposites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Choudhury, Samrat; Caro, Alfredo

    2014-11-27

    Designing radiation tolerant materials is one of the primary challenges associated with advanced nuclear energy systems. One attractive route that has received much attention world-wide is to introduce a high density of sinks, often in the form of interfaces or secondary phases. Here, we develop a simple model of such nanocomposites and examine the ramifications of various factors on the overall radiation stability of the material. In particular, we determine how the distribution of secondary phases, the relative sink strength of those phases, and the irradiation temperature influence the radiation tolerance of the matrix. We find that the best scenariomore » is one in which the sinks have intermediate strength, transiently trapping defects before releasing them back into the matrix.This provides new insight into the optimal properties of nanocomposites for radiation damage environments.« less

  16. Strain Accumulation and Damage Evolution During Creep of SiCf/SiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilshire, Brian; Burt, Howard

    For many high-performance applications, worldwide research efforts continue to be focussed on ceramic-fibre-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CFCMCs), with numerous studies featuring SiC-fibre-reinforced SiC-matrix materials (termed SiCf/SiC type products). In particular, because these CFCMCs are being considered for components which must operate for long periods without failure under load in hostile high-temperature environments, special attention has then been directed to characterization of their creep and creep fracture behaviour. In turn, many of these studies have been concerned with clarification of the damage processes which cause creep failure, aiming to acquire the understanding needed for future product development and component design.

  17. Ideal sinks are not always ideal. Radiation damage accumulation in nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Choudhury, Samrat; Caro, Alfredo

    2014-11-27

    Designing radiation tolerant materials is one of the primary challenges associated with advanced nuclear energy systems. One attractive route that has received much attention world-wide is to introduce a high density of sinks, often in the form of interfaces or secondary phases. Here, we develop a simple model of such nanocomposites and examine the ramifications of various factors on the overall radiation stability of the material. In particular, we determine how the distribution of secondary phases, the relative sink strength of those phases, and the irradiation temperature influence the radiation tolerance of the matrix. We find that the best scenario is one in which the sinks have intermediate strength, transiently trapping defects before releasing them back into the matrix.This provides new insight into the optimal properties of nanocomposites for radiation damage environments.

  18. Damage Accumulation and Failure of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradient Cyclic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, rober A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. A fundamental understanding of the sintering and thermal cycling induced delamination of thermal barrier coating systems under engine-like heat flux conditions will potentially help to improve the coating temperature capability. In this study, a test approach is established to emphasize the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which can initially increase under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later decrease under the thermal gradient cyclic test due to coating cracking and delamination. Thermal conductivity prediction models have been established for a ZrO2-(7- 8wt%)Y2O3 model coating system in terms of heat flux, time, and testing temperatures. The coating delamination accumulation is then assessed based on the observed thermal conductivity response under the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The coating thermal gradient cycling associated delaminations and failure mechanisms under simulated engine heat-flux conditions will be discussed in conjunction with the coating sintering and fracture testing results.

  19. Experimental study of crack initiation and propagation in high- and gigacycle fatigue in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bannikov, Mikhail E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Oborin, Vladimir E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Naimark, Oleg E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru

    2014-11-14

    Fatigue (high- and gigacycle) crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and SEM to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and to verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue regime using the Luong method [1] by “in-situ” infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both high cycle fatigue and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for plane and cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometer-profiler New View 5010) data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent) and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent). Area 1 with diameter ∼300 μm has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics.

  20. Damage accumulation and defect relaxation in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Gao, F.; Jiang, W.; McCready, D. E.; Weber, W. J.

    2004-09-01

    A nonlinear dependence of damage disorder on dose is observed for both Si and C sublattices in 4H-SiC under 2MeV Au irradiation at 165K . The relative disorder observed along the ⟨4¯403¯⟩ direction is much higher than that along the ⟨0001⟩ direction. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate that most interstitial configurations are formed on the Si-C dimer rows that are parallel to the ⟨0001⟩ direction. As a result, these interstitials are shielded by the Si and C atoms on the lattice sites, which significantly reduces the contribution of these interstitials to the backscattering/reaction yield along the ⟨0001⟩ direction. During isochronal annealing below room temperature, the relative disorder decreases along the ⟨0001⟩ direction, as expected; however, the disorder is stable on the Si sublattice and increases slightly on the C sublattice when measured along the ⟨4¯403¯⟩ direction due to relaxation of some metastable defects to lower energy configurations. As the annealing temperature increases, similar recovery behavior on both Si and C sublattices along the ⟨0001⟩ direction indicates coupling of Si and C recovery processes; however, slightly higher recovery temperatures on the C sublattice along the ⟨4¯403¯⟩ direction suggests some decoupling of the Si and C recovery processes. Based on the structures and energetics of defects from MD simulations, new insights into defect configurations and relaxation processes are described.

  1. Influence of creep damage on the low cycle thermal-mechanical fatigue behavior of two tantalum base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Doble, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests have been performed on the tantalum base alloys T-111 and ASTAR 811C with synchronized, independently programmed temperature and strain cycling. The thermal-mechanical cycles applied fell into three basic categories: these were isothermal cycling, in-phase thermal cycling, and out-of-phase thermal cycling. In-phase cycling was defined as tensile deformation associated with high temperature and compressive deformation with low temperature, while out-of-phase thermal cycling was defined as the reverse case. The in-phase thermal cycling had a pronounced detrimental influence on the fatigue life of both alloys, with the life reduction being greater in the solid solution strengthened T-111 alloy than in the carbide strengthened ASTAR 811C alloy. The out-of-phase tests also showed pronounced effects on the fatigue life of both alloys, although not as dramatic.

  2. Investigation of fatigue damage mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, S.; Portner, B. D.

    A study was conducted to study the fatigue behavior of cross-ply, (0/90)2s, laminate of silicon fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite, SCS-6/Ti-15-3 at an elevated temperature of 427 C. Two sets of tests, at frequencies 0.02 and 2 Hz, were run at different stress levels which were either below or above the static first ply failure strength of laminate. Crack initiation locations and growth patterns were dependent on to specific test conditions of frequency and stress level. Also, microscopic analysis of the fatigued specimens revealed matrix failure mechanisms ranging from ductile failure to cleavage fracture. The results of this study clearly showed that temperature, frequency as well as stress levels are important design considerations for this composite in fatigue loading applications.

  3. Simulation and Experiment of Thermal Fatigue in the CPV Die Attach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-05-01

    FEM simulation and accelerated thermal cycling have been performed for the CPV die attach. Trends in fatigue damage accumulation and equivalent test time are explored and found to be most sensitive to temperature ramp rate. Die attach crack growth is measured through cycling and found to be in excellent agreement with simulations of the inelastic strain energy accumulated. Simulations of an entire year of weather data provides for the relative ranking of fatigue damage between four cites as well as their equivalent accelerated test time.

  4. Graphene oxide induces plasma membrane damage, reactive oxygen species accumulation and fatty acid profiles change in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Qilin; Liang, Chen; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2016-10-01

    During the past couple of years, graphene nanomaterials were extremely popular among the scientists due to the promising properties in many aspects. Before the materials being well applied, we should first focus on their biosafety and toxicity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of synthesized graphene oxide (GO) against the model industrial organism Pichia pastoris. We found that the synthesized GO showed dose-dependent toxicity to P. pastoris, through cell membrane damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In response to these cell stresses, cells had normal unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels but increased contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with up-regulation of UFA synthesis-related genes on the transcriptional level, which made it overcome the stress under GO attack. Two UFA defective strains (spt23Δ and fad12Δ) were used to demonstrate the results above. Hence, this study suggested a close connection between PUFAs and cell survival against GO. PMID:27376352

  5. Chromosome painting and the accumulation of stable cytogenetic damage with age in healthy controls

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Ramsey, M.J.; Lee, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Chromosome painting is now routinely used to identify induced stable chromosomal rearrangements, which are difficult and expensive to analyze with classical cytogenetic methods. Theoretically the inherent stability of translocations, in contrast to unstable dicentrics, enables their use as a biodosimeter for chronic and temporally-displaced exposure. To quantify the effects of adverse exposure, it is important that the baseline frequency of stable aberrations be well understood. Recently we have used chromosome painting to show that translocations accumulate with age. We have now extended this study to nearly 100 subjects ranging in age from newborns (umbilical cord bloods, n=14) to adults aged 19-79 years. All subjects were healthy, had not received chemo- or radiotherapy, and had not been occupationally or accidentally exposed to radiation or chemicals. We scored the equivalent of 1000 metaphase cells for each subject, and observed an overall average of 1.36 stable aberrations per 100 cells. Stable aberrations increased significantly with age, and were observed at frequencies of 0.19{plus_minus}0.04, 0.77{plus_minus}0.07, and 2.39{plus_minus}0.24 per 100 cells in cord blood, adults aged 19 to 49, and adults over age 50, respectively. To understand the extent that lifestyle factors influence the frequency of stable aberrations, each subject (or one parent of each newborn) completed a comprehensive questionnaire inquiring about lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits. No smoking effect is apparent in adults, however newborns whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increase in stable aberration frequencies (p=0.033). Repeat samples from a subset of the adults suggest that individual translocation frequencies change little over a period of -3 years.

  6. Radiation-Induced Survivin Nuclear Accumulation is Linked to DNA Damage Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Increased expression of survivin has been identified as a negative prognostic marker in a variety of human cancers. We have previously shown that survivin is a radiation-resistance factor and that the therapeutic effect of survivin knock-down might result from an impaired DNA repair capacity. In this study, we aimed to elucidate an interrelationship between survivin's cellular localization and DNA double-strand break repair. Methods and Materials: Survivin's cellular distribution and nuclear complex formation were assayed by Western blotting of subcellular fractions, by immunofluorescence staining, and co-immunoprecipitation in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. DNA repair capacity was analyzed by kinetics of gamma-H2AX foci formation, and by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) assays in the presence of survivin-specific or nonspecific control siRNA. Results: Following irradiation, we observed a rapid nuclear accumulation of survivin and subsequent phosphorylation of the protein in the nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses from nuclear extracts revealed an interaction among survivin, Ku70, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, and DNA-PKcs that was confirmed by immunofluorescence co-localization in nuclear foci. Survivin knock down by siRNA resulted in an impaired DNA double strand break repair, as demonstrated by an increased detection of gamma-H2AX foci/nucleus at 60 min and a higher amount of residual gamma-H2AX foci at 24 hr postirradiation. Furthermore, we detected in survivin-depleted cells a hampered S2056 autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and a significantly decreased DNA-PKcs kinase activity. Conclusion: These data indicate that nuclear survivin is linked to DNA double-strand break repair by interaction with members of the DNA double-strand breaks repair machinery, thus regulating DNA-PKcs activity.

  7. Overexpression of UV-DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 links plant development and phytonutrient accumulation in high pigment-1 tomato

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Raviv; Reuveni, Moshe; Evenor, Dalia; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Levin, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Fruits of tomato plants carrying the high pigment-1 mutations hp-1 and hp-1w are characterized by an increased number of plastids coupled with enhanced levels of functional metabolites. Unfortunately, hp-1 mutant plants are also typified by light-dependent retardation in seedling and whole-plant growth and development, which limits their cultivation. These mutations were mapped to the gene encoding UV-DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (DDB1) and, recently, fruit-specific RNA interference studies have demonstrated an increased number of plastids and enhanced carotenoid accumulation in the transgenic tomato fruits. However, whole-plant overexpression of DDB1, required to substantiate its effects on seedling and plant development and to couple them with fruit phenotypes, has heretofore been unsuccessful. In this study, five transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing normal DDB1 in hp-1 mutant plants were analysed. Eleven-day-old seedlings, representing these lines, displayed up to ∼73- and ∼221-fold overexpression of the gene in hypocotyls and cotyledons, respectively. This overexpression resulted in statistically significant reversion to the non-mutant developmental phenotypes, including more than a full quantitative reversion. This reversion of phenotypes was generally accompanied by correlated responses in chlorophyll accumulation and altered expression of selected light signalling genes: PHYTOCHROME A, CRYPTOCHROME 1, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5, and the gene encoding CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEIN 4. Cumulatively, these results provide the missing link between DDB1 and its effects on tomato plant development. PMID:20566564

  8. Exercise, inflammation, and fatigue in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    LaVoy, Emily C.P.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Dantzer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue significantly disrupts normal functioning and quality of life for a substantial portion of cancer survivors, and may persist for years following cancer treatment. While the causes of persistent fatigue among cancer survivors are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that several pathways, including chronic inflammation, autonomic imbalance, HPA-axis dysfunction, and/or mitochondrial damage, could contribute towards the disruption of normal neuronal function and result in the symptom of cancer-related fatigue. Exercise training interventions have been shown to be some of the more successful treatment options to address cancer-related fatigue. In this review, we discuss the literature regarding the causes of persistent fatigue in cancer survivors and the mechanisms by which exercise may relieve this symptom. There is still much work to be done until the prescription of exercise becomes standard practice for cancer survivors. With improvements in the quality of studies, evidenced-based exercise interventions will allow exercise scientists and oncologists to work together to treat cancer-related fatigue. PMID:26853557

  9. High cycle fatigue in the transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bufford, Daniel C.; Stauffer, Douglas; Mook, William M.; Syed Asif, S. A.; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid

    2016-06-28

    One of the most common causes of structural failure in metals is fatigue induced by cyclic loading. Historically, microstructure-level analysis of fatigue cracks has primarily been performed post mortem. However, such investigations do not directly reveal the internal structural processes at work near micro- and nanoscale fatigue cracks and thus do not provide direct evidence of active microstructural mechanisms. In this paper, the tension–tension fatigue behavior of nanocrystalline Cu was monitored in real time at the nanoscale by utilizing a new capability for quantitative cyclic mechanical loading performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Controllable loads were appliedmore » at frequencies from one to several hundred hertz, enabling accumulations of 106 cycles within 1 h. The nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the TEM allows quantitative fatigue crack growth studies at very slow crack growth rates, measured here at ~10–12 m·cycle–1. This represents an incipient threshold regime that is well below the tensile yield stress and near the minimum conditions for fatigue crack growth. Evidence of localized deformation and grain growth within 150 nm of the crack tip was observed by both standard imaging and precession electron diffraction orientation mapping. Finally, these observations begin to reveal with unprecedented detail the local microstructural processes that govern damage accumulation, crack nucleation, and crack propagation during fatigue loading in nanocrystalline Cu.« less

  10. High Cycle Fatigue in the Transmission Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Bufford, Daniel C; Stauffer, Douglas; Mook, William M; Syed Asif, S A; Boyce, Brad L; Hattar, Khalid

    2016-08-10

    One of the most common causes of structural failure in metals is fatigue induced by cyclic loading. Historically, microstructure-level analysis of fatigue cracks has primarily been performed post mortem. However, such investigations do not directly reveal the internal structural processes at work near micro- and nanoscale fatigue cracks and thus do not provide direct evidence of active microstructural mechanisms. In this study, the tension-tension fatigue behavior of nanocrystalline Cu was monitored in real time at the nanoscale by utilizing a new capability for quantitative cyclic mechanical loading performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Controllable loads were applied at frequencies from one to several hundred hertz, enabling accumulations of 10(6) cycles within 1 h. The nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the TEM allows quantitative fatigue crack growth studies at very slow crack growth rates, measured here at ∼10(-12) m·cycle(-1). This represents an incipient threshold regime that is well below the tensile yield stress and near the minimum conditions for fatigue crack growth. Evidence of localized deformation and grain growth within 150 nm of the crack tip was observed by both standard imaging and precession electron diffraction orientation mapping. These observations begin to reveal with unprecedented detail the local microstructural processes that govern damage accumulation, crack nucleation, and crack propagation during fatigue loading in nanocrystalline Cu. PMID:27351706

  11. Brain damage in methylmalonic aciduria: 2-methylcitrate induces cerebral ammonium accumulation and apoptosis in 3D organotypic brain cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylmalonic aciduria is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA), propionate and 2-methylcitrate (2-MCA) in body fluids. Early diagnosis and current treatment strategies aimed at limiting the production of these metabolites are only partially effective in preventing neurological damage. Methods To explore the metabolic consequences of methylmalonic aciduria on the brain, we used 3D organotypic brain cell cultures from rat embryos. We challenged the cultures at two different developmental stages with 1 mM MMA, propionate or 2-MCA applied 6 times every 12 h. In a dose–response experiment cultures were challenged with 0.01, 0.1, 0.33 and 1 mM 2-MCA. Immunohistochemical staining for different brain cell markers were used to assess cell viability, morphology and differentiation. Significant changes were validated by western blot analysis. Biochemical markers were analyzed in culture media. Apoptosis was studied by immunofluorescence staining and western blots for activated caspase-3. Results Among the three metabolites tested, 2-MCA consistently produced the most pronounced effects. Exposure to 2-MCA caused morphological changes in neuronal and glial cells already at 0.01 mM. At the biochemical level the most striking result was a significant ammonium increase in culture media with a concomitant glutamine decrease. Dose–response studies showed significant and parallel changes of ammonium and glutamine starting from 0.1 mM 2-MCA. An increased apoptosis rate was observed by activation of caspase-3 after exposure to at least 0.1 mM 2-MCA. Conclusion Surprisingly, 2-MCA, and not MMA, seems to be the most toxic metabolite in our in vitro model leading to delayed axonal growth, apoptosis of glial cells and to unexpected ammonium increase. Morphological changes were already observed at 2-MCA concentrations as low as 0.01 mM. Increased apoptosis and ammonium accumulation started at 0.1 mM thus suggesting that ammonium

  12. The Tyrosine Kinase c-Abl Promotes Homeodomain-interacting Protein Kinase 2 (HIPK2) Accumulation and Activation in Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Reuven, Nina; Adler, Julia; Porat, Ziv; Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Hofmann, Thomas G; Shaul, Yosef

    2015-07-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl is activated in response to DNA damage and induces p73-dependent apoptosis. Here, we investigated c-Abl regulation of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), an important regulator of p53-dependent apoptosis. c-Abl phosphorylated HIPK2 at several sites, and phosphorylation by c-Abl protected HIPK2 from degradation mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase Siah-1. c-Abl and HIPK2 synergized in activating p53 on apoptotic promoters in a reporter assay, and c-Abl was required for endogenous HIPK2 accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser(46) in response to DNA damage by γ- and UV radiation. Accumulation of HIPK2 in nuclear speckles and association with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in response to DNA damage were also dependent on c-Abl activity. At high cell density, the Hippo pathway inhibits DNA damage-induced c-Abl activation. Under this condition, DNA damage-induced HIPK2 accumulation, phosphorylation of p53 at Ser(46), and apoptosis were attenuated. These data demonstrate a new mechanism for the induction of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by c-Abl and illustrate network interactions between serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases that dictate cell fate. PMID:25944899

  13. Mercury Accumulation, Structural Damages, and Antioxidant and Immune Status Changes in the Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L.) Exposed to Methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, F A; Chaves-Pozo, E; Espinosa, C; Romero, D; Meseguer, J; Cuesta, A; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic systems, mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that causes acute and chronic damage to multiple organs. In fish, practically all of the organic Hg found is in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), which has been associated with animal and human health problems. This study evaluates the impact of waterborne-exposure to sublethal concentrations of MeHg (10 μg L(-1)) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Hg was seen to accumulate in liver and muscle, and histopathological damage to skin and liver was detected. Fish exposed to MeHg showed a decreased biological antioxidant potential and increased levels of the reactive oxygen molecules compared with the values found in control fish (nonexposed). Increased liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were detected in 2 day-exposed fish with respect to the values of control fish. However, fish exposed to MeHg for 10 days showed liver antioxidant enzyme levels similar to those of the control fish but had increased hepato-somatic index and histopathological alterations in liver and skin. Serum complement levels were higher in fish exposed to MeHg for 30 days than in control fish. Moreover, head-kidney leukocyte activities increased, although only phagocytosis and peroxidase activities showed a significant increase after 10 and 30 days, respectively. The data show that 30 days of exposure to waterborne MeHg provokes more significant changes in fish than a short-term exposure of 2 or 10 days. PMID:26906265

  14. In-situ x-ray monitoring of damage accumulation in SiC/RBSN tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    The room-temperature tensile testing of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) composite specimens was monitored by using in-situ x ray film radiography. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading provided data on the effect of preexisting volume flaws (high density impurities, and local density variations) on the fracture behavior of composites. Results from (0)1, (0)3, (0)5, and (0)8 composite specimens, showed that x ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulations during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, and fiber pullout were imaged throughout the tensile loading history of the specimens. Further, in-situ film radiography was found to be a helpful and practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the SiC fiber and the RBSN matrix by the matrix crack spacing method. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post-test radiography can provide for a greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior, a verification of related experimental procedures, and a validation and development of related analytical models.

  15. Tension fatigue analysis and life prediction for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.; Rigamonti, M.; Zanotti, C.

    1988-01-01

    A tension fatigue life prediction methodology for composite laminates is presented. Tension fatigue tests were conducted on quasi-isotropic and orthotropic glass epoxy, graphite epoxy, and glass/graphite epoxy hybrid laminates. Edge delamination onset data were used to generate plots of strain energy release rate as a function of cycles to delamination onset. These plots were then used along with strain energy release rate analyses of delaminations initiating at matrix cracks to predict local delamination onset. Stiffness loss was measured experimentally to account for the accumulation of matrix cracks and for delamination growth. Fatigue failure was predicted by comparing the increase in global strain resulting from stiffness loss to the decrease in laminate failure strain resulting from delaminations forming at matrix cracks through the laminate thickness. Good agreement between measured and predicted lives indicated that the through-thickness damage accumulation model can accurately describe fatigue failure for laminates where the delamination onset behavior in fatigue is well characterized, and stiffness loss can be monitored in real time to account for damage growth.

  16. Fatigue life prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Meyer, T. G.; Nelson, R. S.; Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the fatigue and fracture efforts under the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program was to significantly improve the analytic life prediction tools used by the aeronautical gas turbine engine industry. This was achieved in the areas of high-temperature thermal and mechanical fatigue of bare and coated high-temperature superalloys. The cyclic crack initiation and propagation resistance of nominally isotropic polycrystalline and highly anisotropic single crystal alloys were addressed. Life prediction modeling efforts were devoted to creep-fatigue interaction, oxidation, coatings interactions, multiaxiality of stress-strain states, mean stress effects, cumulative damage, and thermomechanical fatigue. The fatigue crack initiation life models developed to date include the Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) and the Total Strain Version of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) for nominally isotropic materials, and the Tensile Hysteretic Energy Model for anisotropic superalloys. A fatigue model is being developed based upon the concepts of Path-Independent Integrals (PII) for describing cyclic crack growth under complex nonlinear response at the crack tip due to thermomechanical loading conditions. A micromechanistic oxidation crack extension model was derived. The models are described and discussed.

  17. Fatigue life prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Meyer, T. G.; Nelson, R. S.; Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    A major objective of the fatigue and fracture efforts under the NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) program was to significantly improve the analytic life prediction tools used by the aeronautical gas turbine engine industry. This was achieved in the areas of high-temperature thermal and mechanical fatigue of bare and coated high-temperature superalloys. The cyclic crack initiation and propagation resistance of nominally isotropic polycrystalline and highly anisotropic single crystal alloys were addressed. Life prediction modeling efforts were devoted to creep-fatigue interaction, oxidation, coatings interactions, multiaxiality of stress-strain states, mean stress effects, cumulative damage, and thermomechanical fatigue. The fatigue crack initiation life models developed to date include the Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) and the Total Strain Version of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) for nominally isotropic materials, and the Tensile Hysteretic Energy Model for anisotropic superalloys. A fatigue model is being developed based upon the concepts of Path-Independent Integrals (PII) for describing cyclic crack growth under complex nonlinear response at the crack tip due to thermomechanical loading conditions. A micromechanistic oxidation crack extension model was derived. The models are described and discussed.

  18. Fatigue loading of tendon

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jennifer H; Screen, Hazel R C

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries, often called tendinopathies, are debilitating and painful conditions, generally considered to develop as a result of tendon overuse. The aetiology of tendinopathy remains poorly understood, and whilst tendon biopsies have provided some information concerning tendon appearance in late-stage disease, there is still little information concerning the mechanical and cellular events associated with disease initiation and progression. Investigating this in situ is challenging, and numerous models have been developed to investigate how overuse may generate tendon fatigue damage and how this may relate to tendinopathy conditions. This article aims to review these models and our current understanding of tendon fatigue damage. We review the strengths and limitations of different methodologies for characterizing tendon fatigue, considering in vitro methods that adopt both viable and non-viable samples, as well as the range of different in vivo approaches. By comparing data across model systems, we review the current understanding of fatigue damage development. Additionally, we compare these findings with data from tendinopathic tissue biopsies to provide some insights into how these models may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. Fatigue-induced damage consistently highlights the same microstructural, biological and mechanical changes to the tendon across all model systems and also correlates well with the findings from tendinopathic biopsy tissue. The multiple testing routes support matrix damage as an important contributor to tendinopathic conditions, but cellular responses to fatigue appear complex and often contradictory. PMID:23837793

  19. Damage Accumulation in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yttria-Stabilized ZrO{sub 2} by Xe-Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I.V.; Gritsyna, V.T.; Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1999-04-25

    Magnesium-aluminate spinel (MAS) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) are being considered for use as ceramic matrices in proliferation resistant fuels and radioactive storage systems, and may be used either as individual entities or as constituents in multicomponent ceramic systems. It is worthwhile, therefore, to compare radiation damage in these two potentially important materials when subjected to similar irradiation conditions, e.g., ion beam irradiation. To compare radiation damage properties of these two materials, single crystals of spinel and zirconia were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup ++} ions at 120 K, and subsequently investigated by Rutherford backscattering and ion channeling (RBS/C), and optical absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that damage accumulation in both spinel and zirconia follow a three stage process: (1) very slow damage accumulation over a wide range of dose; (2) rapid changes in damage over a range of doses from about 0.25 to 25 displacements per atom (DPA); (3) slower damage accumulation at very high doses and possibly saturation. Optical absorption results indicate that F-centers form in Xe ion-irradiated spinel and that the concentration of these centers saturates at high dose. Absorption bands are also formed in both spinel and zirconia that are due to point defect complexes formed upon irradiation. These bands increase in intensity with increasing Xe dose, and, in the case of zirconia, without saturation. Finally the rate of change in intensity of these bands with increasing Xe dose, mimic the changes in damage observed by RBS/C with increasing dose.

  20. Self-Repairing Fatigue Damage in Metallic Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Using Shape Memory Alloy Self-healing (SMASH) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Brinson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This DAA is for the Phase II webinar presentation of the ARMD-funded SMASH technology. A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal matrix composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of low-melting phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a pre-determined temperature. Shape memory alloy wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to optimize and computer model the SMASH technology for aeronautical applications.

  1. Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.

    2013-03-01

    The fatigue process consists, from the engineering point of view, of three stages: crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and the final failure. It is also known that the fatigue process near notches and cracks is governed by local strains and stresses in the regions of maximum stress and strain concentrations. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth can be considered as a process of successive crack increments, and the fatigue crack initiation and subsequent growth can be modeled as one repetitive process. The assumptions mentioned above were used to derive a fatigue crack growth model based, called later as the UniGrow model, on the analysis of cyclic elastic-plastic stresses-strains near the crack tip. The fatigue crack growth rate was determined by simulating the cyclic stress-strain response in the material volume adjacent to the crack tip and calculating the accumulated fatigue damage in a manner similar to fatigue analysis of stationary notches. The fatigue crack growth driving force was derived on the basis of the stress and strain history at the crack tip and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue damage parameter, D = σmaxΔɛ/2. It was subsequently found that the fatigue crack growth was controlled by a two-parameter driving force in the form of a weighted product of the stress intensity range and the maximum stress intensity factor, Δ K p K {max/1- p }. The effect of the internal (residual) stress induced by the reversed cyclic plasticity has been accounted for and therefore the two-parameter driving force made it possible to predict the effect of the mean stress including the influence of the applied compressive stress, tensile overloads, and variable amplitude spectrum loading. It allows estimating the fatigue life under variable amplitude loading without using crack closure concepts. Several experimental fatigue crack growth datasets obtained for the Al 7075 aluminum alloy were used for the verification of the proposed unified fatigue crack growth

  2. Deep-water riser fatigue monitoring systems based on acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baojun; Wang, Haiyan; Shen, Xiaohong; Yan, Yongsheng; Yang, Fuzhou; Hua, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Marine risers play a key role in the deep and ultra-deep water oil and gas production. The vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of marine risers constitutes an important problem in deep water oil exploration and production. VIV will result in high rates of structural failure of marine riser due to fatigue damage accumulation and diminishes the riser fatigue life. In-service monitoring or full scale testing is essential to improve our understanding of VIV response and enhance our ability to predict fatigue damage. One marine riser fatigue acoustic telemetry scheme is proposed and an engineering prototype machine has been developed to monitor deep and ultra-deep water risers' fatigue and failure that can diminish the riser fatigue life and lead to economic losses and eco-catastrophe. Many breakthroughs and innovation have been achieved in the process of developing an engineering prototype machine. Sea trials were done on the 6th generation deep-water drilling platform HYSY-981 in the South China Sea. The inclination monitoring results show that the marine riser fatigue acoustic telemetry scheme is feasible and reliable and the engineering prototype machine meets the design criterion and can match the requirements of deep and ultra-deep water riser fatigue monitoring. The rich experience and field data gained in the sea trial which provide much technical support for optimization in the engineering prototype machine in the future.

  3. A computer program for cyclic plasticity and structural fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalev, I.

    1980-01-01

    A computerized tool for the analysis of time independent cyclic plasticity structural response, life to crack initiation prediction, and crack growth rate prediction for metallic materials is described. Three analytical items are combined: the finite element method with its associated numerical techniques for idealization of the structural component, cyclic plasticity models for idealization of the material behavior, and damage accumulation criteria for the fatigue failure.

  4. The analysis of fatigue crack growth mechanism and oxidation and fatigue life at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative models based on experimentally observed fatigue damage processes have been made: (1) a model of low cycle fatigue life based on fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic loading; and (2) a model of accelerated fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures based on grain boundary oxidation. These two quantitative models agree very well with the experimental observations.

  5. Creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue interactions in modified 9% Chromium - 1% Molybdenum (P91) steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanasundaram, Valliappa

    Grade P91 steel, from the class of advanced high-chrome ferritic steels, is one of the preferred materials for many elevated temperature structural components. Creep-fatigue (C-F) interactions, along with oxidation, can accelerate the kinetics of damage accumulation and consequently reduce such components' life. Hence, reliable C-F test data is required for meticulous consideration of C-F interactions and oxidation, which in turn is vital for sound design practices. It is also imperative to develop analytical constitutive models that can simulate and predict material response under various long-term in-service conditions using experimental data from short-term laboratory experiments. Consequently, the major objectives of the proposed research are to characterize the creep, fatigue and C-F behavior of grade P91 steels at 625 C and develop robust constitutive models for simulating/predicting their microstructural response under different loading conditions. This work will utilize experimental data from 16 laboratories worldwide that conducted tests (creep, fatigue and C-F) on grade P91 steel at 625°C in a round-robin (RR) program. Along with 7 creep deformation and rupture tests, 32 pure fatigue and 46 C-F tests from the RR are considered in this work. A phenomenological constitutive model formulated in this work needs just five fitting parameters to simulate/predict the monotonic, pure fatigue and C-F behavior of grade P91 at 625 C. A modified version of an existing constitutive model is also presented for particularly simulating its isothermal creep deformation and rupture behavior. Experimental results indicate that specimen C-F lives, as measured by the 2% load drop criterion, seem to decrease with increasing strain ranges and increasing hold times at 625°C. Metallographic assessment of the tested specimens shows that the damage mode in both pure fatigue and 600 seconds hold time cyclic tests is predominantly transgranular fatigue with some presence of

  6. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  7. Fault core and damage zone fracture attributes vary along strike owing to interaction of fracture growth, quartz accumulation, and differing sandstone composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, S. E.; Eichhubl, P.; Hargrove, P.; Ellis, M. A.; Hooker, J. N.

    2014-11-01

    Small, meter-to decimeter-displacement oblique-slip faults cut latest Precambrian lithic arkose to feldspathic litharenite and Cambrian quartz arenite sandstones in NW Scotland. Despite common slip and thermal histories during faulting, the two sandstone units have different fault-core and damage-zone attributes, including fracture length and aperture distributions, and location of quartz deposits. Fault cores are narrow (less than 1 m), low-porosity cataclasite in lithic arkose/feldspathic litharenites. Damage zone-parallel opening-mode fractures are long (meters or more) with narrow ranges of lengths and apertures, are mostly isolated, have sparse quartz cement, and are open. In contrast, quartz arenites, despite abundant quartz cement, have fault cores that contain porous breccia and dense, striated slip zones. Damage-zone fractures have lengths ranging from meters to centimeters or less, but with distributions skewed to short fractures, and have power-law aperture distributions. Owing to extensive quartz cement, they tend to be sealed. These attributes reflect inhibited authigenic quartz accumulation on feldspar and lithic grains, which are unfavorable precipitation substrates, and favored accumulation on detrital quartz. In quartz breccia, macropores >0.04 mm wide persist where surrounded by slow-growing euhedral quartz. Differences in quartz occurrence and size distributions are compatible with the hypothesis that cement deposits modify the probability of fracture reactivation. Existing fractures readily reactivate in focused growth where quartz accumulation is low and porosity high. Only some existing, partly cemented fractures reactivate and some deformation is manifest in new fracture formation in partitioned growth where quartz accumulation is high. Consequences include along-strike differences in permeability and locus of fluid flow between cores and damage zones and fault strength.

  8. Amifostine alleviates radiation-induced lethal small bowel damage via promotion of 14-3-3σ-mediated nuclear p53 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Fan; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, I-Hui; Huang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-10-30

    Amifostine (AM) is a radioprotector that scavenges free radicals and is used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. p53 has long been implicated in cell cycle arrest for cellular repair after radiation exposure. We therefore investigated the protective p53-dependent mechanism of AM on small bowel damage after lethal whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI). AM increased both the survival rate of rats and crypt survival following lethal 18 Gy WAI. The p53 inhibitor PFT-α compromised AM-mediated effects when administered prior to AM administration. AM significantly increased clonogenic survival in IEC-6 cells expressing wild type p53 but not in p53 knockdown cells. AM significantly increased p53 nuclear accumulation and p53 tetramer expression before irradiation through the inhibition of p53 degradation. AM inhibited p53 interactions with MDM2 but enhanced p53 interactions with 14-3-3σ. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ also compromised the effect of AM on clonogenic survival and p53 nuclear accumulation in IEC-6 cells. For the first time, our data reveal that AM alleviates lethal small bowel damage through the induction of 14-3-3σ and subsequent accumulation of p53. Enhancement of the p53/14-3-3σ interaction results in p53 tetramerization in the nucleus that rescues lethal small bowel damage. PMID:25230151

  9. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  10. The Effect of Ultrasonic Impact Treatment on the Fatigue Resistance of Friction Stir Welded Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodopoulos, C. A.; Pantelakis, Sp. G.; Papadopoulos, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    In this work, the results of an experimental study for assessing the effects of Ultrasonic Impact Treatment on the fatigue resistance of Friction Stir Welded aluminum alloy panels are presented. Although the significant compressive residual stress introduced on the material by ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) was expected to cause retardation in the crack growth rate, this was only noted at low initial Δ Κ values. At high Δ Κ values, the effect of UIT practically diminishes. The phenomenon was attributed to the relaxation/redistribution of the residual stresses with fatigue damage. This provides an alarming situation where damage tolerance design relies on models where only the initial residual stress profile is taken into account without knowledge of the potential re-distribution of the residual stresses caused by the fatigue damage accumulation. The findings of this work also indicate that any FCG tests performed can only be considered as case-specific and conclusions can only be drawn for the case studied.

  11. A procedure for utilization of a damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the procedure for utilizing a damage constitutive model to predict progressive damage growth in laminated composites. In this model, the effects of the internal damage are represented by strain-like second order tensorial damage variables and enter the analysis through damage dependent ply level and laminate level constitutive equations. The growth of matrix cracks due to fatigue loading is predicted by an experimentally based damage evolutionary relationship. This model is incorporated into a computer code called FLAMSTR. This code is capable of predicting the constitutive response and matrix crack damage accumulation in fatigue loaded laminated composites. The structure and usage of FLAMSTR are presented along with sample input and output files to assist the code user. As an example problem, an analysis of crossply laminates subjected to two stage fatigue loading was conducted and the resulting damage accumulation and stress redistribution were examined to determine the effect of variations in fatigue load amplitude applied during the first stage of the load history. It was found that the model predicts a significant loading history effect on damage evolution.

  12. A study of elevated temperature testing techniques for the fatigue behavior of PMCS: Application to T650-35/AMB21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gastelli, Michael G.; Ellis, John R.; Burke, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of a T650-35/AMB21 eight-harness satin weave polymer composite system. Emphasis was placed on the development and refinement of techniques used in elevated temperature uniaxial PMC testing. Issues such as specimen design, gripping, strain measurement, and temperature control and measurement were addressed. Quasi-static tensile and fatigue properties (R(sub sigma) = 0.1) were examined at room and elevated temperatures. Stiffness degradation and strain accumulation during fatigue cycling were recorded to monitor damage progression and provide insight for future analytical modeling efforts. Accomplishments included an untabbed dog-bone specimen design which consistently failed in the gage section, accurate temperature control and assessment, and continuous in-situ strain measurement capability during fatigue loading at elevated temperatures. Finally, strain accumulation and stiffness degradation during fatigue cycling appeared to be good indicators of damage progression.

  13. Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Vito; Nissley, David; Lin, Li-Sen Jim

    1985-01-01

    The first two years of a two-phase program aimed at improving the high temperature crack initiation life prediction technology for gas turbine hot section components are discussed. In Phase 1 (baseline) effort, low cycle fatigue (LCF) models, using a data base generated for a cast nickel base gas turbine hot section alloy (B1900+Hf), were evaluated for their ability to predict the crack initiation life for relevant creep-fatigue loading conditions and to define data required for determination of model constants. The variables included strain range and rate, mean strain, strain hold times and temperature. None of the models predicted all of the life trends within reasonable data requirements. A Cycle Damage Accumulation (CDA) was therefore developed which follows an exhaustion of material ductility approach. Material ductility is estimated based on observed similarities of deformation structure between fatigue, tensile and creep tests. The cycle damage function is based on total strain range, maximum stress and stress amplitude and includes both time independent and time dependent components. The CDA model accurately predicts all of the trends in creep-fatigue life with loading conditions. In addition, all of the CDA model constants are determinable from rapid cycle, fully reversed fatigue tests and monotonic tensile and/or creep data.

  14. Fatigue In Continuous-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experimental approaches to quantification of fatigue damage in metal-matrix composites (MMC's). Discusses number of examples of development of damage and failure along with associated analytical models of behavior of MMC. Objectives of report are twofold. First, present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting meaningful fatigue tests to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC's. Second, present examples of how fatigue damage initiated and grows in various MMC's. Report furnishes some insight into what type of fatigue damage occurs and how damage quantified.

  15. Computer simulation of fatigue under diametrical compression

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, H. A.; Kun, F.; Andrade, J. S. Jr.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-04-15

    We study the fatigue fracture of disordered materials by means of computer simulations of a discrete element model. We extend a two-dimensional fracture model to capture the microscopic mechanisms relevant for fatigue and we simulate the diametric compression of a disc shape specimen under a constant external force. The model allows us to follow the development of the fracture process on the macrolevel and microlevel varying the relative influence of the mechanisms of damage accumulation over the load history and healing of microcracks. As a specific example we consider recent experimental results on the fatigue fracture of asphalt. Our numerical simulations show that for intermediate applied loads the lifetime of the specimen presents a power law behavior. Under the effect of healing, more prominent for small loads compared to the tensile strength of the material, the lifetime of the sample increases and a fatigue limit emerges below which no macroscopic failure occurs. The numerical results are in a good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings.

  16. NASA GRC Fatigue Crack Initiation Life Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

    2002-01-01

    Metal fatigue has plagued structural components for centuries, and it remains a critical durability issue in today's aerospace hardware. This is true despite vastly improved and advanced materials, increased mechanistic understanding, and development of accurate structural analysis and advanced fatigue life prediction tools. Each advance is quickly taken advantage of to produce safer, more reliable, more cost effective, and better performing products. In other words, as the envelope is expanded, components are then designed to operate just as close to the newly expanded envelope as they were to the initial one. The problem is perennial. The economic importance of addressing structural durability issues early in the design process is emphasized. Tradeoffs with performance, cost, and legislated restrictions are pointed out. Several aspects of structural durability of advanced systems, advanced materials and advanced fatigue life prediction methods are presented. Specific items include the basic elements of durability analysis, conventional designs, barriers to be overcome for advanced systems, high-temperature life prediction for both creep-fatigue and thermomechanical fatigue, mean stress effects, multiaxial stress-strain states, and cumulative fatigue damage accumulation assessment.

  17. A Primer In Advanced Fatigue Life Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Metal fatigue has plagued structural components for centuries, and it remains a critical durability issue in today's aerospace hardware. This is true despite vastly improved and advanced materials, increased mechanistic understanding, and development of accurate structural analysis and advanced fatigue life prediction tools. Each advance is quickly taken advantage of to produce safer, more reliable more cost effective, and better performing products. In other words, as the envelop is expanded, components are then designed to operate just as close to the newly expanded envelop as they were to the initial one. The problem is perennial. The economic importance of addressing structural durability issues early in the design process is emphasized. Tradeoffs with performance, cost, and legislated restrictions are pointed out. Several aspects of structural durability of advanced systems, advanced materials and advanced fatigue life prediction methods are presented. Specific items include the basic elements of durability analysis, conventional designs, barriers to be overcome for advanced systems, high-temperature life prediction for both creep-fatigue and thermomechanical fatigue, mean stress effects, multiaxial stress-strain states, and cumulative fatigue damage accumulation assessment.

  18. Reduced Order Methods for Prediction of Thermal-Acoustic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, A.; Rizzi, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to assess the quality of high-cycle-fatigue life estimation via a reduced order method, for structures undergoing random nonlinear vibrations in a presence of thermal loading. Modal reduction is performed with several different suites of basis functions. After numerically solving the reduced order system equations of motion, the physical displacement time history is obtained by an inverse transformation and stresses are recovered. Stress ranges obtained through the rainflow counting procedure are used in a linear damage accumulation method to yield fatigue estimates. Fatigue life estimates obtained using various basis functions in the reduced order method are compared with those obtained from numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom.

  19. Exceptional high fatigue strength in Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Tian, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhenjun; An, Xianghai; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhefeng

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that the fatigue strength can be enhanced by increasing the tensile strength, but this conclusion needs to be reconsidered according to our study. Here a recrystallized α-Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size of 0.62 μm was fabricated by cold rolling and annealing, and this alloy achieved exceptional high fatigue strength of 280 MPa at 107 cycles. This value is much higher than the fatigue strength of 200 MPa for the nano-crystalline counterpart (0.04 μm in grain size) despite its higher tensile strength. The remarkable improvement of fatigue strength should be mainly attributed to the microstructure optimization, which helps achieve the reduction of initial damage and the dispersion of accumulated damage. A new strategy of “damage reduction” was then proposed for fatigue strength improvement, to supplement the former strengthening principle. The methods and strategies summarized in this work offer a general pathway for further improvement of fatigue strength, in order to ensure the long-term safety of structural materials. PMID:27264347

  20. Exceptional high fatigue strength in Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Tian, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhenjun; An, Xianghai; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhefeng

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that the fatigue strength can be enhanced by increasing the tensile strength, but this conclusion needs to be reconsidered according to our study. Here a recrystallized α-Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size of 0.62 μm was fabricated by cold rolling and annealing, and this alloy achieved exceptional high fatigue strength of 280 MPa at 10(7) cycles. This value is much higher than the fatigue strength of 200 MPa for the nano-crystalline counterpart (0.04 μm in grain size) despite its higher tensile strength. The remarkable improvement of fatigue strength should be mainly attributed to the microstructure optimization, which helps achieve the reduction of initial damage and the dispersion of accumulated damage. A new strategy of "damage reduction" was then proposed for fatigue strength improvement, to supplement the former strengthening principle. The methods and strategies summarized in this work offer a general pathway for further improvement of fatigue strength, in order to ensure the long-term safety of structural materials. PMID:27264347

  1. Exceptional high fatigue strength in Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Tian, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhenjun; An, Xianghai; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhefeng

    2016-06-01

    It is commonly proposed that the fatigue strength can be enhanced by increasing the tensile strength, but this conclusion needs to be reconsidered according to our study. Here a recrystallized α-Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size of 0.62 μm was fabricated by cold rolling and annealing, and this alloy achieved exceptional high fatigue strength of 280 MPa at 107 cycles. This value is much higher than the fatigue strength of 200 MPa for the nano-crystalline counterpart (0.04 μm in grain size) despite its higher tensile strength. The remarkable improvement of fatigue strength should be mainly attributed to the microstructure optimization, which helps achieve the reduction of initial damage and the dispersion of accumulated damage. A new strategy of “damage reduction” was then proposed for fatigue strength improvement, to supplement the former strengthening principle. The methods and strategies summarized in this work offer a general pathway for further improvement of fatigue strength, in order to ensure the long-term safety of structural materials.

  2. A Novel Approach to Rotorcraft Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Everett, Richard A.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Damage-tolerance methodology is positioned to replace safe-life methodologies for designing rotorcraft structures. The argument for implementing a damage-tolerance method comes from the fundamental fact that rotorcraft structures typically fail by fatigue cracking. Therefore, if technology permits prediction of fatigue-crack growth in structures, a damage-tolerance method should deliver the most accurate prediction of component life. Implementing damage-tolerance (DT) into high-cycle-fatigue (HCF) components will require a shift from traditional DT methods that rely on detecting an initial flaw with nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. The rapid accumulation of cycles in a HCF component will result in a design based on a traditional DT method that is either impractical because of frequent inspections, or because the design will be too heavy to operate efficiently. Furthermore, once a HCF component develops a detectable propagating crack, the remaining fatigue life is short, sometimes less than one flight hour, which does not leave sufficient time for inspection. Therefore, designing a HCF component will require basing the life analysis on an initial flaw that is undetectable with current NDI technology.

  3. GSTP1 Loss Results in Accumulation of Oxidative DNA Base Damage and Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell Survival Following Exposure to Protracted Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Omar Y.; Khattab, Mohamed H.; Hedayati, Mohammad; Coulter, Jonathan; Abubaker-Sharif, Budri; Schwaninger, Julie M.; Veeraswamy, Ravi K.; Brooks, James D.; Hopkins, Lisa; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Cornblatt, Brian; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase π (GSTP1) is a hallmark of transformation from normal prostatic epithelium to adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The functional significance of this loss is incompletely understood. The present study explores the effects of restored GSTP1 expression on glutathione levels, accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, and prostate cancer cell survival following oxidative stress induced by protracted, low dose rate ionizing radiation (LDR). METHODS GSTP1 protein expression was stably restored in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The effect of GSTP1 restoration on protracted LDR-induced oxidative DNA damage was measured by GC-MS quantitation of modified bases. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels were measured in control and GSTP1 expressing populations. Clonogenic survival studies of GSTP1-transfected LNCaP cells after exposure to protracted LDR were performed. Global gene expression profiling and pathway analysis were performed. RESULTS GSTP1 expressing cells accumulated less oxidized DNA base damage and exhibited decreased survival compared to control LNCaP-Neo cells following oxidative injury induced by protracted LDR. Restoration of GSTP1 expression resulted in changes in modified glutathione levels that correlated with GSTP1 protein levels in response to protracted LDR-induced oxidative stress. Survival differences were not attributable to depletion of cellular glutathione stores. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis following GSTP1 restoration suggests this protein plays a key role in regulating prostate cancer cell survival. CONCLUSIONS The ubiquitous epigenetic silencing of GSTP1 in prostate cancer results in enhanced survival and accumulation of potentially promutagenic DNA adducts following exposure of cells to protracted oxidative injury suggesting a protective, anti-neoplastic function of GSTP1. The present work provides mechanistic backing to the tumor suppressor function of GSTP1 and its role in

  4. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhao, Yuxia; Li, Ran; Ge, Jie; Qiu, Xinghua; Li, Guang

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  5. Prevention of DNA damage by L-carnitine induced by metabolites accumulated in maple syrup urine disease in human peripheral leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mescka, Caroline Paula; Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Guerreiro, Gilian; Manfredini, Vanusa; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2014-09-15

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity that leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine (Leu), isoleucine, and valine and their respective α-keto-acids, α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), α keto-β-methylvaleric acid, and α-ketoisovaleric acid. The major clinical features presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, failure to thrive, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation; however, the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. MSUD treatment consists of a low protein diet supplemented with a mixture containing micronutrients and essential amino acids but excluding BCAAs. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the neuropathology of MSUD, with the existence of lipid and protein oxidative damage in affected patients. In recent years, studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of L-carnitine (L-Car), which plays a central function in cellular energy metabolism and for which MSUD patients have a deficiency. In this work, we investigated the in vitro effect of Leu and KIC in the presence or absence of L-Car on DNA damage in peripheral whole blood leukocytes using the alkaline comet assay with silver staining and visual scoring. Leu and KIC resulted in a DNA damage index that was significantly higher than that of the control group, and L-Car was able to significantly prevent this damage, mainly that due to KIC. PMID:25046137

  6. Nitinol Fatigue Life for Variable Strain Amplitude Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Pike, K.; Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Draper, J.

    2012-12-01

    Nitinol fatigue testing results are presented for variable strain amplitude cycling. The results indicate that cycles smaller than the constant amplitude fatigue limit may contribute to significant fatigue damage when they occur in a repeating sequence of large and small amplitude cycles. The testing utilized two specimen types: stent-like diamond specimens and Z-shaped wire specimens. The diamond specimens were made from nitinol tubing with stent-like manufacturing processes and the Z-shaped wire specimens were made from heat set nitinol wire. The study explored the hypothesis that duty cycling can have an effect on nitinol fatigue life. Stent-like structures were subjected to different in vivo loadings in order to create more complex strain amplitudes. The main focus in this study was to determine whether a combination of small and large amplitudes causes additional damage that alters the fatigue life of a component.

  7. Crepidiastrum denticulatum Extract Protects the Liver Against Chronic Alcohol-Induced Damage and Fat Accumulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Hye; Kang, Kyungsu; Yun, Ji Ho; Kim, Mi Ae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol is a severe hepatotoxicant that causes liver abnormalities such as steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Crepidiastrum denticulatum (CD) is a well-known, traditionally consumed vegetable in Korea, which was recently reported to have bioactive compounds with detoxification and antioxidant properties. In this study, we report the hepatoprotective effect of CD extract against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage in vivo. The rats that were given CD extract exhibited decreased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, which are liver damage markers that are typically elevated by alcohol consumption. The results were confirmed by histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Chronic alcohol consumption induced the formation of alcoholic fatty liver. However, treatment with CD extract dramatically decreased the hepatic lipid droplets. Treatment with CD extract also restored the antioxidative capacity and lipid peroxidation of the liver that had been changed by alcohol consumption. Furthermore, treatment with CD extract normalized the activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, which had been decreased by alcohol consumption. The results indicate that CD extract has protective effects against chronic alcohol hepatotoxicity in rats by increasing the liver's antioxidant capacity, and has potential as a dietary supplement intervention for patients with alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID:24650230

  8. X ray attenuation measurements for high-temperature materials characterization and in-situ monitoring of damage accumulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of this dissertation is to develop and apply x ray attenuation measurement systems that are capable of: (1) characterizing density variations in high-temperature materials, e.g., monolithic ceramics, ceramic and intermetallic matrix composites, and (2) noninvasively monitoring damage accumulation and failure sequences in ceramic matrix composites under room temperature tensile testing. This dissertation results in the development of: (1) a point scan digital radiography system, and (2) an in-situ x ray material testing system. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading shows the effect of preexisting volume flaws on the fracture behavior of composites. Results show that x ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulation during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber matrix debonding, fiber bridging, and fiber pullout are imaged throughout the tensile loading of the specimens. Further in-situ radiography is found to be a practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the silicon carbide fibers and the reaction bonded silicon nitride matrix. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post test x ray imaging can provide for greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior.

  9. Municipal landfill leachate-induced testicular oxidative damage is associated with biometal accumulation and endocrine disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Awogbindin, Ifeoluwa O; Adesina, Adebayo A; Oyebiyi, Oluwatosin O; Lawal, Tajudeen A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-01-01

    Improper management of hazardous wastes adversely impacts the environment and the public health. The present study was aimed at investigating the influence of Olushosun municipal landfill leachate (OMLL) from Ojota in the Lagos State of Nigeria on testicular function by assessing the plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones, testicular biometal levels, and antioxidant levels as well as observing the histological alterations in testes and epididymides of rats after exposure to 0, 12.5, and 25% OMLL in drinking water for 7 days. Exposure to OMLL significantly decreased the daily fluid intake, but it resulted in testicular biometal accumulation as follows: lead > cadmium > nickel > iron > copper. Acute exposure to OMLL induced oxidative stress and increased the activities of marker enzymes of testicular function but markedly decreased the circulatory concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Testicular and epididymal degeneration with significant decrease in sperm quality and quantity were observed in OMLL-exposed rats. Collectively, the data presented herein indicate that exposure to OMLL-induced testicular dysfunction associated with biometal accumulation and endocrine disruption in rats. If the effects can be extrapolated to humans, OMLL may present significant health implications for individuals exposed to OMLL-contaminated substances. PMID:25179371

  10. Gear Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify, when using an oil debris sensor, that accumulated mass predicts gear pitting damage and to identify a method to set threshold limits for damaged gears. Oil debris data was collected from 8 experiments with no damage and 8 with pitting damage in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. Oil debris feature analysis was performed on this data. Video images of damage progression were also collected from 6 of the experiments with pitting damage. During each test, data from an oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of pitting damage. The data measured from the oil debris sensor during experiments with damage and with no damage was used to identify membership functions to build a simple fuzzy logic model. Using fuzzy logic techniques and the oil debris data, threshold limits were defined that discriminate between stages of pitting wear. Results indicate accumulated mass combined with fuzzy logic analysis techniques is a good predictor of pitting damage on spur gears.

  11. Magnolia extract (BL153) protection of heart from lipid accumulation caused cardiac oxidative damage, inflammation, and cell death in high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weixia; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Qiang; Yin, Xia; Fu, Yaowen; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-01-01

    Magnolia as an herbal material obtained from Magnolia officinalis has been found to play an important role in anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and antiapoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Magnolia extract (BL153) on obesity-associated lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the heart. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low- (10 kcal% fat) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet for 24 weeks to induce obesity. These mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) were given a gavage of vehicle, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight BL153 daily. The three doses of BL153 treatment slightly ameliorated insulin resistance without decrease of body weight gain induced by HFD feeding. BL153 at 10 mg/kg slightly attenuated a mild cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by HFD feeding. Both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of BL153 treatment significantly inhibited cardiac lipid accumulation measured by Oil Red O staining and improved cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress by downregulating ICAM-1, TNF-α, PAI-1, 3-NT, and 4-HNE. TUNEL staining showed that BL153 treatment also ameliorated apoptosis induced by mitochondrial caspase-3 independent cell death pathway. This study demonstrates that BL153 attenuates HFD-associated cardiac damage through prevention of HFD-induced cardiac lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PMID:24693333

  12. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lodeyro, Anabella F.; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O.; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M.; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin. PMID:27441560

  13. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Lodeyro, Anabella F; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin. PMID:27441560

  14. Low doses of ultraviolet radiation and oxidative damage induce dramatic accumulation of mitochondrial DNA replication intermediates, fork regression, and replication initiation shift

    PubMed Central

    Torregrosa-Muñumer, Rubén; Goffart, Steffi; Haikonen, Juha A.; Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L. O.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is prone to damage by various intrinsic as well as environmental stressors. DNA damage can in turn cause problems for replication, resulting in replication stalling and double-strand breaks, which are suspected to be the leading cause of pathological mtDNA rearrangements. In this study, we exposed cells to subtle levels of oxidative stress or UV radiation and followed their effects on mtDNA maintenance. Although the damage did not influence mtDNA copy number, we detected a massive accumulation of RNA:DNA hybrid–containing replication intermediates, followed by an increase in cruciform DNA molecules, as well as in bidirectional replication initiation outside of the main replication origin, OH. Our results suggest that mitochondria maintain two different types of replication as an adaptation to different cellular environments; the RNA:DNA hybrid–involving replication mode maintains mtDNA integrity in tissues with low oxidative stress, and the potentially more error tolerant conventional strand-coupled replication operates when stress is high. PMID:26399294

  15. Accumulation of Free Oligosaccharides and Tissue Damage in Cytosolic α-Mannosidase (Man2c1)-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paciotti, Silvia; Persichetti, Emanuele; Klein, Katharina; Tasegian, Anna; Duvet, Sandrine; Hartmann, Dieter; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Beccari, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Free Man7–9GlcNAc2 is released during the biosynthesis pathway of N-linked glycans or from misfolded glycoproteins during the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation process and are reduced to Man5GlcNAc in the cytosol. In this form, free oligosaccharides can be transferred into the lysosomes to be degraded completely. α-Mannosidase (MAN2C1) is the enzyme responsible for the partial demannosylation occurring in the cytosol. It has been demonstrated that the inhibition of MAN2C1 expression induces accumulation of Man8–9GlcNAc oligosaccharides and apoptosis in vitro. We investigated the consequences caused by the lack of cytosolic α-mannosidase activity in vivo by the generation of Man2c1-deficient mice. Increased amounts of Man8–9GlcNAc oligosaccharides were recognized in all analyzed KO tissues. Histological analysis of the CNS revealed neuronal and glial degeneration with formation of multiple vacuoles in deep neocortical layers and major telencephalic white matter tracts. Enterocytes of the small intestine accumulate mannose-containing saccharides and glycogen particles in their apical cytoplasm as well as large clear vacuoles in retronuclear position. Liver tissue is characterized by groups of hepatocytes with increased content of mannosyl compounds and glycogen, some of them undergoing degeneration by hydropic swelling. In addition, lectin screening showed the presence of mannose-containing saccharides in the epithelium of proximal kidney tubules, whereas scattered glomeruli appeared collapsed or featured signs of fibrosis along Bowman's capsule. Except for a moderate enrichment of mannosyl compounds and glycogen, heterozygous mice were normal, arguing against possible toxic effects of truncated Man2c1. These findings confirm the key role played by Man2c1 in the catabolism of free oligosaccharides. PMID:24550399

  16. Thermomechanical Fatigue of Ductile Cast Iron and Its Life Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Sloss, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behaviors of ductile cast iron (DCI) were investigated under out-of-phase (OP), in-phase (IP), and constrained strain-control conditions with temperature hold in various temperature ranges: 573 K to 1073 K, 723 K to 1073 K, and 433 K to 873 K (300 °C to 800 °C, 450 °C to 800 °C, and 160 °C to 600 °C). The integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) model was incorporated into the finite element method to simulate the hysteresis behavior and predict the TMF life of DCI under those test conditions. With the consideration of four deformation/damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement, (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation, as revealed from the previous study on low cycle fatigue of the material, the model delineates the contributions of these physical mechanisms in the asymmetrical hysteresis behavior and the damage accumulation process leading to final TMF failure. This study shows that the ICFT model can simulate the stress-strain response and life of DCI under complex TMF loading profiles (OP and IP, and constrained with temperature hold).

  17. Microdamage Caused by Fatigue Loading in Human Cancellous Bone: Relationship to Reductions in Bone Biomechanical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lambers, Floor M.; Bouman, Amanda R.; Rimnac, Clare M.; Hernandez, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis are often the result of tissue damage accumulated over time. Microscopic tissue damage (microdamage) generated in vivo is believed to be a mechanically relevant aspect of bone quality that may contribute to fracture risk. Although the presence of microdamage in bone tissue has been documented, the relationship between loading, microdamage accumulation and mechanical failure is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to determine how microdamage accumulates in human vertebral cancellous bone subjected to cyclic fatigue loading. Cancellous bone cores (n = 32) from the third lumbar vertebra of 16 donors (10 male, 6 female, age 76±8.8, mean ± SD) were subjected to compressive cyclic loading at σ/E0 = 0.0035 (where σ is stress and E0 is the initial Young’s modulus). Cyclic loading was suspended before failure at one of seven different amounts of loading and specimens were stained for microdamage using lead uranyl acetate. Damage volume fraction (DV/BV) varied from 0.8±0.5% (no loading) to 3.4±2.1% (fatigue-loaded to complete failure) and was linearly related to the reductions in Young’s modulus caused by fatigue loading (r2 = 0.60, p<0.01). The relationship between reductions in Young’s modulus and proportion of fatigue life was nonlinear and suggests that most microdamage generation occurs late in fatigue loading, during the tertiary phase. Our results indicate that human vertebral cancellous bone tissue with a DV/BV of 1.5% is expected to have, on average, a Young’s modulus 31% lower than the same tissue without microdamage and is able to withstand 92% fewer cycles before failure than the same tissue without microdamage. Hence, even small amounts of microscopic tissue damage in human vertebral cancellous bone may have large effects on subsequent biomechanical performance. PMID:24386247

  18. Multiscale Fatigue Life Prediction for Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue life prediction capabilities have been incorporated into the HyperSizer Composite Analysis and Structural Sizing Software. The fatigue damage model is introduced at the fiber/matrix constituent scale through HyperSizer s coupling with NASA s MAC/GMC micromechanics software. This enables prediction of the micro scale damage progression throughout stiffened and sandwich panels as a function of cycles leading ultimately to simulated panel failure. The fatigue model implementation uses a cycle jumping technique such that, rather than applying a specified number of additional cycles, a specified local damage increment is specified and the number of additional cycles to reach this damage increment is calculated. In this way, the effect of stress redistribution due to damage-induced stiffness change is captured, but the fatigue simulations remain computationally efficient. The model is compared to experimental fatigue life data for two composite facesheet/foam core sandwich panels, demonstrating very good agreement.

  19. The role of microstructural variability on the very high cycle fatigue lifetime variability of the alpha + beta titanium alloy, Ti-6246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanski, Christopher J.

    2008-12-01

    The fatigue behavior of structural components in the regime of very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) (106-109 cycles) has been attracting increased commercial interest as components are increasingly being called upon to perform in this regime of lifetimes. In VHCF, the applied stresses relative to the yield stress are very low. Therefore, it is presumed that a substantial portion of fatigue lifetime is consumed by the fatigue crack initiation process, and that cyclic plasticity only accumulates in microstructural neighborhoods that are susceptible to fatigue damage accumulation. Thus, microstructural heterogeneity is believed to significantly effect the fatigue lifetime variability. The very high cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-6246 has been investigated using ultrasonic fatigue techniques, and lifetimes ranging from 10 6-109 cycles have been observed. Fatigue cracks initiate by facet formation within alphap grains. It has been found that the facets form in grains that are slightly larger than average and that the facets appear to form by a process of slip since the facet plane normals are oriented approximately 35-55° with respect to the tensile axis. Three characteristic fatigue crack initiation sites have been identified. These initiation sites, ranked in order of increasing fatigue resistance are: surface, subsurface with isolated facets, and subsurface with contiguous transgranular faceting. The texture of the material in these initiation regions is favorable for basal and prism slip. This texture is derived from the prior beta texture, and a mechanism of fatigue crack initiation resulting from strain incompatibility has been proposed. Fatigue crack growth experiments have been completed to measure the influence of local texture on the ease of fatigue crack initiation and the resulting fatigue crack growth rates. These experiments have found that the controlling microstructural dimension is on the order of 20-25 mum. The texture appears to affect initiation of fatigue

  20. The role of root damage in the chelate-enhanced accumulation of lead by Indian mustard plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunling; Shen, Zhenguo; Li, Xiangdong; Baker, Alan J M

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, increasing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) concentration from 0 to 0.5 mmol L(-1) resulted in progressive increases in root elongation and in shoot and root dry matter (DM) of Indian mustard seedlings (Brassica juncea. L.) exposed at 0.5 mmol L(-1) of lead (Pb). The highest concentration of Pb in the shoots of Indian mustard reached 1140 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) in the treatment with 0.5 mmol L(-1) of Pb + 0.25 mmol L(-1) of EDTA. A significantly positive correlation was found between the concentrations of Pb and EDTA in the shoots of mustard. Roots were pretreated with an MC (methanol:trichloromethane) solution, 0.1 mol L(-1) of HCl, and 65 degrees C hot water. The plants were then exposed to 0.5 mmol L(-1) of Pb + 3 mmol L(-1) of EDTA in solution for 2 d. The pretreatments with MC, HCl, and hot water all increased the concentration of Pb in shoots by 14-, 7-, and 15-fold, respectively, compared with the shoots that had not been pretreated. Therefore, some physiological damage to roots would be useful to enhance the uptake of metal by plants and to minimize the application of doses of chelates in the practical operation of chelate-assisted phytoremediation. PMID:17305306

  1. Damage accumulation in advanced metal-matrix composites under thermal cycling. Final report, 1 Oct 87-15 Oct 90

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, M.; Ramulu, M.; Armstrong, W.; Dunn, M.

    1991-02-25

    This research investigates the response to thermal cycling of a set of W-1%THO2 reinforced Fe-25CR-8Al-50Y superalloy matrix composites. During this research, unique composite materials were produced by powder metallurgical processing. These materials were three aligned composites of differing reinforcement aspect ratio, and a hierarchic composite which included fine diameter Al2O3 fibers. After hot isostatic pressing processing, specimen blanks were cut from the HIP billets by abrasive water jets after which specimens were turned using a conventional engine lathe. The specimens were then thermal sprayed with an oxidation resistant FeCrAlY coating identical to the matrix material. The specimens were then thermal cycled between 1100 C and 352 c and between 1100 C and 534 C for 100,500, or 750 cycles on a specially built thermal cycling machine. The dimensional change of each specimen was measured. It was found that the initial longitudinal growth per thermal cycle was small. After many thermal cycles however the longitudinal growth per thermal cycle became much larger. A severe growth of fiber-matrix interfacial damage was documented with scanning electron microscopy. The growth of two interfacial reaction phases was determined with a KEVEX dispersive x-ray analysis. The mechanical properties of the interfacial material were investigated with a Vickers microhardness test. Finally, the basic mechanical response of the material was investigated with room temperature tensile testing.

  2. Aspartic Acid Racemization and Collagen Degradation Markers Reveal an Accumulation of Damage in Tendon Collagen That Is Enhanced with Aging*

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Streeter, Ian; Pinchbeck, Gina L.; Goodship, Allen E.; Clegg, Peter D.; Birch, Helen L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the rate at which protein turnover occurs in living tendon and whether the rate differs between tendons with different physiological roles. In this study, we have quantified the racemization of aspartic acid to calculate the age of the collagenous and non-collagenous components of the high strain injury-prone superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and low strain rarely injured common digital extensor tendon (CDET) in a group of horses with a wide age range. In addition, the turnover of collagen was assessed indirectly by measuring the levels of collagen degradation markers (collagenase-generated neoepitope and cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen). The fractional increase in d-Asp was similar (p = 0.7) in the SDFT (5.87 × 10−4/year) and CDET (5.82 × 10−4/year) tissue, and d/l-Asp ratios showed a good correlation with pentosidine levels. We calculated a mean (±S.E.) collagen half-life of 197.53 (±18.23) years for the SDFT, which increased significantly with horse age (p = 0.03) and was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that for the CDET (34.03 (±3.39) years). Using similar calculations, the half-life of non-collagenous protein was 2.18 (±0.41) years in the SDFT and was significantly (p = 0.04) lower than the value of 3.51 (±0.51) years for the CDET. Collagen degradation markers were higher in the CDET and suggested an accumulation of partially degraded collagen within the matrix with aging in the SDFT. We propose that increased susceptibility to injury in older individuals results from an inability to remove partially degraded collagen from the matrix leading to reduced mechanical competence. PMID:20308077

  3. Role of heat accumulation in the multi-shot damage of silicon irradiated with femtosecond XUV pulses at a 1 MHz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Sobierajski, Ryszard; Jacyna, Iwanna; Dłużewski, Piotr; Klepka, Marcin T; Klinger, Dorota; Pełka, Jerzy B; Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor; Saksl, Karel; Vozda, Vojtěch; Makhotkin, Igor; Louis, Eric; Faatz, Bart; Tiedtke, Kai; Toleikis, Sven; Enkisch, Hartmut; Hermann, Martin; Strobel, Sebastian; Loch, Rolf A; Chalupsky, Jaromir

    2016-07-11

    The role played by heat accumulation in multi-shot damage of silicon was studied. Bulk silicon samples were exposed to intense XUV monochromatic radiation of a 13.5 nm wavelength in a series of 400 femtosecond pulses, repeated with a 1 MHz rate (pulse trains) at the FLASH facility in Hamburg. The observed surface morphological and structural modifications are formed as a result of sample surface melting. Modifications are threshold dependent on the mean fluence of the incident pulse train, with all threshold values in the range of approximately 36-40 mJ/cm2. Experimental data is supported by a theoretical model described by the heat diffusion equation. The threshold for reaching the melting temperature (45 mJ/cm2) and liquid state (54 mJ/cm2), estimated from this model, is in accordance with experimental values within measurement error. The model indicates a significant role of heat accumulation in surface modification processes. PMID:27410821

  4. Beneficial effect of diosgenin as a stimulator of NGF on the brain with neuronal damage induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and neurotoxicant injection

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eun-Ji; Jee, Seung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the beneficial effects of diosgenin (DG) on the multiple types of brain damage induced by Aβ-42 peptides and neurotoxicants, alterations in the specific aspects of brain functions were measured in trimethyltin (TMT)-injected transgenic 2576 (TG) mice that had been pretreated with DG for 21 days. Multiple types of damage were successfully induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and TMT injection into the brains of TG mice. However, DG treatment significantly reduced the number of Aβ-stained plaques and dead cells in the granule cells layer of the dentate gyrus. Significant suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Bax/Bcl-2 expression was also observed in the DG treated TG mice (TG+DG group) when compared with those of the vehicle (VC) treated TG mice (TG+VC group). Additionally, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) was dramatically enhanced in TG+DG group, although it was lower in the TG+VC group than the non-transgenic (nTG) group. Furthermore, the decreased phosphorylation of downstream members in the TrkA high affinity receptor signaling pathway in the TG+VC group was significantly recovered in the TG+DG group. A similar pattern was observed in p75NTR expression and JNK phosphorylation in the NGF low affinity receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced in the TG+DG group, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was lower in the TG+DG group than the TG+VC group. These results suggest that DG could exert a wide range of beneficial activities for multiple types of brain damage through stimulation of NGF biosynthesis. PMID:27382379

  5. Beneficial effect of diosgenin as a stimulator of NGF on the brain with neuronal damage induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and neurotoxicant injection.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eun-Ji; Jee, Seung-Wan; Bae, Chang-Joon; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the beneficial effects of diosgenin (DG) on the multiple types of brain damage induced by Aβ-42 peptides and neurotoxicants, alterations in the specific aspects of brain functions were measured in trimethyltin (TMT)-injected transgenic 2576 (TG) mice that had been pretreated with DG for 21 days. Multiple types of damage were successfully induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and TMT injection into the brains of TG mice. However, DG treatment significantly reduced the number of Aβ-stained plaques and dead cells in the granule cells layer of the dentate gyrus. Significant suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Bax/Bcl-2 expression was also observed in the DG treated TG mice (TG+DG group) when compared with those of the vehicle (VC) treated TG mice (TG+VC group). Additionally, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) was dramatically enhanced in TG+DG group, although it was lower in the TG+VC group than the non-transgenic (nTG) group. Furthermore, the decreased phosphorylation of downstream members in the TrkA high affinity receptor signaling pathway in the TG+VC group was significantly recovered in the TG+DG group. A similar pattern was observed in p75(NTR) expression and JNK phosphorylation in the NGF low affinity receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced in the TG+DG group, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was lower in the TG+DG group than the TG+VC group. These results suggest that DG could exert a wide range of beneficial activities for multiple types of brain damage through stimulation of NGF biosynthesis. PMID:27382379

  6. Novel neuritic clusters with accumulations of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 immunoreactivity in brain regions damaged by thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Calingasan, N. Y.; Gandy, S. E.; Baker, H.; Sheu, K. F.; Smith, J. D.; Lamb, B. T.; Gearhart, J. D.; Buxbaum, J. D.; Harper, C.; Selkoe, D. J.; Price, D. L.; Sisodia, S. S.; Gibson, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental thiamine deficiency (TD) is a classical model of a nutritional deficit associated with a generalized impairment of oxidative metabolism and selective cell loss in the brain. In rats, TD-induced cell degeneration is accompanied by an accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) immunoreactivity in abnormal neurites and perikarya along the periphery of, or scattered within, the lesion. Prompted by these data and our previous findings of a genetic variation in the development of TD symptoms, we extended our studies to mice. C57BL/6, ApoE knockout, and APP YAC transgenic mice received thiamine-deficient diet and pyrithiamine injections. Unlike rats, APP/APLP2-immunoreactive neurites in all strains of mice were sparsely scattered within damaged areas and did not delimit the thalamic lesion. In addition, abnormal clusters of intensely immunoreactive neurites occurred only in areas of damage including the thalamus, mammillary body, and inferior colliculus. The clusters appeared as either irregular clumps or round or oval rosettes that strikingly resembled the neuritic component of Alzheimer amyloid plaques. However, immunostaining using various antisera to synthetic amyloid beta-protein (A beta 1-40) and thioflavine S histochemistry failed to show evidence of a component of A beta Neither APP/APLP2-immunoreactive clusters nor amyloid plaques were observed in the brain from patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, the clinical manifestation of TD in man. Our results demonstrate species (i.e., genetic) differences in the response to TD-induced damage and support a role for APP and APLP2 in the response to brain injury. This is the first report that chronic oxidative deficits can lead to this novel pathology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8780408

  7. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ=9.3-μm CO2 laser: heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A mechanically scanned CO2 laser operated at high laser pulse repetition rates can be used to rapidly and precisely remove dental decay. This study aims to determine whether these laser systems can safely ablate enamel and dentin without excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. Samples were derived from noncarious extracted molars. Pulpal temperatures were recorded using microthermocouples situated at the pulp chamber roof of samples (n=12), which were occlusally ablated using a rapid-scanning, water-cooled 300 Hz CO2 laser over a two minute time course. The mechanical strength of facially ablated dentin (n=10) was determined via four-point bend test and compared to control samples (n=10) prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Composite-to-enamel bond strength was measured via single-plane shear test for ablated/non-etched (n=10) and ablated/acid-etched (n=8) samples and compared to control samples (n=9) prepared by 320 grit wet sanding. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature at 19.0°C (s.d.=0.9) if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin and enamel, the treated surfaces were uniformly ablated and there were no cracks observable on the laser treated surfaces. Fourpoint bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d.=4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d.=2.7) for control (p>0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths of 31.2 MPa (s.d.=2.5, p<0.01) for ablated/acid-etched samples, 5.2 MPa (s.d.=2.4, p<0.001) for ablated/non-etched samples, and 37.0 MPa (s.d.=3.6) for control. The results indicate that a rapid-scanning 300 Hz CO2 laser can effectively ablate dentin and enamel without excessive heat accumulation and with minimal

  8. A Review of Spectral Methods for Variable Amplitude Fatigue Prediction and New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Irvine, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available methods for estimating fatigue damage from variable amplitude loading is presented. The dependence of fatigue damage accumulation on power spectral density (psd) is investigated for random processes relevant to real structures such as in offshore or aerospace applications. Beginning with the Rayleigh (or narrow band) approximation, attempts at improved approximations or corrections to the Rayleigh approximation are examined by comparison to rainflow analysis of time histories simulated from psd functions representative of simple theoretical and real world applications. Spectral methods investigated include corrections by Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, the Dirlik formula, and the Single-Moment method, among other more recent proposed methods. Good agreement is obtained between the spectral methods and the time-domain rainflow identification for most cases, with some limitations. Guidelines are given for using the several spectral methods to increase confidence in the damage estimate.

  9. Probabilistic Fatigue: Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue is a primary consideration in the design of aerospace structures for long term durability and reliability. There are several types of fatigue that must be considered in the design. These include low cycle, high cycle, combined for different cyclic loading conditions - for example, mechanical, thermal, erosion, etc. The traditional approach to evaluate fatigue has been to conduct many tests in the various service-environment conditions that the component will be subjected to in a specific design. This approach is reasonable and robust for that specific design. However, it is time consuming, costly and needs to be repeated for designs in different operating conditions in general. Recent research has demonstrated that fatigue of structural components/structures can be evaluated by computational simulation based on a novel paradigm. Main features in this novel paradigm are progressive telescoping scale mechanics, progressive scale substructuring and progressive structural fracture, encompassed with probabilistic simulation. These generic features of this approach are to probabilistically telescope scale local material point damage all the way up to the structural component and to probabilistically scale decompose structural loads and boundary conditions all the way down to material point. Additional features include a multifactor interaction model that probabilistically describes material properties evolution, any changes due to various cyclic load and other mutually interacting effects. The objective of the proposed paper is to describe this novel paradigm of computational simulation and present typical fatigue results for structural components. Additionally, advantages, versatility and inclusiveness of computational simulation versus testing are discussed. Guidelines for complementing simulated results with strategic testing are outlined. Typical results are shown for computational simulation of fatigue in metallic composite structures to demonstrate the

  10. Thermal Fatigue of Cast and Hot-Pressed Lead-Antimony-Silver-Tellurium (LAST) Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D.

    2013-07-01

    Lead-antimony-silver-tellurium (LAST) thermoelectric materials are candidates for waste-heat recovery applications. However, rapid heating and cooling (thermal shock) imposes thermomechanical stresses that can cause microcracking. Waste-heat recovery applications involve thermal fatigue, in which a series of hundreds or thousands of individual thermal shock events can lead to accumulation of microcrack damage in brittle thermoelectrics such as LAST. Microcracking in turn leads to a decrease in transport properties, such as electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and strength. Thus, microcracking can affect both thermoelectric performance and mechanical integrity. In this study, LAST specimens were rapidly cooled (quenched) into a fluid (water or silicone oil) in order to compare the results with the vast majority of thermal shock studies of brittle materials that are quenched in a similar manner. Decreases in elastic modulus, E, with accumulating microcrack damage were measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). The evolution of thermal fatigue damage observed in this study is also described well by an equation that successfully describes thermal fatigue damage in a variety of brittle materials.

  11. Cyclic plasticity models and application in fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalev, I.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical procedure for prediction of the cyclic plasticity effects on both the structural fatigue life to crack initiation and the rate of crack growth is presented. The crack initiation criterion is based on the Coffin-Manson formulae extended for multiaxial stress state and for inclusion of the mean stress effect. This criterion is also applied for the accumulated damage ahead of the existing crack tip which is assumed to be related to the crack growth rate. Three cyclic plasticity models, based on the concept of combination of several yield surfaces, are employed for computing the crack growth rate of a crack plane stress panel under several cyclic loading conditions.

  12. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity. PMID:27254100

  13. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity. PMID:27254100

  14. Inelastic Strain Analysis of Solder Joint in NASA Fatigue Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Oyan, Chen

    1991-01-01

    The solder fatigue specimen designed by NASA-GSFC/UNISYS is analyzed in order to obtain the inelastic strain history during two different representative temperature cycles specified by UNISYS. In previous reports (dated July 25, 1990, and November 15, 1990), results were presented of the elastic-plastic and creep analysis for delta T = 31 C cycle, respectively. Subsequent results obtained during the current phase, from viscoplastic finite element analysis of the solder fatigue specimen for delta T = 113 C cycle are summarized. Some common information is repeated for self-completeness. Large-deformation continuum formulations in conjunction with a standard linear solid model is utilized for modeling the solder constitutive creep-plasticity behavior. Relevant material properties are obtained from the literature. Strain amplitudes, mean strains, and residual strains (as well as stresses) accumulated due to a representative complete temperature cycle are obtained as a result of this analysis. The partitioning between elastic strains, time-independent inelastic (plastic) strains, and time-dependent inelastic (creep) strains is also explicitly obtained for two representative cycles. Detailed plots are presented for two representative temperature cycles. This information forms an important input for fatigue damage models, when predicting the fatigue life of solder joints under thermal cycling

  15. Characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitive strain sensor for fatigue crack monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Laflamme, Simon; Bennett, Caroline; Matamoros, Adolfo

    2015-04-01

    Fatigue cracks have been one of the major factors for the deterioration of steel bridges. In order to maintain structural integrity, monitoring fatigue crack activities such as crack initiation and propagation is critical to prevent catastrophic failure of steel bridges due to the accumulation of fatigue damage. Measuring the strain change under cracking is an effective way of monitoring fatigue cracks. However, traditional strain sensors such as metal foil gauges are not able to capture crack development due to their small size, limited measurement range, and high failure rate under harsh environmental conditions. Recently, a newly developed soft elastomeric capacitive sensor has great promise to overcome these limitations. In this paper, crack detection capability of the capacitive sensor is demonstrated through Finite Element (FE) analysis. A nonlinear FE model of a standard ASTM compact tension specimen is created which is calibrated to experimental data to simulate its response under fatigue loading, with the goal to 1) depict the strain distribution of the specimen under the large area covered by the capacitive sensor due to cracking; 2) characterize the relationship between capacitance change and crack width; 3) quantify the minimum required resolution of data acquisition system for detecting the fatigue cracks. The minimum resolution serves as a basis for the development of a dedicated wireless data acquisition system for the capacitive strain sensor.

  16. Baseline-free estimation of residual fatigue life using a third order acoustic nonlinear parameter.

    PubMed

    Amura, Mikael; Meo, Michele; Amerini, F

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of crack growth and fatigue life estimation of metals using linear/nonlinear acousto-ultrasound methods is an ongoing issue. It is known that by measuring nonlinear parameters, the relative accumulated fatigue damage can be evaluated. However, there is still a need to measure two crack propagation states to assess the absolute residual fatigue life. A procedure based on the measurement of a third-order acoustic nonlinear parameter is presented to assess the residual fatigue life of a metallic component without the need of a baseline. The analytical evaluation of how the cubic nonlinear-parameter evolves during crack propagation is presented by combining the Paris law to the Nazarov-Sutin crack equation. Unlike other developed models, the proposed model assumes a crack surface topology with variable geometrical parameters. Measurements of the cubic nonlinearity parameter on AA2024-T351 specimens demonstrated high sensitivity to crack propagation and excellent agreement with the predicted theoretical behavior. The advantages of using the cubic nonlinearity parameter for fatigue cracks on metals are discussed by comparing the relevant results of a quadratic nonlinear parameter. Then the methodology to estimate crack size and residual fatigue life without the need of a baseline is presented, and advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:21973336

  17. Effect of Low Temperature on Fatigue Crack Formation and Microstructure-Scale Growth from Corrosion Damage in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James T.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    2013-05-01

    The strong effect of cold temperature on the fatigue resistance of 7075-T651 is established. As temperature decreases from 296 K to 183 K (23 °C to -90 °C), the formation life for cracking about pit and EXCO corrosion perimeters increases, microstructure scale crack growth rates decrease in the range from 20 to 500 μm beyond the corrosion topography, and long crack growth rates similarly decline. Fatigue crack surface features correlate with reduced hydrogen embrittlement with decreasing temperature fed by localized H produced during precorrosion for pit and EXCO-proximate cracks, as well as by crack tip H produced by water vapor reaction during stressing for all crack sizes. The importance of the former H source increases with decreasing temperature for cracks sized below 200 μm. Decreasing temperature to 223 K (-50 °C) eliminates the contribution of environmental H through interaction of reduced water vapor pressure in equilibrium with ice and reduced H diffusion. The Knudsen flow model and exposure parameter, P_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}}/f , enables improved modeling of temperature dependent crack propagation, but does not fully describe low temperature fatigue behavior due to possible rate limitation by H diffusion. Further decreases in MSC da/dN to 183 K (-90 °C) are related to reduced mobility of the corrosion-precharged H which may associate with vacancies from dissolution. Crack formation, and growth rates correlate with either elastic stress intensity range or cyclic crack tip opening displacement, and are available to predict corrosion effects on airframe fatigue for the important low temperature regime.

  18. The LIFE computer code: Fatigue life prediction for vertical axis wind turbine components

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Ashwill, T.D.; Slack, N.

    1987-08-01

    The LIFE computer code was originally written by Veers to analyze the fatigue life of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) blade. The basic assumptions built into this analysis tool are: the fatigue life of a blade component is independent of the mean stress; the frequency distribution of the vibratory stresses may be described adequately by a Rayleigh probability density function; and damage accumulates linearly (Miner's Rule). Further, the yearly distribution of wind is assumed to follow a Rayleigh distribution. The original program has been updated to run in an interactive mode on a personal computer with a BASIC interpreter and 256K RAM. Additional capabilities included in this update include: the generalization of the Rayleigh function for the wind speed distribution to a Weibull function; the addition of two constitutive rules for the evaluation of the effects of mean stress on fatigue life; interactive data input; and the inclusion of a stress concentration factor into the analysis.

  19. Rotor fatigue monitoring data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    1993-01-01

    The 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) had a requirement to monitor rotor fatigue during a test. This test subjected various rotor components to stress levels higher than their structural fatigue limits. A data acquisition system was developed to monitor the cumulative fatigue damage of rotor components using National Instruments hardware and LabVIEW software. A full description of the data acquisition system including its configuration and salient features, is presented in this paper.

  20. Evaluation of damage accumulation behavior and strength anisotropy of NITE SiC/SiC composites by acoustic emission, digital image correlation and electrical resistivity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Ozawa, Kazumi; Asakura, Yuuki; Kohyama, Akira; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the cracking process of the composites is essential to establish the design basis for practical applications. This study aims to investigate the damage accumulation process and its anisotropy for nano-infiltration transient eutectic sintered (NITE) SiC/SiC composites by various characterization techniques such as the acoustic emission (AE), digital image correlation (DIC) and electrical resistivity (ER) measurements. Cracking behavior below the proportional limit stress (PLS) was specifically addressed. Similar to the other generic SiC/SiC composites, the 1st AE event was identified below the PLS for NITE SiC/SiC composites with a dependency of fabric orientation. The DIC results support that the primary failure mode depending on fiber orientation affected more than the other minor modes did. Detailed AE waveform analysis by wavelet shows a potential to classify the failure behavior depending on architecture. Cracking below the PLS is a potential concern in component deign but the preliminary ER measurements imply that the impact of cracking below the PLS on composite function was limited.

  1. Impaired response to oxidative stress in senescent cells may lead to accumulation of DNA damage in mesothelial cells from aged donors

    SciTech Connect

    Ksiazek, Krzysztof Piatek, Katarzyna; Witowski, Janusz

    2008-08-22

    The accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) exemplifies oxidative DNA injury, which is strongly implicated in ageing. We show that human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) from donors >75 years have lower proliferative capacity but increased 8-OH-dG content compared with cells from individuals <25 years. We detected a positive relationship between the donor's age and the 8-OH-dG level in early-passage HPMCs, and an inverse relationship between those 8-OH-dG levels and subsequent replicative lifespan of HPMCs (n = 30). In early-passage cells from donors >75 years, the repair of oxidant-induced 8-OH-dG was delayed compared to cells from donors <25 years. This was coupled with prolonged removal of reactive oxygen species and faster decline in superoxide dismutase activity. Similar effects were observed in HPMCs rendered senescent in vitro. These results indicate that increased 8-OH-dG levels in HPMCs from aged individuals may reflect the in vivo presence of senescent cells with increased vulnerability to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage.

  2. Probabilistic fatigue methodology for six nines reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Bartlett, F. D., Jr.; Elber, Wolf

    1990-01-01

    Fleet readiness and flight safety strongly depend on the degree of reliability that can be designed into rotorcraft flight critical components. The current U.S. Army fatigue life specification for new rotorcraft is the so-called six nines reliability, or a probability of failure of one in a million. The progress of a round robin which was established by the American Helicopter Society (AHS) Subcommittee for Fatigue and Damage Tolerance is reviewed to investigate reliability-based fatigue methodology. The participants in this cooperative effort are in the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM) and the rotorcraft industry. One phase of the joint activity examined fatigue reliability under uniquely defined conditions for which only one answer was correct. The other phases were set up to learn how the different industry methods in defining fatigue strength affected the mean fatigue life and reliability calculations. Hence, constant amplitude and spectrum fatigue test data were provided so that each participant could perform their standard fatigue life analysis. As a result of this round robin, the probabilistic logic which includes both fatigue strength and spectrum loading variability in developing a consistant reliability analysis was established. In this first study, the reliability analysis was limited to the linear cumulative damage approach. However, it is expected that superior fatigue life prediction methods will ultimately be developed through this open AHS forum. To that end, these preliminary results were useful in identifying some topics for additional study.

  3. Non destructive characterization of cortical bone micro-damage by nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Haupert, Sylvain; Guérard, Sandra; Peyrin, Françoise; Mitton, David; Laugier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a nonlinear ultrasound technique, the so-called nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) technique, for detecting early microdamage accumulation in cortical bone induced by four-point bending fatigue. Small parallelepiped beam-shaped human cortical bone specimens were subjected to cyclic four-point bending fatigue in several steps. The specimens were prepared to control damage localization during four-point bending fatigue cycling and to unambiguously identify resonant modes for NRUS measurements. NRUS measurements were achieved to follow the evolution of the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior during fatigue-induced damage. After each fatigue step, a small number of specimens was removed from the protocol and set apart to quantitatively assess the microcrack number density and length using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT). The results showed a significant effect of damage steps on the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior. No significant change in the overall length of microcracks was observed in damaged regions compared to the load-free control regions. Only an increased number of shortest microcracks, those in the lowest quartile, was noticed. This was suggestive of newly formed microcracks during the early phases of damage accumulation. The variation of nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior was significantly correlated to the variation of the density of short microcracks. Our results suggest that the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior is sensitive to early bone microdamage. Therefore NRUS technique can be used to monitor fatigue microdamage progression in in vitro experiments. PMID:24392089

  4. Non Destructive Characterization of Cortical Bone Micro-Damage by Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Haupert, Sylvain; Guérard, Sandra; Peyrin, Françoise; Mitton, David; Laugier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a nonlinear ultrasound technique, the so-called nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) technique, for detecting early microdamage accumulation in cortical bone induced by four-point bending fatigue. Small parallelepiped beam-shaped human cortical bone specimens were subjected to cyclic four-point bending fatigue in several steps. The specimens were prepared to control damage localization during four-point bending fatigue cycling and to unambiguously identify resonant modes for NRUS measurements. NRUS measurements were achieved to follow the evolution of the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior during fatigue-induced damage. After each fatigue step, a small number of specimens was removed from the protocol and set apart to quantitatively assess the microcrack number density and length using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT). The results showed a significant effect of damage steps on the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior. No significant change in the overall length of microcracks was observed in damaged regions compared to the load-free control regions. Only an increased number of shortest microcracks, those in the lowest quartile, was noticed. This was suggestive of newly formed microcracks during the early phases of damage accumulation. The variation of nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior was significantly correlated to the variation of the density of short microcracks. Our results suggest that the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior is sensitive to early bone microdamage. Therefore NRUS technique can be used to monitor fatigue microdamage progression in in vitro experiments. PMID:24392089

  5. Numerical Modeling of the Surface Fatigue Crack Propagation Including the Closure Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchinsky, Ruslan; Petinov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Presently modeling of surface fatigue crack growth for residual life assessment of structural elements is almost entirely based on application of the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Generally, it is assumed that the crack front does not essentially change its shape, although it is not always confirmed by experiment. Furthermore, LEFM approach cannot be applied when the stress singularity vanishes due to material plasticity, one of the leading factors associated with the material degradation and fracture. Also, evaluation of stress intensity factors meets difficulties associated with changes in the stress state along the crack front circumference. An approach proposed for simulation the evolution of surface cracks based on application of the Strain-life criterion for fatigue failure and of the finite element modeling of damage accumulation. It takes into account the crack closure effect, the nonlinear behavior of damage accumulation and material compliance increasing due to the damage advance. The damage accumulation technique was applied to model the semi-elliptical crack growth from the initial defect in the steel compact specimen. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the published experimental data.

  6. Fatigue management in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management. PMID:26257477

  7. Fatigue management in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Workers' fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management. PMID:26257477

  8. The revised HSE fatigue guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, A.; Sharp, J.V.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue cracking has been a principal cause of damage to North Sea structures and consequently considerable attention has been given to the development of guidance for the prediction of fatigue performance. The fatigue guidance of the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was recently revised and published, following a significant offshore industry review in the period 1987 to 1990, and is based on the results of a considerable amount of research and development work on the fatigue behavior of welded tubular and plated joints. As a result of this review, the revised fatigue guidance incorporates several new clauses and recommendations. The revised recommendations apply to joint classification, basic design S-N curves for welded joints and cast or forged steel components, the thickness effect, the effects of environment and the treatment of low and high stress ranges. Additionally, a new appendix on the derivation of stress concentration factors is included. The new clauses cover high strength steels, bolts and threaded connectors, moorings, repaired joints and the use of fracture mechanics analysis. This paper presents an overview of the revisions to the fatigue guidance, the associated background technical information and aspects of the fatigue behavior of offshore structures which are considered to require further investigation. 67 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  10. Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54.

    PubMed

    Bearr, Jonathan S; Stapleton, Heather M; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2010-03-01

    Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54 are two brominated formulations that are in use as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Two major components of these mixtures are 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (TBB) and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (TBPH). Both have been measured in environmental matrices; however, scant toxicological information exists. The present study aimed to determine if these brominated flame-retardant formulations are bioavailable and adversely affect DNA integrity in fish. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were orally exposed to either FM 550, FM BZ54, or the nonbrominated form of TBPH, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) for 56 d and depurated (e.g., fed clean food) for 22 d. At several time points, liver and blood cells were collected and assessed for DNA damage. Homogenized fish tissues were extracted and analyzed on day 0 and day 56 to determine the residue of TBB and TBPH and the appearance of any metabolites using gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Significant increases (p < 0.05) in DNA strand breaks from liver cells (but not blood cells) were observed during the exposure period compared with controls, although during depuration these levels returned to control. Both parent compounds, TBB and TBPH, were detected in tissues at approximately 1% of daily dosage along with brominated metabolites. The present study provides evidence for accumulation, metabolism, and genotoxicity of these new formulation flame retardants in fish and highlights the potential adverse effects of TBB- and TBPH-formulated fire retardants to aquatic species. PMID:20821500

  11. Creep-fatigue of High Temperature Materials for VHTR: Effect of Cyclic Loading and Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Celine Cabet; L. Carroll; R. Wright; R. Madland

    2011-05-01

    Alloy 617 is the one of the leading candidate materials for Intermediate Heat eXchangers (IHX) of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). System start-ups and shut-downs as well as power transients will produce low cycle fatigue (LCF) loadings of components. Furthermore, the anticipated IHX operating temperature, up to 950°C, is in the range of creep so that creep-fatigue interaction, which can significantly increase the fatigue crack growth, may be one of the primary IHX damage modes. To address the needs for Alloy 617 codification and licensing, a significant creep-fatigue testing program is underway at Idaho National Laboratory. Strain controlled LCF tests including hold times up to 1800s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at total strain range of 0.3% and 0.6% in air at 950°C. Creep-fatigue testing was also performed in a simulated VHTR impure helium coolant for selected experimental conditions. The creep-fatigue tests resulted in failure times up to 1000 hrs. Fatigue resistance was significantly decreased when a hold time was added at peak stress and when the total strain was increased. The fracture mode also changed from transgranular to intergranular with introduction of a tensile hold. Changes in the microstructure were methodically characterized. A combined effect of temperature, cyclic and static loading and environment was evidenced in the targeted operating conditions of the IHX. This paper This paper reviews the data previously published by Carroll and co-workers in references 10 and 11 focusing on the role of inelastic strain accumulation and of oxidation in the initiation and propagation of surface fatigue cracks.

  12. Development of a laminate fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roderick, G. L.; Obrien, T. K.; Whitcomb, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A fatigue analysis technique developed to predict damage growth in notched laminates is described. Features of the analysis include: criteria to relate matrix failure to cyclic stresses in and between plies; correlation of delamination growth with strain-release rate; and in-plane shear modulus change is related to cyclic shear stresses. A simplified finite element model is used to determine stresses in laminates that contain matrix damage. Failure criteria are integrated with the finite element model to form the fatigue analysis.

  13. Compassion fatigue in pediatric palliative care providers.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Mary T

    2007-10-01

    The experience of compassion fatigue is an expected and common response to the professional task of routinely caring for children at the end of life. Symptoms of compassion fatigue often mimic trauma reactions. Implementing strategies that span personal, professional, and organizational domains can help protect health care providers from the damaging effects of compassion fatigue. Providing pediatric palliative care within a constructive and supportive team can help caregivers deal with the relational challenges of compassion fatigue. Finally, any consideration of the toll of providing pediatric palliative care must be balanced with a consideration of the parallel experience of compassion satisfaction. PMID:17933615

  14. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  15. Tension fatigue analysis and life prediction for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. K.; Rigamonti, M.; Zanotti, C.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the tension fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite laminates subjected to tension fatigue loading. The methodology incorporates both the generic fracture mechanics characterization of delamination and the assessment of the infuence of damage on laminate fatigue life. Tension fatigue tests were conducted on quasi-isotropic and orthotropic glass epoxy, graphite epoxy, and glass/graphite epoxy hybrid laminates, demonstrating good agreement between measured and predicted lives.

  16. Thermal Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings has been investigated under high heat flux and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating crack propagation is studied under laser heat flux cyclic thermal loading, and is correlated with dynamic fatigue and strength test results. The coating stress response and inelasticity, fatigue and creep interactions, and interface damage mechanisms during dynamic thermal fatigue processes are emphasized.

  17. Ultrasonic absortion in fatigued materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, S.; Arnold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of fatigue damage, allowing an estimate of the residual life-time of components, could contribute to a safe and reliable operation of components and installations. Ultrasonic absorption, i.e. the internal friction, of a material increases with increasing fatigue or creep damage and there are many theories trying to explain the physics behind this phenomenon. Measurement of ultrasonic absorption directly on components could provide information on the degree of damage. A laser ultrasonic method, using laser-generated pulses and optical detection, was applied to study ultrasonic absorption in fatigue specimens of different metals. A characteristic behavior of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient with increasing levels of fatigue damage was found for the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Another aim of this study was to relate the absorption mechanisms to the behavior of ultrasonic absorption observed in metals with complex microstructure. To achieve this, different ultrasonic absorption mechanisms were analyzed with respect to experimental data. A thermoelastic effect related to the size and elasticity of the microstructure is discussed as the origin of the increased ultrasonic absorption.

  18. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  19. Bending-fatigue damage-detection on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Jason A.; Mark, William D.

    2014-02-01

    The frequency-domain ALR (average-log-ratio) damage-detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] is utilized to illustrate damage detection and progression on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears. Use of equal weighting of increases or decreases of individual rotational-harmonic amplitudes caused by damage, for early ALR detections, is substantiated. Continuously improving statistical reliability of ALR is documented by using increasing numbers of rotational-harmonic amplitude-ratios and increasing numbers of waveforms in the synchronous averaging. Sensitivity of the ALR algorithm to incipient damage is observed to be comparable to that obtained from the kurtosis-based Figure of Merit 4 (FM4). In contrast to FM4, ALR is shown to monotonically increase with increasing damage and running time. Interestingly, this diagnostic technique can be implemented with remarkably low analog-to-digital conversion rates. Computation of ALR for differing torque levels shows strong indications of weakening tooth-stiffness and increasing tooth-plastic-deformation. ALR computation utilizing tooth-rotational-location windowing also is illustrated.

  20. Microstructural aspects of fatigue in Ni-base superalloys.

    PubMed

    Antolovich, Stephen D

    2015-03-28

    Nickel-base superalloys are primarily used as components in jet engines and land-based turbines. While compositionally complex, they are microstructurally simple, consisting of small (50-1000 nm diameter), ordered, coherent Ni(3)(Al,Ti)-type L1(2) or Ni(3)Nb-type DO(22) precipitates (called γ(') and γ(''), respectively) embedded in an FCC substitutional solid solution consisting primarily of Ni and other elements which confer desired properties depending upon the application. The grain size may vary from as small as 2 μm for powder metallurgy alloys used in discs to single crystals the actual size of the component for turbine blades. The fatigue behaviour depends upon the microstructure, deformation mode, environment and cycle time. In many cases, it can be controlled or modified through small changes in composition which may dramatically change the mechanism of damage accumulation and the fatigue life. In this paper, the fundamental microstructural, compositional, environmental and deformation mode factors which affect fatigue behaviour are critically reviewed. Connections are made across a range of studies to provide more insight. Modern approaches are pointed out in which the wealth of available microstructural, deformation and damage information is used for computerized life prediction. The paper ends with a discussion of the very important and highly practical subject of thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). It is shown that physics-based modelling leads to significantly improved life prediction. Suggestions are made for moving forward on the critical subject of TMF life prediction in notched components. PMID:25713453

  1. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides increased transcript abundance of CSA and MUTL. In addition, mRNA abundance of HSP70 and GADD45α were increased by endosulfan and mRNA abundance of XPG was increased by α-cypermethrin. XPC, HR23B, XPG, and GADD45α exhibited elevated mRNA concentrations whereas there was a reduction in MUTL transcript concentrations in UVB-alone treatments. It appeared that even

  2. Ratcheting Assessment of GFRP Composites in Low-Cycle Fatigue Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadzadeh, G. R.; Varvani-Farahani, A.

    2014-06-01

    The present study intends to examine ratcheting response of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites over fatigue cycles by means of parametric variables. Stages of ratcheting deformation were related to stress cycles, lifespan, mechanical properties and cyclic stress levels by means of linear and non-linear functions. The coefficients B and C in the proposed ratcheting formulation calibrated ratcheting equation by means of material properties over ratcheting stages. Coefficients A and C calibrated the stages I and II of ratcheting strain curve over stress cycles. The ratcheting curve over initial and final stages was affected as composite modulus of elasticity ( E c ) increased. An increase in E c -dependent coefficients A and B increased the magnitude of ratcheting strains over stress cycles. Ratcheting data for continuous and short fiber GFRP composites with various volume fractions were employed to evaluate the proposed ratcheting formulation. Interaction of ratcheting and fatigue phenomena was further assumed when the proposed parametric ratcheting equation was coupled with a fatigue damage model developed earlier by present authors. Overall damage is achieved from accumulation of ratcheting and fatigue over stress cycles.

  3. Effect of Phosphate-Buffered Solution Corrosion on the Ratcheting Fatigue Behavior of a Duplex Mg-Li-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin; Yu, Dunji; Gao, Li-Lan; Gao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the uniaxial ratcheting and fatigue behavior of a duplex Mg-Li-Al alloy under the influence of phosphate-buffered solution corrosion. Microstructural observations reveal pitting and filament corrosion defects, which impair the load-bearing capacity of the alloy and cause stress concentration, thus leading to an accelerated accumulation of ratcheting strain and shortened fatigue life under the same nominal loading conditions. Comparing Smith model, Smith-Watson-Topper model, and Paul-Sivaprasad-Dhar model, a ratcheting fatigue life prediction model based on the Broberg damage rule and the Paul-Sivaprasad-Dhar model was proposed, and the model yielded a superior prediction for the studied magnesium alloy.

  4. Computational predictive methods for fracture and fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J.; Chang, A. T.; Nelson, N.; Kim, Y.

    1994-09-01

    The damage-tolerant design philosophy as used by aircraft industries enables aircraft components and aircraft structures to operate safely with minor damage, small cracks, and flaws. Maintenance and inspection procedures insure that damages developed during service remain below design values. When damage is found, repairs or design modifications are implemented and flight is resumed. Design and redesign guidelines, such as military specifications MIL-A-83444, have successfully reduced the incidence of damage and cracks. However, fatigue cracks continue to appear in aircraft well before the design life has expired. The F16 airplane, for instance, developed small cracks in the engine mount, wing support, bulk heads, the fuselage upper skin, the fuel shelf joints, and along the upper wings. Some cracks were found after 600 hours of the 8000 hour design service life and design modifications were required. Tests on the F16 plane showed that the design loading conditions were close to the predicted loading conditions. Improvements to analytic methods for predicting fatigue crack growth adjacent to holes, when multiple damage sites are present, and in corrosive environments would result in more cost-effective designs, fewer repairs, and fewer redesigns. The overall objective of the research described in this paper is to develop, verify, and extend the computational efficiency of analysis procedures necessary for damage tolerant design. This paper describes an elastic/plastic fracture method and an associated fatigue analysis method for damage tolerant design. Both methods are unique in that material parameters such as fracture toughness, R-curve data, and fatigue constants are not required. The methods are implemented with a general-purpose finite element package. Several proof-of-concept examples are given. With further development, the methods could be extended for analysis of multi-site damage, creep-fatigue, and corrosion fatigue problems.

  5. Computational predictive methods for fracture and fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, J.; Chang, A. T.; Nelson, N.; Kim, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The damage-tolerant design philosophy as used by aircraft industries enables aircraft components and aircraft structures to operate safely with minor damage, small cracks, and flaws. Maintenance and inspection procedures insure that damages developed during service remain below design values. When damage is found, repairs or design modifications are implemented and flight is resumed. Design and redesign guidelines, such as military specifications MIL-A-83444, have successfully reduced the incidence of damage and cracks. However, fatigue cracks continue to appear in aircraft well before the design life has expired. The F16 airplane, for instance, developed small cracks in the engine mount, wing support, bulk heads, the fuselage upper skin, the fuel shelf joints, and along the upper wings. Some cracks were found after 600 hours of the 8000 hour design service life and design modifications were required. Tests on the F16 plane showed that the design loading conditions were close to the predicted loading conditions. Improvements to analytic methods for predicting fatigue crack growth adjacent to holes, when multiple damage sites are present, and in corrosive environments would result in more cost-effective designs, fewer repairs, and fewer redesigns. The overall objective of the research described in this paper is to develop, verify, and extend the computational efficiency of analysis procedures necessary for damage tolerant design. This paper describes an elastic/plastic fracture method and an associated fatigue analysis method for damage tolerant design. Both methods are unique in that material parameters such as fracture toughness, R-curve data, and fatigue constants are not required. The methods are implemented with a general-purpose finite element package. Several proof-of-concept examples are given. With further development, the methods could be extended for analysis of multi-site damage, creep-fatigue, and corrosion fatigue problems.

  6. Ratcheting fatigue behavior of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpurohit, R. S.; Sudhakar Rao, G.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Santhi Srinivas, N. C.; Singh, Vakil

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear core components of zirconium alloys experience asymmetric stress or strain cycling during service which leads to plastic strain accumulation and drastic reduction in fatigue life as well as dimensional instability of the component. Variables like loading rate, mean stress, and stress amplitude affect the influence of asymmetric loading. In the present investigation asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with mean stress from 80 to 150 MPa, stress amplitude from 270 to 340 MPa and stress rate from 30 to 750 MPa/s to study the process of plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature. It was observed that with increase in mean stress and stress amplitude accumulation of ratcheting strain was increased and fatigue life was reduced. However, increase in stress rate led to improvement in fatigue life due to less accumulation of ratcheting strain.

  7. Low cycle fatigue properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels after high-dose neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaganidze, E.; Petersen, C.; Aktaa, J.; Povstyanko, A.; Prokhorov, V.; Diegele, E.; Lässer, R.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated to a displacement damage dose of up to 70 dpa at 330-337 °C in the BOR 60 reactor within the ARBOR 2 irradiation programme. The influence of neutron irradiation on the fatigue behaviour was determined for the as-received EUROFER97, pre-irradiation heat-treated EUROFER97 HT and F82H-mod steels. Strain-controlled push-pull loading was performed using miniaturized cylindrical specimens at a constant temperature of 330 °C with total strain ranges between 0.8% and 1.1%. Comparison of the LCF behaviour of irradiated and reference unirradiated specimens was performed for both the adequate total and inelastic strains. Neutron irradiation-induced hardening may have various effects on the fatigue behaviour of the steels. The reduction of inelastic strain in the irradiated state compared with the reference unirradiated state at common total strain amplitudes may increase fatigue lifetime. The increase in the stress at the adequate inelastic strain, by contrast, may accelerate fatigue damage accumulation. Depending on which of the two effects mentioned dominates, neutron irradiation may either extend or reduce the fatigue lifetime compared with the reference unirradiated state. The results obtained for EUROFER97 and EUROFER97 HT confirm these considerations. Most of the irradiated specimens show fatigue lifetimes comparable to those of the reference unirradiated state at adequate inelastic strains. Some irradiated specimens, however, show lifetime reduction or increase in comparison with the reference state at adequate inelastic strains.

  8. Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture (sixth volume)

    SciTech Connect

    Armanios, E.A.

    1997-12-31

    The symposium featured presentations covering metal matrix composites, fatigue, and damage progression, strength and residual properties, damage tolerance and fracture analysis, mode mixity and delamination, property characterization and environmental effects, and standardization and design. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  9. Assessment of fatigue life of remanufactured impeller based on FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Cao, Huajun; Liu, Hailong; Zhang, Yubo

    2016-07-01

    Predicting the fatigue life of remanufactured centrifugal compressor impellers is a critical problem. In this paper, the S-N curve data were obtained by combining experimentation and theory deduction. The load spectrum was compiled by the rain-flow counting method based on the comprehensive consideration of the centrifugal force, residual stress, and aerodynamic loads in the repair region. A fatigue life simulation model was built, and fatigue life was analyzed based on the fatigue cumulative damage rule. Although incapable of providing a high-precision prediction, the simulation results were useful for the analysis of fatigue life impact factors and fatigue fracture areas. Results showed that the load amplitude greatly affected fatigue life, the impeller was protected from running at over-speed, and the predicted fatigue life was satisfied within the next service cycle safely at the rated speed.

  10. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  11. Micro-Computed Tomography of Fatigue Microdamage in Cortical Bone Using a Barium Sulfate Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiang; Ross, Ryan D.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage during fatigue can lead to increased fracture susceptibility in bone. Current techniques for imaging microdamage in bone are inherently destructive and two-dimensional. Therefore, the objective of this study was to image the accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a barium sulfate (BaSO4) contrast agent. Two symmetric notches were machined on the tensile surface of bovine cortical bone beams in order to generate damage ahead of the stress concentrations during four-point bending fatigue. Specimens were loaded to a specified number of cycles or until one notch fractured, such that the other notch exhibited the accumulation of microdamage prior to fracture. Microdamage ahead of the notch was stained in vitro by precipitation of BaSO4 and imaged using micro-CT. Reconstructed images showed a distinct region of bright voxels around the notch tip or along propagating cracks due to the presence of BaSO4, which was verified by backscattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The shape of the stained region ahead of the notch tip was consistent with principal strain contours calculated by finite element analysis. The relative volume of the stained region was correlated with the number of loading cycles by non-linear regression using a power-law. This study demonstrates new methods for the non-destructive and three-dimensional detection of fatigue microdamage accumulation in cortical bone in vitro, which may be useful to gain further understanding into the role of microdamage in bone fragility. PMID:18443659

  12. Thermomechanical fatigue, oxidation, and Creep: Part II. Life prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, R. W.; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    1989-09-01

    A life prediction model is developed for crack nucleation and early crack growth based on fatigue, environment (oxidation), and creep damage. The model handles different strain-temperature phasings (i.e., in-phase and out-of-phase thermomechanical fatigue, isothermal fatigue, and others, including nonproportional phasings). Fatigue life predictions compare favorably with experiments in 1070 steel for a wide range of test conditions and strain-temperature phasings. An oxide growth (oxide damage) model is based on the repeated microrupture process of oxide observed from microscopic measurements. A creep damage expression, which is stress-based, is coupled with a unified constitutive equation. A set of interrupted tests was performed to provide valuable damage progression information. Tests were performed in air and in helium atmospheres to isolate creep damage from oxidation damage.

  13. Aircraft fatigue and crack growth considering loads by structural component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The indisputable 1968 C-130 fatigue/crack growth data is reviewed to obtain additional useful information on fatigue and crack growth. The proven Load Environment Model concept derived empirically from F-105D multichannel recorder data is refined to a simpler method by going from 8 to 5 variables in the spectra without a decrease in accuracy. This approach provides the true fatigue/crack growth and load environment by structural component for both fatigue and strength design. Methods are presented for defining fatigue scatter and damage at crack initiation. These design tools and criteria may be used for both metal and composite aircraft structure.

  14. Stochastic modeling of crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi

    1992-01-01

    A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted comulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.

  15. Stochastic modeling of crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi

    1989-01-01

    A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted cumulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.

  16. Fatigue crack propagation in aerospace aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Piascik, R. S.; Dicus, D. L.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews fracture mechanics based, damage tolerant characterizations and predictions of fatigue crack growth in aerospace aluminum alloys. The results of laboratory experimentation and modeling are summarized in the areas of: (1) fatigue crack closure, (2) the wide range crack growth rate response of conventional aluminum alloys, (3) the fatigue behavior of advanced monolithic aluminum alloys and metal matrix composites, (4) the short crack problem, (5) environmental fatigue, and (6) variable amplitude loading. Remaining uncertainties and necessary research are identified. This work provides a foundation for the development of fatigue resistant alloys and composites, next generation life prediction codes for new structural designs and extreme environments, and to counter the problem of aging components.

  17. An asymptotic approach for assessing fatigue reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.

    1996-12-01

    By applying the cumulative fatigue damage theory to the random process reliability problem, and the introduction of a new concept of unified equivalent stress level in fatigue life prediction, a technical reliability model for the random process reliability problem under fatigue failure is proposed. The technical model emphasizes efficiency in the design choice and also focuses on the accuracy of the results. Based on this model, an asymptotic method for fatigue reliability under stochastic process loadings is developed. The proposed method uses the recursive iteration algorithm to achieve results which include reliability and corresponding life. The method reconciles the requirement of accuracy and efficiency for the random process reliability problems under fatigue failure. The accuracy and analytical and numerical efforts required are compared. Through numerical example, the advantage of the proposed method is demonstrated.

  18. Elevated temperature effects on fatigue and fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Piascik, R.S.; Gangloff, R.P.; Saxena, A.

    1997-12-31

    The intent of this meeting was to reinforce the recent merger of ASTM Committees E09 on Fatigue and E24 on Fracture Mechanics, forming Committee E08 on Fatigue and Fracture. This special technical publication highlights a topical subset of the meeting, that is, research on the critical effect of temperature on the fatigue and fracture of structural materials. Papers highlighted: Integration of damage evolution, from the distributed form to that focused at a crack tip; High-resolution experimental probes of fatigue and fracture processes; Measurement and modeling of the important role of time in microstructural degradation, damage evolution, and crack growth; Models that provide quantitative predictions and are tested by high-quality experimentation; and Performance of next-generation structural metals and composites, characterized within a framework useful in component life prediction. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-11-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  20. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  1. Probabilistic fatigue methodology and wind turbine reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, C.H.

    1996-05-01

    Wind turbines subjected to highly irregular loadings due to wind, gravity, and gyroscopic effects are especially vulnerable to fatigue damage. The objective of this study is to develop and illustrate methods for the probabilistic analysis and design of fatigue-sensitive wind turbine components. A computer program (CYCLES) that estimates fatigue reliability of structural and mechanical components has been developed. A FORM/SORM analysis is used to compute failure probabilities and importance factors of the random variables. The limit state equation includes uncertainty in environmental loading, gross structural response, and local fatigue properties. Several techniques are shown to better study fatigue loads data. Common one-parameter models, such as the Rayleigh and exponential models are shown to produce dramatically different estimates of load distributions and fatigue damage. Improved fits may be achieved with the two-parameter Weibull model. High b values require better modeling of relatively large stress ranges; this is effectively done by matching at least two moments (Weibull) and better by matching still higher moments. For this purpose, a new, four-moment {open_quotes}generalized Weibull{close_quotes} model is introduced. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methodology for design against fatigue is proposed and demonstrated using data from two horizontal-axis wind turbines. To estimate fatigue damage, wind turbine blade loads have been represented by their first three statistical moments across a range of wind conditions. Based on the moments {mu}{sub 1}{hor_ellipsis}{mu}{sub 3}, new {open_quotes}quadratic Weibull{close_quotes} load distribution models are introduced. The fatigue reliability is found to be notably affected by the choice of load distribution model.

  2. Towards a damage tolerance philosophy for composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin

    1990-01-01

    A damage-threshold/fail-safe approach is proposed to ensure that composite structures are both sufficiently durable for economy of operation, as well as adequately fail-safe or damage tolerant for flight safety. Matrix cracks are assumed to exist throughout the off-axis plies. Delamination onset is predicted using a strain energy release rate characterization. Delamination growth is accounted for in one of three ways: either analytically, using delamination growth laws in conjunction with strain energy release rate analyses incorporating delamination resistance curves; experimentally, using measured stiffness loss; or conservatively, assuming delamination onset corresponds to catastrophic delamination growth. Fail-safety is assessed by accounting for the accumulation of delaminations through the thickness. A tension fatigue life prediction for composite laminates is presented as a case study to illustrate how this approach may be implemented. Suggestions are made for applying the damage-threshold/fail-safe approach to compression fatigue, tension/compression fatigue, and compression strength following low velocity impact.

  3. Towards a damage tolerance philosophy for composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin

    1988-01-01

    A damage-threshold/fail-safe approach is proposed to ensure that composite structures are both sufficiently durable for economy of operation, as well as adequately fail-safe or damage tolerant for flight safety. Matrix cracks are assumed to exist throughout the off-axis plies. Delamination onset is predicted using a strain energy release rate characterization. Delamination growth is accounted for in one of three ways: either analytically, using delamination growth laws in conjunction with strain energy release rate analyses incorporating delamination resistance curves; experimentally, using measured stiffness loss; or conservatively, assuming delamination onset corresponds to catastrophic delamination growth. Fail-safety is assessed by accounting for the accumulation of delaminations through the thickness. A tension fatigue life prediction for composite laminates is presented as a case study to illustrate how this approach may be implemented. Suggestions are made for applying the damage-threshold/fail-safe approach to compression fatigue, tension/compression fatigue, and compression strength following low velocity impact.

  4. Fatigue and fracture research in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fatigue, fracture, and impact behavior of composite materials are investigated. Bolted and bonded joints are included. The solutions developed are generic in scope and are useful for a wide variety of structural applications. The analytical tools developed are used to demonstrate the damage tolerance, impact resistance, and useful fatigue life of structural composite components. Standard tests for screening improvements in materials and constituents are developed.

  5. Energy release, beam attenuation radiation damage, gas production and accumulation of long-lived activity in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.

    1996-06-01

    The calculation and analysis of the nuclei concentrations and long-lived residual radioactivity accumulated in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets irradiated by 800 MeV, 30 mA proton beam have been performed. The dominating components to the total radioactivity of radionuclides resulting from fission and spallation reactions and radiative capture by both target nuclei and accumulated radioactive nuclei for various irradiation and cooling times were analyzed. The estimations of spectral component contributions of neutron and proton fluxes to the accumulated activity were carried out. The contributions of fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products were evaluated. The accumulation of Po isotopes due to reactions induced by secondary alpha-particles were found to be important for the Pb target as compared with two-step radiative capture. The production of Tritium in the targets and its contribution to the total targets activity was considered in detail. It is found that total activities of both targets are close to one another.

  6. Predictive modelling of fatigue failure in concentrated lubricated contacts.

    PubMed

    Evans, H P; Snidle, R W; Sharif, K J; Bryant, M J

    2012-01-01

    Reducing frictional losses in response to the energy agenda will require use of less viscous lubricants causing hydrodynamically-lubricated bearings to operate with thinner films leading to "mixed lubrication" conditions in which a degree of direct interaction occurs between surfaces protected only by boundary tribofilms. The paper considers the consequences of thinner films and mixed lubrication for concentrated contacts such as those occurring between the teeth of power transmission gears and in rolling element bearings. Surface fatigue in gears remains a serious problem in demanding applications, and its solution will become more pressing with the tendency towards thinner oils. The particular form of failure examined here is micropitting, which is identified as a fatigue phenomenon occurring at the scale of the surface roughness asperities. It has emerged recently as a systemic difficulty in the operation of large scale wind turbines where it occurs in both power transmission gears and their support bearings. Predictive physical modelling of these contacts requires a transient mixed lubrication analysis for conditions in which the predicted lubricant film thickness is of the same order or significantly less than the height of surface roughness features. Numerical solvers have therefore been developed which are able to deal with situations in which transient solid contacts occur between surface asperity features under realistic engineering conditions. Results of the analysis, which reveal the detailed time-varying behaviour of pressure and film clearance, have been used to predict fatigue and damage accumulation at the scale of surface asperity features with the aim of improving understanding of the micropitting phenomenon. The possible consequences on fatigue of residual stress fields resulting from plastic deformation of surface asperities is also considered. PMID:23285624

  7. Fatigue of continuous fiber reinforced metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mirdamadi, M.; Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The complex damage mechanisms that occur in fiber reinforced advanced metallic materials are discussed. As examples, results for several layups of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites are presented. Fatigue tests were conducted and analyzed for both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. Test conditions included isothermal, non-isothermal, and simulated mission profile thermomechanical fatigue. Test results indicated that the stress in the 0 degree fibers is the controlling factor for fatigue life for a given test condition. An effective strain approach is presented for predicting crack initiation at notches. Fiber bridging models were applied to crack growth behavior.

  8. Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture. Vol. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. K. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of matrix cracking and delamination, interlaminar fracture toughness, delamination analysis, strength and impact characteristics, and fatigue and fracture behavior. Attention is given to cooling rate effects in carbon-reinforced PEEK, the effect of porosity on flange-web corner strength, mode II delamination in toughened composites, the combined effect of matrix cracking and free edge delamination, and a 3D stress analysis of plain weave composites. Also discussed are the compression behavior of composites, damage-based notched-strength modeling, fatigue failure processes in aligned carbon-epoxy laminates, and the thermomechanical fatigue of a quasi-isotropic metal-matrix composite.

  9. Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture. Vol. 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. K.

    1991-11-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of matrix cracking and delamination, interlaminar fracture toughness, delamination analysis, strength and impact characteristics, and fatigue and fracture behavior. Attention is given to cooling rate effects in carbon-reinforced PEEK, the effect of porosity on flange-web corner strength, mode II delamination in toughened composites, the combined effect of matrix cracking and free edge delamination, and a 3D stress analysis of plain weave composites. Also discussed are the compression behavior of composites, damage-based notched-strength modeling, fatigue failure processes in aligned carbon-epoxy laminates, and the thermomechanical fatigue of a quasi-isotropic metal-matrix composite.

  10. High-temperature fatigue in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The presentation focuses primarily on the progress we at NASA Lewis Research Center have made. The understanding of the phenomenological processes of high temperature fatigue of metals for the purpose of calculating lives of turbine engine hot section components is discussed. Improved understanding resulted in the development of accurate and physically correct life prediction methods such as Strain-Range Partitioning for calculating creep fatigue interactions and the Double Linear Damage Rule for predicting potentially severe interactions between high and low cycle fatigue. Examples of other life prediction methods are also discussed.

  11. The C-terminal region of Rad52 is essential for Rad52 nuclear and nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Rad52 might play a key role in the repair of DSB immediately after irradiation. •EYFP-Rad52 accumulates rapidly at DSB sites and colocalizes with Ku80. •Accumulation of Rad52 at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors. •Localization and recruitment of Rad52 to DSB sites are dependent on the Rad52 CTR. •Basic amino acids in Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among vertebrate species. -- Abstract: Rad52 plays essential roles in homologous recombination (HR) and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in vertebrates, knockouts of the Rad52 gene show no hypersensitivity to agents that induce DSBs. Rad52 localizes in the nucleus and forms foci at a late stage following irradiation. Ku70 and Ku80, which play an essential role in nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ), are essential for the accumulation of other core NHEJ factors, e.g., XRCC4, and a HR-related factor, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that the subcellular localization of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) changes dynamically during the cell cycle. In addition, EYFP-Rad52(1–418) accumulates rapidly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. Moreover, the accumulation of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors, i.e., Ku80 and XRCC4. Furthermore, we observed that EYFP-Rad52(1–418) localizes in nucleoli in CHO-K1 cells and XRCC4-deficient cells, but not in Ku80-deficient cells. We also found that Rad52 nuclear localization, nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DSB sites are dependent on eight amino acids (411–418) at the end of the C-terminal region of Rad52 (Rad52 CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among mammalian, avian, and fish homologues, suggesting that Rad52 CTR is important for the regulation and function of Rad52 in vertebrates. These findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the regulation of subcellular localization of Rad52 is

  12. Biotic elicitors and mechanical damage modulate glucosinolate accumulation by co-ordinated interplay of glucosinolate biosynthesis regulators in polyploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates are nitrogen and sulfur containing secondary metabolites found mainly in the Brassicaceae. They function as plant defense compounds against a broad spectrum of pathogens and pests. Since these molecules form part of the plant defense mechanism, glucosinolate biosynthesis may be modulated by environmental signals leading to activation of a biological stress response. In the current study, we have mimicked such conditions by exogenously applying biotic elicitors such as methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, glucose and mechanical injury in Brassica juncea seedling over a time course experiment. We found that total glucosinolates over-accumulated under these stress conditions with maximum accumulation observed 24h post treatment. Indole glucosinolates like 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl and its precursor indol-3-methyl glucosinolates showed a more significant induction compared to aliphatic glucosinolates thereby suggesting a prominent role of indole glucosinolates during plant defense response in B. juncea seedlings. In contrast, the higher amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates were less regulated by the tested biotic elicitors in B. juncea. Expression profiling of multiple homologs of key transcriptional regulators of glucosinolate biosynthesis further showed that a complex interplay of these regulators exists in polyploid B. juncea where they exert co-ordinated and overlapping effects toward altering glucosinolate accumulation. This study has a significant role toward understanding and augmenting plant defense mechanisms in B. juncea, a globally important oilseed crop of genus Brassica. PMID:26057228

  13. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  14. Monitoring Tensile Fatigue of Superelastic NiTi Wire in Liquids by Electrochemical Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racek, Jan; Stora, Marc; Šittner, Petr; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromir; Petrenec, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue of superelastic NiTi wires was investigated by cyclic tension in simulated biofluid. The state of the surface of the fatigued NiTi wire was monitored by following the evolution of the electrochemical open circuit potential (OCP) together with macroscopic stresses and strains. The ceramic TiO2 oxide layer on the NiTi wire surface cannot withstand the large transformation strain and fractures in the first cycle. Based on the analysis of the results of in situ OCP experiments and SEM observation of cracks, it is claimed that the cycled wire surface develops mechanochemical reactions at the NiTi/liquid interface leading to cumulative generation of hydrogen, uptake of the hydrogen by the NiTi matrix, local loss of the matrix strength, crack transfer into the NiTi matrix, accelerated crack growth, and ultimately to the brittle fracture of the wire. Fatigue degradation is thus claimed to originate from the mechanochemical processes occurring at the excessively deforming surface not from the accumulation of defects due to energy dissipative bulk deformation processes. Ironically, combination of the two exciting properties of NiTi—superelasticity due to martensitic transformation and biocompatibility due to the protective TiO2 surface oxide layer—leads to excessive fatigue damage during cyclic mechanical loading in biofluids.

  15. Effect of Environment on Fatigue Crack Wake Dislocation Structure in Al-Cu-Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Yunjo; Agnew, Sean R.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    2012-07-01

    Fatigue-induced dislocation structure was imaged at the crack surface using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of focused ion beam (FIB)-prepared cross sections of naturally aged Al-4Cu-1.4Mg stressed at a constant stress intensity range (7 MPa√m) concurrent with either ultralow ( 10-8 Pa s) or high-purity (50 Pa s) water vapor exposure at 296 K (23 °C). A 200-to-600-nm-thick recovered-dislocation cell structure formed adjacent to the crack surface from planar slip bands in the plastic zone with the thickness of the cell structure and slip bands decreasing with increasing water vapor exposure. This result suggested lowered plastic strain accumulation in the moist environment relative to the vacuum. The previously reported fatigue crack surface crystallography is explained by the underlying dislocation substructure. For a vacuum, { { 1 1 1} } facets dominate the crack path from localized slip band cracking without resolvable dislocation cells, but cell formation causes some off- { { 1 1 1} } features. With water vapor present, the high level of hydrogen trapped within the developed dislocation structure could promote decohesion manifest as either low-index { { 100} } or { { 1 10} } facets, as well as high-index cracking through the fatigue-formed subgrain structure. These features and damage scenario provide a physical basis for modeling discontinuous environmental fatigue crack growth governed by both cyclic strain range and maximum tensile stress.

  16. Intrinsic fatigue crack growth rates for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, D.C.; Gangloff, R.P.; Starke, E.A. Jr ); Blankenship, C.P. Jr )

    1993-08-01

    The influences of microstructure and deformation mode on inert environment intrinsic fatigue crack propagation were investigated for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys AA2090, AA8090, and X2095 compared to AA2024. The amount of coherent shearable [delta][prime] (Al[sub 3]Li) precipitates and extent of localized planar slip deformation were reduced by composition (increased Cu/Li in X2095) and heat treatment (double aging of AA8090). Intrinsic growth rates, obtained at high constant K[sub max] to minimize crack closure and in vacuum to eliminate any environmental effect, were alloy dependent; da/dN varied up to tenfold based on applied [Delta]K or [Delta]K/E. When compared based on a crack tip cyclic strain or opening displacement parameter ([Delta]K/([sigma][sub ys]E)[sup 1/2]), growth rates were equivalent for alloys except X2095-T8 which exhibited unique fatigue crack growth resistance. Tortuous fatigue crack profiles and large fracture surface facets were observed for each Al-Li alloy independent of the precipitates present, particularly [sigma][prime], and the localized slip deformation structure. Reduced fatigue crack propagation rates for X2095 in vacuum are not explained by either residual crack closure or slip reversibility arguments; the origin of apparent slip band facets in a homogeneous slip alloy is unclear. Better understanding of crack tip damage accumulation and fracture surface facet crystallography is required for Al-Li alloys with varying slip localization.

  17. Effect of moisture on the fatigue behavior of graphite/epoxy composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, S. V.; Nelson, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    The form of the moisture distribution in the specimen (gradient and flat profile) was considered to establish the influence of accelerated moisture conditioning on fatigue behavior. For the gradient specimens having an average moisture content of 1.4 percent, fatigue life was reduced by a factor of 8 at all stress levels investigated. Corresponding reduction in fatigue life for the flat moisture profile specimens at the same average moisture content was comparatively smaller, being about a factor of 5 from the value in dry specimens. X-ray radiographic analysis of damage accumulation in compression-compression fatigue revealed interlaminar cracking to be the dominant mode of failure responsible for the observed enhanced cyclic degradation of moisture-conditioned specimens. This finding was corroborated by the observed systematic reduction in interlaminar shear strength as a function of moisture content, which, in turn, increased the propensity for delamination under cyclic compressive loads. Residual strength measurements on cycled specimens indicated significant strength reductions at long lives, particularly in moisture conditioned specimens.

  18. Persistent Activation of NF-κB in BRCA1-Deficient Mammary Progenitors Drives Aberrant Proliferation and Accumulation of DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Sau, Andrea; Lau, Rosanna; Cabrita, Miguel A; Nolan, Emma; Crooks, Peter A; Visvader, Jane E; Pratt, M A Christine

    2016-07-01

    Human BRCA1 mutation carriers and BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary glands contain an abnormal population of mammary luminal progenitors that can form 3D colonies in a hormone-independent manner. The intrinsic cellular regulatory defect in these presumptive breast cancer precursors is not known. We have discovered that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) (p52/RelB) is persistently activated in a subset of BRCA1-deficient mammary luminal progenitors. Hormone-independent luminal progenitor colony formation required NF-κB, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), and the inhibitor of kappaB kinase, IKKα. Progesterone (P4)-stimulated proliferation resulted in a marked enhancement of DNA damage foci in Brca1(-/-) mouse mammary. In vivo, NF-κB inhibition prevented recovery of Brca1(-/-) hormone-independent colony-forming cells. The majority of human BRCA1(mut/+) mammary glands showed marked lobular expression of nuclear NF-κB. We conclude that the aberrant proliferative capacity of Brca1(-/-) luminal progenitor cells is linked to the replication-associated DNA damage response, where proliferation of mammary progenitors is perpetuated by damage-induced, autologous NF-κB signaling. PMID:27292187

  19. Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.

  20. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.