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Sample records for accumulated higher amounts

  1. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  2. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  3. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  4. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area.

  5. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  6. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  7. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  8. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications.

  9. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  10. Distribution of mercury in metallothionein-null mice after exposure to mercury vapor: amount of metallothionein isoform does not affect accumulation of mercury in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Akiko; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contribution of metallothionein (MT) to mercury accumulation in mouse tissues, 129 strain female mice and MT null mice were exposed to metallic mercury vapor at a sub-toxic level, and Hg levels in the brain, kidney and liver were determined on 1, 3 and 7 days after the exposure. After exposure to mercury vapor, significant Hg accumulation was observed in the brains of wild-type and MT-I/II null and MT-III null mice, as well as in the liver and kidneys. No strain difference was observed in the tissue Hg accumulations 24 hr after the exposure except for the kidneys, where the highest accumulation was found in MT-III null mice. Although the brains of MT-III null mice showed slightly higher Hg accumulation than the other two strains, no significant difference was observed except in the cerebrum on Day 7. Gel chromatograms of cerebrum soluble fractions revealed that a significant amount of Hg existed as an MT-bound form in all the mouse strains. On the other hand, MT-bound Hg was found as a minor fraction in soluble fractions of the kidneys and livers in wild-type and MT-III null mice. Despite a significant strain difference in total MT levels in the cerebrum, there was no difference among the three strains in the amount of Hg accumulated in the cerebrum and its distribution rates in MT fractions. The present study demonstrated that brain uptake of Hg(0) and its accumulation as Hg(2+) did not depend on the amount of MT isoform in the tissue, at least in the early phase.

  11. Cesium-137 accumulation in higher plants before and after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Sawidis, T.; Drossos, E.; Papastefanou, C. ); Heinrick, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in plant species of three biotypes of northern Greece, differing in location as well as in vegetation, are reported following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The cesium uptake by plants was due to the foliar deposition rather than the root uptake. The highest level of cesium in plants was found in Ranunculus sardous, a pubescent plant. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was about 22kBq kg{sup {minus}1}d.w. A high level of cesium was also found in Salix alba ({sup 137}Cs: 19.6 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} d.w.), a deciduous tree showing that hairy leaves or leaves having rough and large surfaces can absorb greater amounts of radioactivity (surface effect). A comparison is also made between the results of measurements of the present study and the results of measurements of some herbarium plants collected one year before the accident as well as the results of measurements of some new plants grown and collected one year after the accident resulting in a natural removal rate of {sup 137}Cs in plants varying from 14 to 130 days.

  12. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  13. [Water-holding characteristics and accumulation amount of the litters under main forest types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Ling, Lei; Zhang, Guang-zhong; Yan, Pei-bin; Tao, Ji-xin; Chai, Chun-shan; Xue, Rui

    2011-10-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory soaking extraction, an investigation was conducted on the accumulation amount, water-holding capacity, water-holding rate, and water-absorption rate of the litters under six main forests (Picea wilsonii forest, P. wilsonii - Betula platyphlla forest, Populus davidiana - B. platyphlla forest, Cotonester multiglorus - Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest) in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu. The accumulation amount of the litters under the forests was 13.40-46.32 t hm(-2), and in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus-R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litter storage of coniferous forests was greater than that of broadleaved forests, and the storage percentage of semi-decomposed litters was all higher than that of un-decomposed litters. The maximum water-holding rate of the litters was 185.5%-303.6%, being the highest for L. principis-rupprechtii forest and the lowest for P. tabulaeformis forest. The litters' water-holding capacity changed logarithmically with their soaking time. For coniferous forests, un-decomposed litters had a lower water-holding rate than semi-decomposed litters; whereas for broadleaved forests, it was in adverse. The maximum water-holding capacity of the litters varied from 3.94 mm to 8.59 mm, and was in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus - R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litters' water-holding capacity also changed logarithmically with immersing time, and the half-decomposed litters had a larger water-holding capacity than un-decomposed litters. The water-absorption rate of the litters presented a power function with immersing time. Within the first one hour of immersed in water, the

  14. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  15. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  16. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  17. Higher amount of MyHC IIX in a wrist flexor in tetraplegic compared to hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Pontén, Eva; Lindström, Mona; Kadi, Fawzi

    2008-03-15

    Spastic cerebral palsy can be divided into diagnostic groups by the relative severity of the arm impairment. This study investigates if hemiplegic, tetraplegic or diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) results in different patterns of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression in the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle from 17 young patients with CP. Using enzyme-immunohistochemistry and gel electrophoresis techniques we found a higher percentage of fibers expressing fast MyHC IIx (52%) in tetraplegic CP compared to hemiplegic patients (32%), (p<0.05). Tetraplegic CP also resulted in a lower amount of fibers expressing slow MyHC I (18%) compared to hemiplegic CP (40%), (p<0.005). The proportion of muscle fibers containing fetal MyHC was higher in tetraplegic CP compared to other groups, (p<0.005). Taken together theses results indicate that tetraplegic CP is associated with a shift from slow to fast myosins and that regenerative events are more prominent in tetraplegic CP compared with milder brain damage.

  18. Acidophilic Green Alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 Accumulates High Amount of Lipid Droplets under a Nitrogen-Depleted Condition at a Low-pH

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0–5.0 and a temperature 20–25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  19. Selection and reduced population size cannot explain higher amounts of Neandertal ancestry in East Asian than in European human populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2015-03-05

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data.

  20. HIGHER MODIFIED BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BODY, EATING, AND EXERCISE COMPARISONS BUT DECREASED EXERCISE AMOUNTS.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Yoza, Jeffrey J; Quandt, Emily A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that exercise can lead to decreased depression symptoms. The relationship of depression with right frontal lobe activity and self-image (body, eating, and exercise) were investigated as reasons why depressive symptoms might lead to decreased exercise. 120 college students (79 women) completed design fluency tasks followed by a set of questionnaires on depression and exercise. High (M = 23.03, SD = 5.92) and low quartiles (M = 3.11, SD = 1.59) were created using the Modified Beck Depression Inventory (mBDI) for primary analyses. The group with higher mBDI scores produced fewer unique designs (suggesting lower right frontal activity) and was more likely to make comparisons based on body shape, eating, and exercise. The group with higher mBDI scores reported significantly less strenuous and moderate exercise. These findings indicate that the relationship between exercise and depression could work in both directions. While exercise can be used as a potential treatment to decrease depression, increased depressive symptoms could be a hindrance to exercise.

  1. State-Wide Space Survey. A Survey of the Amount and Utilization of Nonresidential Space Available for Higher Education in Illinois. Fall 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    A survey of the amount and utilization of non-residential state university campus space available for potential higher education classroom usage is presented for all of the public colleges and universities in Illinois. The survey categorizes the space--(1) by an inventory of net assignable space, and (2) by the utilization of net assignable space…

  2. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed.

  3. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi.

  4. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  5. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. I. Characterization of copper accumulation, speciation, and toxicity in Crassula helmsii as a new copper accumulator.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Götz, Birgit; Mijovilovich, Ana; Küpper, Frithjof C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2009-10-01

    The amphibious water plant Crassula helmsii is an invasive copper (Cu)-tolerant neophyte in Europe. It now turned out to accumulate Cu up to more than 9,000 ppm in its shoots at 10 microm (=0.6 ppm) Cu(2+) in the nutrient solution, indicating that it is a Cu hyperaccumulator. We investigated uptake, binding environment, and toxicity of Cu in this plant under emerged and submerged conditions. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements on frozen-hydrated samples revealed that Cu was bound almost exclusively by oxygen ligands, likely organic acids, and not any sulfur ligands. Despite significant differences in photosynthesis biochemistry and biophysics between emerged and submerged plants, no differences in Cu ligands were found. While measurements of tissue pH confirmed the diurnal acid cycle typical for Crassulacean acid metabolism, Delta(13)C measurements showed values typical for regular C3 photosynthesis. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis mainly affected the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center, but with some unusual features. Most obviously, the degree of light saturation of electron transport increased during Cu stress, while maximal dark-adapted PSII quantum yield did not change and light-adapted quantum yield of PSII photochemistry decreased particularly in the first 50 s after onset of actinic irradiance. This combination of changes, which were strongest in submerged cultures, shows a decreasing number of functional reaction centers relative to the antenna in a system with high antenna connectivity. Nonphotochemical quenching, in contrast, was modified by Cu mainly in emerged cultures. Pigment concentrations in stressed plants strongly decreased, but no changes in their ratios occurred, indicating that cells either survived intact or died and bleached quickly.

  6. Accumulation of leginsulin, a hormone-like bioactive peptide, is drastically higher in Asian than in North American soybean accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leginsulin, a peptide made up of 37 amino acids, is homologous to pea albumin (PA1b) and belongs to the cysteine-knot family. Even though the physiological function and three-dimensional structure of leginsulin have been explored, little is known about their expression, accumulation and distribution...

  7. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  8. Stable Accumulation of Modified 2S Albumin Seed Storage Proteins with Higher Methionine Contents in Transgenic Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Ann; Vandewiele, Martine; Van Damme, Jozef; Guerche, Philippe; Van Montagu, Marc; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Krebbers, Enno

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of two sets of experiments designed to express high methionine proteins in transgenic seeds in three different plant species. In the first approach, two chimeric genes were constructed in which parts of the Arabidopsis 2S albumin gene 1 (AT2S1) were fused at different positions to a Brazil nut 2S albumin cDNA clone. Brazil nut 2S albumin was found to accumulate stably in transgenic Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and tobacco seeds. In the second approach, methionine-enriched AT2S1 genes were constructed by deleting sequences encoding a region of the protein which is not highly conserved among 2S albumins of different species and replacing them with methioninerich sequences. Introduction of the modified AT2S1 genes into three different plant species resulted in the accumulation of the methionine-enriched 2S albumins in all three species at levels reaching 1 to 2% of the total high salt-extractable seed protein. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667878

  9. Introduction of double amidoxime group by double post surface modification on poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) beads for higher amounts of organic dyes, As (V) and Cr (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Demirci, Sahin; Uzun, Yusuf; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the synthesis of micron-sized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (p(VBC)) beads and subsequent conversion of the reactive chloromethyl groups to double amidoxime group containing moieties by post modification is reported. The prepared beads were characterized by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amidoximated p(VBC) beads were used as adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes, such as eosin y (EY) and methyl orange (MO), and heavy metals containing complex ions such as dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) and arsenate (HAsO4(2)(-)) from aqueous media. The effect of the adsorbent dose on the percent removal, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbates on the adsorption rate and their amounts were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption processes. The results indicated that the adsorption of both dichromate and arsenate ions obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. Interestingly, it was found that the prepared beads were capable of removing significant amounts of arsenate and dichromate ions from tap and river (Sarıcay, Canakkale-Turkey) water.

  10. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--case study: colic in ponies in a "petting zoo" caused by ingestion of higher amounts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)].

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Kamphues, J

    2006-10-01

    Nutritional disorders in domestic or pet animals depend not seldom on special situations, for example when different influences coincide concerning keeping, housing and offering of feed or water. These lead suddenly to high-risk situations, that can cause sometimes the death of the animal. The following case report deals with two ponies, that were kept on a so-called "petting zoo" and showed repeatedly colic symptoms (always after a weekend). During surgery in the stomach light yellow balls were found, that can be explained by ingestion of 1.0 to 1.5 kg wheat. This cereals consist--depending on variety--gluten, that can cause the observed conglobates. Due to the forming of such balls that can lead to health disorders in form of colics, gastritis or ruptures of the stomach the feeding of high amounts of wheat should be avoided. Snacks rich in fiber or high amounts of roughage (straw, hay) that are fed before opening of the zoo could be a practical alternative.

  11. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taylaran, Renante D.; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20–30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf–air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production. PMID:21527630

  12. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  13. Accumulation of DOC in Low Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (LPLC) area: is it related to higher production under high N:P ratio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauriac, R.; Moutin, T.; Baklouti, M.

    2010-09-01

    The biogeochemistry of carbon and nutrients (N, P) in the surface layer of the ocean strongly depends on the interaction between C, N and P at the cell level and at the population level where interaction between primary producers (phytoplankton) and remineralizers (heterotrophic bacteria) impact the overall stock and dynamics of organic carbon. To understand these interactions in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea, we implemented, using Eco3M, a multi-element, steady state, mechanistic model. This cell-based model intend to represent the growth of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria under various amount of nutrients. As a results, it displays the expected biogeochemical characteristics of the system and give us insight on the expected interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria both in term of competition for inorganic nutrients and in term of commensalism for organic carbon. In this study, we found a good quantitative agreement between model results and literrature data for stocks and fluxes of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition, for phytoplankton we show how the uncoupling between carbon production and growth could impact the overall DOC dynamic and based on these results, we proposed a new explanantion for the observed DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  15. Higher toxicity of dibutyltin and poly-L-lactide with a large amount of tin but lower toxicity of poly-L-lactide of synthetic artificial dura mater exhibited on murine astrocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Inoue, Yoko; Sugaya, Chiemi; Tsunoda, Masashi; Sugaya, Tsukiko; Takahashi, Masami; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-06-01

    Neurotoxicities of dibutyltin (DBT), tin(II) octylate (OT), poly-L-lactides (PLLA, molecular weight [MW]=5000, PLLA 5000), PLLA without tin (MW=3000, PLLA 3000), PLLA with a large amount (590 ppm) of tin (S3), poly(glycolic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) oligomer (MW=6200, PGC oligomer), and poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) oligomer (MW=6400, PLGC oligomer) related to artificial dura mater were examined using the murine astrocyte cell line, CRL-2534. The indices were cell viability, glutamate concentration in the cell supernatant, and cell proliferation. Lower cell viability was observed among cells exposed to 0.5 microM DBT or 10 microg/ml of S3. There were no differences in cell viability of astrocytes exposed to OT, PLLA 5000, PLLA 3000, PGC oligomer, or PLGC oligomer. Mean glutamate concentration in the supernatant of cells exposed to 0.25 muM DBT was higher than that of the control after 2 h incubation. Lower mean concentration of glutamate in the supernatant of cells exposed to 5 microg/ml of S3 was observed after 2 h incubation. Cells exposed to 50 microg/ml of PGC oligomer had a higher mean concentration of glutamate in the supernatant. OT only inhibited cell proliferation at 100 microM. Proliferation of cells exposed to 0.25 microM or 0.5 microM DBT was inhibited, as was that of cells exposed to 100 microM OT, 50 microg/ml PLLA 5000, 50 microg/ml PLLA 3000, and 5 microg/ml S3, 5 d and 7 d after exposure. Although DBT does not reach levels that induced neurotoxicity in artificial dura mater, these results suggest that DBT is neurotoxic and PLLA toxicity increases with the increase in tin concentration.

  16. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  17. Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy observation of accumulated charges in metal-SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si flash memory by detecting higher-order nonlinear permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Koichiro; Cho, Yasuo

    2012-12-01

    Using scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy with high-sensitivity capacitance variation detection capability, we succeeded in the high-resolution visualization of accumulated charges in metal-SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si flash memory by detecting the higher-order (2-4 order) nonlinear permittivity. The obtained image contrast can be interpreted using a higher-order differential coefficient (dnC/dVn) of a quasi-static C-V curve of the SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si interface capacitance as a function of externally applied voltage. Moreover, by using a higher-order nonlinear image, the charge concentration resolution can be improved. Thus, improved resolution of the spatial charge distribution is expected through improvement of the concentration resolution by the imaging of higher-order nonlinear dielectric terms.

  18. Astrocytic and neuronal accumulation of elevated extracellular K(+) with a 2/3 K(+)/Na(+) flux ratio-consequences for energy metabolism, osmolarity and higher brain function.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Leif; Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Yan, Enzhi; Gu, Li; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Brain excitation increases neuronal Na(+) concentration by 2 major mechanisms: (i) Na(+) influx caused by glutamatergic synaptic activity; and (ii) action-potential-mediated depolarization by Na(+) influx followed by repolarizating K(+) efflux, increasing extracellular K(+) concentration. This review deals mainly with the latter and it concludes that clearance of extracellular K(+) is initially mainly effectuated by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-mediated K(+) uptake into astrocytes, at K(+) concentrations above ~10 mM aided by uptake of Na(+),K(+) and 2 Cl(-) by the cotransporter NKCC1. Since operation of the astrocytic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase requires K(+)-dependent glycogenolysis for stimulation of the intracellular ATPase site, it ceases after normalization of extracellular K(+) concentration. This allows K(+) release via the inward rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.1, perhaps after trans-astrocytic connexin- and/or pannexin-mediated K(+) transfer, which would be a key candidate for determination by synchronization-based computational analysis and may have signaling effects. Spatially dispersed K(+) release would have little effect on extracellular K(+) concentration and allow K(+) accumulation by the less powerful neuronal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which is not stimulated by increases in extracellular K(+). Since the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase exchanges 3 Na(+) with 2 K(+), it creates extracellular hypertonicity and cell shrinkage. Hypertonicity stimulates NKCC1, which, aided by β-adrenergic stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, causes regulatory volume increase, furosemide-inhibited undershoot in [K(+)]e and perhaps facilitation of the termination of slow neuronal hyperpolarization (sAHP), with behavioral consequences. The ion transport processes involved minimize ionic disequilibria caused by the asymmetric Na(+),K(+)-ATPase fluxes.

  19. Higher growth temperatures decreased net carbon assimilation and biomass accumulation of northern red oak seedlings near the southern limit of the species range.

    PubMed

    Wertin, Timothy M; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2011-12-01

    If an increase in temperature will limit the growth of a species, it will be in the warmest portion of the species distribution. Therefore, in this study we examined the effects of elevated temperature on net carbon assimilation and biomass production of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings grown near the southern limit of the species distribution. Seedlings were grown in chambers in elevated CO(2) (700 µmol mol(-1)) at three temperature conditions, ambient (tracking diurnal and seasonal variation in outdoor temperature), ambient +3 °C and ambient +6 °C, which produced mean growing season temperatures of 23, 26 and 29 °C, respectively. A group of seedlings was also grown in ambient [CO(2)] and ambient temperature as a check of the growth response to elevated [CO(2)]. Net photosynthesis and leaf respiration, photosynthetic capacity (V(cmax), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU)) and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as seedling height, diameter and biomass, were measured during one growing season. Higher growth temperatures reduced net photosynthesis, increased respiration and reduced height, diameter and biomass production. Maximum net photosynthesis at saturating [CO(2)] and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) were lowest throughout the growing season in seedlings grown in the highest temperature regime. These parameters were also lower in June, but not in July or September, in seedlings grown at +3 °C above ambient, compared with those grown in ambient temperature, indicating no impairment of photosynthetic capacity with a moderate increase in air temperature. An unusual and potentially important observation was that foliar respiration did not acclimate to growth temperature, resulting in substantially higher leaf respiration at the higher growth temperatures. Lower net carbon assimilation was correlated with lower growth at higher temperatures. Total biomass at the end of the growing season decreased in direct proportion to the

  20. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  1. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  2. Higher accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in flowers than leaves and fruits as a possible basis for differential feeding preference of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Cv. Dhanashree).

    PubMed

    Damle, Mrunal S; Giri, Ashok P; Sainani, Mohini N; Gupta, Vidya S

    2005-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill; cultivar- Dhanashree) proteinase inhibitors (PIs) were tested for their trypsin inhibitory (TI) and Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases inhibitory (HGPI) activity in different organs of the tomato plants. Analysis of TI and HGPI distribution in various parts of the plant showed that flowers accumulated about 300 and 1000 times higher levels of TI while 700 and 400 times higher levels of HGPI as compared to those in leaves and fruits, respectively. Field observation that H. armigera larvae infest leaves and fruits but not the flowers could be at least partially attributed to the protective role-played by the higher levels of PIs in the flower tissue. Tomato PIs inhibited about 50-80% HGP activity of H. armigera larvae feeding on various host plants including tomato, of larvae exposed to non-host plant PIs and of various larval instars. Tomato PIs were found to be highly stable to insect proteinases wherein incubation of inhibitor with HGP even for 3h at optimum conditions did not affect inhibitory activity. Bioassay using H. armigera larvae fed on artificial diet containing tomato PIs revealed adverse effect on larval growth, pupae development, adult formation and fecundity.

  3. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  4. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  5. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  6. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  7. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  8. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  9. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  10. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  11. Variation in sorbitol accumulation and polyol-pathway activity in cultured human proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Flath, M C; Bylander, J E; Sens, D A

    1992-09-01

    The polyol pathway is present in tissues of several organs where its activation may participate in the development of diabetic complications. We measured the accumulation of polyol-pathway intermediates in HPT cells isolated from 21 different human kidneys from nondiabetic individuals. When exposed to 27.5 mM glucose in the growth media, cells isolated from approximately 75% of individuals (accumulators) accumulated sorbitol within 1-4 days, whereas 25% (nonaccumulators) accumulated only negligible amounts, even when the period of exposure was extended to 2 wk. Surprisingly, measurement of the activities of the polyol-pathway enzymes showed no difference in the levels of either AR or SDH between accumulators and nonaccumulators, even when the conversion of galactose to galactitol was used to measure AR activity in intact cells independently of SDH. Measurement of sorbitol in the growth media indicated that nonaccumulators were not releasing sorbitol into the growth media. Fructose levels in the conditioned growth media were 4 times higher in the sorbitol-accumulating cells. Together, these results indicate that the tendency of cells from an individual to accumulate significant amounts of sorbitol may reflect the cells' ability to metabolize sorbitol in steps subsequent to the polyol pathway.

  12. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before... computation of an accumulation distribution, the amount includible under subpart D (section 665 and following... beneficiaries A and B. However, the trustee may make discretionary distributions to either beneficiary after...

  13. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-3 - Other amounts distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a... to be paid in all events but which is payable only out of corpus; (4) a distribution of property in... section 678(c) out of corpus or out of other than income for the taxable year; and (6) an amount...

  14. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  15. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals.

  16. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  17. Root responses to nitrogen pulse frequency under different nitrogen amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Wang, Pu; Liu, Lu; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-04-01

    Responses of morphology and biomass allocation of roots to frequency of nitrogen (N) pulse potentially influence the fitness of plants, but such responses may be determined by root size. We grew 12 plant species of three functional groups (grasses, forbs, and legumes) under two N pulse frequencies (high vs. low supply frequency) and two N amounts (high vs. low supply amount). Compared to low-amount N supply, high-amount N supply stimulated biomass accumulation and root growth by either increasing the thickness and length of roots or decreasing the root mass fraction. Compared to low-frequency N supply, high-frequency N supply improved biomass accumulation and root growth in forbs or grasses, but not in legumes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response to N frequency was significantly negatively correlated with root size at the species scale, but this was only true when the N amount was high. We conclude that root responses to N frequency are related to plant functional types, and non-legume species is more sensitive to N frequency than legume species. Our results also suggest that root size is a determinant of root responses to N frequency when N supply amount is high.

  18. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-11 Accumulated production expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated production expenditures generally means the cumulative amount...

  19. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  20. Memory accumulation mechanisms in human cortex are independent of motor intentions.

    PubMed

    Sestieri, Carlo; Tosoni, Annalisa; Mignogna, Valeria; McAvoy, Mark P; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio; Romani, Gian Luca

    2014-05-14

    Previous studies on perceptual decision-making have often emphasized a tight link between decisions and motor intentions. Human decisions, however, also depend on memories or experiences that are not closely tied to specific motor responses. Recent neuroimaging findings have suggested that, during episodic retrieval, parietal activity reflects the accumulation of evidence for memory decisions. It is currently unknown, however, whether these evidence accumulation signals are functionally linked to signals for motor intentions coded in frontoparietal regions and whether activity in the putative memory accumulator tracks the amount of evidence for only previous experience, as reflected in "old" reports, or for both old and new decisions, as reflected in the accuracy of memory judgments. Here, human participants used saccadic-eye and hand-pointing movements to report recognition judgments on pictures defined by different degrees of evidence for old or new decisions. A set of cortical regions, including the middle intraparietal sulcus, showed a monotonic variation of the fMRI BOLD signal that scaled with perceived memory strength (older > newer), compatible with an asymmetrical memory accumulator. Another set, including the hippocampus and the angular gyrus, showed a nonmonotonic response profile tracking memory accuracy (higher > lower evidence), compatible with a symmetrical accumulator. In contrast, eye and hand effector-specific regions in frontoparietal cortex tracked motor intentions but were not modulated by the amount of evidence for the effector outcome. We conclude that item recognition decisions are supported by a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical accumulation signals largely segregated from motor intentions.

  1. Concentration is not enough to evaluate accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in plants.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Wetland plants produce high aboveground biomass and possess the ability to accumulate heavy metals and nutrients. This ability is used for phytoremediation purposes including removal of nutrients and heavy metals from polluted waters. The concentrations of heavy metals are usually much higher in the belowground then in aboveground biomass, especially in roots which are primary sites of uptake. This may lead to the conclusion that accumulation of heavy metals is higher in the belowground biomass. However, in case the aboveground is much higher than belowground biomass the accumulation could be higher in the aboveground biomass. Concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is always higher in leaves than in stems. However, the stem biomass is often much higher in robust emergent species such as Phragmites australis and therefore, more nutrients can be stored in stems. The examples shown in this communication clearly reveal that to evaluate properly the accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in particular plant compartment biomass amount must be taken into consideration. In the first study, concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg in Phalaris arundinacea belowground/aboveground biomass were 150/80 μg/kg, 5420/228 μg/kg and 38/18 μg/kg. The high aboveground biomass (1196 g/m(2)) and low belowground biomass (244 g/(2)) resulted in much higher accumulation of Cd and Hg in aboveground biomass (96 μg/m(2) and 21.2 μg/m(2), respectively) than in belowground biomass (36 μg/m(2) and 9.3 μg/m(2), respectively). Only for chromium, belowground accumulation (1312 μg/m(2)) was higher than aboveground accumulation (272 μg/m(2)). In the second study, both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher (26.7 mg/g and 749 mg/kg, respectively) in leaves than in stems (8.2mg/g and 534 mg/kg, respectively) of P. australis. The higher biomass of stems (1835 g/m(2)) than leaves (967 g/m(2)) resulted in higher accumulation of nitrogen but lower accumulation of phosphorus in leaves as

  2. Cadmium accumulation retard activity of functional components of photo assimilation and growth of rice cultivars amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake mediated alterations in functional components of photo assimilation during conversion of cow dung and poultry cast to vermicompost were studied in two Indian rice cultivars; MO 16 and MTU 7029. It was found that higher amount of Cd accumulate in plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost which in turn damaged functional components in photo assimilation. Enhancement of root growth was recognized as reason for Cd accumulation. Metabolic alterations noticed among plants were not taken place during application of raw materials used for vermicomposting such as cow dung and poultry cast amendment. Rice varieties accumulated Cd differentially where MTU 7029 accumulated more Cd compare to MO 16. It was also noticed that existence of negative correlation between zinc status of the plant and Cd accumulation.

  3. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  4. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  5. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  8. Oleaginous yeasts from Antarctica: Screening and preliminary approach on lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Viñarta, Silvana C; Angelicola, M Virginia; Barros, J Maximiliano; Fernández, Pablo M; Mac Cormak, Walter; Aybar, Manuel J; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2016-12-01

    The capability of 17 Rhodotorula spp. isolated from Antarctica to accumulate intracellular lipids in nitrogen-limited medium was investigated. As results, 10 isolates were selected by Nile red staining, while 12 isolates were selected as oleaginous by analysis of total lipid content (20.4-73%, w/w of dry biomass). The higher lipid production and accumulation was exhibited for six strains belonging to three species of Rhodotorula (Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula glacialis, and Rhodotorula laryngis). This is the first report where R. laryngis have been identified within oleaginous specie. Lipid accumulation was evaluated comparatively in two nitrogen-limited glucose-based media (MI and MII). MI (low C/N ratio) was more suitable for biomass and lipid production while in MII (high C/N ratio) total lipid content was improved. R. glutinis R4, R. glacialis R15, and R. glutinis R48 showed high lipid concentrations (4.65-6.93 g L(-1) ) and they were able to accumulate large amounts of lipids per gram of biomass (47-77%, w/w). A similar profile in fatty acids composition and content of neutral lipids to vegetable oils was observed, indicating that lipids produced by oleaginous Antarctic yeasts can be considered an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Antarctica represents an important source of oleaginous yeasts with adaptive capabilities to accumulate considerable amounts of lipids with biotechnological interest at 15 °C and 25 °C.

  9. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  10. Effects of low protein diet and sex difference on the amounts of metallothionein in liver and kidney of cadmium-administered rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, R.; Inoue, Y.; Koizumi, N.; Tsukamoto, T.

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) was orally administered in a dose of 100 ..mu..g daily a total of 100 times to investigate the effects of the intake of low (5%) protein diet and sex difference on the amounts of metallothionein (MT) in the liver and kidney. The amount of MT in the liver was significantly increased by the intake of low protein diet. In females, the increase in the amount of MT was proportional to the amount of Cd accumulated. The concentration of copper-thionein in the liver was higher in females than in males and further increased after intake of low protein diet. The levels of MT, cadmium-thionein, zinc-thionein and copper-thionein in the kidney were not influenced by the intake of low protein diet nor did show a sex difference.

  11. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  13. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  14. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  16. [Effects of farmland use type and winter irrigation on nitrate accumulation in sandy farmland soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Su, Yong-zhong

    2009-03-01

    With the sandy farmland in the marginal oasis in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, Northwest China as test object, this paper studied soil NO3- -N accumulation and leaching under effects of different farmland use type and winter irrigation. The results showed that the mean NO3- -N concentration in 0-300 cm soil profile in different farmlands ranged from 1.27 mg x kg(-1) to 83.60 mg x kg(-1) Soil NO3- -N concentration was higher in 0-40 cm and 135-300 cm layers, but lower in 40-135 cm layer. Greenhouse vegetable field had a significantly higher soil NO3- -N concentration than the other farmland use types. The accumulated amount of soil NO3- -N decreased in the order of greenhouse vegetable field > tomato field > cotton field > seed maize field > maize-wheat rotation field > maize-wheat stripe intercropping field > alfalfa field > jujube plantation. The NO3- -N accumulation in 0-300 cm soil profile in greenhouse vegetable filed reached 2171.45 kg x hm(-2), which would be a serious menace to groundwater quality, followed by tomato field and cotton field. Lesser accumulation of soil NO3- -N was found in seed maize field, maize-wheat intercropping field, maize-wheat rotation field, alfalfa field, and jujube plantation, but its pollution potential would not be neglected. After winter irrigation, soil NO3- -N concentration decreased in 0-80 cm layer but increased in 80-300 cm layer, indicating that winter irrigation caused NO3- -N leaching into deeper soil depth. The leached amount of soil NO3- -N to deeper layers increased with increasing amount of winter irrigation. To mitigate soil NO3- -N leaching and groundwater contamination, a comprehensive consideration should be made on the rational arrangement of farmland use type, proper decrease of planting N-accumulated crops, and reasonable winter irrigation.

  17. Enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Halomonas spp. in artificial biofilms of alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Miñana-Galbis, David; Domènech, Oscar; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Microbial mats are complex but stable, multi-layered and multi-functional biofilms, which are the most frequent bacterial formations in nature. The functional strategies and physiological versatility of the bacterial populations growing in microbial mats allow bacteria to resist changing conditions within their environment. One of these strategies is the accumulation of carbon- and energy-rich polymers that permit the recovery of metabolic activities when favorable conditions are restored. In the present study, we systematically screened microbial mats for bacteria able to accumulate large amounts of the ester carbon polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Several of these strains were isolated from Ebro Delta microbial mats and their ability to accumulate PHA up to 40-60% of their dry weight was confirmed. According to two identification approaches (16S rRNA and rpoD genes), these strains were identified as Halomonas alkaliphila (MAT-7, -13, -16), H. neptunia (MAT-17), and H. venusta (MAT-28). To determine the mode of growth yielding maximum PHA accumulation, these three different species were cultured in an artificial biofilm in which the cells were immobilized on alginate beads. PHA accumulation by cells that had detached from the biofilm was compared with that of their planktonic counterparts. Experiments in different culture media showed that PHA accumulation, measured as the relative fluorescence intensity after 48 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, was higher in immobilized than in planktonic cells, with the exception of cells growing in 5% NaCl, in which PHA accumulation was drastically lower in both. Therefore, for obtaining high PHA concentrations, the use of immobilized cells may be a good alternative to the PHA accumulation by bacteria growing in the classical, planktonic mode. From the ecological point of view, increased PHA accumulation in detached cells from biofilms would be a natural strategy to improve bacterial dispersion capacity and, consequently

  18. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting.

  19. 47 CFR 32.3400 - Accumulated amortization-tangible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... include: (1) the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2681, Capital leases. (2) the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2682... be charged with the cost of the retired item. Remaining amounts associated with the item shall...

  20. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  1. Carbon accumulation rates recorded in the last 150years in tropical high mountain peatlands of the Atlantic Rainforest, SE - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourençato, Lúcio F; Caldeira, Pedro P; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Buch, Andressa C; Teixeira, Daniel C; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2017-02-01

    Peatlands are environmental matrices that store large amounts of organic carbon (TOC) and work as records of environmental changes. Recent record of organic carbon accumulated were assessed in two Forest National Parks, Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos in the Southeastern of Brazil. Based on organic and inorganic characterization, the cores from peatlands presented a predominance of organic material in an advanced stage of decomposition and those soils were classified as typical Haplosaprists Histosols. The combination of favorable topographic and climatic conditions led to rapid C accumulation across coastal mountain in the tropical peatlands studied, presenting an average accumulation rate of C, in the last century, of 194gCm(-2)yr(-1) about 7 higher times than the rate found in boreal and subarctic peatlands, those higher values may be related to changes in the hydrological cycle occurred since 1950s.

  2. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  3. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  4. Checking ozone amounts by measurements of UV-irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seckmeyer, Gunther; Kettner, Christiane; Thiel, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Absolute measurements of UV-irradiances in Germany and New Zealand are used to determine the total amounts of ozone. UV-irradiances measured and calculated for clear skies and for solar zenith angles less than 60 deg generally show a good accordance. The UVB-irradiances, however, show that the actual Dobson values are about 5 percent higher in Germany and about 3 percent higher in New Zealand compared to those obtained by our method. Possible reasons for these deviations are discussed.

  5. Sulphur interferes with selenium accumulation in Tartary buckwheat plants.

    PubMed

    Golob, Aleksandra; Gadžo, Drena; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Djikić, Mirha; Gavrić, Teofil; Kreft, Ivan; Germ, Mateja

    2016-11-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) and common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) plants grown in the field were treated foliarly with 126 μM solutions of selenate and/or sulphate in order to study the effect of sulphur (S) on selenium (Se) concentration in plants. In both species, the concentration of Se in all plant parts was similar in control and S treated plants. In Tartary buckwheat the concentration of Se was higher in S and Se treated plants than in plants treated with Se alone. S was shown to enhance Se accumulation in Tartary buckwheat. It was also shown that it is possible to produce grain and herb of Tartary and common buckwheat containing appropriate amounts of Se for food without affecting the yield of the plants.

  6. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  8. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  10. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the individual is eligible under section 599C of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035). (b)(1) The amount... specified in section 599C(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035), rounded to the next higher $1,000, plus... 599C(e) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035)....

  11. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the individual is eligible under section 599C of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035). (b)(1) The amount... specified in section 599C(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035), rounded to the next higher $1,000, plus... 599C(e) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035)....

  12. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the individual is eligible under section 599C of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035). (b)(1) The amount... specified in section 599C(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035), rounded to the next higher $1,000, plus... 599C(e) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035)....

  13. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the individual is eligible under section 599C of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035). (b)(1) The amount... specified in section 599C(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035), rounded to the next higher $1,000, plus... 599C(e) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035)....

  14. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the individual is eligible under section 599C of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035). (b)(1) The amount... specified in section 599C(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035), rounded to the next higher $1,000, plus... 599C(e) of Pub. L. 101-513 (104 Stat. 2035)....

  15. 20 CFR 435.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of amounts due. 435.73 Section 435.73 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS,...

  16. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... office. (b) For such part of the property or project attributable to dwelling use (excluding exterior... the higher costs incident to construction of elevator type structures of sound standards of..., the allowable cost of the property upon which the loan amount is based shall be reduced by the...

  17. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... office. (b) For such part of the property or project attributable to dwelling use (excluding exterior... the higher costs incident to construction of elevator type structures of sound standards of..., the allowable cost of the property upon which the loan amount is based shall be reduced by the...

  18. 34 CFR 74.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 74.73 Section 74.73 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award...

  19. 22 CFR 145.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of amounts due. 145.73 Section 145.73 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award Requirements §...

  20. 22 CFR 145.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection of amounts due. 145.73 Section 145.73 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award Requirements §...

  1. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth. PMID:27141848

  2. Dust Accumulation on MER Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Cull, S.

    2011-12-01

    HiRISE acquired in March 2011 a color image of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover from orbit that shows an exceptionally bright reflection from the rover solar panels. HiRISE data combined with laboratory measurements of MER solar cell reflectance provide a method for constraining the thickness of dust on the solar panels. Spirit is the brightest object in the HiRISE scene with a reflectance that is about 3 times higher at 500 nm and about 1.5 times higher at 700 and 850 nm than bright outcrop and soil near the rover. The rover is also less red than these nearby materials and less red than a typical Mars dust spectrum modeled with the same geometry and seen through similar atmospheric conditions as the HiRISE image. Lighting and viewing angles for the HiRISE image of Spirit are close to a specular reflection geometry when factoring in the rover orientation, the sun position, and the location of HiRISE during image acquisition. Laboratory photometric measurements of clean and dust-coated MER solar cells show a strong specular reflection for dust coating thicknesses up to at least 45 micrometers. The specular reflection was not present in the laboratory data when the solar cell was covered with about a 135 micrometer thick layer. The dust used in the experiments consisted of less than 10 micrometer sized particles derived from a palagonitic tephra from Mauna Kea that is spectrally similar to Mars dust. A survey of MER Pancam color images acquired by Spirit and Opportunity also shows several examples of specular reflections from the solar panels. These examples correspond to times when the solar cells were moderately clean to dusty as inferred from the amount of power generated by the cells. Specular reflections in Pancam images have been observed when the solar cell output was only 45% that of a dust-free cell. Spirit HiRISE data indicate that the rover was not covered by an optical thick layer of dust because some of the reflected light must have come from the

  3. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  4. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  5. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  6. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  7. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  8. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable... job search; or (ii) The cost per mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the...

  9. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  10. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  11. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  12. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  13. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  14. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  15. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  16. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  17. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  18. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism affects accumulation of mtDNA damage in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Altilia, Serena; Santoro, Aurelia; Malagoli, Davide; Lanzarini, Catia; Álvarez, Josué Adolfo Ballesteros; Galazzo, Gianluca; Porter, Donald Carl; Crocco, Paolina; Rose, Giuseppina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Roninson, Igor Boris; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human TP53 gene is characterised by a polymorphism at codon 72 leading to an Arginine-to-Proline (R/P) substitution. The two resulting p53 isoforms have a different subcellular localisation after stress (more nuclear or more mitochondrial for the P or R isoform, respectively). p53P72 variant is more efficient than p53R72 in inducing the expression of genes involved in nuclear DNA repair. Since p53 is involved also in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, we wondered whether these p53 isoforms are associated with different accumulation of mtDNA damage. We observed that cells bearing p53R72 accumulate lower amount of mtDNA damage upon rotenone stress with respect to cells bearing p53P72, and that p53R72 co-localises with polymerase gamma more than p53P72. We also analysed the in vivo accumulation of heteroplasmy in a 300 bp fragment of mtDNA D-loop of 425 aged subjects. We observed that subjects with heteroplasmy higher than 5% are significantly less than expected in the p53R72/R72 group. On the whole, these data suggest that the polymorphism of TP53 at codon 72 affects the accumulation of mtDNA mutations, likely through the different ability of the two p53 isoforms to bind to polymerase gamma, and may contribute to in vivo accumulation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:22289634

  19. Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.

    PubMed

    Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

    2013-06-01

    Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 μg g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow.

  20. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  1. Role of sooty mold fungi in accumulation of fine-particle-associated PAHs and metals on deciduous leaves.

    PubMed

    Jouraeva, Venera A; Johnson, David L; Hassett, John P; Nowak, David J; Shipunova, Natalia A; Barbarossa, Dana

    2006-11-01

    The focus of this research was on elucidation of the role of deciduous tree ecosystems in accumulation of fine-particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals on leaves of deciduous trees. The studied species were Tilia x euchlora (frequently infested by sooty mold fungi) and Pyrus calleryana (unaffected by sooty mold fungi). The selected species have similar leaf morphology and were exposed to identical environmental conditions. Intra-species comparison showed that moldy linden leaves accumulate significantly higher amounts of PAHs and metals than unaffected linden leaves. Inter-species comparison revealed that in the absence of sooty mold fungi, physico-chemical properties of epicuticular waxes, rather than the amounts of waxes, might play an important role in accumulation of particulate matter on leaves. The accumulation and/or degradation of a number of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs on leaves was temperature dependent. The results show that the presence of sooty mold fungi on deciduous leaves alters either the accumulation modes and/or degradation pathways of PAHs on deciduous leaves.

  2. Effects of water deficit on radicle apex elongation and solute accumulation in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Márquez, S; Conde-Martínez, V; Trejo, C; Delgado-Alvarado, A; Carballo, A; Suárez, R; Mascorro, J O; Trujillo, A R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of water deficit on the elongation of radicles of maize seedlings and on the accumulation of solutes in the radicle apices of two maize varieties: VS-22 (tolerant) and AMCCG-2 (susceptible). Sections of radicle corresponding to the first 2 mm of the primary roots were marked with black ink, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for 24, 48, and 72 h in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes filled with vermiculite at three different water potentials (Ψ(w), -0.03, -1.0, and -1.5 MPa). The radicle elongation, sugar accumulation, and proline accumulation were determined after each of the growth periods specified above. The Ψ(w) of the substrate affected the dynamics of primary root elongation in both varieties. In particular, the lowest Ψ(w) (-1.5 MPa) inhibited root development by 72% and 90% for the VS-22 and AMCCG-2 varieties, respectively. The osmotic potential (Ψ(o)) was reduced substantially in both varieties to maintain root turgor; however, VS-22 had a higher root turgor (0.67 MPa) than AMCCG-2 (0.2 MPa). These results suggest that both varieties possess a capacity for osmotic adjustment. Sugar began to accumulate within the first 24 h of radicle apex growth. The sugar concentration was higher in VS-22 root apices compared to AMCCG-2, and the amount of sugar accumulation increased with a decrease in Ψ(w). Significant amounts of trehalose accumulated in VS-22 and AMCCG-2 (29.8 μmol/g fresh weight [FW] and 5.24 μmol/g FW, respectively). Starch accumulation in the root apices of these two maize varieties also differed significantly, with a lower level in VS-22. In both varieties, the proline concentration also increased as a consequence of the water deficit. At 72 h, the proline concentration in VS-22 (16.2 μmol/g FW) was almost 3 times greater than that in AMCCG-2 (5.19 μmol/g FW). Trehalose also showed a 3-fold increase in the tolerant variety. Accumulation of these solutes in the root growth zone may indicate an osmotic

  3. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the... orders with priority, the following shall apply: (1) Unless otherwise provided by federal...

  4. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL... § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under § 1335.7(a) of this part shall be eligible to receive $25,000. (b) Initiation grant. A State that qualifies...

  5. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  6. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-02-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

  7. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-ting; Lu, Ping

    2002-04-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in Plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively. The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  8. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  9. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... July of the preceding year involved and rounded to the nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2011... judicial review will rise to $1,300 for the 2011 calendar year. These updated amounts are based on the...

  10. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year... nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2013 The AIC threshold amount for ALJ hearing requests...

  11. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgrun were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO(4)(3-) concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO(4)(3-) at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with

  12. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  14. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  15. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  16. Daily accumulation rates of marine debris on sub-Antarctic island beaches.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Cecilia; Burton, Harry; Fitch, Stuart; Schulz, Martin; van den Hoff, John

    2013-01-15

    The worlds' oceans contain a large but unknown amount of plastic debris. We made daily collections of marine debris stranded at two sub-Antarctic islands to establish (a) physical causes of strandings, and (b) a sampling protocol to better estimate the oceans' plastic loading. Accumulation rates at some beaches were dependent on tide and onshore winds. Most of the 6389 items collected were plastic (Macquarie 95%, Heard 94%) and discarded or lost fishing gear comprised 22% of those plastic items. Stalked barnacles (Lepas spp.) were a regular attachment on Macquarie debris but not at Heard Island. The daily accumulation rate of plastic debris on Macquarie Island was an order of magnitude higher than that estimated from monthly surveys during the same 4 months in the previous 5 years. This finding suggests that estimates of the oceans' plastic loading are an order of magnitude too low.

  17. Expression of cadR Enhances its Specific Activity for Cd Detoxification and Accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrui; Wei, Xuezhi; Yu, Pengli; Deng, Xin; Xu, Wenxiu; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a transition metal that is highly toxic in biological systems. Anthropogenic emissions of Cd have increased biogeochemical cycling and the amount of Cd in the biosphere. Here we studied the utility of a bacterial Cd-binding protein, CadR, for the remediation of Cd contamination. CadR was successfully targeted to chloroplasts using a constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter or a shoot-specific Chl a/b-binding protein 2 gene (CAB2) promoter and an RbcS (small subunit of the Rubisco complex) transit peptide. Under short-term (2 d) exposure to Cd, the cadR transgenic plants showed up to a 2.9-fold Cd accumulation in roots compared with untransformed plants. Under medium term (7 d) exposure to Cd, the concentrations of Cd in leaves began to increase but there were no differences between the wild type and the cadR transgenic plants. Under long-term (16 d) exposure to Cd, the cadR transgenic plants accumulated greater amounts of Cd in leaves than the untransformed plants. Total Cd accumulation (µg per plant) in shoots and roots of the plants expressing cadR were significantly higher (up to 3.5-fold in shoots and 5.2-fold in roots) than those of the untransformed plants. We also found that targeting CadR to chloroplasts facilitated chloroplastic metal homeostasis and Chl b accumulation. Our results demonstrate that manipulating chelating capacity in chloroplasts or in the cytoplasm may be effective in modifying both the accumulation of and resistance to Cd.

  18. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  7. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  8. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  9. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  10. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  11. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee amounts..., or export a List I chemical, the applicant shall pay an annual fee of $1,147. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 15250, Mar. 15, 2012, § 1309.11 was revised, effective April 16, 2012. For the convenience...

  12. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    PubMed

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated.

  13. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  14. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  15. An oleaginous bacterium that intrinsically accumulates long-chain free Fatty acids in its cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Kanno, Manabu; Morita, Naoki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Mitani, Yasuo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    Medium- and long-chain fatty acids are present in organisms in esterified forms that serve as cell membrane constituents and storage compounds. A large number of organisms are known to accumulate lipophilic materials as a source of energy and carbon. We found a bacterium, designated GK12, that intrinsically accumulates free fatty acids (FFAs) as intracellular droplets without exhibiting cytotoxicity. GK12 is an obligatory anaerobic, mesophilic lactic acid bacterium that was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that GK12 is affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but is distantly related to type species in this family (less than 92% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Saturated fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 14, 16, 18, and 20 were produced from glucose under stress conditions, including higher-than-optimum temperatures and the presence of organic solvents that affect cell membrane integrity. FFAs were produced at levels corresponding to up to 25% (wt/wt) of the dry cell mass. Our data suggest that FFA accumulation is a result of an imbalance between excess membrane fatty acid biosynthesis due to homeoviscous adaptation and limited β-oxidation activity due to anaerobic growth involving lactic acid fermentation. FFA droplets were not further utilized as an energy and carbon source, even under conditions of starvation. A naturally occurring bacterium that accumulates significant amounts of long-chain FFAs with noncytotoxicity would provide useful strategies for microbial biodiesel production.

  16. Improved lipid accumulation by morphology engineering of oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina.

    PubMed

    Gao, Difeng; Zeng, Jijiao; Yu, Xiaochen; Dong, Tao; Chen, Shulin

    2014-09-01

    Oleaginous fungi capable of accumulating a considerable amount of lipids are promising sources for lipid-based biofuel production. The specific productivities of filamentous fungi in submerged fermentation are often correlated with morphological forms. However, the relationship between morphological development and lipid accumulation is not known. In this study, distinct morphological forms of oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina including pellets of different sizes, free dispersed mycelia, and broken hyphal fragments were developed by additions of different concentrations of magnesium silicate microparticles. Different morphological forms led to different levels of lipid accumulation as well as different spatial patterns of lipid distribution within pellets/mycelial aggregates. Significant higher lipid content (0.75 g lipid/g cell biomass) and lipid yield (0.18 g lipid/g glucose consumed) were achieved in free dispersed mycelia than in pellets. Moreover, extracellular metabolite analysis showed that production of undesirable by-product malate was repressed in free dispersed mycelium form. Unveiling the desired morphological form of M. isabellina for lipid accumulation provided insights into molecular mechanism of lipid biosynthesis linked with morphological development, as well as design and optimization of bioprocess to produce lipid-based biofuels.

  17. Theoretical lessons for increasing algal biofuel: Evolution of oil accumulation to avert carbon starvation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Akita, Tetsuya; Kamo, Masashi

    2015-09-07

    Microalgae-derived oil is considered as a feasible alternative to fossil-derived oil. To produce more algal biomass, both algal population size and oil accumulation in algae must be maximized. Most of the previous studies have concentrated on only one of these issues, and relatively little attention has been devoted to considering the tradeoff between them. In this paper, we first theoretically investigated evolutionary reasons for oil accumulation and then by coupling population and evolutionary dynamics, we searched for conditions that may provide better yields. Using our model, we assume that algae allocate assimilated carbon to growth, maintenance, and carbon accumulation as biofuel and that the amount of essential materials (carbon and nitrate) are strongly linked in fixed proportions. Such stoichiometrically explicit models showed that (i) algae with more oil show slower population growth; therefore, the use of such algae results in lower total yields of biofuel and (ii) oil accumulation in algae is caused by carbon and not nitrate starvation. The latter can be interpreted as a strategy for avoiding the risk of increased death rate by carbon starvation. Our model also showed that both strong carbon starvation and moderately limited nitrate will promote total biofuel production. Our results highlight considering the life-history traits for a higher total yields of biofuel, which leads to insight into both establishing a prolonged culture and collection of desired strains from a natural environment.

  18. Ataxia induced by small amounts of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Setta, F; Jacquy, J; Hildebrand, J; Manto, M

    1998-01-01

    A patient is described who exhibited cerebellar ataxia after drinking small amounts of alcohol. Intake of 5 g alcohol induced a gaze evoked nystagmus, a scanning speech, a body sway after eye closure, and bilateral postural leg tremor. Kinematic and EMG analysis of fast wrist movements showed normal movements before and marked hypermetria after alcohol intake. Dysmetria was due to abnormal programming of antagonist muscle activity.

 PMID:9728953

  19. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  20. Carbon accumulation and sequestration of lakes in China during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Chen, Huai; Yu, Zicheng; Wu, Jianghua; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Yanfen; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the responses of lake systems to past climate change and human activity is critical for assessing and predicting the fate of lake carbon (C) in the future. In this study, we synthesized records of the sediment accumulation from 82 lakes and of C sequestration from 58 lakes with direct organic C measurements throughout China. We also identified the controlling factors of the long-term sediment and C accumulation dynamics in these lakes during the past 12 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). Our results indicated an overall increasing trend of sediment and C accumulation since 12 ka, with an accumulation peak in the last couple of millennia for lakes in China, corresponding to terrestrial organic matter input due to land-use change. The Holocene lake sediment accumulation rate (SAR) and C accumulation rate (CAR) averaged (mean ± SE) 0.47 ± 0.05 mm yr(-1) and 7.7 ± 1.4 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) in China, respectively, comparable to the previous estimates for boreal and temperate regions. The SAR for lakes in the East Plain of subtropical China (1.05 ± 0.28 mm yr(-1) ) was higher than those in other regions (P < 0.05). However, CAR did not vary significantly among regions. Overall, the variability and history of climate and anthropogenic interference regulated the temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment and C sequestration for lakes in China. We estimated the total amount of C burial in lakes of China as 8.0 ± 1.0 Pg C. This first estimation of total C storage and dynamics in lakes of China confirms the importance of lakes in land C budget in monsoon-influenced regions.

  1. Choline Accumulation by Photoreceptor Cells of the Rabbit Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masland, Richard H.; Mills, John W.

    1980-03-01

    Photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina accumulate choline from the extracellular environment by an overall process that has a high affinity for choline. These cells do not synthesize acetylcholine; instead, the choline taken up is incorporated into phosphorylcholine and eventually phospholipid. A mechanism for efficient choline accumulation is presumably concomitant to the photoreceptor cell's synthesis of large amounts of membrane for outer segment membrane renewal. Its existence in the photoreceptor cell supports previous evidence that high-affinity choline uptake is not confined to neurons that release acetylcholine, but may be present wherever large amounts of choline are required.

  2. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  3. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-01

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25-70 Pg C in peatland and 13-22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36-63 Pg C at present, including 27-48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9-15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5-3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3-0.6 Pg C in peatlands and 2.2-3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr-1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr-1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr-1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  5. Glycinebetaine accumulation is more effective in chloroplasts than in the cytosol for protecting transgenic tomato plants against abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Eung-Jun; Jeknić, Zoran; Pino, María-Teresa; Murata, Norio; Chen, Tony Hwei-Hwang

    2007-08-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants were transformed with a gene for choline oxidase (codA) from Arthrobacter globiformis. The gene product (CODA) was targeted to the chloroplasts (Chl-codA), cytosol (Cyt-codA) or both compartments simultaneously (ChlCyt-codA). These three transgenic plant types accumulated different amounts and proportions of glycinebetaine (GB) in their chloroplasts and cytosol. Targeting CODA to either the cytosol or both compartments simultaneously increased total GB content by five- to sixfold over that measured from the chloroplast targeted lines. Accumulation of GB in codA transgenic plants was tissue dependent, with the highest levels being recorded in reproductive organs. Despite accumulating, the lowest amounts of GB, Chl-codA plants exhibited equal or higher degrees of enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. This suggests that chloroplastic GB is more effective than cytosolic GB in protecting plant cells against chilling, high salt and oxidative stresses. Chloroplastic GB levels were positively correlated with the degree of oxidative stress tolerance conferred, whereas cytosolic GB showed no such a correlation. Thus, an increase in total GB content does not necessarily lead to enhanced stress tolerance, but additional accumulation of chloroplastic GB is likely to further raise the level of stress tolerance beyond what we have observed.

  6. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  7. Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Ohlrogge, J.

    1999-08-01

    The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM {sup 14}C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h{sup {minus}1} embryo {sup {minus}1}) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. {sup 14}C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lancelata, U. Carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

  8. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart.

  9. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  10. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11–24%) and sorghum (7–36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8–19%) and sorghum (9–27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9–21%) and sorghum (16–27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15–18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. PMID:27375668

  11. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-06-08

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.

  12. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

    DOE PAGES

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed inmore » internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.« less

  13. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  14. [The amount of sulphites in wild mushrooms from Iaşi and Suceava districts].

    PubMed

    Butnaru, Claudia; Agoroaei, Luminiţa; Mircea, Cornelia; Tănase, C; Chinan, V; Bârsan, C; Butnaru, Elena

    2006-01-01

    As a part of a larger study regarding the contamination of mushrooms from Moldavia by chemical pollutants, we aimed at proposing sulphites determination in samples harvested from different zones from Iaşi and Suceava districts, from April to September 2005. We analysed elements (gills, cap, stem) of 68 mushrooms (48 different species). The sulphites were extracted with water, and were analysed spectrophotometrically in the aqueous extract by West-Gaeke method. Results were expressed in microg SO2/g dried product at 105 degrees C. Higher levels of sulphites were found in Clitopilus prunulus (865.36-stem) and Cantharelus cibarius (444.49-cap) for very good edible mushrooms; in Chalciporus piperatus (1016.13-stem) and Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (737.17-all mushroom) for mediocre edible mushrooms; in Panaeolus sphinctrinus (490.11-stem) for toxic ones. In 34 samples (50.74%), the highest level of sulphites was noted mostly in the mushroom stem than in its cap. The mushrooms capacity of sulphite accumulation is very varied, and the results do not allow a correlation between the amount of sulphites found in stem and the one found in cap or gills.

  15. Internal development of vegetative buds of Norway spruce trees in relation to accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Häkkinen, Risto

    2014-05-01

    The timing of budburst of temperate trees is known to be controlled by complicated interactions of temperature and photoperiod. To improve the phenological models of budburst, better knowledge of the internal bud development preceding budburst in relation to environmental cues is needed. We studied the effect of accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures on the internal development of vegetative buds preceding budburst in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Branches from 17-year-old trees of southern Finnish origin were transferred eight times at 1- to 2-week intervals from October to December 2007 from the field at Punkaharju (61°48'N, 29°20'E) to the greenhouse with forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 °C). After seven different durations of forcing, the developmental phase and primordial shoot growth of the buds were analysed at the stereomicroscopic level. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The accumulated chilling unit sum had a significant effect on the temperature sum that was required to attain a certain developmental phase; a higher amount of chilling required a lower amount of forcing. The variation in the rate of development of different buds within each sample branch in relation to the chilling unit and forcing temperature sum was low. Regarding primordial shoot growth, there was also an inverse relation between accumulated chilling and forcing, i.e., a higher accumulated chilling unit sum before forcing required a lower temperature sum to initiate primordial shoot growth and resulted in a stronger effect of accumulated forcing. A second-order regression model with an interaction of chilling and forcing explained the variation of primordial shoot growth with high precision (R(2) = 0.88). However, further studies are required to determine the final parameter values to be used in phenological modelling.

  16. Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in lotus plant (Nelumbonucifera spp.).

    PubMed

    Dai, Shouhui; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Min; Chai, Tingting; Fan, Li; Yang, Shuming

    2014-09-15

    Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 91, 95, 136, 149, 176 and 183 was investigated in lotus plants (Nelumbonucifera spp.) exposed to these chemicals via spiked sediment, to determine uptake and possible biotransformation for aquatic phytoremediation purposes. The concentrations of most PCBs were greatest in roots at 60 d (19.6 ± 1.51-70.6 ± 6.14 μg kg(-1)), but were greatest in stems and leaves at 120 d (25.3 ± 6.14-95.5 ± 19.4 μg kg(-1) and 17.4 ± 4.41-70.4 ± 10.4 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total amounts were greatest at 120 d and significantly higher in roots than those in stems and in leaves (1,457 ± 220-5,852 ± 735 ng, 237 ± 47.1-902 ± 184 ng and 202 ± 60.3-802 ± 90.2 ng, respectively), but represented less than 0.51% of the total mass of PCBs added to sediments, indicating that lotus plants were unlikely to remove appreciable amounts of PCBs from contaminated sediments. Racemic PCB residues in sediment indicate no enantioselective biodegradation by sedimentary microbial consortia over the entire experiment. Preferential accumulation of the (-)-enantiomers of PCBs 91, 95 and 136 were observed in roots, stems and leaves, but non-enantioselective accumulation was observed for PCBs 149, 176 and 183. These results indicate that aquatic plants can accumulate PCBs enantioselectively via root uptake, possibly by biotransformation within plant tissues as observed for terrestrial plants. This is also the first report to identify optical rotation of the atropisomers of PCBs 91 and 95.

  17. Vegetation patches increase wind-blown litter accumulation in a semi-arid steppe of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yuchun; Xin, Xiaoping; Xu, Xingliang; Wang, Xu; Yan, Ruirui; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-12-01

    Litter decomposition is an important source of soil organic matter and nutrients; however, few studies have explored how vegetation patches affect wind-driven litter mobility and accumulation. In this study, we aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) vegetation patches can reduce litter removal and facilitate litter accumulation, (2) litter mobility results in the heterogeneous redistribution of carbon and nutrients over the land surface, and (3) litter removal rates differ among different litter types (e.g., leaf and stem). Four vegetation patch types and six litter types were used to investigate the impacts of vegetation patches on litter mobility and accumulation. The results show that compared with almost bare ground patches, patches with vegetation cover had significantly higher litter accumulation, with the shrub patch type having the highest accumulation amount. The rate of litter removal due to wind was highest for the almost bare surface type (P4) and lowest for the shrub patch (P1) and Stipa grandis community (P2) types. There were significant differences in the removal rate among the different litter types. These findings indicate that wind-based litter redistribution among bare, S. grandis-dominated, and shrub-dominated patches is at least partially responsible for increasing the spatial heterogeneity of resources on a landscape scale.

  18. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    PubMed

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration.

  19. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equal to the present value of all initial withdrawal liability payments for which the employer was not liable pursuant to section 4219(c)(1)(B) of ERISA. The present value of such payments shall...

  20. Ultrasonic Atomization Amount for Different Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Honma, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zheng; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization was estimated by measuring the vaporization amount from a bulk liquid with a fountain. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the atomization characteristics were investigated when the directivities of the acoustic field from a transducer were almost the same. The sample was distillated water and the ultrasonic frequencies were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.4 MHz. The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity and decreasing ultrasonic frequency. The fountain was formed at the liquid surface where the effective value of acoustic pressure was above atmospheric pressure. The fountain height was strongly governed by the acoustic pressure at the liquid surface of the transducer center. At the same ultrasonic intensity, the dependence of ultrasonic frequency on the number of atomized droplets was small. At the same apparent surface area of the fountain, the number of atomized droplets became larger as the ultrasonic frequency increased.

  1. Do radial oxygen loss and external aeration affect iron plaque formation and arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuan; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Hui; Wu, Shengchun; Deng, Dan; Zhu, Yongguan; Wong, Minghung

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of radial oxygen loss (ROL) and external aeration on iron (Fe) plaque formation, and arsenic (As) accumulation and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The data showed that there were significant correlations between ROL and Fe concentrations in Fe plaque produced on different genotypes of rice. There were also significant differences in the amounts of Fe plaque formed between different genotypes in different positions of roots and under different aeration conditions (aerated, normal, and stagnant treatments). In aerated treatments, rice tended to have a higher Fe plaque formation than in a stagnant solution, with the greatest formation at the root tip decreasing with increasing distances away, in accordance with a trend of spatial ROL. Genotypes with higher rates of ROL induced higher degrees of Fe plaque formation. Plaques sequestered As on rice roots, with arsenate almost double that with arsenite, leading to decreased As accumulation in both roots and shoots. The major As species detected in roots and shoots was arsenite, ranging from 34 to 78% of the total As in the different treatments and genotypes. These results contribute to our understanding of genotypic differences in As uptake by rice and the mechanisms causing rice genotypes with higher ROL to show lower overall As accumulation. PMID:22345639

  2. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  3. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  4. Conostegia xalapensis (Melastomataceae): an aluminum accumulator plant.

    PubMed

    González-Santana, Iris Hayde; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Cram-Heydrich, Silke; Cruz-Ortega, Rocio

    2012-02-01

    In acidic soils, an excess of Al³⁺ is toxic to most plants. The Melastomataceae family includes Al-accumulator genera that tolerate high Al³⁺ by accumulating it in their tissues. Conostegia xalapensis is a common shrub in Mexico and Central America colonizing mainly disturbed areas. Here, we determined whether C. xalapensis is an Al accumulator, and whether it has internal tolerance mechanisms to Al. Soil samples collected from two pastures in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, had low pH and high Al³⁺ concentrations along with low Ca²⁺ levels. Leaves of C. xalapensis from pastures showed up to 19,000 mg Al kg⁻¹ DW (dry weight). In laboratory experiments, 8-month-old seedlings treated with 0.5 and 1.0 mM AlCl₃ for 24 days showed higher number of lateral roots and biomass. Pyrocatechol violet and hematoxylin staining evidenced that Al localized in epidermis and mesophyll cells in leaves and in epidermis and vascular pith in roots. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of Al-treated leaves corroborated that Al is in abaxial and adaxial epidermis and in mesophyll cells (31.2%) in 1.0 mM Al-treatment. Roots of Al-treated plants had glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activity higher, and low levels of O₂*⁻ and H₂O₂. C. xalapensis is an Al-accumulator plant that can grow in acidic soils with higher Al³⁺ concentrations, and can be considered as an indicator species for soils with potential Al toxicity.

  5. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  6. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  7. Effects of exogenous glucose on carotenoid accumulation in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Stammitti, Linda; Telef, Nadège; Colardelle, Patrice; Brouquisse, Renaud; Rolin, Dominique; Gallusci, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the effect of carbohydrate on carotenoid accumulation in leaves, excised plants of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiformae, wva 106) were supplied with glucose through the transpiration stream for 48 h. We report here that sugar accumulation in leaves led to a decrease of carotenoid content, which was related to the reduction of Chl. The decrease in carotenoid amount correlated with a sugar-induced repression of genes encoding enzymes of the carotenoid and of the Rohmer pathways. The lower 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase transcript level probably leads to a decreased metabolic flux through the methylerythritol pathway and subsequently to a lower amount of substrate available for plastidic isoprenoid synthesis. Differences between responses of young (sink) and mature (source) leaves to carbohydrate accumulation are discussed.

  8. Abnormal behavior of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinling; Wang, Yiguang; An, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Silica is the most abundant mineral in the crust of the Earth. It has been demonstrated that the aluminum concentration in silica plays a key role in determining many properties of silica-based components. Although the alumina-silica system has been intensely studied, the effect of very small amounts of aluminum on the structure and properties of silica remains unclear. We report results of first principles calculations showing that small amounts of aluminum could be metastable when located in the center of Si-O rings without breaking the silica network. In contrast, higher aluminum contents will result in the destruction of the Si-O bonds, leading to the formation of triclusters and a 4-, 5-, and 6-fold Al-O coordination, as observed in previous studies. Based on the silica structure obtained through geometric optimization, the properties of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum were calculated. The results can account for many ‘abnormal’ phenomena experimentally observed. The results benefit most areas such as geosciences, microelectronics, glass industry, and ceramic materials. PMID:27752133

  9. Abnormal behavior of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinling; Wang, Yiguang; An, Linan

    2016-10-01

    Silica is the most abundant mineral in the crust of the Earth. It has been demonstrated that the aluminum concentration in silica plays a key role in determining many properties of silica-based components. Although the alumina-silica system has been intensely studied, the effect of very small amounts of aluminum on the structure and properties of silica remains unclear. We report results of first principles calculations showing that small amounts of aluminum could be metastable when located in the center of Si-O rings without breaking the silica network. In contrast, higher aluminum contents will result in the destruction of the Si-O bonds, leading to the formation of triclusters and a 4-, 5-, and 6-fold Al-O coordination, as observed in previous studies. Based on the silica structure obtained through geometric optimization, the properties of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum were calculated. The results can account for many ‘abnormal’ phenomena experimentally observed. The results benefit most areas such as geosciences, microelectronics, glass industry, and ceramic materials.

  10. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  11. Using GRACE to constrain precipitation amount over cold mountainous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Gardner, Alex S.; Reager, John T.; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance for hydrology and climate-change studies, current quantitative knowledge on the amount and distribution of precipitation in mountainous and high-elevation regions is limited due to instrumental and retrieval shortcomings. Here by focusing on two large endorheic basins in High Mountain Asia, we show that satellite gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) can be used to provide an independent estimate of monthly accumulated precipitation using mass balance equation. Results showed that the GRACE-based precipitation estimate has the highest agreement with most of the commonly used precipitation products in summer, but it deviates from them in cold months, when the other products are expected to have larger errors. It was found that most of the products capture about or less than 50% of the total precipitation estimated using GRACE in winter. Overall, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) showed better agreement with GRACE estimate than other products. Yet on average GRACE showed 30% more annual precipitation than GPCP in the study basins. In basins of appropriate size with an absence of dense ground measurements, as is a typical case in cold mountainous regions, we find GRACE can be a viable alternative to constrain monthly and seasonal precipitation estimates from other remotely sensed precipitation products that show large bias.

  12. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds. 201.30 Section 201.30 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... bond coverage for a market agency selling on commission be less than $10,000 or such higher amount...

  13. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds. 201.30 Section 201.30 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... bond coverage for a market agency selling on commission be less than $10,000 or such higher amount...

  14. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds. 201.30 Section 201.30 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... bond coverage for a market agency selling on commission be less than $10,000 or such higher amount...

  15. Cold and ambient deck storage prior to processing as a critical control point for patulin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Héctor; Marín, Sonia; Centelles, Xavier; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente

    2007-05-10

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, is currently of great concern because of its undesirable effects in human health. It has been proven that patulin can damage organs and tissues in animals and some studies revealed carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. Patulin is found mainly in low quality apples diverted to production of apple by-products. Apples from cold storage or recently harvested (usually ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions (deck storage) until they are processed. The present assay studies the consequences of this type of storage in development of lesions and patulin accumulation. The assayed factors were the size of lesions when apples were taken out from cold storage, time the apples stayed at room temperature after cold storage (as a simulation of deck storage) and intraspecific differences between 2 isolates of P. expansum. A sublot of P. expansum inoculated apples was cold stored until lesions achieved concrete sizes. Then, apples were either transferred to a 20 degrees C storage room for 0 to 5 days or were analysed for patulin immediately. The rest of the apples were directly stored at 20 degrees C. Each treatment had three replicates. Increase of lesion size with time at 20 degrees C depended on initial lesion size after cold storage. Bigger lesions were always achieved in apples with bigger initial lesion size. Initial lesion size and time at 20 degrees C significantly influenced patulin accumulation. No significant amounts of patulin were found in apples with lesions up to 2 cm after cold storage. Patulin amounts significantly increased on the 2nd day at 20 degrees C day and remained constant until the 5th day. Patulin accumulation tended to be higher when initial lesions were bigger. The assay showed the influence of apple quality (measured as overall lesion size) after cold storage on patulin accumulation during deck storage, as well as the importance of duration of deck

  16. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  17. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  18. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  19. Lipid Accumulation in Hypoxic Tissue Culture Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gerald B.; Barcza, Maureen A.; Bush, Marilyn E.

    1977-01-01

    Lipid droplets have long been recognized by light microscopy to accumulate in hypoxic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In the present tissue culture experiments, correlative electron microscopic observations and lipid analyses were performed to determine the nature and significance of lipid accumulation in hypoxia. Strain L mouse fibroblasts were grown in suspension culture, both aerobically and under severe oxygen restriction obtained by gassing cultures daily with an 8% CO2-92% nitrogen mixture. After 48 hours, hypoxic cells showed an increase in total lipid/protein ratio of 42% over control cells. Most of this increase was accounted for by an elevation in the level of cellular triglyceride from 12.3 ± 0.9 μg/mg cell protein in aerobic cultures to 41.9 ± 0.7 in the hypoxic cultures, an increase of 240%. Levels of cellular free fatty acids (FFA) were 96% higher in the hypoxic cultures. No significant changes in the levels of cellular phospholipid or cholesterol were noted. Electron microscopic examination revealed the accumulation of homogeneous cytoplasmic droplets. The hypoxic changes were reversible upon transferring the cultures to aerobic atmospheres with disappearance of the lipid. These experiments indicate that hypoxic injury initially results in triglyceride and FFA accumulation from an inability to oxidize fatty acids taken up from the media and not from autophagic processes, as described in other types of cell injury associated with the sequestration of membranous residues and intracellular cholesterol and phospholipid accumulation. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 1Figure 2 PMID:196505

  20. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  1. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  2. Pb and Cd accumulation and phyto-excretion by salt cedar (Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge).

    PubMed

    Kadukova, Jana; Manousaki, Eleni; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) by salt cedar (Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge) were investigated in this study. Tamarix smyrnensis plants were exposed to the mixtures of Pb and Cd and high salinity for 10 wk. Subsequently, Pb and Cd uptake was quantified in the shoots and roots of the plants by ICP-AES. In addition, physiological parameters such as biomass production, shoot length, plant appearance, and chlorophyll content were examined. The roots accumulated the highest amount of Pb. Salinity was found to not have an important effect on Pb translocation to the leaves. Cd was translocated into the aerial part in a higher portion than Pb. Cd content in leaves of T. smyrnensis increased with the increasing salinity. The visible toxicity symptoms, if present, were connected only to the high salinity. The excretion of Pb and Cd by salt glands was observed and quantified. T. smyrnensis excreted a significant amount of metals on the leaf surface. This characteristic of salt cedar plants can be viewed as a novel phytoremediation process for the remediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals that we have termed "phyto-excretion."

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals in a long-term poultry waste-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.X.; Kingery, W.L.; Selim, H.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2000-03-01

    Various metals are added to poultry diets to facilitate weight increase and disease prevention. The large amounts of poultry waste produced annually are dispersed intensively over relatively small areas of land, resulting in accumulations that pose potential environmental risks to the surface and groundwater. The focus of this study was to assess the distribution of heavy metals among various solid-phase fractions in soil profiles from a 25-year poultry waste-amended soil. Copper and Zn accumulated close to the soil surface where the total amounts of Cu and Zn in waste-amended soils were significantly higher than in nonamended soils. The total metal concentrations in amended soils were not critically high. Copper in the amended soil was present mostly in the organic matter (OM) fraction (46.9%), whereas Zn was found in the easily reducible oxide (ERO) fraction (47.3%). This suggests that the Cu and Zn in this long-term amended soil are potentially bioavailable and mobile. The authors observed the mobility of Zn through much of the soil profile of the long-term waste-amended soil. Zinc in this soil profile was found primarily in forms of the residual (RES) and crystalline iron oxide bound (CryFe) fractions, followed by the organic matter-bound and exchangeable (EXC) fractions.

  4. Uptake, accumulation and elimination of polystyrene microspheres in tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingling; Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Mu, Jingli; Zhu, Jingmin; Xu, Jiang; Shi, Huahong

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic is an emerging contaminant affecting freshwater and marine ecosystem across the globe. In the present study, the filter feeding tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis were exposed to polystyrene microspheres (1 and 10 μm) for 48 h. Microspheres were observed in gills and digestive tract of tadpoles within 1 h after exposure as well as in feces 6 h after exposure. The accumulation of microspheres in the tadpoles were concentration dependent (Univariate ANOVA, p < 0.001), but no time dependent accumulation of microspheres was observed in tadpoles 48 h after exposure (Univariate ANOVA, p > 0.05). After the exposed tadpoles were transferred to clean water, the number of microspheres in the tadpoles decreased dramatically after 1 d and continued to decrease gradually afterwards. The absorbed polystyrene particles in unfed tadpoles was significantly higher than those in the fed tadpoles at 12 and 24 h after exposure. After transfer to clean water, the fed tadpoles showed a significant decrease in the amount of absorbed polystyrene particles, while the unfed tadpoles showed no significant change in the amount of absorbed polystyrene particles. Our results suggested that microspheres were likely to be ingested and egested relatively fast by tadpoles. Our results indicated that aquatic vertebrate organisms might ingest more microplastics if the abundance of microplastics continues to increase while the available food becomes less.

  5. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  6. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  7. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  8. Sublethal effects of contamination on the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe: metal accumulation and biological responses.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, E; Martí, R; Uriz, J M; Turon, X

    2003-10-01

    The effect of low levels of pollution on the growth, reproduction output, morphology and survival of adult sponges and settlers of the sponge Crambe crambe were examined. We transplanted sponges from a control area to a contaminated site and measured the main environmental variables (chemical and physical) of both sites during the study period. Except some punctual differences in particulate organic matter, silicates, nitrates, and water motion, most environmental variables in the water were similar at both sites during the study months. Mainly copper, lead and OM concentrations in the sediment, and water motion were significantly higher at the polluted site and may be implicated in the biological effects observed: decrease in the percentage of specimens with embryos, increase in shape irregularity and decrease in growth rate. Individuals naturally occurring at the polluted site and those transplanted there for four months accumulated ten times more copper than either untouched or transplant controls. Although lead concentration in sediment did not differ between sites, native specimens from the contaminated site accumulated this metal more than untouched controls. Vanadium concentration also tended to increase in the sponges living at or transplanted to the contaminated site but this difference was not significant. C. crambe is a reliable indicator of metal contamination since it accumulates copper, lead and vanadium in high amounts. At the contaminated site, sponge growth, fecundity and survival were inhibited, whereas sponge irregularity ending in sponge fission was promoted. All these effects may compromise the structure and dynamics of the sponge populations in sheltered, metal-contaminated habitats.

  9. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  10. Levels of lycopene β-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

  11. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

    2006-11-05

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.

  12. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  13. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  14. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription Drug... the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for July 2003 to July of the year... (Prescription Drug Plan) Appeals The annually adjusted AIC threshold amounts for ALJ hearings and...

  15. Task set determines the amount of crowding.

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke

    2007-11-01

    The present study deals with the question of how crowding effects, which are interactions among adjacent features or characters, emerges automatically or by so-called higher level controlled processing. Two experiments are presented comparing performances during detecting, localizing, and identifying a flanked target in same strings when the target was defined on the basis of either its form or its category. Detection and localization performances were better for form- relative to category-defined targets whereas the reverse was observed for identification performance. This shows that the interacting information is indeed high level in that it is affected by task settings like the defining target feature and the observers' task set. The results suggest that crowding effects do not emerge due to processes depending on the parameters of stimulus presentation, but due to processes activated by certain task sets.

  16. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  17. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  18. Phytoremediation of heavy-metal-polluted soils: screening for new accumulator plants in Angouran mine (Iran) and evaluation of removal ability.

    PubMed

    Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Noori, Mitra; Yazdi, Hossein Lari

    2009-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem. Phytoremediation is an effective and low-cost interesting technology. This study was conducted in a dried waste pool of a lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran) to find accumulator plant(s). Concentrations of heavy metals were determined both in the soil and the plants that were grown in the mine and out of mine. The concentration of total Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni in the mine area were higher than the control soil. The results showed that five dominant vegetations namely Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Gundelia tournefortii, Noea mucronata and Scariola orientalis accumulated heavy metals. Based on the results, it was concluded that N. mucronata is the best accumulator for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni, but the best Fe accumulator is A. retroflexus. Phytoremediation ability of N. mucronata was evaluated in experimental pots. The study showed that the amounts of heavy metals were decreased in polluted soils during experiments. The accumulation of metals in the root, leave and shoot portions of N. mucronata varied significantly but all the concentrations were more than natural soils. The results indicated that N. mucronata is an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of heavy-metals-polluted soils.

  19. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  20. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  1. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  2. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  3. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26828485

  4. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-28

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques.

  5. Accumulation and sub-cellular partitioning of metals and As in the clam Venerupis corrugata: Different strategies towards different elements.

    PubMed

    Velez, Cátia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to assess accumulation, tolerance and sub-cellular partitioning of As, Hg, Cd and Pb in Venerupis corrugata. Results showed an increase of elements accumulation in V. corrugata with the increase of exposure. However, organisms presented higher capacity to accumulate Hg, Cd and Pb (BCF ≥ 12.8) than As (BCF ≤ 2.1) and higher accumulation rate for Cd and Pb than for Hg and As. With the increase of Hg exposure concentrations clams tended to increase the amount of metal bound to metal-sensitive fractions, which may explain the mortality recorded at the highest exposure concentration. Cd sub-cellular partitioning showed that with the increase of exposure concentrations V. corrugata increased the amount of metal in the cellular debris fraction, probably bound to the cellular membranes which explain the mortality recorded at the highest concentration. Results on As partitioning demonstrated that most of the metalloid was associated with fractions in the biologically detoxified metal compartment (BDM). Since high mortality was observed in clams exposed to As our results may indicate that this strategy was not enough to prevent clams from toxic effects and mortality occurred. When exposed to Pb most of the metal was in the BDM compartment, but in this case the metal was mostly in the metal-rich granules fraction which seemed to be efficient in preventing clams from toxicity, and no mortality was recorded. Our study further revealed that As and Hg were the most available elements to be biomagnified through the food chain.

  6. Solute accumulation of chestnut oak and dogwood leaves in response to throughfall manipulation of an upland oak forest.

    PubMed

    Gebre, G Michael; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2002-03-01

    To determine the biochemical basis of osmotic adjustment, seasonal and treatment differences in foliar water- soluble organic solutes and inorganic ions were investigated for two hardwood species that exhibited osmotic adjustment in a Throughfall Displacement Experiment at the Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Leaf samples of overstory and understory chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) and understory dogwood (Cornus florida L.) were collected during the 1994 (wet) and 1995 (dry) growing seasons from each of three treatments: dry (-33% throughfall), ambient (control) and wet (+33% throughfall). Foliar soluble carbohydrates and organic acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During May 1994, when the demand for sucrose was greatest, dogwood accumulated small amounts of glucose, quinic acid and Mg2+, offsetting a decline in nitrate concentration. As the mild drought continued and tree growth slowed, there was a significant accumulation of sucrose in dogwood in the dry treatment in June, and a trend toward increased K+. In overstory chestnut oak in the dry treatment over the same period, there were significant accumulations of fructose, glucose and K+, and a trend toward increased quinic acid accumulation. Sucrose did not become a key osmotically active compound in chestnut oak until August 1994. In 1995, with the exception of understory chestnut oak, there was no accumulation of K+ in either species. During the severe drought of 1995, monosaccharides, particularly glucose and fructose, accounted for most of the osmotic adjustment in both species. Among solutes, glucose constituted the largest accumulation in dogwood in the dry treatment in August 1995, followed by fructose and sucrose. There was only a moderate increase in solutes in chestnut oak trees in 1995, with fructose and glucose constituting over 50% of the predicted solute accumulation in July. Both species accumulated a wider array of solutes during the dry year than during

  7. Pressure drop increase by biofilm accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane systems: role of substrate concentration, flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Hinrichs, C; Van der Meer, W G J; Van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier study, it was shown that biofouling predominantly is a feed spacer channel problem. In this article, pressure drop development and biofilm accumulation in membrane fouling simulators have been studied without permeate production as a function of the process parameters substrate concentration, linear flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction. At the applied substrate concentration range, 100-400 microg l(-1) as acetate carbon, a higher concentration caused a faster and greater pressure drop increase and a greater accumulation of biomass. Within the range of linear flow velocities as applied in practice, a higher linear flow velocity resulted in a higher initial pressure drop in addition to a more rapid and greater pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Reduction of the linear flow velocity resulted in an instantaneous reduction of the pressure drop caused by the accumulated biomass, without changing the biofilm concentration. A higher substrate load (product of substrate concentration and flow velocity) was related to biomass accumulation. The effect of the same amount of accumulated biomass on the pressure drop increase was related to the linear flow velocity. A decrease of substrate load caused a gradual decline in time of both biomass concentration and pressure drop increase. It was concluded that the pressure drop increase over spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems can be reduced by lowering both substrate load and linear flow velocity. There is a need for RO and NF systems with a low pressure drop increase irrespective of the biomass formation. Current efforts to control biofouling of spiral wound membranes focus in addition to pretreatment on membrane improvement. According to these authors, adaptation of the hydrodynamics, spacers and pressure vessel configuration offer promising alternatives. Additional approaches may be replacing heavily biofouled elements and flow direction reversal.

  8. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl− transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl− cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl− in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  9. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  10. Characteristics of nonylphenol and bisphenol A accumulation by fish and implications for ecological and human health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Jiang, Ling-Ying; Kuo, Yi-Ling; Chen, Chung-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Yi; Hung, Chung-Feng; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Fish populations constitute an important part of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, their accumulation of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) may pose risks to ecosystems and human health. This study analyzed the concentrations of NP and BPA in four types of fishes (i.e., wild/farmed freshwater fishes and wild/farmed marine fishes). Wild freshwater fishes contained higher concentrations of NP and BPA than the other three types of fishes. The concentrations of NP in the wild freshwater fishes ranged from 1.01 to 277 μg/kg ww, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranging from 74.0 to 2.60 × 10(4)L/kg and from 0.003 to 18.3, respectively. The wild freshwater fishes contained relatively low amounts of BPA, varying from ND to 25.2 μg/kg ww, with the BCFs and BSAFs ranging from 1.00 to 274L/kg and from 0.003 to 3.40, respectively. Five fish species particularly showed high BCFs and BSAFs, indicating that they could be an important source of NP for higher trophic levels, most likely resulting in ecological risks. The demersal fishes showed a greater ability to accumulate NP than the pelagic ones. The fact that the 95th percentile values of the risk quotient (RQ) for NP and BPA were higher than the acceptable threshold indicated that these two compounds would have adverse effects on aquatic organisms in Taiwanese rivers. The consumption of wild marine fishes had the highest 95th percentile values of hazard quotient (HQ) for NP and BPA among the four types of fishes, particularly for the population aged 0-3 years. However, the 95th percentile values of HQ for NP and BPA were all less than 1, suggesting that exposure to NP and BPA through fish consumption posed no remarkable risk to human health in Taiwan.

  11. 18 CFR 367.1080 - Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. 367.1080 Section 367.1080 Conservation of... Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. (a) This account must be credited with the following: (1) Amounts charged to account 403, Depreciation expense (§ 367.4030), or...

  12. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed.

  13. Accumulation of the Antibiotic Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid in the Rhizosphere of Dryland Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Mavrodi, Olga V.; Parejko, James A.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Weller, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Natural antibiotics are thought to function in the defense, fitness, competitiveness, biocontrol activity, communication, and gene regulation of microorganisms. However, the scale and quantitative aspects of antibiotic production in natural settings are poorly understood. We addressed these fundamental questions by assessing the geographic distribution of indigenous phenazine-producing (Phz+) Pseudomonas spp. and the accumulation of the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low-precipitation zone (<350 mm) of the Columbia Plateau and in adjacent, higher-precipitation areas. Plants were collected from 61 commercial wheat fields located within an area of about 22,000 km2. Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. were detected in all sampled fields, with mean population sizes ranging from log 3.2 to log 7.1 g−1 (fresh weight) of roots. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between annual precipitation and the proportion of plants colonized by Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.0001). PCA was detected at up to nanomolar concentrations in the rhizosphere of plants from 26 of 29 fields that were selected for antibiotic quantitation. There was a direct relationship between the amount of PCA extracted from the rhizosphere and the population density of Phz+ pseudomonads (r2 = 0.46, P = 0.0006). This is the first demonstration of accumulation of significant quantities of a natural antibiotic across a terrestrial ecosystem. Our results strongly suggest that natural antibiotics can transiently accumulate in the plant rhizosphere in amounts sufficient not only for inter- and intraspecies signaling but also for the direct inhibition of sensitive organisms. PMID:22138981

  14. Effect of temperature on accumulation of methylmercuric chloride and p,p'DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Willford, Wayne A.

    1974-01-01

    Amounts of mercury and DDT residues accumulated from water by yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the laboratory increased as water temperature increased. Fish exposed to methylmercuric chloride at concentrations of 234–263 parts per trillion for 12 wk at 5, 10, and 15 C accumulated 1.19, 1.71, and 1.96 ppm; fish exposed to p,p′DDT at concentrations of 133–176 parts per trillion accumulated 3.76, 5.93, and 6.82 ppm. Concentrations of mercury accumulated by the fish were significantly different (P < 0.01) at each of the three temperatures, and the concentrations of DDT were significantly different at 5 and 10 and 5 and 15 C. Throughout the period of exposure, the concentration factors (concentration of contaminant in the fish/concentration in water) at each of the three temperatures were far higher for p,p′DDT than for methylmercuric chloride.

  15. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  16. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  17. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  18. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of...

  19. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    PubMed

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  20. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits.

  1. Geographic variability in organic carbon stock and accumulation rate in sediments of East and Southeast Asian seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Hori, Masakazu; Hamaguchi, Masami; Shimabukuro, Hiromori; Adachi, Hiroshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stored in the sediments of seagrass meadows has been considered a globally significant OC reservoir. However, the sparsity and regional bias of studies on long-term OC accumulation in coastal sediments have limited reliable estimation of the capacity of seagrass meadows as a global OC sink. We evaluated the amount and accumulation rate of OC in sediment of seagrass meadows and adjacent areas in East and Southeast Asia. In temperate sites, the average OC concentration in the top 30 cm of sediment was higher in seagrass meadows (780-1080 mmol g-1) than in sediments without seagrass cover (52-430 mmol g-1). The average OC in the top 30 cm of subtropical and tropical seagrass meadow sediments ranged from 140 to 440 mmol g-1. Carbon isotope mass balancing suggested that the contribution of seagrass-derived carbon to OC stored in sediments was often relatively minor (temperate: 10-40%; subtropical: 35-82%; tropical: 4-34%) and correlated to the habitat type, being particularly low in estuarine habitats. Stock of OC in the top meter of sediment of all the studied meadows ranged from 38 to 120 Mg ha-1. The sediment accumulation rates were estimated by radiocarbon dating of six selected cores (0.32-1.34 mm yr-1). The long-term OC accumulation rates calculated from the sediment accumulation rate and the top 30 cm average OC concentration for the seagrass meadows (24-101 kg ha-1 yr-1) were considerably lower than the OC accumulation rates previously reported for Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows (580 kg ha-1 yr-1 on average). Current estimates for the global carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows, which rely largely on Mediterranean studies, may be considerable overestimations.

  2. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  3. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  4. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate [3H]prostaglandins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Harper, M J

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with 3H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of [3H]PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of [3H]PGE2 and [3H]PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the [3H]PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. We conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  5. Bubble accumulation and its role in the evolution of magma reservoirs in the upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmigiani, A.; Faroughi, S.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.; Su, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions transfer huge amounts of gas to the atmosphere. In particular, the sulfur released during large silicic explosive eruptions can induce global cooling. A fundamental goal in volcanology, therefore, is to assess the potential for eruption of the large volumes of crystal-poor, silicic magma that are stored at shallow depths in the crust, and to obtain theoretical bounds for the amount of volatiles that can be released during these eruptions. It is puzzling that highly evolved, crystal-poor silicic magmas are more likely to generate volcanic rocks than plutonic rocks. This observation suggests that such magmas are more prone to erupting than are their crystal-rich counterparts. Moreover, well studied examples of largely crystal-poor eruptions (for example, Katmai, Taupo and Minoan) often exhibit a release of sulfur that is 10 to 20 times higher than the amount of sulfur estimated to be stored in the melt. Here we argue that these two observations rest on how the magmatic volatile phase (MVP) behaves as it rises buoyantly in zoned magma reservoirs. By investigating the fluid dynamics that controls the transport of the MVP in crystal-rich and crystal-poor magmas, we show how the interplay between capillary stresses and the viscosity contrast between the MVP and the host melt results in a counterintuitive dynamics, whereby the MVP tends to migrate efficiently in crystal-rich parts of a magma reservoir and accumulate in crystal-poor regions. The accumulation of low-density bubbles of MVP in crystal-poor magmas has implications for the eruptive potential of such magmas, and is the likely source of the excess sulfur released during explosive eruptions.

  6. N₂O accumulation from denitrification under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Poh, Leong Soon; Jiang, Xie; Zhang, Zhongbo; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during denitrification and denitritation were investigated. Batch experiments were performed to measure N2O accumulation at 25 and 35 °C. More N2O accumulation was observed during denitritation at the higher temperature as compared with full denitrification and low temperature tests. The highest nitrite concentration tested in this study (25 mg/L NO2 (-)N and pH 8.0) did not show inhibitory effect on N2O reduction. It was found that the major cause of more N2O accumulation during denitrification at higher temperature was due to higher N2O production rate and lower N2O solubility. Specific nitrate, nitrite, and N2O reduction rates increased 62, 61, and 41 %, respectively, when temperature rose from 25 to 35 °C. The decrease of N2O solubility in mixed liquor at 35 °C (when compared to 25 °C) resulted in faster diffusing rate of N2O from liquid to gas phase. It was also more difficult for gas phase N2O to be re-dissolved. The diffused N2O was then accumulated in the headspace, which was not available for denitrification by denitrifiers. The results of this study suggest higher temperature may worsen N2O emission from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

  7. Accumulation of cadmium in near-isogenic lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum): the role of transpiration.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C J; Mohammad, A; Macfie, S M

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of cadmium in the grain of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) are often above the internationally acceptable limit of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Cultivars that vary in concentrations of cadmium in the grain have been identified but the physiology behind differential accumulation has not been determined. Three pairs of near-isogenic lines (isolines) of durum wheat that vary in aboveground cadmium accumulation (8982-TL 'high' and 'low', W9260-BC 'high' and 'low', and W9261-BG 'high' and 'low') were used to test the hypothesis that the greater amounts of cadmium in shoots of the 'high' isolines are correlated with greater volumes of water transpired. In general, cadmium content was positively correlated with transpiration only in the 'low' isolines. Although shoots of the 'high' isolines of W9260-BC and W9261-BG contained higher concentrations of cadmium than did their corresponding 'low' isolines, they did not transpire larger volumes of water. In addition, isolines of 8982-TL transpired less water than did the other pairs of isolines yet both 'high' and 'low' isolines of 8982-TL contained higher amounts of cadmium than did the other pairs. The difference between 'high' and 'low' isolines appears to be related to the relative contribution of transpiration to cadmium translocation to the shoot. Increased transpiration was associated with increased cadmium content in the 'low' isolines but in the 'high' isolines increased cadmium in the shoot occurred independently of the volume of water transpired.

  8. State Higher Education Appropriations, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers Association.

    This report contains data on state funding for higher education for the 1997-1998 school year. State funding for higher education continued to grow in FY98 for the fifth straight year, increasing 6%, or $2.8 billion, over the prior fiscal year. The amount of support for higher education exceeded $49 billion, and the 1-year and 2-year percentage…

  9. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth).

  10. Enhancement effect of ethanol on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengchen; Wang, Wei; Yue, Long; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp. were studied. The maximum increment of algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content were 6.61, 11.75, 1.34 and 3.14 times higher than the control group under 12h photoperiod. Algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. The cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times. Besides, unsaturated fatty acids appeared early in algal cells and increased 57.02% in maximum. However, only 2.27% (14)C was transferred from ethanol to fatty acids. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties.

  11. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  12. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  13. Expression of genes encoding chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase correlates with flavanol accumulation during heartwood formation in Juglans nigra.

    PubMed

    Beritognolo, Isacco; Magel, Elisabeth; Abdel-Latif, Amani; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Jay-Allemand, Christian; Breton, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Heartwood formation is generally characterized by the accumulation of phenolic substances that increase the natural color and durability of wood. Although there is evidence that these substances are synthesized in aging sapwood cells, little is known about heartwood formation at the molecular level. We monitored seasonal changes in flavanol concentration across the stems of 23-year-old Juglans nigra L. trees by sampling growth rings extending from the differentiating xylem to the heartwood. We also analyzed expression of phenylpropanoid and flavonoid structural genes in these samples. In the sapwood-heartwood transition zone, flavanol accumulation was correlated with the transcription levels of the chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) genes. We also observed correlations between flavanol accumulation and the amount of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene transcript in October, January and May. Although transcription of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) genes did not correlate with flavanol accumulation, PAL genes were strongly expressed in the transition zone of samples collected in autumn, suggesting that their transcription in these tissues contributes to phenolic biosynthesis. Western immunoblotting showed that accumulation of CHS protein correlated with the amount of CHS gene transcript, whereas accumulation of PAL protein did not correlate with the the transcription levels PAL genes. Preliminary analyses revealed that PAL and CHS activities were higher in the transition zone than in the inner sapwood in autumn, winter, and spring. Thus, CHS activity could be regulated mainly at the transcriptional level, whereas post-translational modifications could modulate PAL activity. We conclude that flavanols are synthesized de novo in J. nigra sapwood cells that are undergoing transformation to heartwood.

  14. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    PubMed

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1(P247S) and PRO1(E415K) gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

  15. Two age-related accumulation profiles of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the body burden levels of toxic metals in Japanese, five toxic metal concentrations in scalp hair samples from 28,424 subjects from infant to elderly were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean of hair mercury concentrations showed a high-significant age-correlated increase (r = 0.341, p < 0.0001) with a peak at the 6th decade of life and then decreased with further aging in both sexes. The mean mercury concentrations in male adults were significantly higher than those in female (p < 0.001), indicating the gender difference (male > female) in mercury accumulation. Arsenic also showed a similar accumulation profile with age dependency and gender difference in adult subjects. In contrast, cadmium, lead and aluminium exhibited another type of accumulation profile: the highest burden level was observed in infants aged 0-3 years old for every element in both sexes. In addition, cadmium was found to have a character accumulating in aged females, with significant age-dependency (r = 0.134, p < 0.0001) and gender difference (female > male). These findings suggest that toxic metals are classified into two families on the basis of their accumulation profiles, and that the three elements of mercury, arsenic and cadmium which accumulate age-dependently in adults, may play a role in aging process and higher burden with them may lead to acceleration of aging.

  16. An advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-rich diet promotes accumulation of AGEs in Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean; Eliasson, Pernilla; Mogensen, Pernille; Hag, Anne Mette F; Kjær, Michael; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Schjerling, Peter; Magnusson, Stig P; Couppé, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) (n = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher than HFD The mice were sacrificed at week 40 and Achilles and tail tendons were carefully excised to compare weight and nonweight-bearing tendons. The amount of the AGEs carboxymethyllysine (CML), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in Achilles and tail tendon was measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and pentosidine with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescent detection. AGEs in Achilles tendon were higher than in tail tendon for CML (P < 0.0001), CEL (P < 0.0001), MG-H1 and pentosidine (for both ND and HFD) (P < 0.0001). The AGE-rich diet (ND) resulted in an increase in CML (P < 0.0001), MG-H1 (P < 0.001) and pentosidine (P < 0.0001) but not CEL, in Achilles and tail tendon. This is the first study to provide evidence for AGE accumulation in injury-prone, weight-bearing Achilles tendon associated with intake of an AGE-rich diet. This indicates that food-derived AGEs may alter tendon properties and the development of tendon injuries.

  17. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under

  18. High accumulation of soluble sugars in deep supercooling Japanese white birch xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the accumulation of soluble sugars in extracellular freezing cortical parenchyma cells and deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) were compared to identify the effects of soluble sugars on the mechanism of deep supercooling, which keeps the liquid state of water in cells under extremely low temperatures for long periods. Soluble sugars in both tissues were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of sugars in cells were estimated by histological observation of occupancy rates of parenchyma cells in each tissue. Relative and equilibrium melting points of parenchyma cells were measured by differential thermal analysis and cryoscanning electron microscopy, respectively. In both xylem and cortical parenchyma cells, amounts of sucrose, raffinose and stachyose increased in winter, but amounts of fructose and glucose exhibited little change throughout the entire year. In addition, no sugars were found to be specific for either tissue. Combined results of HPLC analyses, histological observation and melting point analyses confirmed that the concentration of sugars was much higher in xylem cells than in cortical cells. It is thought that the higher concentration of soluble sugars in xylem cells may contribute to facilitation of deep supercooling in xylem cells by depressing the nucleation temperature.

  19. Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of fatigue microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Matthew D; Li, Jiliang; Turnbull, Travis L; Burr, David B; Niebur, Glen L; Roeder, Ryan K

    2011-03-01

    Conventional methods used to image and quantify microdamage accumulation in bone are limited to histological sections, which are inherently invasive, destructive, two-dimensional, and tedious. These limitations inhibit investigation of microdamage accumulation with respect to volumetric spatial variation in mechanical loading, bone mineral density, and microarchitecture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate non-destructive, three-dimensional (3-D) detection of microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to validate micro-CT measurements against conventional histological methods. Unloaded controls and specimens loaded in cyclic uniaxial tension to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus were labeled with a precipitated BaSO₄ stain for micro-CT and basic fuchsin for histomorphometry. Linear microcracks were similarly labeled by BaSO₄ and basic fuchsin as shown by backscattered electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The higher X-ray attenuation of BaSO₄ relative to the bone extracellular matrix provided enhanced contrast for the detection of damage that was otherwise not able to be detected by micro-CT prior to staining. Therefore, contrast-enhanced micro-CT was able to nondestructively detect the presence, 3-D spatial location, and accumulation of fatigue microdamage in human cortical bone specimens in vitro. Microdamage accumulation was quantified on segmented micro-CT reconstructions as the ratio of BaSO₄ stain volume (SV) to total bone volume (BV). The amount of microdamage measured by both micro-CT (SV/BV) and histomorphometry (Cr.N, Cr.Dn, Cr.S.Dn) progressively increased from unloaded controls to specimens loaded to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus (p < 0.001). Group means for micro-CT measurements of damage accumulation were strongly correlated to those using histomorphometry (p < 0.05), validating the new methods. Limitations of the new

  20. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e) Operator Comments. The operator shall have...

  1. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  2. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  3. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  4. The impact of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and phenolic compound accumulation and localization in lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Janas, K M; Zielińska-Tomaszewska, J; Rybaczek, D; Maszewski, J; Posmyk, M M; Amarowicz, R; Kosińska, A

    2010-03-01

    Changes in phenolics (PhC) measured as UV-absorbing compounds (UVAC) and their localization as well as growth, lipid peroxidation (TBARS level), H(2)O(2) and Cu accumulation and other ions content in roots of two lentil cultivars (cv. Krak and cv. Tina) contrasting in Cu sensitivity were examined. The aim of this study was to reveal the importance of PhC in Cu tolerance. During Cu treatment, inhibition of growth and increases in lipid peroxidation in roots of both cultivars were observed, but the effects were more pronounced in cv. Tina (more sensitive) than in cv. Krak (less sensitive). Cu at 0.5 mM caused higher Cu and H(2)O(2) accumulation, but lower K(+) content and UVAC levels in the root tips of cv. Tina. Opposite changes were recorded in cv. Krak. Fluorescence microscopic analyses confirmed greater PhC accumulation in cv. Krak (less sensitive) than in cv. Tina (more sensitive) after Cu treatment and showed that these compounds accumulated particularly in vacuoles and the cell wall. Taken together, these results show that, in spite of the high concentration of Cu-stimulated PhC accumulation in cv. Krak, it was not sufficient to counteract the amount of ROS generated by the metal. The role of PhC in different reactions to Cu stress in lentil roots is discussed.

  5. Reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Parault, Susan J; Williams, Heather M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of reading motivation and amount of reading in which deaf adults engage? Assessments of 30 hearing and 24 deaf adults showed that deaf participants reported significantly higher levels of reading motivation despite having been found to read at less than a sixth-grade level. No significant difference in the amount of reading between hearing and deaf adults was found. Amount of reading for personal reasons was found to be the best predictor of text comprehension in the deaf participants, and intrinsic motivation was found to be the best predictor of amount of reading in the deaf participants.

  6. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-25

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25–70 Pg C in peatland and 13–22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36–63 Pg C at present, including 27–48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9–15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5–3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3–0.6 Pg C in peatlandsmore » and 2.2–3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr−1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr−1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr−1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.« less

  7. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in...

  8. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana P G C; Oliveira, Rui S; Samardjieva, Kalina A; Pissarra, José; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2007-02-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg(-1). The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils.

  9. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery. (a... liabilities associated with the transaction. To determine the amount of Federal recovery, the adjusted...

  10. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  11. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  12. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  13. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  14. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  15. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  16. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount...

  17. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans Agency: National Credit Union Administration... unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative to predatory... permitted under the general lending rule, but imposes limitations on the permissible term, amount, and...

  18. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available....

  19. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16... Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation of any prohibition in § 7.4...

  20. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance. 870.702... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount of Basic insurance an annuitant or compensationer...

  1. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  2. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  3. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  4. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  5. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  6. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  7. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  8. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  9. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  10. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  11. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  12. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  13. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  14. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  15. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  16. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  17. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Limitations on Annual Purchases § 353.10 Amounts which may be purchased. The amount of savings bonds of Series EE and HH which may be purchased and held, in the... and is limited as follows: (a) Series EE—(1) General annual limitation. $5,000 (principal amount)....

  18. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  19. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  20. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  1. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  2. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  3. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  4. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will...

  5. 30 CFR 723.14 - Determination of amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of amount of penalty. 723.14 Section 723.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 723.14 Determination of amount of penalty. The Office shall determine the amount of any...

  6. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  7. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  8. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  9. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  10. Adaptation strategies of two closely related Desmodesmus armatus (green alga) strains contained different amounts of cadmium: a study with light-induced synchronized cultures of algae.

    PubMed

    Pokora, Wojciech; Baścik-Remisiewicz, Agnieszka; Tukaj, Stefan; Kalinowska, Renata; Pawlik-Skowrońska, Barbara; Dziadziuszko, Małgorzata; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2014-01-15

    During the Desmodesmus armatus cell cycle, 8-celled coenobia of 276-4d strain accumulated a much lower amounts of cadmium than unicells of B1-76 strain. Cadmium reduced growth and photosynthesis in the cells of strain B1-76, but not those of 276-4d strain. Cells of 276-4d strain revealed a higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, in particular the activity and protein content of Fe-SOD. Cu/Zn-SOD was earlier and much stronger induced by cadmium in 276-4d than in B1-76 strain, whereas Fe- and Mn-SOD activity and Fe-SOD synthesis were induced only in 276-4d strain. Cadmium did not affect the heat shock protein 70 synthesis in B1-76 strain, but significantly stimulated this process in 276-4d strain. The level of glutathione increased 30-fold during cell development of Cd-exposed 276-4d strain, while in B1-76 it increased about 12 timed. Matured cells of both strains exposed to cadmium produced comparable amounts of phytochelatins and other thiol peptides, but their production in young cells of B1-76 strain was much higher than in 276-4d strain. In conclusion, a complex of internal detoxification mechanisms appeared to be more efficient in cells of 276-4d strain than B1-76 one.

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  12. Effect of Low Energy Waves on the Accumulation and Transport of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sand and Pore Water at Freshwater Beaches.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming Zhi; O'Carroll, Denis M; Vogel, Laura J; Robinson, Clare E

    2017-03-07

    Elevated fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach sand and pore water represent an important nonpoint source of contamination to surface waters. This study examines the physical processes governing the accumulation and distribution of FIB in a beach aquifer. Field data indicate E. coli and enterococci can be transported 1 and 2 m, respectively, below the water table. Data were used to calibrate a numerical model whereby FIB are delivered to a beach aquifer by wave-induced infiltration across the beach face. Simulations indicate FIB rapidly accumulate in a beach aquifer with FIB primarily associated with sand rather than freely residing in the pore water. Simulated transport of E. coli in a beach aquifer is complex and does not correlate with conservative tracer transport. Beaches with higher wave-induced infiltration rate and vertical infiltration velocity (i.e., beaches with higher beach slope and wave height, and lower terrestrial groundwater discharge) had greater E. coli accumulation and E. coli was transported deeper below the beach face. For certain beach conditions, the amount of FIB accumulated in sand over 5-6 days was found to be sufficient to trigger a beach advisory if eroded to surface water.

  13. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  14. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  15. Mechanisms of Cadmium Mobility and Accumulation in Indian Mustard.

    PubMed Central

    Salt, D. E.; Prince, R. C.; Pickering, I. J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), a high biomass crop plant, accumulated substantial amounts of cadmium, with bioaccumulation coefficients (concentration of Cd in dry plant tissue/concentration in solution) of up to 1100 in shoots and 6700 in roots at nonphytotoxic concentrations of Cd (0.1 [mu]g/mL) in solution. This was associated with a rapid accumulation of phytochelatins in the root, where the majority of the Cd was coordinated with sulfur ligands, probably as a Cd-S4 complex, as demonstrated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In contrast, Cd moving in the xylem sap was coordinated predominantly with oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and the rate of Cd accumulation in the leaves displayed similar saturation kinetics, suggesting that the process of Cd transport from solution through the root and into the xylem is mediated by a saturable transport system(s). However, Cd translocation to the shoot appeared to be driven by transpiration, since ABA dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in leaves. Within leaves, Cd was preferentially accumulated in trichomes on the leaf surface, and this may be a possible detoxification mechanism. PMID:12228679

  16. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  17. Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in beach sediments: Insights into microplastic accumulation in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Caitlin C; Lockridge, Grant R; Battiste, David; Cebrian, Just

    2016-08-15

    Microplastics (plastic debris smaller than 5mm) represent a growing concern worldwide due to increasing amounts of discarded trash. We investigated microplastic debris on sandy shorelines at seven locations in a northern Gulf of Mexico estuary (Mobile Bay, AL) during the summer of 2014. Microplastics were ubiquitous throughout the area studied at concentrations 66-253× larger than reported for the open ocean. The polymers polypropylene and polyethylene were most abundant, with polystyrene, polyester and aliphatic polyamide also present but in lower quantities. There was a gradient in microplastic abundance, with locations more directly exposed to marine currents and tides having higher microplastic abundance and diversity, as well as a higher contribution by denser polymers (e.g. polyester). These results indicate that microplastic accumulation on shorelines in the northern Gulf of Mexico may be a serious concern, and suggest that exposure to inputs from the Gulf is an important determinant of microplastic abundance.

  18. Accumulation of (210)Po in coastal waters (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Faganeli, Jadran; Falnoga, Ingrid; Benedik, Ljudmila; Jeran, Zvonka; Klun, Katja

    2016-07-20

    The total activity of (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectrometry in various samples (matrices) collected in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) where fresh water inflows, especially from the Isonzo River in the northern part, affect water quality. Observed (210)Po levels were: 1) 0.56-3.75 mBq/L in the dissolved phase (<0.45 μm) in the seawater column and local rivers, 2) 0.35-3.11 mBq/L (400-2300 Bq/kg, dry weight, dw) in suspended particulate matter (SPM, 0.45-20 μm) in the seawater column and local rivers, 3) 40 (Isonzo River) -158 Bq/kg (in a surface sediment cores collected in a NS transect in the gulf and sectioned to the depth of 20 cm) and 4) 239 (autumn) - 415 to 1800 (spring) Bq/kg (dw) in meso(zoo)plankton (>200 μm). In seawater and tributaries, up to 80% (mean 49%) of total (210)Po was found in particulate form. In sediments, slightly higher levels were encountered in the Isonzo prodelta and in the central (depocenter) part of the gulf. KD (L/kg) calculated between seawater and SPM, and seawater and sediment amounted to about 5 × 10(6) and 6 × 10(4), respectively. Lower autumn (210)Po levels can be a consequence of biological dilution by higher mesozooplankton biomass in the autumn compared to spring. Plankton fractionation revealed in general the highest levels in the >200 μm mesoplankton fraction (239-1800 Bq/kg) followed by 50-200 μm (388-996 Bq/kg) and 20-50 μm (318-810 Bq/kg) microplankton fractions. Obtained data show higher (210)Po levels in all matrices analyzed in the Gulf of Trieste compared to other Adriatic (central Adriatic) and western Mediterranean areas. The (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in water, plankton and sediments were mostly below or around 1, while this ratio was much higher at higher trophic levels (up to about 50), reflecting a preferential bioaccumulation of (210)Po over (210)Pb. (210)Po accumulation between seawater and SPM and seawater and mesozooplankton amounted to 3.7 × 10(4) and 1.1

  19. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  20. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  1. Simulating inbreeding depression through the mutation accumulation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Bernardes, Américo T.

    2000-04-01

    Using the Penna model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation accumulation theory, we show that the number of homozygous loci corresponding to deleterious mutations is higher in small populations than in large ones. This decrease of heterozygosity may drive small populations to extinction even when no drastic change of the environment occurs.

  2. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-12-01

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

  3. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  4. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  5. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests.

    PubMed

    Johansen, M P; Child, D P; Caffrey, E A; Davis, E; Harrison, J J; Hotchkis, M A C; Payne, T E; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Thiruvoth, S; Twining, J R; Beresford, N A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton (83% ± 6%), followed by muscle (10% ± 9%), liver (6% ± 6%), kidneys (0.6% ± 0.4%), and blood (0.2%). Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions.

  6. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling.

  7. Western grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis, wintering biology and contaminant accumulation in Commencement Bay, Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Western Grebes wintering at the head of Commencement Bay (bordering the waterways) accumulated significant amounts of mercury, arsenic, DDE, PCBs, chlordanes, and perhaps cadmium and HCB between 17 October 1985 and 6 February 1986. No change in selenium or lead was detected, but copper declined significantly. Western Grebes were likely to accumulate even higher levels of certain contaminants because they remained in Commencement Bay for an additional 3 months after the final collection. Remige moult and bursa length were used to separate five individuals believed to represent one age class, from the remainder of the October collection. These birds, perhaps nonbreeders spending one continuous year in Puget Sound, contained the 5 highest PCB, 5 of the 8 highest DDE, and 2 of the 3 highest mercury concentrations. No evidence was found in the literature to suggest the contaminant concentrations we reported would adversely impact the Western Grebe population. As expected, lipid content of carcasses increased significantly from October (15.5%) to February (28.8%).

  8. Chemical form matters: differential accumulation of mercury following inorganic and organic mercury exposures in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Korbas, Malgorzata; Macdonald, Tracy C; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N; Krone, Patrick H

    2012-02-17

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versusl-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of l-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with l-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-l-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  9. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H.

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  10. Factors Affecting the Accumulation of Curcumin in Microrhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Curcuminoids, and mainly curcumin, are potential therapeutic agents for the prevention of various diseases; however, little is known about the factors that influence their accumulation in Curcuma species. In this study, the effects of factors such as sucrose concentration, different ratios of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and light quality on the accumulation of curcumin and other curcuminoids in Curcuma aromatica were investigated. Microrhizomes grown on media containing 3% sucrose produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids than those grown on higher concentrations. Moreover, when compared to other ratios of 6-BA and NAA, microrhizomes induced on 3% sucrose media supplemented with 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids; however, the amount was less than in microrhizomes grown on 3% sucrose alone. We determined that a 5% sucrose medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L of NAA enhanced the levels of curcumin and curcuminoids and that exposure to red light further increased production. PMID:25722985

  11. Accumulation of tetracoumaroyl spermine in Matricaria chamomilla during floral development and nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Eliasová, Adriana; Poracká, Veronika; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Imrich, Ján; Repcák, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The new natural polyamine conjugate 1N,5N,10N,14N-tetracoumaroyl spermine (tetracoumaroyl spermine) recently isolated from chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) flower heads is applicable for the treatment of several human disorders such as depression and anxiety. High variability in the level of tetracoumaroyl spermine is found in commercial tisanes. Accumulation of tetracoumaroyl spermine was tested during floral development, and nitrogen deficiency was chosen as its putative limiting environmental factor. It was observed that tetracoumaroyl spermine is present mainly in tubular flowers, reaching its maximal content during the 3rd phase of flowering when the corollae of tubular flowers start to open. The later observed decrease could result from a release of pollen that also contains a considerable amount of tetracoumaroyl spermine. It is likely that tetracoumaroyl spermine plays an important role in pollen development, and so, despite overall N-deficiency in the plants, tetracoumaroyl spermine is accumulated at the same or even higher rate than in the flowers of the N-sufficient control.

  12. Factors affecting the accumulation of curcumin in microrhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Curcuminoids, and mainly curcumin, are potential therapeutic agents for the prevention of various diseases; however, little is known about the factors that influence their accumulation in Curcuma species. In this study, the effects of factors such as sucrose concentration, different ratios of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and light quality on the accumulation of curcumin and other curcuminoids in Curcuma aromatica were investigated. Microrhizomes grown on media containing 3% sucrose produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids than those grown on higher concentrations. Moreover, when compared to other ratios of 6-BA and NAA, microrhizomes induced on 3% sucrose media supplemented with 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids; however, the amount was less than in microrhizomes grown on 3% sucrose alone. We determined that a 5% sucrose medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L of NAA enhanced the levels of curcumin and curcuminoids and that exposure to red light further increased production.

  13. Radioactive cesium accumulation in freshwater fishes after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in East Japan. The unpredicted nuclear accident is of global concern for human health and ecosystems. Investigations of radionuclides in the local environments were performed shortly after the accident began; however the temporal and spatial effects and variations in the released radionuclides on the natural environment remain unclear. In the present study, three-year (May 2011 to March 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of total Cs, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in freshwater fishes in Fukushima prefecture after the F1NPP accident were examined. The total Cs, (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations decreased gradually during the three-year period that followed the F1NPP accident. However higher levels, i.e., exceeding 100 Bq kg(-1), which is the interim limit of radiocesium level in Japan, were detected in several fish species. Radiocesium accumulation patterns in fishes in Fukushima prefecture varied between regions and corresponded to the environmental radiocesium levels in the Fukushima region. These radionuclides are widely distributed and remain in the natural environment. Moreover, a fresh input of radiocesium substances from the F1NPP site into the terrestrial environment remains.

  14. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, D; Bhattacharya, S; Kumar, V; Moitra, J

    1990-09-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

  15. Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect of amount was not due to changes in the rate parameter of the discounting function, but rather was due to increases in the exponent. These results stand in contrast to those observed with the discounting of delayed monetary rewards, in which the degree of discounting decreases with reward amount due to amount-dependent decreases in the rate parameter. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that delay and probability discounting reflect different underlying mechanisms. That is, the fact that the exponent in the delay discounting function is independent of amount is consistent with a psychophysical scaling interpretation, whereas the finding that the exponent of the probability-discounting function is amount-dependent is inconsistent with such an interpretation. Instead, the present results are consistent with the idea that the probability-discounting function is itself the product of a value function and a weighting function. This idea was first suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), although their prospect theory does not predict amount effects like those observed. The effect of amount on probability discounting was parsimoniously incorporated into our hyperboloid discounting function by assuming that the exponent was proportional to the amount raised to a power. The amount-dependent exponent of the probability-discounting function may be viewed as reflecting the effect of amount on the weighting of the probability with which the reward will be received.

  16. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  17. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  18. Accumulation and function of trigonelline in non-leguminous plants.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shin

    2014-06-01

    As part of our studies of the occurrence, biosynthesis, function and human use of trigonelline, we looked at trigonelline-accumulating plant species and at the distribution of trigonelline in different organs of trigonelline-accumulating non-leguminous plants. There are many trigonelline-synthesizing plant species, but apart from legume seeds only a few species accumulate high concentrations of trigonelline. We have found only three species that accumulate high levels of trigonelline: Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine), Coffea arabica (coffee) and Mirabilisjalapa (four o'clock flower). Trigonelline was found in all parts of Murraya paniculata seedlings at 4-13 micromol/g fresh weight; more than 70% was distributed in the leaves. In the coffee plant, trigonelline was found in all organs, and the concentrations in the upper stems, including tips (48 micromol/g FW) and seeds (26 micromol/g FW), were higher than in other organs. In Mirabilis jalapa plants, trigonelline was found in leaves, stems, flowers, roots and seeds; the concentration varied from 0.3 to 13 micromol/g FW and was generally higher in young tissues than in mature tissues, except for seeds. Exogenously supplied nicotinamide increases the trigonelline content. The in planta role of trigonelline and the possible use oftrigonelline-accumulating plants in herbal medicine are discussed.

  19. An experimental test of the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles in a forested region.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Sebastian; Bässler, Claus; Brandl, Roland; Fahrig, Lenore; Förster, Bernhard; Heurich, Marco; Hothorn, Torsten; Scheipl, Fabian; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2017-03-19

    The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i.e., density of dead trees in the surrounding landscape). Although dead wood is a spatio-temporally dynamic habitat, saproxylic insects have life cycles shorter than the time needed for habitat turnover and they closely track their resource. Patch size was manipulated by adding various amounts of downed dead wood to the plots (~800 m³ in total); dead trees in the surrounding landscape (~240 km²) were identified using airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). Over three years, 477 saproxylic species (101,416 individuals) were recorded. Considering 20-1,000 m radii around the patches, local landscapes were identified as having a radius of 40-120 m. Both patch size and habitat amount in the local landscapes independently affected species numbers without a significant interaction effect, hence refuting the island effect. Species accumulation curves relative to cumulative patch size were not consistent with either the habitat-patch hypothesis or the habitat-amount hypothesis: several small dead-wood patches held more species than a single large patch with an amount of dead wood equal to the sum of that of the small patches. Our results indicate that conservation of saproxylic beetles in forested regions should primarily focus on increasing the overall amount of dead wood without considering its spatial arrangement

  20. EFFECT OF ACTIVE ACCUMULATION OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA.

    PubMed

    GREENAWALT, J W; ROSSI, C S; LEHNINGER, A L

    1964-10-01

    Rat liver mitochondria allowed to accumulate maximal amounts of Ca(++) and HPO(4) (=) ions from the suspending medium in vitro during respiration have a considerably higher specific gravity than normal mitochondria and may be easily separated from the latter by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of sucrose or cesium chloride. When the mitochondria are allowed to accumulate less than maximal amounts of Ca(++) and HPO(4) (=) from the medium, they have intermediate specific gravities which are roughly proportional to their content of calcium phosphate. Maximally "loaded" mitochondria are relatively homogeneous with respect to specific gravity. Correlated biochemical and electron microscopic studies show that Ca(++)-loaded mitochondria contain numerous dense granules, of which some 85 per cent are over 500 A in diameter. These granules are electron-opaque not only following fixation and staining with heavy metal reagents, but also following fixation with formaldehyde, demonstrating that the characteristic granules in Ca(++)-loaded mitochondria have intrinsic electron-opacity. The dense granules are almost always located within the inner compartment of the mitochondria and not in the space between the inner and outer membranes. They are frequently located at or near the cristae and they often show electron-transparent "cores." Such granules appear to be made up of clusters of smaller dense particles, but preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis and electron diffraction studies have revealed no evidence of crystallinity in the deposits. The electron-opaque granules decrease in number when the Ca(++)-loaded mitochondria are incubated with 2,4-dinitrophenol; simultaneously there is discharge of Ca(++) and phosphate from the mitochondria into the medium.

  1. Socially-Imposed Costs of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The growth of higher educational expenditures attributable to new social demands is considered. The main objective is to identify the sources of these costs, to estimate their amount, and to judge their impact on higher education. Colleges and universities, like many other types of organizations, are subject to social pressures and governmental…

  2. Are Public Subsidies to Higher Education Regressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This article estimates the dollar amount of public higher education subsidies received by U.S. youth and examines the distribution of subsidies and the taxes that finance them across parental and student income levels. Although youths from high-income families obtain more benefit from higher education subsidies, high-income households pay…

  3. The application of ethephon (an ethylene releaser) increases growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen accumulation in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under high nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Mir, M R; Nazar, R; Singh, S

    2008-09-01

    Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, influences growth and photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss.). We show the effect of nitrogen availability on ethylene evolution and how this affects growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen accumulation. Ethylene evolution in the control with low N (100 mg N kg(-1) soil) was two-times higher than with high N (200 mg N kg(-1) soil). The application of 100-400 microl x l(-1) ethephon post-flowering, i.e. 60 days after sowing, on plants receiving low or high N further increased ethylene evolution. Leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), photosynthesis, leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity and leaf N reached a maximum with application of 200 microl x l(-1) ethephon and high N. The results suggest that the application of ethephon influences growth, photosynthesis and N accumulation, depending on the amount of nitrogen in the soil.

  4. Application of manure and compost to contaminated soils and its effect on zinc accumulation by Solanum nigrum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana P G C; Oliveira, Rui S; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2008-02-01

    Zn accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in naturally contaminated soil in the presence of different types of organic amendments was assessed. Under the same conditions, the response of the plant to inoculation with two different isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices) was also evaluated. S. nigrum grown in the non-amended soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, with the addition of amendments inducing reductions of up to 80 and 40%, for manure and compost, respectively, and enhancing plant biomass yields. The establishment of S. nigrum in the Zn contaminated soil combined with the application of amendments led to a 70-80% reduction in the amount of Zn leached through the soil. The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for reducing the effects of soil contamination, diminishing Zn transfer to other environmental compartments via percolation.

  5. Expression balances of structural genes in shikimate and flavonoid biosynthesis cause a difference in proanthocyanidin accumulation in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Ikegami, Ayako; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Junya; Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko; Yonemori, Keizo

    2009-10-01

    Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidin (PA) during development. Fruits of pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) type mutants lose their ability to produce PA at an early stage of fruit development, while fruits of the normal (non-PCNA) type remain rich in PA until fully ripened. To understand the molecular mechanism for this difference, we isolated the genes involved in PA accumulation that are differentially expressed between PCNA and non-PCNA, and confirmed their correlation with PA content and composition. The expression of structural genes of the shikimate and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways and genes encoding transferases homologous to those involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds were downregulated coincidentally only in the PCNA type. Analysis of PA composition using the phloroglucinol method suggested that the amounts of epigallocatechin and its 3-O-gallate form were remarkably low in the PCNA type. In the PCNA type, the genes encoding flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for epigallocatechin biosynthesis showed remarkable downregulation, despite the continuous expression level of their competitive genes, flavonoid 3' hydroxylation (F3'H) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We also confirmed that the relative expression levels of F3'5'H to F3'H, and ANR to LAR, were considerably higher, and the PA composition corresponded to the seasonal expression balances in both types. These results suggest that expressions of F3'5'H and ANR are important for PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Lastly, we tested enzymatic activity of recombinant DkANR in vitro, which is thought to be an important enzyme for PA accumulation in persimmon fruits.

  6. Accumulation of extracellular calcium at the endplate of mouse diaphragm after ecothiopate in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, P. F.; Ferry, C. B.; Smith, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    1. Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation from the extracellular medium of 45Ca2+ by the endplate region of skeletal muscle. 2. Mouse diaphragm muscle was incubated in physiological saline labelled with 45Ca at 37 degrees C for periods of up to 1.5 h. 3. The muscle was divided into junctional and non-junctional portions and the Ca from the extracellular fluid accumulated at the endplate determined from the 45Ca content of the portions. 4. The accumulation of extracellular Ca at the endplate region of muscles incubated in pysiological saline alone was nil, but there was accumulation in the presence of the anticholinesterase ecothiopate iodide 0.5 x 10(-6) M (ECO). Stimulation of the phrenic nerve at 0.02 Hz caused no further increase in accumulation but reduced the amount of spontaneous fasciculation. In tetrodotoxin (TTX) 10(-6) M, the accumulation was halved, and in 3.5 mM Mg2+ the accumulation was nil. Carbachol 10(-4) M resulted in an accumulation of Ca similar to that in ECO. 5. It is concluded that there was an accumulation of extracellular Ca following excitation of the nerve by stimulation at a low frequency and during the spontaneous fasciculations, and about half of the accumulation of extracellular Ca after ECO in the experiments was due to the postsynaptic action of ACh released non-quantally from the nerve terminals. PMID:2804548

  7. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous ...

  8. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  9. Ingenol mebutate in low amounts for the treatment of actinic keratosis in Korean patients

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Hyun Jae; Oh, Byung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background Ingenol mebutate (IM), a novel agent for field therapy of actinic keratosis (AK), has a drawback of inducing local skin reactions (LSRs), which may cause discomfort in patients. To reduce the LSRs, we tried the application of IM in low amounts. Objective The purpose of this study was to review Korean patients with AK being treated with IM and evaluate the LSRs and therapeutic outcomes of low amounts of IM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with AK on the face. A total of 20 and 27 patients were treated by applying recommended amount of 18.8 mg/cm2 and the lower amount of 10 mg/cm2, respectively. Results The mean composite LSR score for the low amount group (LAG; 12.18±3.29) was significantly lower than that for the recommended amount group (RAG; 15.45±2.70) (P<0.01, independent sample t-test). The 2-month clearance rate calculated by the number of AKs before and after treatment in each patient was significantly higher for RAG (88.16%), compared with 75.56% for LAG (P<0.001). Conclusion Low amount of IM for the treatment of facial AK significantly reduced LSRs in Korean patients. Minimizing LSRs may allow for a secondary targeting treatment of IM for the residual lesions, depending on initial treatment outcomes.

  10. Calcium: Some aspects of subcellular accumulation and distribution in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Shappell, N.W.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution and bioavailability of {sup 47}calcium in milk labeled by extrinsic and intrinsic methods was investigated. Milk from Sprague Dawley rats was labeled by both methods, and milk from a cow was labeled by the extrinsic method. Retention of {sup 47}Ca from milks administered to young male Sprague Dawley rats was determined through whole body counting for 6 days after administration of milk. Percent of {sup 47}Ca dose retained was 72% for extrinsically labeled cow milk, 62% for extrinsically labeled rat milk, and 55% for intrinsically labeled rat milk. Samples were fractionated by ultracentrifugation and by gel exclusion chromatography. {sup 47}Calcium distributions in rat milk labeled intrinsically or extrinsically were similar. The majority of {sup 47}Ca was found in a particulate, >30,000 molecular weight fraction. The amount of milk calcium retained by rats appeared to be related to the amount of noncasein micelle-associated calcium. When administered by intraperitoneal injection into rats, {sup 45}Ca specific activity of milk peaked in 60 to 90 minutes. In vitro {sup 45}Ca accumulation was compared in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum from liver and mammary gland of lactating Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs. In the presence of ATP, highest accumulation per unit total fraction protein was found in Golgi apparatus (mammary gland 28% of available {sup 45}Ca, liver 11%) while 8% was accumulated by endoplasmic reticulum fractions.

  11. Subsidy policies with capital accumulation: maintaining employment levels.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Gang, I N; Gangopadhyay, S

    1989-12-01

    The authors study a dual economy model of growth and unemployment in the presence of Harris-Todaro type labor migration. The model is a discrete time model of economic growth with a given population but endogenous migration of labor. The economy tries to reach development in the quickest possible time while not allowing unemployment to rise above a socially acceptable level. The authors also characterize situations under which maximizing the accumulation of capital in each period is optimal and study how particular taxes and subsidies affect unemployment and capital accumulation. Finally, they show that a higher initial capital stock does not necessarily mean a quicker attainment of self- sustained full employment.

  12. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate (/sup 3/H)prostaglandins in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.A.; Harper, M.J.

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with /sup 3/H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of (/sup 3/H)PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of (/sup 3/H)PGE2 and (/sup 3/H)PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the (/sup 3/H)PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. The authors conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  13. 34 CFR 686.35 - Recalculation of TEACH Grant award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recalculation of TEACH Grant award amounts. 686.35 Section 686.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER...

  14. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  15. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  16. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  17. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  18. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  19. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  20. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  1. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  2. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  3. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  4. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  5. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  6. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  7. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  8. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  9. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  10. 26 CFR 1.50A-1 - Determination of amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-1 Determination of amount. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section and in § 1.50A-2, the amount of the work incentive program... section); corporations which are members of a controlled group (see paragraph (f) of this...

  11. 20 CFR 404.333 - Wife's and husband's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. 404.333... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.333 Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. Your wife's or husband's monthly benefit is equal to one-half the insured person's primary insurance...

  12. 42 CFR 489.65 - Amount of the bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 489.65 Amount of the bond. (a) Basic rule. The amount of the surety bond must be $50,000 or 15 percent... computation of the 15 percent will be based on the number of months of the fiscal year that the bond...

  13. 45 CFR 1225.11 - Amount of attorney fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of attorney fees. 1225.11 Section 1225.11... § 1225.11 Amount of attorney fees. (a) When a decision of the agency provides for an award of attorney's fees or costs, the complainant's attorney shall submit a verified statement of costs and...

  14. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time...

  15. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  16. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  17. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  18. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  19. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  20. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  1. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar...

  2. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  3. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  4. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  5. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  6. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  7. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union... federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative... regcomments@ncua.gov . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Short-term,...

  8. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  9. 46 CFR 308.200 - Insured amount-application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.200 Insured amount—application. An applicant for war risk protection and indemnity insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but such amount shall...

  10. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  11. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  12. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder....

  13. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  14. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  15. 29 CFR 531.38 - Amounts deducted for taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts deducted for taxes. 531.38 Section 531.38 Labor... Employees § 531.38 Amounts deducted for taxes. Taxes which are assessed against the employee and which are... unemployment insurance taxes, as well as other Federal, State, or local taxes, levies, and assessments....

  16. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  17. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  18. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  19. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  20. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  1. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  2. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  3. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  4. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  5. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  6. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may...

  7. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  8. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  9. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  10. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  11. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  12. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount. 203.15 Section 203.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to...

  13. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  14. 42 CFR 410.152 - Amounts of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Amount of payment: Home health services other than durable medical equipment (DME). For home health services other than DME furnished by, or under arrangements made by, a participating HHA, Medicare... services. (d) Amount of payment: DME furnished as a home health service—(1) Basic rule. Except as...

  15. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... Medicare beneficiaries who elected to receive hospice care from that hospice during the cap period. For... election to receive hospice care, in accordance with § 418.24, from the hospice during the......

  16. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  17. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  18. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  19. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  20. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  1. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.52 - Amount of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of stipend. 2400.52 Section 2400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.52 Amount of stipend. Junior and Senior...

  5. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  6. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  7. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  8. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  9. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  10. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  11. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  12. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  13. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  14. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673 Section 35.673 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  15. 40 CFR 35.683 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.683 Section 35.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.683 Annual amount reserved by EPA. EPA shall reserve up to five percent...

  16. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  17. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  18. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  19. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  20. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  1. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  2. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 4.140 - Significance of contract amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Significance of contract amount. 4.140 Section 4.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.140 Significance of contract...

  4. 29 CFR 4.142 - Contracts in an indefinite amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts in an indefinite amount. 4.142 Section 4.142 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.142 Contracts in an...

  5. 29 CFR 4.141 - General criteria for measuring amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General criteria for measuring amount. 4.141 Section 4.141 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.141 General criteria...

  6. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  7. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  8. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  9. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  10. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  11. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  12. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  13. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  14. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  15. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  16. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  17. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  18. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  19. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  20. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  1. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870... beginning on or after October 30, 1998, Option A cannot exceed this amount. Exception: This does not apply... insurance (the first pay period beginning on or after October 30, 1998). (b)(1) Option B coverage comes in...

  2. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  3. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative rates. When an ODS rate in any category is less than zero... negative rate shall be deducted from positive rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e... Subsidy Rates § 252.30 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily rates. Daily ODS rates shall be used...

  4. Consistency of daily cigarette smoking amount in dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Jao, Nancy C; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2013-09-01

    Self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) is a very common screening as well as dependent or independent measure in clinical and nonclinical research on smoking, but the consistency of CPD across days in dependent smokers is uncertain. Adult dependent smokers (N = 357; 170 men, 187 women) retrospectively reported "usual" CPD at screening and then prospectively self-monitored CPD on 3 consecutive days of 1 week during an ad libitum baseline period. Participants were those recruited for later tests of brief medication effects in those with high (n = 170) versus low (n = 187) interest in quitting smoking soon (within 3 months). Consistency was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Prospective daily CPD was generally consistent (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI of 0.74-0.81), but CPD changed (increased or decreased) by 5 cigarettes/day or more in 40% of participants and by at least 10/day in 10%. Consistency in CPD was greater in higher dependent smokers and in women with low (vs. high) quit interest, but consistency tended to be greater in men with high (vs. low) quit interest. Although retrospectively reported CPD at screening was consistent with the overall mean for prospectively monitored daily CPD, 15% of participants differed by at least 5/day between methods, and digit bias was twice as likely with retrospective versus prospective CPD, which was at chance levels. Understanding variability in CPD may improve knowledge of dependence and factors that foster or discourage daily smoking amount, but precise assessment of daily CPD likely requires prospective monitoring.

  5. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  6. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  7. Accumulated versus continuous exercise for health benefit: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marie H; Blair, Steven N; Murtagh, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Current physical activity guidelines endorse the notion that the recommended amount of daily physical activity can be accumulated in short bouts performed over the course of a day. Although intuitively appealing, the evidence for the efficacy of accumulated exercise is not plentiful. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of similar amounts of exercise performed in either one continuous or two or more accumulated bouts on a range of health outcomes. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review, in which at least one outcome known to affect health was measured before and after continuous and accumulated exercise training interventions. Where improvements in cardiovascular fitness were noted, most studies reported no difference in the alterations between accumulated and continuous patterns of exercise. In the few studies where a normalization of blood pressure was observed from baseline to post-intervention, there appear to be no differences between accumulated and continuous exercise in the magnitude of this effect. For other health outcomes such as adiposity, blood lipids and psychological well-being, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether accumulated exercise is as effective as the more traditional continuous approach. Seven short-term studies in which at least one health-related outcome was measured during the 0- to 48-hour period after a single continuous bout of exercise and a number of short bouts of equivalent total duration were included in the review. Many of the studies of such short-term effects considered the plasma triglyceride response to a meal following either accumulated short or continuous bouts of exercise. Collectively, these studies suggest that accumulated exercise may be as effective at reducing postprandial lipaemia. Further research is required to determine if even shorter bouts of accumulated exercise (<10 minutes) confer a health benefit and whether an accumulated approach to physical

  8. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  9. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha−1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  10. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  11. Deleterious mutation accumulation and the regeneration of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Daniel J.; David, Jacques L.; Bataillon, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations accompanying recurrent regeneration of plant germ plasm was modeled under regeneration conditions characterized by different amounts of selection and genetic drift. Under some regeneration conditions (sample sizes ≥75 individuals and bulk harvesting of seed) mutation accumulation was negligible, but under others (sample sizes <75 individuals or equalization of seed production by individual plants) mutation numbers per genome increased significantly during 25–50 cycles of regeneration. When mutations also are assumed to occur (at elevated rates) during seed storage, significant mutation accumulation and fitness decline occurred in 10 or fewer cycles of regeneration regardless of the regeneration conditions. Calculations also were performed to determine the numbers of deleterious mutations introduced and remaining in the genome of an existing variety after hybridization with a genetic resource and subsequent backcrossing. The results suggest that mutation accumulation has the potential to reduce the viability of materials held in germ plasm collections and to offset gains expected by the introduction of particular genes of interest from genetic resources. PMID:9419386

  12. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  13. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO(3) already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  14. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  15. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Sehat, Bita; Larsson, Olle

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. {yields} Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. {yields} This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. {yields} An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the {beta}-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over-accumulation

  16. Heavy metals accumulation in wood tissues of the forest-forming species growed in the Steppe technogenic landscapes in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinska, Viktoriia; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    . Nickel maximum accumulation in black locust was fixed for the youngest copies. The same tendency was observed for Scots pine in copies of 45 years old. We did not see relation with age for mangan content in both studied species. The absolute value of the amount of mangan for Scots pine is much higher comparatevelly to black locust.

  17. 29 CFR 778.412 - Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours employee may be expected to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours... Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.412 Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours... work which can reasonably be expected to range no higher than 50 hours would not qualify as a bona...

  18. 29 CFR 778.412 - Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours employee may be expected to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours... Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.412 Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours... work which can reasonably be expected to range no higher than 50 hours would not qualify as a bona...

  19. 29 CFR 778.412 - Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours employee may be expected to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours... Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.412 Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours... work which can reasonably be expected to range no higher than 50 hours would not qualify as a bona...

  20. Mutation Accumulation in an Asexual Relative of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen I.; McKay, John K.

    2017-01-01

    Asexual populations experience weaker responses to natural selection, which causes deleterious mutations to accumulate over time. Additionally, stochastic loss of individuals free of deleterious mutations can lead to an irreversible increase in mutational load in asexuals (the “click” in Muller’s Ratchet). Here we report on the genomic divergence and distribution of mutations across eight sympatric pairs of sexual and apomictic (asexual) Boechera (Brassicaceae) genotypes. We show that apomicts harbor a greater number of derived mutations than sympatric sexual genotypes. Furthermore, in phylogenetically constrained sites that are subject to contemporary purifying selection, the ancestral, conserved allele is more likely to be retained in sexuals than apomicts. These results indicate that apomictic lineages accumulate mutations at otherwise conserved sites more often than sexuals, and support the conclusion that deleterious mutation accumulation can be a powerful force in the evolution of asexual higher plants. PMID:28068346

  1. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  2. MYB76 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaowei; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Hai, Jiangbo; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    The MYB family of transcription factors is important in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, their role in regulating fatty acid accumulation in seeds is still largely unclear. Here, we found that MYB76, localized in the nucleus, was predominantly expressed in developing seeds during maturation. The myb76 mutation caused a significant increase in the amounts of total fatty acids and several major fatty acid compositions in mature seeds, suggesting that MYB76 functioned as an important repressor during seed oil biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed remarkable alteration of numerous genes involved in photosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, modification, and degradation, and oil body formation in myb76 seeds at 12 days after pollination. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB76 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of MYB transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:28270825

  3. Assessing the effect of copper on growth, copper accumulation and physiological responses of grazing species Atriplex halimus: ecotoxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Naranjo, E; Andrades-Moreno, L; Cambrollé, J; Perez-Martin, A

    2013-04-01

    Tolerance of plants to elevated concentrations of heavy metals in growth media and in its tissues leads to high degrees of metal bioaccumulation, which may pose a risk for humans and animals alike. Therefore, bio-accumulating plants need thorough evaluation from an environmental health point of view. A glasshouse experiment concerning the xerohalophyte Atriplex halimus was carried out to determine its tolerance and capacity to accumulate copper. We investigated the effect of Cu from 0 to 30 mmol l(-1) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus and nutrient uptake of A. halimus by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photoinhibition. We also determined total Cu, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and nitrogen content in the plant. Our results indicated that A. halimus presented a high resistance to Cu-induced stress, since the plants were able to survive at concentrations higher than 15 mmol l(-1) Cu. However, this capacity was not reflected in its ability to accumulate and tolerate greater amounts of Cu in its tissues, since clear phytotoxicity symptoms were detected at tissue concentrations greater than 38 mg kg(-1) Cu. Thus, Cu increment caused a reduction in A. halimus growth, which was related to a decrease in net photosynthetic rate. This reduction was associated with the adverse effect of Cu on the photochemical apparatus and the reduction in the absorption of essential nutrients. The high resistance of A. halimus was largely related with the capacity of this species to avoid the absorption of great amounts of Cu. For all the above reasons, A. halimus could have the characteristics of a Cu-exclusion plant.

  4. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  5. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  6. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution.

  7. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ignacio I; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g(-1) (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g(-1) internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  8. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  9. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-21

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.

  10. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  11. Metal accumulation potential of wild plants in tannery effluent contaminated soil of Kasur, Pakistan: field trials for toxic metal cleanup using Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Firdaus-e Bareen; Tahira, Syeda Anjum

    2011-02-15

    The tannery effluent contaminated lands, adjacent to Depalpur Road, Kasur, Pakistan, have been rendered infertile due to long term effluent logging from the leather industry. The area has been colonized by twelve plant species among which Suaeda fruticosa, Salvadora oleoides and Calatropis procera have been found to be the most common and high biomass producing plants. S. fruticosa was subjected to further experimentation because of its high biomass and phytoextraction capabilities for metals. The pot and field experiments were carried out simultaneously. Pot experiments were conducted using the same field soil in column pots with stoppard bottoms to obtain the leachate. EDTA treatment caused a greater solubility of Cr in the soil pore water. In higher doses more amount of the heavy metal was leached. The increase in the amount of EDTA significantly caused a decrease in the biomass of plants without toxicity symptoms. A higher biomass of plants was observed in the field as compared to the pot experiment. The greatest amount of Na was accumulated by leaves of S. fruticosa followed by stem and roots. Similarly, the greatest amount of Cr was bioaccumulated by leaves of S. fruticosa, but followed by roots and then stem. S. fruticosa can be employed in rehabilitation of tannery effluent contaminated soil using small doses of EDTA.

  12. How to avoid unbounded drug accumulation with fractional pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hennion, Maud; Hanert, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that certain drugs follow an anomalous kinetics that can hardly be represented by classical models. Instead, fractional-order pharmacokinetics models have proved to be better suited to represent the time course of these drugs in the body. Unlike classical models, fractional models can represent memory effects and a power-law terminal phase. They give rise to a more complex kinetics that better reflects the complexity of the human body. By doing so, they also spotlight potential issues that were ignored by classical models. Among those issues is the accumulation of drug that carries on indefinitely when the infusion rate is constant and the elimination flux is fractional. Such an unbounded accumulation could have important clinical implications and thus requires a solution to reach a steady state. We have considered a fractional one-compartment model with a continuous intravenous infusion and studied how the infusion rate influences the total amount of drug in the compartment. By taking an infusion rate that decays like a power law, we have been able to stabilize the amount of drug in the compartment. In the case of multiple dosing administration, we propose recurrence relations for the doses and the dosing times that also prevent drug accumulation. By introducing a numerical discretization of the model equations, we have been able to consider a more realistic two-compartment model with both continuous infusion and multiple dosing administration. That numerical model has been applied to amiodarone, a drug known to have an anomalous kinetics. Numerical results suggest that unbounded drug accumulation can again be prevented by using a drug input function that decays as a power law.

  13. Deleterious mutation accumulation in asexual Timema stick insects.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lee; Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is extremely widespread in spite of its presumed costs relative to asexual reproduction, indicating that it must provide significant advantages. One postulated benefit of sex and recombination is that they facilitate the purging of mildly deleterious mutations, which would accumulate in asexual lineages and contribute to their short evolutionary life span. To test this prediction, we estimated the accumulation rate of coding (nonsynonymous) mutations, which are expected to be deleterious, in parts of one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (Actin and Hsp70) genes in six independently derived asexual lineages and related sexual species of Timema stick insects. We found signatures of increased coding mutation accumulation in all six asexual Timema and for each of the three analyzed genes, with 3.6- to 13.4-fold higher rates in the asexuals as compared with the sexuals. In addition, because coding mutations in the asexuals often resulted in considerable hydrophobicity changes at the concerned amino acid positions, coding mutations in the asexuals are likely associated with more strongly deleterious effects than in the sexuals. Our results demonstrate that deleterious mutation accumulation can differentially affect sexual and asexual lineages and support the idea that deleterious mutation accumulation plays an important role in limiting the long-term persistence of all-female lineages.

  14. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  15. Dynamics of phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in metal-treated Matricaria chamomilla roots.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj

    2008-03-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, 11 phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla roots exposed to low (3 microM) and high (60 and 120 microM) levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) for 7 days were investigated. Five derivatives of cinnamic acid (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) and six derivatives of benzoic acid (protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic acids and protocatechuic aldehyde) were detected. Accumulation of glycoside-bound phenolics (revealed by acid hydrolysis) was enhanced mainly towards the end of the experiment, being more expressive in Cu-treated roots. Interestingly, chlorogenic acid was extremely elevated by the highest Cu dose (21-fold higher than control) suggesting its involvement in antioxidative protection. All compounds, with the exception of chlorogenic acid, were detected in the cell wall bound fraction, but only benzoic acids were found in the ester-bound fraction (revealed by alkaline hydrolysis). Soluble phenolics were present in substantially higher amounts in Cu-treated roots and more Cu was retained there in comparison to Cd. Cu strongly elevated PAL activity (by 5.4- and 12.1-fold in 60 and 120 microM treatment, respectively) and lignin content (by 71 and 148%, respectively) after one day of treatment, indicating formation of a barrier against metal entrance. Cd had slighter effects, supporting its non-redox active properties. Taken together, different forms of phenolic metabolites play an important role in chamomile tolerance to metal excess and participate in active antioxidative protection.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturer may elect to conduct the respective emission tests at the higher weight. All mileage accumulation... lowest state-of-charge at the beginning of the test cycle. At no time throughout mileage accumulation... emission tests will include both the FTP and the SFTP tests. The Administrator will accept the...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturer may elect to conduct the respective emission tests at the higher weight. All mileage accumulation... lowest state-of-charge at the beginning of the test cycle. At no time throughout mileage accumulation... emission tests will include both the FTP and the SFTP tests. The Administrator will accept the...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturer may elect to conduct the respective emission tests at the higher weight. All mileage accumulation... lowest state-of-charge at the beginning of the test cycle. At no time throughout mileage accumulation... emission tests will include both the FTP and the SFTP tests. The Administrator will accept the...

  19. ACCUMULATION OF METHYLMERCURY OR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN IN VITRO MODELS OF RAT NEURONAL TISSUE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports data examining the accumulation of PCBs or methylmercury into the tissue of three commonly used in vitro neuronal models.

    ? The results demonstrate that these lipophilic compounds can accumulate to levels 5 to 100 fold higher than the surrounding s...

  20. Impacts of rapeseed dregs on Cd availability in contaminated acid soil and Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Zou, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed dregs (RSD, a commonly organic fertilizer in rural China) at application rates of 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 % on Cd availability in soil and its accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L., Xiangwanxian 12(#), and Weiyou 46(#)) by means of a pot experiment. The results showed that application of RSD resulted in a sharp decrease in the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content. However, the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content in amended soil gradually increased during the rice growing period. Application of RSD significantly increased Cd transport from root to shoot and the amount of Cd accumulated in the aerial part. RSD was an effective organic additive for increasing rice grain yield, but total Cd content in rice grain was also increased. At an application rate of 1.5-3.0 % RSD, the total Cd content in Weiyou 46(#) brown rice was 0.27-0.31 mg kg(-1), which exceeded the standard safe limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and was also higher than that of Xiangwanxian 12(#) (0.04-0.14 mg kg(-1)). Therefore, Weiyou 46(#) had a higher dietary risk than Xiangwanxian 12(#) with RSD application. We do not recommend planting Weiyou 46(#) and applying more than 0.75 % RSD in Cd-contaminated paddy fields.