Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions
Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.
2014-04-10
Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.
Helicity and celestial magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffatt, H. K.
2016-06-01
This informal article discusses the central role of magnetic and kinetic helicity in relation to the evolution of magnetic fields in geophysical and astrophysical contexts. It is argued that the very existence of magnetic fields of the intensity and scale observed is attributable in large part to the chirality of the background turbulence or random-wave field of flow, the simplest measure of this chirality being non-vanishing helicity. Such flows are responsible for the generation of large-scale magnetic fields which themselves exhibit magnetic helicity. In the geophysical context, the turbulence has a `magnetostrophic' character in which the force balance is primarily that between buoyancy forces, Coriolis forces and Lorentz forces associated with the dynamo-generated magnetic field; the dominant nonlinearity here arises from the convective transport of buoyant elements erupting from the `mushy zone' at the inner core boundary. At the opposite extreme, in a highly conducting low-density plasma, the near-invariance of magnetic field topology (and of associated helicity) presents the challenging problem of `magnetic relaxation under topological constraints', of central importance both in astrophysical contexts and in controlled-fusion plasma dynamics. These problems are reviewed and open issues, particularly concerning saturation mechanisms, are reconsidered.
Magnetic Helicity and Planetary Dynamos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2012-01-01
A model planetary dynamo based on the Boussinesq approximation along with homogeneous boundary conditions is considered. A statistical theory describing a large-scale MHD dynamo is found, in which magnetic helicity is the critical parameter
Magnetic Helicity, Tilt, and Twist
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Berger, Mitchell A.; Nindos, Alexander; Norton, Aimee A.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia
2014-12-01
Since its introduction to astro- and solar physics, the concept of helicity has proven to be useful in providing critical insights into physics of various processes from astrophysical dynamos, to magnetic reconnection and eruptive phenomena. Signature of helicity was also detected in many solar features, including orientation of solar active regions, or Joy's law. Here we provide a summary of both solar phenomena and consider mutual relationship and its importance for the evolution of solar magnetic fields.
Turbulent Dynamos and Magnetic Helicity
Ji, Hantao
1999-04-01
It is shown that the turbulent dynamo alpha-effect converts magnetic helicity from the turbulent field to the mean field when the turbulence is electromagnetic while the magnetic helicity of the mean-field is transported across space when the turbulence is elcetrostatic or due to the elcetron diamagnetic effect. In all cases, however, the dynamo effect strictly conserves the total helicity expect for a battery effect which vanishes in the limit of magnetohydrodynamics. Implications for astrophysical situations, especially for the solar dynamo, are discussed.
Baryogenesis from decaying magnetic helicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamada, Kohei; Long, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
As a result of the Standard Model chiral anomalies, baryon number is violated in the early Universe in the presence of a hypermagnetic field with varying helicity. We investigate whether the matter/antimatter asymmetry of the Universe can be created from the decaying helicity of a primordial (hyper)magnetic field before and after the electroweak phase transition. In this model, baryogenesis occurs without (B -L )-violation, since the (B +L ) asymmetry generated by the hypermagnetic field counteracts the washout by electroweak sphalerons. At the electroweak crossover, the hypermagnetic field becomes an electromagnetic field, which does not source (B +L ). Although the sphalerons remain in equilibrium for a time, washout is avoided since the decaying magnetic helicity sources chirality. The relic baryon asymmetry is fixed when the electroweak sphaleron freezes out. Under reasonable assumptions, a baryon asymmetry of nB/s ≃4 ×10-12 can be generated from a maximally helical, right-handed (hyper)magnetic field that has a field strength of B0≃10-14 Gauss and coherence length of λ0≃1 pc today. Relaxing an assumption that relates λ0 to B0, the model predicts nB/s ≳10-10, which could potentially explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe.
Magnetic Helicity in a Cyclic Convective Dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miesch, Mark S.; Zhang, Mei; Augustson, Kyle C.
2016-05-01
Magnetic helicity is a fundamental agent for magnetic self-organization in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamos. As a conserved quantity in ideal MHD, it establishes a strict topological coupling between large and small-scale magnetic fields. The generation of magnetic fields on scales larger than the velocity field is linked to an upscale transfer of magnetic helicity, either locally in spectral space as in the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in MHD turbulence or non-locally, as in the turbulent alpha-effect of mean-field dynamo theory. Thus, understanding the generation, transport, and dissipation of magnetic helicity is an essential prerequisite to understanding manifestations of magnetic self-organization in the solar dynamo, including sunspots, the prominent dipole and quadrupole moments, and the 22-year magnetic activity cycle. We investigate the role of magnetic helicity in a convective dynamo model that exhibits regular magnetic cycles. The cycle is marked by coherent bands of toroidal field that persist within the convection zone and that are antisymmetric about the equator. When these toriodal bands interact across the equator, it initiates a global restructuring of the magnetic topology that contributes to the reversal of the dipole moment. Thus, the polar field reversals are preceeded by a brief reversal of the subsurface magnetic helicity. There is some evidence that the Sun may exhibit a similar magnetic helicity reversal prior to its polar field reversals.
The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets
Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.
2012-05-20
The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.
Primordial magnetic helicity from stochastic electric currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra
2014-04-01
We study the possibility that primordial magnetic fields generated in the transition between inflation and reheating posses magnetic helicity, HM. The fields are induced by stochastic currents of scalar charged particles created during the mentioned transition. We estimate the rms value of the induced magnetic helicity by computing different four-point scalar quantum electrodynamics Feynman diagrams. For any considered volume, the magnetic flux across its boundaries is in principle not null, which means that the magnetic helicity in those regions is gauge dependent. We use the prescription given by Berger and Field and interpret our result as the difference between two magnetic configurations that coincide in the exterior volume. In this case, the magnetic helicity gives only the number of magnetic links inside the considered volume. We calculate a concrete value of HM for large scales and analyze the distribution of magnetic defects as a function of the scale. Those defects correspond to regular as well as random fields in the considered volume. We find that the fractal dimension of the distribution of topological defects is D=1/2. We also study if the regular fields induced on large scales are helical, finding that they are and that the associated number of magnetic defects is independent of the scale. In this case, the fractal dimension is D=0. We finally estimate the intensity of fields induced at the horizon scale of reheating and evolve them until the decoupling of matter and radiation under the hypothesis of the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity. The resulting intensity is high enough and the coherence length long enough to have an impact on the subsequent process of structure formation.
MAGNETIC HELICITY OF SELF-SIMILAR AXISYMMETRIC FORCE-FREE FIELDS
Zhang Mei; Flyer, Natasha; Low, Boon Chye
2012-08-10
In this paper, we continue our theoretical studies addressing the possible consequences of magnetic helicity accumulation in the solar corona. Our previous studies suggest that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are natural products of coronal evolution as a consequence of magnetic helicity accumulation and that the triggering of CMEs by surface processes such as flux emergence also have their origin in magnetic helicity accumulation. Here, we use the same mathematical approach to study the magnetic helicity of axisymmetric power-law force-free fields but focus on a family whose surface flux distributions are defined by self-similar force-free fields. The semi-analytical solutions of the axisymmetric self-similar force-free fields enable us to discuss the properties of force-free fields possessing a huge amount of accumulated magnetic helicity. Our study suggests that there may be an absolute upper bound on the total magnetic helicity of all bipolar axisymmetric force-free fields. With the increase of accumulated magnetic helicity, the force-free field approaches being fully opened up with Parker-spiral-like structures present around a current-sheet layer as evidence of magnetic helicity in the interplanetary space. It is also found that among the axisymmetric force-free fields having the same boundary flux distribution, the one that is self-similar is the one possessing the maximum amount of total magnetic helicity. This gives a possible physical reason why self-similar fields are often found in astrophysical bodies, where magnetic helicity accumulation is presumably also taking place.
A Helical Magnet Design for RHIC^*.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willen, E.; Gupta, R.; Kelly, E.; Muratore, J.
1997-05-01
Helical dipole magnets are required in a project for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to control and preserve the beam polarization in order to allow the collision of polarized proton beams. The project requires superconducting magnets with a 100 mm coil aperture and a 4 Tesla field in which the field rotates 360 degrees over a distance of 2.4 meters. A design restraint is that the magnets operate at relatively low current (less than 500 amperes) in order to minimize the heat load from the current leads. A magnet has been developed that uses a small diameter superconducting cable wound into helical grooves machined into a thick-walled aluminum cylinder. The design and test results of this prototype magnet will be described. ^*Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.
The Magnetic Helicity Budget of Solar Active Regions and Coronal Mass Ejections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nindos, A.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.
2003-01-01
We compute the magnetic helicity injected by transient photospheric horizontal flows in six solar active regions associated with halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that produced major geomagnetic storms and magnetic clouds (MCs) at 1 AU. The velocities are computed using the local correlation tracking (LCT) method. Our computations cover time intervals of 1 10-150 hr, and in four active regions the accumulated helicities due to transient flows are factors of 8-12 larger than the accumulated helicities due to differential rotation. As was first pointed out by DCmoulin and Berger, we suggest that the helicity computed with the LCT method yields not only the helicity injected from shearing motions but also the helicity coming from flux emergence. We compare the computed helicities injected into the corona with the helicities carried away by the CMEs using the MC helicity computations as proxies to the CME helicities. If we assume that the length of the MC flux tubes is I = 2 AU, then the total helicities injected into the corona are a factor of 2.94 lower than the total CME helicities. If we use the values of 1 determined by the condition for the initiation of the kink instability in the coronal flux rope or I = 0.5 AU then the total CME helicities and the total helicities injected into the corona are broadly consistent. Our study, at least partially, clears up some of the discrepancies in the helicity budget of active regions because the discrepancies appearing in our paper are much smaller than the ones reported in previous studies. However, they point out the uncertainties in the MC/CME helicity calculations and also the limitations of the LCT method, which underestimates the computed helicities.
Magnetic Helicity of Alfven Simple Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, Gary M.; Hu, Q.; Dasgupta, B.; Zank, G. P.; Roberts, D.
2010-01-01
The magnetic helicity of fully nonlinear, multi-dimensional Alfven simple waves are investigated, by using relative helicity formulae and also by using an approach involving poloidal and toroidal decomposition of the magnetic field and magnetic vector potential. Different methods to calculate the magnetic vector potential are used, including the homotopy and Biot-Savart formulas. Two basic Alfven modes are identified: (a) the plane 1D Alfven simple wave given in standard texts, in which the Alfven wave propagates along the z-axis, with wave phase varphi=k_0(z-lambda t), where k_0 is the wave number and lambda is the group velocity of the wave, and (b)\\ the generalized Barnes (1976) simple Alfven wave in which the wave normal {bf n} moves in a circle in the xy-plane perpendicular to the mean field, which is directed along the z-axis. The plane Alfven wave (a) is analogous to the slab Alfven mode and the generalized Barnes solution (b) is analogous to the 2D mode in Alfvenic, incompressible turbulence. The helicity characteristics of these two basic Alfven modes are distinct. The helicity characteristics of more general multi-dimensional simple Alfven waves are also investigated. Applications to nonlinear Aifvenic fluctuations and structures observed in the solar wind are discussed.
Magnetic Helicity of Alfven Simple Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, G. M.; Hu, Q.; Dasgupta, B.; Zank, G. P.; Roberts, D.
2010-12-01
The magnetic helicity of fully nonlinear, multi-dimensional Alfven simple waves are investigated, by using relative helicity formulae and also by using an approach involving poloidal and toroidal decomposition of the magnetic field and magnetic vector potential. Different methods to calculate the magnetic vector potential are used, including the homotopy and Biot-Savart formulas. Two basic Alfven modes are identified: (a) the plane 1D Alfven simple wave given in standard texts, in which the Alfven wave propagates along the z-axis, with wave phase \\varphi=k0(z-λ t), where k0 is the wave number and λ is the group velocity of the wave, and (b) the generalized Barnes (1976) simple Alfvén wave in which the wave normal n moves in a circle in the xy-plane perpendicular to the mean field, which is directed along the z-axis. The plane Alfven wave (a) is analogous to the slab Alfven mode and the generalized Barnes solution (b) is analogous to the 2D mode in Alfvenic, incompressible turbulence. The helicity characteristics of these two basic Alfven modes are distinct. The helicity characteristics of more general multi-dimensional simple Alfven waves are also investigated. Applications to nonlinear Alfvenic fluctuations and structures observed in the solar wind are discussed.
Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Eric G.
2015-05-01
Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.
Novel Design of Superconducting Helical Dipole Magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meinke, R.; Senti, M.; Stelzer, G.
1997-05-01
Superconducting helical dipole magnets with a nominal field of 4 Tesla are needed for the spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnets are required to operate at a relatively low current of 400 A since many of these magnets have to be independently controlled. The Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., in Palm Bay, FL has designed and built two prototype magnets using advanced computer controlled coil winding technology. The AML design is extremely cost effective since it avoids magnet specific tooling despite the required complex coil pattern and any precision machined inserts or spacers. It is the first time an accelerator magnet of this technology has reached a field above 4 Tesla. Results from the prototype testing at BNL are presented.
Magnetic Helical Microswimmers in Poiseuille Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acemoglu, Alperen; Yesilyurt, Serhat
2014-11-01
We analyze the motion of artificial magnetic microswimmers which mimic the swimming of natural organisms at low Reynolds numbers. Artificial magnetic microswimmers consist of a rigidly connected helical tail and a magnetic head. Magnetic swimmers are actuated with three orthogonal electromagnetic coil pairs. The swimmer motion is examined in the laminar flow which is introduced to channel with syringe pump. We recorded videos for forward (pusher-like swimming / in the head direction) and backward (puller-like swimming / in the tail direction) motion of swimmers. Swimmers have non-stable helical trajectories for forward motion and stable straight trajectories for backward motion. The flow effects on trajectories are observed for swimmers with different geometric parameters in the circular channels. Experiment results show that helical wavelengths of the trajectories are affected with the flow. Additionally, the flow has more pronounced effect on the trajectories of the swimmers in wide channels. Moreover, circular confinement in narrow channels leads to more stable trajectories; in wide channels swimmers follow complex trajectories. A CFD model is used to compare experiments with simulations and to analyze the effects of hydrodynamic interactions.
Faraday signature of magnetic helicity from reduced depolarization
Brandenburg, Axel; Stepanov, Rodion
2014-05-10
Using one-dimensional models, we show that a helical magnetic field with an appropriate sign of helicity can compensate the Faraday depolarization resulting from the superposition of Faraday-rotated polarization planes from a spatially extended source. For radio emission from a helical magnetic field, the polarization as a function of the square of the wavelength becomes asymmetric with respect to zero. Mathematically speaking, the resulting emission occurs then either at observable or at unobservable (imaginary) wavelengths. We demonstrate that rotation measure (RM) synthesis allows for the reconstruction of the underlying Faraday dispersion function in the former case, but not in the latter. The presence of positive magnetic helicity can thus be detected by observing positive RM in highly polarized regions in the sky and negative RM in weakly polarized regions. Conversely, negative magnetic helicity can be detected by observing negative RM in highly polarized regions and positive RM in weakly polarized regions. The simultaneous presence of two magnetic constituents with opposite signs of helicity is shown to possess signatures that can be quantified through polarization peaks at specific wavelengths and the gradient of the phase of the Faraday dispersion function. Similar polarization peaks can tentatively also be identified for the bi-helical magnetic fields that are generated self-consistently by a dynamo from helically forced turbulence, even though the magnetic energy spectrum is then continuous. Finally, we discuss the possibility of detecting magnetic fields with helical and non-helical properties in external galaxies using the Square Kilometre Array.
Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sung-Hong; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Tan, Changyi; Wang, Haimin
2010-09-01
To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 × 1043 Mx2 just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 × 1043 Mx2, in the corona over ~1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.
TIME EVOLUTION OF CORONAL MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE FLARING ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930
Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, Ju; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul; Tan, Changyi
2010-09-10
To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 x 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 x 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2}, in the corona over {approx}1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.
Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, J.; Wang, H.
2010-05-01
To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term (a few days) evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the temporal evolution of the relative coronal magnetic helicity in NOAA active region (AR) 10930 during the time period of December 8, 21:20 UT through December 14, 5:00 UT. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free (NLFF) magnetic fields reconstructed by the optimization method (Wheatland et al. 2000) as implemented by Wiegelmann (2004). As the boundary conditions for the force-free reconstruction, we use the preprocessed Hinode Spectropolarimeter (SP) vector magnetograms in which the net Lorentz force and the torque in the photosphere are minimized (see Wiegelmann et al. 2006 for the details). The major findings of this study are: (1) a negative (left-handed) helicity of -5×1043 Mx2 in the AR corona is estimated right before the X3.4 flare; (2) the major flare is preceded by a significantly and consistently large amount of negative helicity injection (-2×1043 Mx2) into the corona over 2 days; (3) the temporal variation of helicity is comparable to that of the rotational speed in the southern sunspot with positive polarity; (4) in general, the time profile of the coronal helicity is well-matched with that of the helicity accumulation by the time integration of the simplified helicity injection rate (Chae 2001) determined by using SOHO MDI magnetograms; (5) at the time period of the channel structure development (December 11, 4:00-8:00 UT) with newly emerging flux and just right before the C5.7 class flare, the time variation of the coronal helicity shows a rapid and huge increase of negative helicity, but that of the helicity accumulation by MDI magnetograms indicates a monotonous increase of negative helicity.
Helicity of the Solar Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar
2009-11-01
Magnetic helicity is a physical quantity that measures the degree of linkages and twistedness in the field lines. It is given by a volume integral over the scalar product of magnetic field B and its vector potential A. Direct computation of magnetic helicity in the solar atmosphere is not possible due to two reasons. First, we do not have the observations at different heights in the solar atmosphere to compute the volume integral. Second, the vector potential A is non-unique owing to gauge variance. Many researchers incorrectly inferred twist, a component of magnetic helicity, from the force-free parameter Î±. We clarified the physical meaning of Î± and its relation with the magnetic helicity. Also, a direct method is proposed for the computation of global Î± values of sunspots. An analytical bipole was generated to study the effect of polarimetric noise on the estimation of various magnetic parameters. We find that the effect of polarimetric noise, present in the recent vector magnetograms e.g., from Hinode (Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro- Polarimeter (SOT/SP)), on the magnetic parameters like Î± and magnetic energy, is negligible. We examined the fine structures of local current and Î± in the sunspots. Local Î± patches of opposite signs are present in the umbra of each sunspot. The amplitude of the spatial variation of local Î± in the umbra is typically of the order of the global Î± of the sunspot. We find that the local Î± and current are distributed as alternately positive and negative filaments in the penumbra. The amplitude of azimuthal variation of the local Î± in the penumbra is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that in the umbra. The contributions of the local positive and negative currents and Î± in the penumbra cancel each other giving almost no contribution for their global values for whole sunspot. We have introduced the concept of signed shear angle (SSA) for sunspots and establish its importance for non force
Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids
Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.
2015-01-30
Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.
Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, A. J. B.; Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.
2015-03-01
We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.
Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection
Russell, A. J. B. Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.; Yeates, A. R.
2015-03-15
We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.
The global distribution of magnetic helicity in the solar corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.
2016-10-01
By defining an appropriate field line helicity, we apply the powerful concept of magnetic helicity to the problem of global magnetic field evolution in the Sun's corona. As an ideal-magnetohydrodynamic invariant, the field line helicity is a meaningful measure of how magnetic helicity is distributed within the coronal volume. It may be interpreted, for each magnetic field line, as a magnetic flux linking with that field line. Using magneto-frictional simulations, we investigate how field line helicity evolves in the non-potential corona as a result of shearing by large-scale motions on the solar surface. On open magnetic field lines, the helicity injected by the Sun is largely output to the solar wind, provided that the coronal relaxation is sufficiently fast. But on closed magnetic field lines, helicity is able to build up. We find that the field line helicity is non-uniformly distributed, and is highly concentrated in twisted magnetic flux ropes. Eruption of these flux ropes is shown to lead to sudden bursts of helicity output, in contrast to the steady flux along the open magnetic field lines. Movies are available at http://www.aanda.org
PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS
Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul
2010-07-20
The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10{sup 22} Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.
JOINT INVERSE CASCADE OF MAGNETIC ENERGY AND MAGNETIC HELICITY IN MHD TURBULENCE
Stepanov, R.; Frick, P.; Mizeva, I.
2015-01-10
We show that oppositely directed fluxes of energy and magnetic helicity coexist in the inertial range in fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with small-scale sources of magnetic helicity. Using a helical shell model of MHD turbulence, we study the high Reynolds number MHD turbulence for helicity injection at a scale that is much smaller than the scale of energy injection. In a short range of scales larger than the forcing scale of magnetic helicity, a bottleneck-like effect appears, which results in a local reduction of the spectral slope. The slope changes in a domain with a high level of relative magnetic helicity, which determines that part of the magnetic energy is related to the helical modes at a given scale. If the relative helicity approaches unity, the spectral slope tends to –3/2. We show that this energy pileup is caused by an inverse cascade of magnetic energy associated with the magnetic helicity. This negative energy flux is the contribution of the pure magnetic-to-magnetic energy transfer, which vanishes in the non-helical limit. In the context of astrophysical dynamos, our results indicate that a large-scale dynamo can be affected by the magnetic helicity generated at small scales. The kinetic helicity, in particular, is not involved in the process at all. An interesting finding is that an inverse cascade of magnetic energy can be provided by a small-scale source of magnetic helicity fluctuations without a mean injection of magnetic helicity.
CURRENT HELICITY OF ACTIVE REGIONS AS A TRACER OF LARGE-SCALE SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY
Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, H.; Moss, D.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kuzanyan, K.; Sokoloff, D.
2012-05-20
We demonstrate that the current helicity observed in solar active regions traces the magnetic helicity of the large-scale dynamo generated field. We use an advanced two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with dynamo saturation based on the evolution of the magnetic helicity and algebraic quenching. For comparison, we also studied a more basic two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with simple algebraic alpha-quenching only. Using these numerical models we obtained butterfly diagrams both for the small-scale current helicity and also for the large-scale magnetic helicity, and compared them with the butterfly diagram for the current helicity in active regions obtained from observations. This comparison shows that the current helicity of active regions, as estimated by -A {center_dot} B evaluated at the depth from which the active region arises, resembles the observational data much better than the small-scale current helicity calculated directly from the helicity evolution equation. Here B and A are, respectively, the dynamo generated mean magnetic field and its vector potential. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given.
The magnetic helicity spectrum from solar vector magnetograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, Axel; Zhang, Hongqi; Sokoloff, Dmitry
2016-05-01
The gauge-invariant (or relative) magnetic helicity is often measured to characterize the degree of magnetic complexity of active regions. However, magnetic helicity is expected to have different signs on different length scales that can be identified with the large- and small-scale fields used in dynamo theory. To address this, it is important to determine magnetic helicity spectra as functions of wavenumber. These spectra are defined such that the integral over all wavenumbers gives the usual magnetic helicity density in a particular patch of interest. Using vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory for active region NOAA 11515, which was on the southern hemisphere, we show that the magnetic helicity spectrum has positive sign on scales below 30 Mm, but negative sign on larger scales. This active region was rather complex and its magnetic helicity was within 26% of its theoretical maximum value. This is much more than that of NOAA 11158, which was also rather complex, but only within 5% of its theoretical maximum value. Since the contribution of larger length scales turned out to be important in the case of NOAA 11515, its total magnetic helicity is dominated by the negative values from large length scales, which explains the unusual sign for the southern hemisphere. Measuring magnetic helicity spectra with DKIST may become an important tool to learn about the workings of the underlying dynamo.
Gyrotron beam generation with helical magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, R. H.; Sedlak, C. A.
1983-08-01
This report presents the results of an investigation into the basic properties of a new type of electron gun for generating high transverse velocity beams, the bifilar helix - Pierce gun or H-gun. The H-gun differs significantly from presently used magnetron injection guns (MIGs) in that first a laminar, low transverse velocity beam is formed and then transverse velocity is imparted by propagating the beam through the magnetic field of a bifilar helix. In order to evaluate the H-gun, an analytic and computational study was conducted to examine the relationships between the magnetic fields (axial and helical), and the beam properties after existing the helical field. The effects of the helix field entrance profile, the helix-axial field gyroresonance, and helix field gradients have been taken into account in the investigation. Based on the results of this research, conditions have been specified which will produce a high transverse velocity beam with low axial velocity spread. In particular, it has been found that an adiabatic helix entrance profile can provide a flexible means of generating high quality beams for gyro-devices.
Helical Magnetic Fields from Sphaleron Decay and Baryogenesis
Copi, Craig J.; Ferrer, Francesc; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Achucarro, Ana
2008-10-24
Many models of baryogenesis rely on anomalous particle physics processes to give baryon number violation. By numerically evolving the electroweak equations on a lattice, we show that baryogenesis in these models creates helical cosmic magnetic fields, though the helicity created is smaller than earlier analytical estimates. After a transitory period, electroweak dynamics is found to conserve the Chern-Simons number and the total electromagnetic helicity. We argue that baryogenesis could lead to magnetic fields of nano-Gauss strength today on astrophysical length scales. In addition to being astrophysically relevant, such helical magnetic fields can provide an independent probe of baryogenesis and CP violation in particle physics.
Helical Magnetic Fields from Sphaleron Decay and Baryogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copi, Craig J.; Ferrer, Francesc; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Achúcarro, Ana
2008-10-01
Many models of baryogenesis rely on anomalous particle physics processes to give baryon number violation. By numerically evolving the electroweak equations on a lattice, we show that baryogenesis in these models creates helical cosmic magnetic fields, though the helicity created is smaller than earlier analytical estimates. After a transitory period, electroweak dynamics is found to conserve the Chern-Simons number and the total electromagnetic helicity. We argue that baryogenesis could lead to magnetic fields of nano-Gauss strength today on astrophysical length scales. In addition to being astrophysically relevant, such helical magnetic fields can provide an independent probe of baryogenesis and CP violation in particle physics.
On the Origin of Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lirong; Alexander, David
2008-01-01
Twenty-three active regions associated with pronounced sigmoidal structure in Yohkoh soft X-ray observations are selected to investigate the origin of magnetic helicity in the solar corona. We calculate the radial magnetic flux of each polarity, the rate of magnetic helicity injection, and total flux of the helicity injection (Δ HLCT) over 4-5 days using MDI 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms and a local correlation tracking technique. We also estimate the contribution from differential rotation to the overall helicity budget (Δ Hrot). It is found that of the seven active regions for which the flux emergence exceeds 1.0 × 1022 Mx, six exhibited a helicity flux injection exceeding 1.0 × 1043 Mx2 (i.e., Δ H = Δ HLCT - Δ Hrot). Moreover, the rate of helicity injection and the total helicity flux are larger (smaller) during periods of more (less) increase of magnetic flux. Of the remaining 16 active regions, with flux emergence less than 1022 Mx, only 4 had significant injection of helicity, exceeding 1043 Mx2. Typical contributions from differential rotation over the same period were 2-3 times smaller than that of the strong magnetic field emergence. These statistical results signify that the strong emergence of magnetic field is the most important origin of the coronal helicity, while horizontal motions and differential rotation are insufficient to explain the measured helicity injection flux. Furthermore, the study of the helicity injection in nineteen newly emerging active regions confirms the result on the important role played by strong magnetic flux emergence in controlling the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona.
Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works
Paul M. Bellan
2001-10-09
OAK-B135 The goal of the Caltech program is to determine how helicity injection works by investigating the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with magnetic relaxation. A new coaxial helicity injection source has been constructed and brought into operation. The key feature of this source is that it has maximum geometric simplicity. Besides being important for fusion research, this work also has astrophysical implications. Photos obtained using high-speed cameras show a clear sequence of events in the formation process. In particular, they show initial merging/reconnection processes, jet-like expansion, kinking, and separation of the plasma from the source. Various diagnostics have been developed, including laser induced fluorescence and soft x-ray detection using high speed diodes. Gas valves have been improved and a patent disclosure relating to puffed gas valves has been filed. Presentations on this work have been given in the form of invited talks at several university physics departments that were previously unfamiliar with laboratory plasma experiments.
Song, Y. L.; Zhang, M.
2015-05-10
It is generally believed that the evolution of magnetic helicity has a close relationship with solar activity. Before the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), earlier studies had mostly used Michelson Doppler Imager/SOHO line of sight (LOS) magnetograms and assumed that magnetic fields are radial when calculating the magnetic helicity injection rate from photospheric magnetograms. However, this assumption is not necessarily true. Here we use the vector magnetograms and LOS magnetograms, both taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on SDO, to estimate the effects of the non-radial magnetic field on measuring the magnetic helicity injection rate. We find that: (1) the effect of the non-radial magnetic field on estimating tangential velocity is relatively small; (2) when estimating the magnetic helicity injection rate, the effect of the non-radial magnetic field is strong when active regions are observed near the limb and is relatively weak when active regions are close to disk center; and (3) the effect of the non-radial magnetic field becomes minor if the amount of accumulated magnetic helicity is the only concern.
SMART Observation of Magnetic Helicity in Solar Filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagino, M.; Kitai, R.; Shibata, K.
2006-08-01
We examined the magnetic helicity of solar filaments from their structure in the chromosphere and corona. The H-alpha telescope of the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) observed 239 intermediate filaments from 2005 July 1 to 2006 May 15. The intermediate filament usually locates between two active regions. Using these images, we identified the filament spine and its barbs, and determined the chromospheric filament helicity from the mean angle between each barbs and a spine. We found that 71% (78 of 110) of intermediate filaments in the northern hemisphere are negative helicity and 67% (87 of 129) of filaments in the southern hemisphere are positive, which agreed with the well-known hemispheric tendency of the magnetic helicity. Additionally, we studied the coronal helicity of intermediate filaments. The coronal filament helicity is defined as the crossing angle of threads formed a filament. The helicity pattern of coronal filaments obtained with EIT/SOHO 171A also shows the helicity hemispheric tendency. Namely, 65% (71 of 110) of coronal filaments in the northern hemisphere exhibit negative helicity and the 65% (84 of 129) of filaments in the southern hemisphere show negative helicity. These data were observed in the same day with the SMART H-alpha data. Moreover, we found 12 filament eruptions in our data. The 7 of 12 filaments show the clear opposite sign of the hemispheric tendency of the magnetic helicity. The helicity seems to be change during temporal evolution. This results suggest that filament instability may be driven by the opposite sign helicity injection from the foot point of the barb.
Computing magnetic energy and helicity fluxes from series of magnetograms .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Démoulin, P.; Pariat, E.
Magnetic energy and helicity fluxes can now be derived from measurements of the photospheric magnetic and velocity fields. We show that only photospheric flux-tube motions are needed to estimate the full fluxes. The derived maps of flux densities permit to localize where energy and helicity input occurs in active regions (ARs). The precision of the energy flux density is dominantly limited by the precision obtained on the transverse component of the magnetic field. On the contrary, the helicity flux density requires only the measurement of the vertical component of the magnetic field. Previously, the magnetic helicity maps were strongly affected by a false definition of the helicity flux density involving the magnetic vector potential. Applied to observations, this approach introduces important fake polarities. We define a better helicity flux density; it reduces the fake polarities by more than an order of magnitude. The spatial distribution of helicity injected into the studied ARs is much more coherent than previously thought, and presents a dominant sign in each AR. Finally, the correct helicity flux density could be derived from magnetograms if coronal connectivities are known.
Scale Dependence of Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2011-01-01
We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k approximately equal to 2AU(sup -1) (or frequency nu approximately equal to 2 microHz) at distances below 2.8AU and at k approximately equal to 30AU(sup -1) (or nu approximately equal to 25 microHz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10(sup 45) Mx(sup 2) cycle(sup -1) at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.
SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND
Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov
2011-06-10
We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.
Zhang, Y.; Kitai, R.; Takizawa, K. E-mail: zhangyin@bao.ac.cn
2012-06-01
We present a new methodology which can determine magnetic helicity transport by the passage of helical magnetic field lines from the sub-photosphere and the shuffling motions of footpoints of preexisting coronal field lines separately. It is well known that only the velocity component, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field ({upsilon}{sub B}), has contributed to the helicity accumulation. Here, we demonstrate that {upsilon}{sub B} can be deduced from a horizontal motion and vector magnetograms under a simple relation of {upsilon}{sub t} = {mu}{sub t} + ({upsilon}{sub n}/B{sub n} ) B{sub t}, as suggested by Demoulin and Berger. Then after dividing {upsilon}{sub B} into two components, as one is tangential and the other is normal to the solar surface, we can determine both terms of helicity transport. Active region (AR) NOAA 10930 is analyzed as an example during its solar disk center passage by using data obtained by the Spectropolarimeter and the Narrowband Filter Imager of Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We find that in our calculation the helicity injection by flux emergence and shuffling motions have the same sign. During the period we studied, the main contribution of helicity accumulation comes from the flux emergence effect, while the dynamic transient evolution comes from the shuffling motions effect. Our observational results further indicate that for this AR the apparent rotational motion in the following sunspot is the real shuffling motions on the solar surface.
Josephson junction through a disordered topological insulator with helical magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyuzin, Alexander; Alidoust, Mohammad; Loss, Daniel
2016-06-01
We study supercurrent and proximity vortices in a Josephson junction made of disordered surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator with a proximity induced in-plane helical magnetization. In a regime where the rotation period of helical magnetization is larger than the junction width, we find supercurrent 0 -π crossovers as a function of junction thickness, magnetization strength, and parameters inherent to the helical modulation and surface states. The supercurrent reversals are associated with proximity induced vortices, nucleated along the junction width, where the number of vortices and their locations can be manipulated by means of the superconducting phase difference and the parameters mentioned above.
Accumulation of heavy particles around a helical vortex filament
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
IJzermans, Rutger H. A.; Hagmeijer, Rob; van Langen, Pieter J.
2007-10-01
The motion of small heavy particles near a helical vortex filament in incompressible flow is investigated. Both the configurations of a helical vortex filament in free space and a helical vortex filament in a concentric pipe are considered, and the corresponding helically symmetric velocity fields are expressed in terms of a stream function. Particle motion is assumed to be driven by Stokes drag, and the flow fields are assumed to be independent from the motion of particles. Numerical results show that heavy particles may be attracted to helical trajectories. The stability of these attraction trajectories is demonstrated by linear stability analysis. In addition, the correlation between the attraction trajectories and the streamline topologies is investigated.
Using Magnetic Helicity Diagnostics to Determine the Nature of Solar Active-Region Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgoulis, Manolis K.
Employing a novel nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method that self-consistently infers instantaneous free magnetic-energy and relative magnetic-helicity budgets from single photospheric vector magnetograms, we recently constructed the magnetic energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions. The EH diagram implies dominant relative helicities of left-handed or right-handed chiralities for the great majority of active regions. The amplitude (budget) of these helicities scales monotonically with the free magnetic energy. This constructive, strongly preferential accumulation of a certain sense of magnetic helicity seems to disqualify recently proposed mechanisms relying on a largely random near-surface convection for the formation of the great majority of active regions. The existing qualitative formation mechanism for these regions remains the conventional Omega-loop emergence following a buoyant ascension from the bottom of the convection zone. However, exceptions to this rule include even eruptive active regions: NOAA AR 11283 is an obvious outlier to the EH diagram, involving significant free magnetic energy with a small relative magnetic helicity. Relying on a timeseries of vector magnetograms of this region, our methodology shows nearly canceling amounts of both senses of helicity and an overall course from a weakly left-handed to a weakly right-handed structure, in the course of which a major eruption occurs. For this and similarly behaving active regions the latest near-surface formation scenario might conceivably be employed successfully. Research partially supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. PIRG07-GA-2010-268245 and by the European Union Social Fund (ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.
Nonlinear stability of magnetic islands in a rotating helical plasma
Nishimura, S.; Toda, S.; Narushima, Y.; Yagi, M.
2012-12-15
Coexistence of the forced magnetic reconnection by a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) and the curvature-driven tearing mode is investigated in a helical (stellarator) plasma rotated by helical trapped particle-induced neoclassical flows. A set of Rutherford-type equations of rotating magnetic islands and a poloidal flow evolution equation is revisited. Using the model, analytical expressions of criteria of spontaneous shrinkage (self-healing) of magnetic islands and sudden growth of locked magnetic islands (penetration of RMP) are obtained, where nonlinear saturation states of islands show bifurcation structures and hysteresis characteristics. Considering radial profile of poloidal flows across magnetic islands, it is found that the self-healing is driven by neoclassical viscosity even in the absence of micro-turbulence-induced anomalous viscosity. Effects of unfavorable curvature in stellarators are found to modify the critical values. The scalings of criteria are consistent with low-{beta} experiments in the large helical device.
The Effects of Spatial Smoothing on Solar Magnetic Helicity and the Hemispheric Helicity Sign Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch Ocker, Stella; Petrie, Gordon
2016-05-01
The hemispheric sign rule for solar magnetic helicity, which states that negative/positive helicity occurs preferentially in the northern/southern hemisphere, provides clues to the causes of twisted, flaring magnetic fields. However, previous studies on the hemisphere rule may have been significantly affected by seeing from atmospheric turbulent motions. Using Hinode/SOT-SP data spanning from 2006 to 2012, we studied the effects of two important data processing steps that imitate the effects of atmospheric seeing: noise reduction by ignoring pixel values that are weaker than the estimated noise threshold, and Gaussian spatial smoothing. We applied these processing techniques to the helicity distribution maps for active regions NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11243, along with the average helicities of 36 active regions, in order to imitate and understand the effects of seeing from atmospheric turbulence. We found that rather than changing trends in the helicity distributions, Gaussian smoothing and noise reduction enhanced existing trends by pushing outliers towards the mean or removing them altogether. We also found that, when separated for weak and strong magnetic fields, the average helicities of the 36 active regions conformed to the hemisphere rule for weak field helicities and breached the rule for strong field helicities. In general, we found that data processing did not affect whether the hemisphere rule held for data taken from space-based instruments, and thus that seeing from atmospheric turbulence did not significantly affect previous studies' ground-based results on the hemisphere rule. This work was carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the NSF.
Helicity charging and eruption of magnetic flux from the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rust, David M.; Kumar, A.
1994-01-01
The ejection of helical toroidal fields from the solar atmosphere and their detection in interplanetary space are described. The discovery that solar magnetic fields are twisted and that they are segregated by hemisphere according to their chirality has important implications for the escape process. The roles played by erupting prominences, coronal mass ejections (CME's) and active region (AR) loops in expressing the escape of magnetic flux and helicity are discussed. Sporadic flux escape associated with filament eruptions accounts for less than one-tenth the flux loss. Azimuthal flux loss by CME's could account for more, but the major contributor to flux escape may be AR loop expansion. It is shown how the transfer of magnetic helicity from the sun's interior into emerged loops ('helicity charging') could be the effective driver of solar eruptions and of flux loss from the sun.
Pool-cooled superconducting magnet design of large helical device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, S.; Miyazawa, H.; Saito, R.; Iida, F.; Ogata, H.; Yamazaki, Y.; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya; Fujiwara, Masami; Takeo, M.
1990-03-01
The Large Helical Device is the next generation in helical equipment for nuclear fusion. The large scale superconducting magnets are going to be applied to these coils. The major and minor radius of the helical coil system are 4 and 0.96 m respectively and the magnetic field is 4 T at the plasma center and 8 T at the coil surface. The coil system stores about 2 GJ of total energy. The superconductor of the helical coil is pure aluminum stabilized Nb-Ti compacted strand cable with copper housing. The coils have a stainless-steel helium can that is filled with liquid helium. This pool-cooled superconducting helical coil system satisfies the fully stabilized condition. The superconducting poloidal coils are composed of six (three pairs) circular coils and use forced-cooled superconductors to reduce the eddy current losses by the field changing operation. The helical and poloidal coil system are built in the large bell-jar (vacuum vessel for thermal insulation) with outer diameter of 13 m. Conductor design and stability of superconducting magnets for helical and poloidal coil systems are described.
MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION
Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.
2014-04-01
We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.
Helical Dipole Magnets for Polarized Protons in RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Luccio, A.; Mariam, F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Katayama, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamura, M.; Tominaka, T.; Wu, H.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Y.
1997-05-01
The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be able to support experiments using polarized proton beams. Siberian Snakes are used to maintain polarization in this high energy superconducting collider. To make efficient use of available space while taking advantage of high field superconducting magnets, 4 Tesla helical dipole magnets will be used. These magnets generate a central dipole field in which the field direction rotates through 360^circ about the longitudinal axis over the length of the device. An arrangement of four such magnets can produce the desired change in the spin direction while keeping the proton orbit outside of the ``Snake'' unaltered. Similar magnet arrangements will be used to produce longitudinal polarization at the two major interaction points in RHIC. The basic requirements and layout of these magnets are described, as well as tolerances on field quality and integrated field strengths. First results of tests of prototype helical magnets will be discussed.
Dissipation of Energy, Cross Helicity, and Magnetic Helicity in Ideal MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L.; Vishniac, Ethan T.
2007-11-01
The ``invariants'' of ideal MHD--energy, cross helicity, and magnetic helicity--need not be conserved in the limit of zero viscosity and resistivity if the solution fields become singular. This is observed to occur in MHD turbulence, where the effective dissipation is due to nonlinear cascade of the invariants to small-scales. We study the large-scale balances of the three invariants via a ``coarse-graining'' approach related to Wilson-Kadanoff renormalization group. The ideal dissipation in this framework is due to ``turbulent stress'' and ``turbulent EMF'' generated by eliminated plasma motions below the coarse-graining length. We derive upper bounds on these turbulent contributions to the MHD equations and improve the necessary conditions of [1] for ideal dissipation. In particular, we show that the conditions for turbulent dissipation/forward cascade of magnetic helicity are so severe--infinite 3rd-order moments of the velocity & magnetic fields!--that they are unlikely to ever naturally occur. We also establish local balance equations in space-time of the three invariants, both for measurable ``coarsed-grained'' variables and also for ``bare'' fields. On this basis we give physical interpretations of the turbulent cascades, in terms of work concepts for energy and in terms of topological linkage [2] for the two helicities. [1] Caflisch et al. 1997 Comm. Math. Phys. 184, 443-455 [2] Moffatt, H. K. 1969 J. Fluid Mech. 35, 117-129.
Magnetic helicity and free energy in solar active regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraitis, K.; Georgoulis, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Archontis, V.
2013-09-01
We study the evolution of the non-potential free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in solar active regions (ARs). For this we use a time-series of a three-dimensional, synthetic AR produced by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. As a first step, we calculate the potential magnetic field that has the same normal components with the MHD field along all boundaries of the AR, by solving Laplace's equation. The free magnetic energy of the AR is then easily derived. From the two fields, MHD and potential one, we calculate the corresponding vector potentials with a recently proposed integration method. The knowledge of both fields and their respective vector potentials throughout the AR, allows us to estimate the relative magnetic helicity budget of the AR. Following this procedure for each snapshot of the AR, we reconstruct the evolution of free energy and helicity in the AR. Our method reproduces, for a synthetic AR, the energy/helicity relations known to hold in real active regions.
Helical cosmological magnetic fields from extra-dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atmjeet, Kumar; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2015-05-01
We study the inflationary generation of helical cosmological magnetic fields in a higher-dimensional generalization of the electromagnetic theory. For this purpose, we also include a parity breaking piece to the electromagnetic action. The evolution of an extra-dimensional scale factor allows the breaking of conformal invariance of the effective electromagnetic action in 1 +3 dimensions required for such generation. Analytical solutions for the vector potential can be obtained in terms of Coulomb wave-functions for some special cases. We also present numerical solutions for the vector potential evolution in more general cases. In the presence of a higher-dimensional cosmological constant there exist solutions for the scale factors in which both normal and extra dimensional space either inflate or deflate simultaneously with the same rate. In such a scenario, with the number of extra dimensions D =4 , a scale invariant spectrum of helical magnetic field is obtained. The net helicity arises, as one helical mode comes to dominate over the other at the superhorizon scales. A magnetic field strength of the order of 10-9 G can be obtained for the inflationary scale H ≃1 0-3 Mpl . Weaker fields will be generated for lower scales of inflation. Magnetic fields generated in this model respects the bounds on magnetic fields by Planck and γ -ray observations (i.e., 10-16 G
Rashba Torque Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Helices.
Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V; Sheka, Denis D; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P; Yershov, Kostiantyn V; Makarov, Denys; Gaididei, Yuri
2016-01-01
Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism.
Rashba Torque Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Helices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Makarov, Denys; Gaididei, Yuri
2016-03-01
Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism.
Magnetic clouds, helicity conservation, and intrinsic scale flux ropes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Rust, D. M.
1995-01-01
An intrinsic-scale flux-rope model for interplanetary magnetic clouds, incorporating conservation of magnetic helicity, flux and mass is found to adequately explain clouds' average thermodynamic and magnetic properties. In spite their continuous expansion as they balloon into interplanetary space, magnetic clouds maintain high temperatures. This is shown to be due to magnetic energy dissipation. The temperature of an expanding cloud is shown to pass through a maximum above its starting temperature if the initial plasma beta in the cloud is less than 2/3. Excess magnetic pressure inside the cloud is not an important driver of the expansion as it is almost balanced by the tension in the helical field lines. It is conservation of magnetic helicity and flux that requires that clouds expand radially as they move away from the Sun. Comparison with published data shows good agreement between measured cloud properties and theory. Parameters determined from theoretical fits to the data, when extended back to the Sun, are consistent with the origin of interplanetary magnetic clouds in solar filament eruptions. A possible extension of the heating mechanism discussed here to heating of the solar corona is discussed.
Rashba Torque Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Helices
Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Makarov, Denys; Gaididei, Yuri
2016-01-01
Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism. PMID:27008975
Fabrication of a magnetic helical mesostructured silica rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lei; Zhang Qiao, Shi; Cheng, Lina; Yan, Zifeng; Qing Lu, Gao Max
2008-10-01
We report a one-step synthesis of magnetic helical mesostructured silica (MHMS) by self-assembly of an achiral surfactant, magnetic nanocrystals with stearic acid ligands and silicate. This core-shell structured material consists of an Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanocrystal core and a highly ordered periodic helical mesoporous silica shell. We propose that the formation of the helical structure is induced by the interaction between the surfactant and dissociated stearic acid ligands. The MHMS obtained possesses superparamagnetism, uniform mesostructure, narrow pore size distribution, high surface area, and large pore volume. Furthermore, the drug release process is demonstrated using aspirin as a drug model and MHMS as a drug carrier in a sodium phosphate buffer solution.
Inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Müller, Wolf-Christian; Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Busse, Angela
2012-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of magnetic helicity HM, which is responsible for large-scale magnetic structure formation in electrically conducting turbulent media, is investigated in forced and decaying three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. This is done with the help of high-resolution direct numerical simulations and statistical closure theory. The numerically observed spectral scaling of HM is at variance with earlier work using a statistical closure model [Pouquet et al., J. Fluid Mech. 77, 321 (1976)]. By revisiting this theory, a universal dynamical balance relation is found that includes the effects of kinetic helicity as well as kinetic and magnetic energies on the inverse cascade of HM and explains the above-mentioned discrepancy. Consideration of the result in the context of mean-field dynamo theory suggests a nonlinear modification of the α-dynamo effect, which is important in the context of magnetic-field excitation in turbulent plasmas.
Self-sustained annihilation of magnetic islands in helical plasmas
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
2005-07-15
The evolution of the magnetic island which is induced by the resonant deformation by external currents in helical systems (such as the large helical device (LHD) [A. Iiyoshi, Phys. Plasmas 2, 2349 (1995)]) is analyzed. The defect of the bootstrap current, caused by the magnetic island, has a parity which reduces the size of the magnetic island, if the bootstrap current enhances the vacuum rotational transform. The width of magnetic island can be suppressed to the level of ion banana width if the pressure gradient exceeds a threshold value. This island annihilation is self-sustained. That is, the annihilation continues, for fixed beta value, until the external drive for island generation exceeds a threshold. The effects of the reversal of the direction of the bootstrap current and of the sign of radial electric field are also investigated. The possibility of the neoclassical tearing mode in the LHD-like plasma is discussed.
Current-induced Orbital and Spin Magnetizations in Crystals with Helical Structure
Yoda, Taiki; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi
2015-01-01
We theoretically show that in a crystal with a helical lattice structure, orbital and spin magnetizations along a helical axis are induced by an electric current along the helical axis. We propose a simple tight-binding model for calculations, and the results can be generalized to any helical crystals. The induced magnetizations are opposite for right-handed and left-handed helices. The current-induced spin magnetization along the helical axis comes from a radial spin texture on the Fermi surface. This is in sharp contrast to Rashba systems where the induced spin magnetization is perpendicular to the applied current. PMID:26156643
Magnetic helicity injection in NOAA 11261 associated with flares
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Ruan, Guiping; liu, Jihong
2013-07-01
Magnetic helicity was found important in understanding solar activities such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). Berger and field (1984) derived an expression for helicity flux dHm/dt, that can be applied to an individual solar active region (AR) occupying an area S of the photosphere, (1) \\begin{linenomath}dHm/dt=-2\\ints[(\\mathbf{Ap}\\cdot \\mathbf{V})\\mathbf{B}-(\\mathbf{Ap} \\cdot \\mathbf{B})\\mathbf{V}] dS, \\eqno{(1)}\\end{linenomath} where Ap is the vector potential of potential field, and V is the plasma velocity at the surface S. The first term describes the effect of magnetic footpoint motions on the surface S. The second term describes the flux of helicity advected through the surface when already twisted and/or writhed flux ropes emerge. Chae (2001) proposed a method of self-consistently determining magnetic helicity injection rate, dH/dt, using a time series of longitudinal magnetograms only: (2) \\begin{linenomath}dH/dt=-\\int2(\\textbf{A}p\\cdot \\textbf{V}LCT)BndS, \\eqno{(2)}\\end{linenomath} where n is the normal component of magnetic field. Ap is the vector potential computed from Bn by Fourier transform method. V LCT is the horizontal component of velocity determined by the technique of local correlation tracking (LCT). This technique was applied by some scientists (e.g., Chae et al., 2001; Nindos and Zhang, 2002; Romano et al., 2003). Magnetic helicity injection was found to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of major flares (Moon et al. 2002a, 2002b; Park et al., 2008; Labonte et al., 2007; Maeshiro et al., 2009).
Nishimura, Seiya
2015-02-15
Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.
JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS
Fendt, Christian
2011-08-10
In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.
Validation of the magnetic energy vs. helicity scaling in solar magnetic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tziotziou, K.; Moraitis, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Archontis, V.
2014-10-01
Aims: We assess the validity of the free magnetic energy - relative magnetic helicity diagram for solar magnetic structures. Methods: We used two different methods of calculating the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets: a classical, volume-calculation nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method applied to finite coronal magnetic structures and a surface-calculation NLFF derivation that relies on a single photospheric or chromospheric vector magnetogram. Both methods were applied to two different data sets, namely synthetic active-region cases obtained by three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and observed active-region cases, which include both eruptive and noneruptive magnetic structures. Results: The derived energy-helicity diagram shows a consistent monotonic scaling between relative helicity and free energy with a scaling index 0.84 ± 0.05 for both data sets and calculation methods. It also confirms the segregation between noneruptive and eruptive active regions and the existence of thresholds in both free energy and relative helicity for active regions to enter eruptive territory. Conclusions: We consider the previously reported energy-helicity diagram of solar magnetic structures as adequately validated and envision a significant role of the uncovered scaling in future studies of solar magnetism.
RF Integration into Helical Magnet for Muon 6-Dimensional Beam Cooling
Yonehara, K.; Kashikhin, V.; Lamm, M.; Lee, A.; Lopes, M.; Zlobin, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, S.; Neubauer, M.; /Muons Inc., Batavia
2009-05-01
The helical cooling channel is proposed to make a quick muon beam phase space cooling in a short channel length. The challenging part of the helical cooling channel magnet design is how to integrate the RF cavity into the compact helical cooling magnet. This report shows the possibility of the integration of the system.
Woodruff, S; Hill, D N; Stallard, B W; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B; Holcomb, C T; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Moller, J; Wood, R D
2003-03-01
By operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun continuously with just sufficient current to enable plasma ejection, large gun-voltage spikes (approximately 1 kV) are produced, giving the highest sustained voltage approximately 500 V and highest sustained helicity injection rate observed in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment. The spheromak magnetic field increases monotonically with time, exhibiting the lowest fluctuation levels observed during formation of any spheromak (B/B>/=2%). The results suggest an important mechanism for field generation by helicity injection, namely, the merging of helicity-carrying filaments.
Chiral charge erasure via thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Andrew J.; Sabancilar, Eray
2016-05-01
We consider a relativistic plasma of fermions coupled to an Abelian gauge field and carrying a chiral charge asymmetry, which might arise in the early Universe through baryogenesis. It is known that on large length scales, λ gtrsim 1/(αμ5), the chiral anomaly opens an instability toward the erasure of chiral charge and growth of magnetic helicity. Here the chemical potential μ5 parametrizes the chiral asymmetry and α is the fine-structure constant. We study the process of chiral charge erasure through the thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity and contrast with the well-studied phenomenon of Chern-Simons number diffusion. Through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem we estimate the amplitude and time scale of helicity fluctuations on the length scale λ, finding δScript H ~ λT and τ ~ αλ3T2 for a relativistic plasma at temperature T. We argue that the presence of a chiral asymmetry allows the helicity to grow diffusively for a time t ~ T3/(α5μ54) until it reaches an equilibrium value Script H ~ μ5T2/α, and the chiral asymmetry is partially erased. If the chiral asymmetry is small, μ5 < T/α, this avenue for chiral charge erasure is found to be slower than the chiral magnetic effect for which t ~ T/(α3μ52). This mechanism for chiral charge erasure can be important for the hypercharge sector of the Standard Model as well as extensions including U(1) gauge interactions, such as asymmetric dark matter models.
Chiral Magnetism in an Itinerant Helical Magnet, MnSi - An Extended 29Si NMR Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasuoka, Hiroshi; Motoya, Kiyoichiro; Majumder, Mayukh; Witt, Sebastian; Krellner, Cornelius; Baenitz, Michael
2016-07-01
The microscopic magnetism in the helical, conical and ferromagnetically polarized phases in an itinerant helical magnet, MnSi, has been studied by an extended 29Si NMR at zero field and under external magnetic fields. The temperature dependence of the staggered moment, MQ(T), determined by the 29Si NMR frequency, ν(T), and the nuclear relaxation rate, 1/T1(T), at zero field is in general accord with the SCR theory for weak itinerant ferromagnetic metals and its extension to helical magnets. The external field dependence of resonance frequency, ν(H), follows a vector sum of the contributions from the atomic hyperfine and macroscopic fields with a field induced moment characteristic to itinerant magnets. A discontinuous jump of the resonance frequency at the critical field, Hc, between the conical and the polarized phases has also been found, which suggests a first order like change of the electronic states at Hc.
Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, B. C.; Fang, F.
2014-09-01
The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.
North-south asymmetry of the interplanetary magnetic helicity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Charles W.; Bieber, John W.
1995-01-01
Previous analyses of the north-south asymmetry of the interplanetary magnetic helicity have used the omnitape dataset and have shown that there exists a persistent and statistically significant asymmetry in the handedness of the magnetic fluctuations at 1 AU. This asymmetry is concentrated in fluctuations with spacecraft frame frequencies less than 10-5 Hz (periods greater than 30 hours) at 1 AU. Attempts to extend these analyses to include data collected in the outer heliosphere require that we consider spacecraft frame periods many times greater than 30 hours. This raises interesting questions regarding homogeneity and stationarity of the datasets at this scale and brings into question the possible breakdown of the computed correlation functions due to the sector structure of the solar wind. The likely geometry of magnetic fluctuations in the outer heliosphere provides yet another complication in the analysis. These issues will be discussed in detail and the latest results from our studies of the Voyager 1 & 2 and Pioneer 10 & 11 datasets will be presented. The analysis of Pioneer-Venus Orbiter observations will be shown as well. The potential asymmetry between the magnetic helicity of the two hemispheres has significant and measurable implications for cosmic ray propagation in the heliosphere and these implications will be reviewed in light of the new results.
Evolution of the magnetic helicity flux during the formation and eruption of flux ropes
Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F. P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.
2014-10-20
We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.
Twist accumulation and topology structure of a solar magnetic flux rope
Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Cheng, X.; Zhao, J.; Pariat, E.
2013-12-20
To study the buildup of a magnetic flux rope before a major flare and coronal mass ejection (CME), we compute the magnetic helicity injection, twist accumulation, and topology structure of the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field, which is derived by the nonlinear force-free field model. The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory observed a series of confined flares without any CME before a major flare with a CME at 23:02 UT on 2005 January 15 in active region NOAA 10720. We derive the vector velocity at eight time points from 18:27 UT to 22:20 UT with the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetic fields, which were observed by the Digital Vector Magnetograph at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The injected magnetic helicity is computed with the vector magnetic and velocity fields. The helicity injection rate was (– 16.47 ± 3.52) × 10{sup 40} Mx{sup 2} hr{sup –1}. We find that only about 1.8% of the injected magnetic helicity became the internal helicity of the magnetic flux rope, whose twist increasing rate was –0.18 ± 0.08 Turns hr{sup –1}. The quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the 3D magnetic field are computed by evaluating the squashing degree, Q. We find that the flux rope was wrapped by QSLs with large Q values, where the magnetic reconnection induced by the continuously injected magnetic helicity further produced the confined flares. We suggest that the flux rope was built up and heated by the magnetic reconnection in the QSLs.
Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields.
Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Niklasson, Eyvind; Ram, Abhay
2014-04-01
We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients A=B=C=1 are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late times with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic ABC fields, the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with an exponent that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the probability density function of kinetic energy is, at late times, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails.
Magnetic helicity and the evolution of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Berera, Arjun; Linkmann, Moritz
2014-10-01
Ensemble-averaged high resolution direct numerical simulations of reverse spectral transfer are presented, extending on the many single realization numerical studies done up to now. This identifies this type of spectral transfer as a statistical property of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and thus permits reliable numerical exploration of its dynamics. The magnetic energy decay exponent from these ensemble runs has been determined to be nE=(0.47±0.03)+(13.9±0.8)/Rλ for initially helical magnetic fields. We show that even after removing the Lorentz force term in the momentum equation, thus decoupling it from the induction equation, reverse spectral transfer still persists. The induction equation is now linear with an externally imposed velocity field, thus amenable to numerous analysis techniques. A new door has opened for analyzing reverse spectral transfer, with various ideas discussed.
Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee
2015-05-01
We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.
Three-dimensional prominence-hosting magnetic configurations: Creating a helical magnetic flux rope
Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Guo, Y.
2014-01-10
The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coronal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an essential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows toward the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The converging flows bring the feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line, where magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happen. Inflow and outflow signatures of the magnetic reconnection process are identified, and thereby the newly formed helical loops wind around preexisting ones so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. When a macroscopic flux rope is formed, we switch off the driving flows and find that the system relaxes to a stable state containing a helical magnetic flux rope embedded in an overlying arcade structure. A major part of the formed flux rope is threaded by dipped field lines that can stably support prominence matter, while the total mass of the flux rope is in the order of 4-5× 10{sup 14} g.
Increasing the magnetic helicity content of a plasma by pulsing a magnetized source.
Woodruff, S; Stallard, B W; McLean, H S; Hooper, E B; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B I; Hill, D N; Holcomb, C T; Moller, J; Wood, R D
2004-11-12
By operating a magnetized coaxial gun in a pulsed mode it is possible to produce large voltage pulses of duration approximately 500 mus while reaching a few kV, giving a discrete input of helicity into a spheromak. In the sustained spheromak physics experiment (SSPX), it is observed that pulsing serves to nearly double the stored magnetic energy and double the temperature. We discuss these results by comparison with 3D MHD simulations of the same phenomenon.
Magnetic reconnection process in transient coaxial helicity injection
Ebrahimi, F.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.
2013-09-15
The physics of magnetic reconnection and fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection experiments in NSTX is examined using resistive MHD simulations. These simulations have been performed using the NIMROD code with fixed boundary flux (including NSTX poloidal coil currents) in the NSTX experimental geometry. Simulations show that an X point is formed in the injector region, followed by formation of closed flux surfaces within 0.5 ms after the driven injector voltage and injector current begin to rapidly decrease. As the injector voltage is turned off, the field lines tend to untwist in the toroidal direction and magnetic field compression exerts a radial J × B force and generates a bi-directional radial E{sub toroidal}×B{sub poloidal} pinch flow to bring oppositely directed field lines closer together to reconnect. At sufficiently low magnetic diffusivity (high Lundquist number), and with a sufficiently narrow injector flux footprint width, the oppositely directed field lines have sufficient time to reconnect (before dissipating), leading to the formation of closed flux surfaces. The reconnection process is shown to have transient Sweet-Parker characteristics.
Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow
Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Herron, Isom
2006-11-15
Hollerbach and Ruediger have reported a new type of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The salient advantage of this 'helical' MRI (HMRI) is that marginal instability occurs at arbitrarily low magnetic Reynolds and Lundquist numbers, suggesting that HMRI might be easier to realize than standard MRI (axial field only), and that it might be relevant to cooler astrophysical disks, especially those around protostars, which may be quite resistive. We confirm previous results for marginal stability and calculate HMRI growth rates. We show that in the resistive limit, HMRI is a weakly destabilized inertial oscillation propagating in a unique direction along the axis. But we report other features of HMRI that make it less attractive for experiments and for resistive astrophysical disks. Large axial currents are required. More fundamentally, instability of highly resistive flow is peculiar to infinitely long or periodic cylinders: finite cylinders with insulating endcaps are shown to be stable in this limit, at least if viscosity is neglected. Also, Keplerian rotation profiles are stable in the resistive limit regardless of axial boundary conditions. Nevertheless, the addition of a toroidal field lowers thresholds for instability even in finite cylinders.
Hamiltonian for the toroidal helical magnetic field lines in the vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnudi, G.; Hatori, T.
1992-11-01
The toroidal helical magnetic field possesses magnetic surfaces in the proximity of the magnetic axis, while in regions far from the magnetic axis such surfaces to not exist. The domain in which magnetic surfaces do not exist is called magnetic chaos domain, and between the magnetic axis and the magnetic chaos domain lies the outermost surface, whose position is an important information from the point of view of magnetic confinement. Since the divergence of the magnetic field is zero, the magnetic field lines system can be treated as a hamiltonian system. For hamiltonian systems the phase space structure is subdivided into chaotic and non-chaotic regions, and this subdivision has a correspondence with the magnetic chaos domain and the magnetic surfaces domain discussed above. In order to further advance this research it is necessary to approach the problem form the point of view of hamiltonian theory, in which the divergence-free property is rigorously respected. Besides, for hamiltonian systems it is possible to use symplectic integration techniques to solve the equation of motion, techniques which are free from secular, or dissipative errors. This fact make the application of symplectic techniques very attractive. The research approaching the toroidal helical magnetic field problem from the hamiltonian point of view ends with works done more than ten years ago, partly because of the strong push towards research on tokamaks. However, two good reasons to revive the hamiltonian approach to the toroidal helical magnetic field problem are: (1) the Japanese Ministry of Education is pushing the research concerning the helical systems approach to magnetic confinement; and (2) the last ten years have seen an impetuous development of chaos physics, and times are ripe for research about the chaotic properties of the toroidal helical magnetic field lines system. An explicit form for the Boozer's magnetic coordinates in the first order toroidal correction to the cylindrical
Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Kuzanyan, K. M.
2009-11-01
Relying purely on solar photospheric magnetic field measurements that cover most of solar cycle 23 (1996-2005), we calculate the total relative magnetic helicity injected into the solar atmosphere, and eventually shed into the heliosphere, over the latest cycle. Large active regions dominate the helicity injection process with approx5.7 x 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} of total injected helicity. The net helicity injected is approx<1% of the above output. Peculiar active-region plasma flows account for approx80% of this helicity; the remaining approx20% is due to solar differential rotation. The typical helicity per active-region CME ranges between (1.8-7) x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} depending on the CME velocity. Accounting for various minor underestimation factors, we estimate a maximum helicity injection of approx6.6 x 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} for solar cycle 23. Although no significant net helicity exists over both solar hemispheres, we recover the well-known hemispheric helicity preference, which is significantly enhanced by the solar differential rotation. We also find that helicity injection in the solar atmosphere is an inherently disorganized, impulsive, and aperiodic process.
Dynamics of Laboratory Astrophysical Jets with Magnetized Helical Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine
2014-10-01
A triple electrode planar plasma gun (MOCHI LabJet) designed to study the dynamics of magnetized helical flows in plasma jets provides boundary conditions and dimensionless numbers relevant to astrophysical jets. The goal is to observe the effect of current and flow profiles on the collimation and stability of jets to address the questions: why are jets collimated and long? How are jet irregularities related to plasma instabilities? The current and azimuthal flow profiles of the jets are tailored by biasing the electrodes at different potentials. High-speed camera images, high-resolution Ḃ probe measurements, and 3D vector tomography of plasma flows will map a stability space for varying current and flow profiles. An analytical stability space is derived with Newcomb's variational analysis applied to collimated magnetic flux tubes with skin and core currents. Two numerical stability spaces are also computed by integrating the Euler-Lagrange equation and applying a shooting method to the ideal MHD eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalue problem is generalized to include azimuthal flows and computed with a monotonicity condition for minimizing the required scanning of the complex eigenvalue space. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.
A multichannel magnetic probe system for analysing magnetic fluctuations in helical axis plasmas
Haskey, S. R.; Blackwell, B. D.; Seiwald, B.; Hole, M. J.; Pretty, D. G.; Howard, J.; Wach, J.
2013-09-15
The need to understand the structure of magnetic fluctuations in H-1NF heliac [S. Hamberger et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 123 (1990)] plasmas has motivated the installation of a sixteen former, tri-axis helical magnetic probe Mirnov array (HMA). The new array complements two existing poloidal Mirnov arrays by providing polarisation information, higher frequency response, and improved toroidal resolution. The helical placement is ideal for helical axis plasmas because it positions the array as close as possible to the plasma in regions of varying degrees of favourable curvature in the magnetohydrodynamic sense, but almost constant magnetic angle. This makes phase variation with probe position near linear, greatly simplifying the analysis of the data. Several of the issues involved in the design, installation, data analysis, and calibration of this unique array are presented including probe coil design, frequency response measurements, mode number identification, orientation calculations, and mapping probe coil positions to magnetic coordinates. Details of specially designed digitally programmable pre-amplifiers, which allow gains and filters to be changed as part of the data acquisition initialisation sequence and stored with the probe signals, are also presented. The low shear heliac geometry [R. Jiménez-Gómez et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 033001 (2011)], flexibility of the H-1NF heliac, and wealth of information provided by the HMA create a unique opportunity for detailed study of Alfvén eigenmodes, which could be a serious issue for future fusion reactors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seligman, D.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Komm, R.
2014-11-01
We compare the average photospheric current helicity Hc , photospheric twist parameter α (a well-known proxy for the full relative magnetic helicity), and subsurface kinetic helicity Hk for 194 active regions observed between 2006-2013. We use 2440 Hinode photospheric vector magnetograms, and the corresponding subsurface fluid velocity data derived from GONG (2006-2012) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (2010-2013) dopplergrams. We find a significant hemispheric bias in all three parameters. The subsurface kinetic helicity is preferentially positive in the southern hemisphere and negative in the northern hemisphere. The photospheric current helicity and the α parameter have the same bias for strong fields (|B| > 1000 G) and no significant bias for weak fields (100 G <|B| < 500 G). We find no significant region-by-region correlation between the subsurface kinetic helicity and either the strong-field current helicity or α. Subsurface fluid motions of a given handedness correspond to photospheric helicities of both signs in approximately equal numbers. However, common variations appear in annual averages of these quantities over all regions. Furthermore, in a subset of 77 regions, we find significant correlations between the temporal profiles of the subsurface and photospheric helicities. In these cases, the sign of the linear correlation coefficient matches the sign relationship between the helicities, indicating that the photospheric magnetic field twist is sensitive to the twisting motions below the surface.
Seligman, D.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Komm, R.
2014-11-10
We compare the average photospheric current helicity H{sub c} , photospheric twist parameter α (a well-known proxy for the full relative magnetic helicity), and subsurface kinetic helicity H{sub k} for 194 active regions observed between 2006-2013. We use 2440 Hinode photospheric vector magnetograms, and the corresponding subsurface fluid velocity data derived from GONG (2006-2012) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (2010-2013) dopplergrams. We find a significant hemispheric bias in all three parameters. The subsurface kinetic helicity is preferentially positive in the southern hemisphere and negative in the northern hemisphere. The photospheric current helicity and the α parameter have the same bias for strong fields (|B| > 1000 G) and no significant bias for weak fields (100 G <|B| < 500 G). We find no significant region-by-region correlation between the subsurface kinetic helicity and either the strong-field current helicity or α. Subsurface fluid motions of a given handedness correspond to photospheric helicities of both signs in approximately equal numbers. However, common variations appear in annual averages of these quantities over all regions. Furthermore, in a subset of 77 regions, we find significant correlations between the temporal profiles of the subsurface and photospheric helicities. In these cases, the sign of the linear correlation coefficient matches the sign relationship between the helicities, indicating that the photospheric magnetic field twist is sensitive to the twisting motions below the surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Eric G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2013-02-01
The extent to which large-scale magnetic fields are susceptible to turbulent diffusion is important for interpreting the need for in situ large-scale dynamos in astrophysics and for observationally inferring field strengths compared to kinetic energy. By solving coupled evolution equations for magnetic energy and magnetic helicity in a system initialized with isotropic turbulence and an arbitrarily helical large-scale field, we quantify the decay rate of the latter for a bounded or periodic system. The magnetic energy associated with the non-helical large-scale field decays at least as fast as the kinematically estimated turbulent diffusion rate, but the decay rate of the helical part depends on whether the ratio of its magnetic energy to the turbulent kinetic energy exceeds a critical value given by M1, c = (k1/k2)2, where k1 and k2 are the wavenumbers of the large and forcing scales. Turbulently diffusing helical fields to small scales while conserving magnetic helicity requires a rapid increase in total magnetic energy. As such, only when the helical field is subcritical can it so diffuse. When supercritical, it decays slowly, at a rate determined by microphysical dissipation even in the presence of macroscopic turbulence. In effect, turbulent diffusion of such a large-scale helical field produces small-scale helicity whose amplification abates further turbulent diffusion. Two curious implications are that (1) standard arguments supporting the need for in situ large-scale dynamos based on the otherwise rapid turbulent diffusion of large-scale fields require re-thinking since only the large-scale non-helical field is so diffused in a closed system. Boundary terms could however provide potential pathways for rapid change of the large-scale helical field. (2) Since M1, c ≪ 1 for k1 ≪ k2, the presence of long-lived ordered large-scale helical fields as in extragalactic jets do not guarantee that the magnetic field dominates the kinetic energy.
Evolution of Magnetic Helicity During Eruptive Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priest, E. R.; Longcope, D. W.; Janvier, M.
2016-08-01
During eruptive solar flares and coronal mass ejections, a non-potential magnetic arcade with much excess magnetic energy goes unstable and reconnects. It produces a twisted erupting flux rope and leaves behind a sheared arcade of hot coronal loops. We suggest that the twist of the erupting flux rope can be determined from conservation of magnetic flux and magnetic helicity and equipartition of magnetic helicity. It depends on the geometry of the initial pre-eruptive structure. Two cases are considered, in the first of which a flux rope is not present initially but is created during the eruption by the reconnection. In the second case, a flux rope is present under the arcade in the pre-eruptive state, and the effect of the eruption and reconnection is to add an amount of magnetic helicity that depends on the fluxes of the rope and arcade and the geometry.
Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux tubes in almost helical plasma flows
Garcia de Andrade, L.C.
2006-02-15
Riemannian geometry of curves applied recently by Ricca [Fluid Dyn. Res 36, 319 (2005)] in the case of inflectional disequilibrium of twisted magnetic flux tubes is used here to compute the magnetic helicity force-free field case. Here the application of Lorentz force-free to the magnetic flux tube in tokamaks allows one to obtain an equation that generalizes the cylindrical tokamak equation by a term that contains the curvature of the magnetic flux tube. Another example of the use of the magnetic flux tube is done by taking the electron magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluid model (EMHD) of plasma physics that allows one to compute the velocity of the fluid in helical and almost helical flows in terms of the Frenet torsion of thin magnetic flux tubes. The cases of straight and curved twisted tubes are examined. Second-order effects on the Frenet torsion arise on the poloidal component of the magnetic field, while curvature effects appear in the toroidal component. The magnetic fields are computed in terms of the penetration depth used in superconductors. The ratio between poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic field depends on the torsion and curvature of the magnetic flux tube. It is shown that the rotation of the almost helical plasma flow contributes to the twist of the magnetic flux tube through the total Frenet torsion along the tube.
Morphology of blazar-induced gamma ray halos due to a helical intergalactic magnetic field
Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu
2015-09-01
We study the characteristic size and shape of idealized blazar-induced cascade halos in the 1–100,GeV energy range assuming various non-helical and helical configurations for the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). While the magnetic field creates an extended halo, the helicity provides the halo with a twist. Under simplifying assumptions, we assess the parameter regimes for which it is possible to measure the size and shape of the halo from a single source and then to deduce properties of the IGMF. We find that blazar halo measurements with an experiment similar to Fermi-LAT are best suited to probe a helical magnetic field with strength and coherence length today in the ranges 10{sup −17} ∼< B{sub 0} / Gauss ∼< 10{sup −13} and 10 Mpc ∼< λ ∼< 10 Gpc where H ∼ B{sub 0}{sup 2} / λ is the magnetic helicity density. Stronger magnetic fields or smaller coherence scales can still potentially be investigated, but the connection between the halo morphology and the magnetic field properties is more involved. Weaker magnetic fields or longer coherence scales require high photon statistics or superior angular resolution.
Ballardini, Mario
2015-10-01
We consider the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-vanishing helicity on CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization. We compute the exact expressions for the scalar, vector and tensor part of the energy-momentum tensor including the helical contribution, by assuming a power-law dependence for the spectra and a comoving cutoff which mimics the damping due to viscosity. We also compute the parity-odd correlator between the helical and non-helical contribution which generate the TB and EB cross-correlation in the CMB pattern. We finally show the impact of including the helical term on the power spectra of CMB anisotropies up to multipoles with ℓ ∼ O(10{sup 3})
Note: On-chip multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic Janus helical microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, G.; Decanini, D.; Leroy, L.; Haghiri-Gosnet, A. M.
2016-03-01
Microswimmers integrated into microfluidic devices that are capable of self-illumination through fluorescence could revolutionize many aspects of technology, especially for biological applications. Few illumination and propulsion techniques of helical microswimmers inside microfluidic channels have been demonstrated. This paper presents the fabrication, detachment, and magnetic propulsions of multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic helical microswimmers integrated inside microfluidics. The fabrication process is based on two-photon laser lithography to pattern 3-D nanostructures from fluorescent photoresist coupled with conventional microfabrication techniques for magnetic thin film deposition by shadowing. After direct integration inside a microfluidic device, injected gas bubble allows gentle detachment of the integrated helical microswimmers whose magnetic propulsion can then be directly applied inside the microfluidic channel using external electromagnetic coil setup. With their small scale, fluorescence, excellent resistance to liquid/gas surface tension, and robust propulsion capability inside the microfluidic channel, the microswimmers can be used as high-resolution and large-range mobile micromanipulators inside microfluidic channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej
2009-05-01
Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a separation and characterization technique for magnetic nanoparticles such as those used for cell labeling and for targeted drug therapy. A helical separation channel is used to efficiently exploit the quadrupole magnetic field. The fluid and sample components therefore have angular and longitudinal components to their motion in the thin annular space occupied by the helical channel. The retention ratio is defined as the ratio of the times for non-retained and a retained material to pass through the channel. Equations are derived for the respective angular and longitudinal components to retention ratio.
Bifurcation to 3D Helical Magnetic Equilibrium in an Axisymmetric Toroidal Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergerson, W. F.; Auriemma, F.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Zanca, P.; Brower, D. L.; Innocente, P.; Lin, L.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Sarff, J. S.; Terranova, D.
2011-12-01
We report the first direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure associated with a 3D helical equilibrium generated spontaneously in the core of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium bifurcation occurs in a reversed-field pinch when the innermost resonant magnetic perturbation grows to a large amplitude, reaching up to 8% of the mean field strength. Magnetic topology evolution is determined by measuring the Faraday effect, revealing that, as the perturbation grows, toroidal symmetry is broken and a helical equilibrium is established.
Bifurcation to 3D helical magnetic equilibrium in an axisymmetric toroidal device.
Bergerson, W F; Auriemma, F; Chapman, B E; Ding, W X; Zanca, P; Brower, D L; Innocente, P; Lin, L; Lorenzini, R; Martines, E; Momo, B; Sarff, J S; Terranova, D
2011-12-16
We report the first direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure associated with a 3D helical equilibrium generated spontaneously in the core of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium bifurcation occurs in a reversed-field pinch when the innermost resonant magnetic perturbation grows to a large amplitude, reaching up to 8% of the mean field strength. Magnetic topology evolution is determined by measuring the Faraday effect, revealing that, as the perturbation grows, toroidal symmetry is broken and a helical equilibrium is established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraitis, K.; Tziotziou, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Archontis, V.
2014-12-01
In earlier works we introduced and tested a nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method designed to self-consistently calculate the coronal free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets of observed solar magnetic structures. In principle, the method requires only a single, photospheric or low-chromospheric, vector magnetogram of a quiet-Sun patch or an active region and performs calculations without three-dimensional magnetic and velocity-field information. In this work we strictly validate this method using three-dimensional coronal magnetic fields. Benchmarking employs both synthetic, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and nonlinear force-free field extrapolations of the active-region solar corona. Our time-efficient NLFF method provides budgets that differ from those of more demanding semi-analytical methods by a factor of approximately three, at most. This difference is expected to come from the physical concept and the construction of the method. Temporal correlations show more discrepancies that are, however, soundly improved for more complex, massive active regions, reaching correlation coefficients on the order of, or exceeding, 0.9. In conclusion, we argue that our NLFF method can be reliably used for a routine and fast calculation of the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in targeted parts of the solar magnetized corona. As explained in this article and in previous works, this is an asset that can lead to valuable insight into the physics and triggering of solar eruptions.
Hybrid helical magnetic microrobots obtained by 3D template-assisted electrodeposition.
Zeeshan, Muhammad A; Grisch, Roman; Pellicer, Eva; Sivaraman, Kartik M; Peyer, Kathrin E; Sort, Jordi; Özkale, Berna; Sakar, Mahmut S; Nelson, Bradley J; Pané, Salvador
2014-04-01
Hybrid helical magnetic microrobots are achieved by sequential electrodeposition of a CoNi alloy and PPy inside a photoresist template patterned by 3D laser lithography. A controlled actuation of the microrobots by a rotating magnetic field is demonstrated in a fluidic environment.
Fu, Henry C; Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Meshkati, Farshad
2015-04-01
Recently, there has been much progress in creating microswimmers or microrobots capable of controlled propulsion in fluidic environments. These microswimmers have numerous possible applications in biomedicine, microfabrication, and sensing. One type of effective microrobot consists of rigid magnetic helical microswimmers that are propelled when rotated at a range of frequencies by an external rotating magnetic field. Here we focus on investigating which magnetic dipoles and helical geometries optimally lead to linear velocity-frequency response, which may be desirable for the precise control and positioning of microswimmers. We identify a class of optimal magnetic field moments. We connect our results to the wobbling behavior previously observed and studied in helical microswimmers. In contrast to previous studies, we find that when the full helical geometry is taken into account, wobble-free motion is not possible for magnetic fields rotating in a plane. Our results compare well quantitatively to previously reported experiments, validating the theoretical analysis method. Finally, in the context of our optimal moments, we identify helical geometries for minimization of wobbling and maximization of swimming velocities.
Faraday Rotation Measure Gradients from a Helical Magnetic Field in 3C273
Zavala, Robert T.; Taylor, G.B.; /NRAO, Socorro /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2005-06-06
Using high frequency (12-22 GHz) VLBA observations we confirm the existence of a Faraday rotation measure gradient of {approx}500 rad m{sup -2} mas{sup -1} transverse to the jet axis in the quasar 3C273. The gradient is seen in two epochs spaced roughly six months apart. This stable transverse rotation measure gradient is expected if a helical magnetic field wraps around the jet. The overall order to the magnetic field in the inner projected 40 parsecs is consistent with a helical field. However, we find an unexpected increase in fractional polarization along the edges of the source, contrary to expectations. This high fractional polarization rules out internal Faraday rotation, but is not readily explained by a helical field. After correcting for the rotation measure, the intrinsic magnetic field direction in the jet of 3C273 changes from parallel to nearly perpendicular to the projected jet motion at two locations. If a helical magnetic field causes the observed rotation measure gradient then the synchrotron emitting electrons must be separate from the helical field region. The presence or absence of transverse rotation measure gradients in other sources is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Gwangson; Kim, Sunjung; Kim, Kap-Sung; No, Jincheol
2015-08-01
As shown by Démoulin and Berger (2003), the magnetic helicity flux through the solar surface into the solar atmosphere can be exactly calculated if we can trace the motion of footpoints with infinite temporal and spatial resolutions. When there is a magnetic flux transport across the solar surface, the horizontal velocity of footpoints becomes infinite at the polarity inversion line, although the surface integral yielding the helicity flux does not diverge. In practical application, a finite temporal and spatial resolution causes an underestimate of the magnetic helicity flux when a magnetic flux emerges from below the surface, because there is an observational blackout area near a polarity inversion line whether it is pre-existing or newly formed. In this paper, we consider emergence of simple magnetic flux ropes and calculate the supremum of the magnitude of the helicity influx that can be estimated from footpoint tracking. The results depend on the ratio of the resolvable length scale and the flux rope diameter. For a Gold-Hoyle flux rope, in which all field lines are uniformly twisted, the observationally estimated helicity influx would be about 90% of the real influx when the flux rope diameter is one hundred times the spatial resolution (for a large flux rope), and about 45% when it is ten times (for a small flux rope). For Lundquist flux ropes, the errors incurred by observational estimation are smaller than the case of the Gold-Hoyle flux rope, but could be as large as 30% of the real influx. Our calculation suggests that the error in the helicity influx estimate is at least half of the real influx or even larger when small scale magnetic structures (less than 10,000 km) emerge into the solar atmosphere.
Free Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Active and Quiet Solar Regions and their role in Solar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tziotziou, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Tsiropoula, G.; Moraitis, K.; Kontogiannis, I.
2013-09-01
We present a novel nonlinear force-free method designed to calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of a solar region from a single photospheric/chromospheric vector magnetogram of the region. Our objective is to study the role of these quantities in solar eruptions and quiet-Sun dynamics. We apply the method to (1) derive the energy/helicity diagram of solar active regions from a sample of 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions (ARs), suggesting that there exist 4 1031 erg and 2 1042 Mx2 thresholds in free energy and relative helicity, respectively, for ARs to enter eruptive territory, (2) study the dynamics of eruptive NOAA AR 11158 using a high-cadence 5-day time series of vector magnetograms, suggesting the formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and a causal relation between flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and, (3) derive helicity and energy budgets in quiet Sun regions and construct the respective energy/helicity diagram. Our results highlight the importance of these two parameters in AR evolution and quiet-Sun dynamics and instigate further research including detailed analysis with synthetic, magnetohydrodynamical models. This work is supported by EU's Seventh Framework Programme via a Marie Curie Fellowship and by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.
Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Remecký, R; Zalom, P
2013-04-01
Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique, the influence of helicity (spatial parity violation) on the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated in the two-loop approximation. It is shown that the presence of helicity decreases the value of the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number and, at the same time, the two-loop helical contribution to the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number is at most 4.2% (in the case with the maximal helicity) of its nonhelical value. These results demonstrate, on one hand, the potential importance of the presence of asymmetries in processes in turbulent environments and, on the other hand, the rather strong stability of the properties of diffusion processes of the magnetic field in the conductive turbulent environment with the spatial parity violation in comparison to the corresponding systems without the spatial parity violation. In addition, obtained results are compared to the corresponding results found for the two-loop turbulent Prandtl number in the model of passively advected scalar field. It is shown that the turbulent Prandtl number and the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number, which are the same in fully symmetric isotropic turbulent systems, are essentially different when one considers the spatial parity violation. It means that the properties of the diffusion processes in the turbulent systems with a given symmetry breaking can considerably depend on the internal tensor structure of advected quantities.
Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.
2012-01-01
The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.
We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, G. S.; Kim, S.
2014-12-01
As shown by Démoulin and Berger (2003), the magnetic helicity flux through the solar surface into the solar atmosphere can be exactly calculated if we can trace the motion of footpoints with infinite temporal and spatial resolutions. When there is a magnetic flux transport across the solar surface, the horizontal velocity of footpoints becomes infinite at the polarity inversion line, but the surface integral yielding the helicity flux does not diverge. In practical application, a finite temporal and spatial resolution causes an underestimate of the magnetic helicity flux when a magnetic flux emerges from below the surface. In this paper, we consider emergence of simple two- and half-dimensional magnetic flux ropes and calculate the supremum of the magnitude of the helicity influx that can be estimated from footpoint tracking, per unit length in the invariant direction. The results depend on the ratio of the resolvable length scale and the flux rope diameter. For a Gold-Hoyle flux rope, in which all field lines are uniformly twisted, the observationally estimated helicity influx would be about 90% of the real influx when the ratio is 0.01 and about 45% when the ratio is 0.1. For Lundquist flux ropes, the errors to be incurred by observational estimation would be smaller than the case of the Gold-Hoyle flux rope, but could be as large as 30%. Our calculation suggests that the error in the helicity influx estimate is at least half of the real value or even larger when small scale magnetic structures emerge into the solar atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kap-Sung; Choe, Gwangson; Kim, Sunjung
2014-05-01
As shown by Demoulin and Berger (2003), the magnetic helicity flux through the solar surface into the solar atmosphere can be exactly calculated if we can trace the motion of footpoints with infinite temporal and spatial resolutions. When there is a magnetic flux transport across the solar surface, the horizontal velocity of footpoints becomes infinite at the polarity inversion line, but the surface integral yielding the helicity flux does not diverge. In practical application, a finite temporal and spatial resolution causes an underestimate of the magnetic helicity flux when a magnetic flux emerges from below the surface. In this paper, we consider emergence of simple two- and half-dimensional magnetic flux ropes and calculate the supremum of the magnitude of the helicity influx that can be estimated from footpoint tracking, per unit length in the invariant direction. The results depend on the ratio of the resolvable length scale and the flux rope diameter. For a Gold-Hoyle flux rope, in which all field lines are uniformly twisted, the observationally estimated helicity influx would be about 90% of the real influx when the ratio is 0.01 and about 45% when the ratio is 0.1. For Lundquist flux ropes, the errors to be incurred by observational estimation would be smaller than the case of the Gold-Hoyle flux rope, but could be as large as 30%. Our calculation suggests that the error in the helicity influx estimate is at least half of the real value or even larger when small scale magnetic structures emerge into the solar atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Archontis, Vasilis; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Moraitis, Kostas; Kontogiannis, Ioannis
We present a novel non-linear force-free method for the calculation of the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of a solar region from a single photospheric/chromospheric vector magnetogram. Our objective is to study the role of these quantities both in solar eruptions and in quiet-Sun dynamics. The validity of the method is tested using both observations and synthetic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) models. The method is applied for the derivation of the energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions (ARs) from a sample of 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different ARs, suggesting the existence of 4×10(31) erg and 2×10(42) Mx(2) thresholds in free energy and relative helicity, respectively, for ARs to enter eruptive territory. Furthermore, the dynamical evolution of both quantities in eruptive NOAA AR 11158, using a high-cadence 5-day time series of vector magnetograms, suggests the formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and a causal relation between flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The method is also used to derive helicity and energy budgets in quiet Sun regions and construct the respective EH diagram. Our results highlight the importance of both energy and helicity in AR evolution and quiet-Sun dynamics and instigate further research on the underlying physics with three-dimensional MHD models. This work is supported by EU's Seventh Framework Programme via a Marie Curie Fellowship.
Electrical manipulation of dynamic magnetic impurity and spin texture of helical Dirac fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhong, Min; Zheng, Shi-Han; Yang, Mou; Wang, Guang-Hui
2016-05-01
We have theoretically investigated the spin inelastic scattering of helical electrons off a high-spin nanomagnet absorbed on a topological surface. The nanomagnet is treated as a dynamic quantum spin and driven by the spin transfer torque effect. We proposed a mechanism to electrically manipulate the spin texture of helical Dirac fermions rather than by an external magnetic field. By tuning the bias voltage and the direction of impurity magnetization, we present rich patterns of spin texture, from which important fingerprints exclusively associated with the spin helical feature are obtained. Furthermore, it is found that the nonmagnetic potential can create the resonance state in the spin density with different physics as the previously reported resonance of charge density.
Model for straight and helical solar jets. I. Parametric studies of the magnetic field geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pariat, E.; Dalmasse, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.
2015-01-01
Context. Jets are dynamic, impulsive, well-collimated plasma events developing at many different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Aims: Jets are believed to be induced by magnetic reconnection, a process central to many astrophysical phenomena. Studying their dynamics can help us to better understand the processes acting in larger eruptive events (e.g., flares and coronal mass ejections) as well as mass, magnetic helicity, and energy transfer at all scales in the solar atmosphere. The relative simplicity of their magnetic geometry and topology, compared with larger solar active events, makes jets ideal candidates for studying the fundamental role of reconnection in energetic events. Methods: In this study, using our recently developed numerical solver ARMS, we present several parametric studies of a 3D numerical magneto-hydrodynamic model of solar-jet-like events. We studied the impact of the magnetic field inclination and photospheric field distribution on the generation and properties of two morphologically different types of solar jets, straight and helical, which can account for the observed so-called standard and blowout jets. Results: Our parametric studies validate our model of jets for different geometric properties of the magnetic configuration. We find that a helical jet is always triggered for the range of parameters we tested. This demonstrates that the 3D magnetic null-point configuration is a very robust structure for the energy storage and impulsive release characteristic of helical jets. In certain regimes determined by magnetic geometry, a straight jet precedes the onset of a helical jet. We show that the reconnection occurring during the straight-jet phase influences the triggering of the helical jet. Conclusions: Our results allow us to better understand the energization, triggering, and driving processes of straight and helical jets. Our model predicts the impulsiveness and energetics of jets in terms of the surrounding
Alfvén Simple Waves: Euler Potentials and Magnetic Helicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, G. M.; Hu, Q.; Dasgupta, B.; Roberts, D. A.; Zank, G. P.
2010-12-01
The magnetic helicity characteristics of fully nonlinear, multi-dimensional Alfvén simple waves are investigated, by using relative helicity formulae and also by using an approach involving poloidal and toroidal decomposition of the magnetic field and magnetic vector potential. Different methods to calculate the magnetic vector potential are used, including the homotopy and Biot-Savart formulae. Two basic Alfvén modes are identified: (1) the plane one-dimensional Alfvén simple wave given in standard texts, in which the Alfvén wave propagates along the z-axis with wave phase phiv = k 0(z - λt), where k 0 is the wave number and λ is the group velocity of the wave and (2) the generalized Barnes simple Alfvén wave in which the wave normal n moves in a circle in the xy-plane perpendicular to the mean field, which is directed along the z-axis. The plane Alfvén wave (1) is analogous to the slab Alfvén mode and the generalized Barnes solution (2) is analogous to the two-dimensional mode in Alfvénic, incompressible turbulence. The helicity characteristics of these two basic Alfvén modes are distinct. The helicity characteristics of more general multi-dimensional simple Alfvén waves are also investigated. Applications to nonlinear Alfvénic fluctuations and structures observed in the solar wind are discussed.
Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.
2014-05-15
Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valori, Gherardo; Pariat, Etienne; Anfinogentov, Sergey; Chen, Feng; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Guo, Yang; Liu, Yang; Moraitis, Kostas; Thalmann, Julia K.; Yang, Shangbin
2016-10-01
Magnetic helicity is a conserved quantity of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics characterized by an inverse turbulent cascade. Accordingly, it is often invoked as one of the basic physical quantities driving the generation and structuring of magnetic fields in a variety of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. We provide here the first systematic comparison of six existing methods for the estimation of the helicity of magnetic fields known in a finite volume. All such methods are reviewed, benchmarked, and compared with each other, and specifically tested for accuracy and sensitivity to errors. To that purpose, we consider four groups of numerical tests, ranging from solutions of the three-dimensional, force-free equilibrium, to magneto-hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Almost all methods are found to produce the same value of magnetic helicity within few percent in all tests. In the more solar-relevant and realistic of the tests employed here, the simulation of an eruptive flux rope, the spread in the computed values obtained by all but one method is only 3 %, indicating the reliability and mutual consistency of such methods in appropriate parameter ranges. However, methods show differences in the sensitivity to numerical resolution and to errors in the solenoidal property of the input fields. In addition to finite volume methods, we also briefly discuss a method that estimates helicity from the field lines' twist, and one that exploits the field's value at one boundary and a coronal minimal connectivity instead of a pre-defined three-dimensional magnetic-field solution.
Kinetic, Magnetic and Cross-helicity Contributions to the Turbulent Cascade in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forman, M. A.; Stawarz, J. E.; Smith, C. W.
2009-12-01
In classic Kolmogorov theory of inertial-range turbulence, the third moment of velocity fluctuations at spatial lag L, is proportional to L times the rate of energy input at large scales (= epsilon = dissipation rate). Furthermore, the turbulent power is proportional to the 2/3 power of epsilon. In the MHD solar wind, energy and energy cascade involve both velocity and magnetic fluctuations, and the third moment related to energy dissipation has three terms: (1) the same hydrodynamic term, of correlations between velocity fluctuations and kinetic energy, (2) correlations between velocity fluctuations and magnetic energy, and (3) correlations between magnetic fluctuations and cross-helicity. We used ACE MAG/SWEPAM merged data set for the last decade, to separately determine these three third moments at lags from 64 seconds to 2 hours to see how each term varies with L, and contributes to the energy cascade, and how they add up. Moments were calculated for 12-hour intervals. Mean values and error bars were calculated for intervals in 12 types of solar wind sorted by their turbulent energy level and their bulk cross-helicity, or “imbalance”. With calculated accuracy, we report that when the cross-helicity is small, 1. Energy dissipation rate is proportional to turbulent power^3/2, as Kolmogorov theory predicts 2. The magnetic energy term is approximately equal to the kinetic energy (hydrodynamic) term; however 3. The cross-helicity term nearly cancels the magnetic energy term, so that the energy third moment is only slightly larger than the hydrodynamic term alone. When the cross-helicity is large, 1. All three Energy third moments are dramatically suppressed. 2. Energy dissipation rate deduced from third moment scaling is small or possibly negative, and does NOT agree with Kolmogorov, implying that 3. Most of the energy in fluctuating fields is NOT part of a direct inertial cascade.
Global-scale consequences of magnetic-helicity injection and condensation on the sun
Mackay, Duncan H.; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.
2014-04-01
In the recent paper of Antiochos, a new concept for the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona by small-scale convective motions and its condensation onto polarity inversion lines (PILs) was developed. We investigate this concept through global simulations of the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields, and compare the results with the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments. Assuming that the vorticity of the cells is predominantly counterclockwise/clockwise in the northern/southern hemisphere, the convective motions inject negative/positive helicity into each hemisphere. The simulations show that: (1) on a north-south oriented PIL, both differential rotation and convective motions inject the same sign of helicity, which matches that required to reproduce the hemispheric pattern of filaments. (2) On a high-latitude east-west oriented polar crown or subpolar crown PIL, the vorticity of the cells has to be approximately 2-3 times greater than the local differential-rotation gradient in order to overcome the incorrect sign of helicity injection from differential rotation. (3) In the declining phase of the cycle, as a bipole interacts with the polar field, in some cases, helicity condensation can reverse the effect of differential rotation along the east-west lead arm but not in all cases. The results show that this newly developed concept of magnetic helicity injection and condensation, in conjunction with the mechanisms used in Yeates et al., is a viable explanation for the hemispheric pattern of filaments. Future observational studies should focus on examining the vorticity component within convective motions to determine both its magnitude and latitudinal variation relative to the differential-rotation gradient on the Sun.
Global-Scale Consequences of Magnetic-Helicity Injection and Condensation on the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackay, Duncan H.; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.
2013-01-01
In the recent paper of Antiochos, a new concept for the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona by small-scale convective motions and its condensation onto polarity inversion lines (PILs) has been developed. We investigate this concept through global simulations of the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields and compare the results with the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments. Assuming that the vorticity of the cells is predominately counter-clockwise/clockwise in the northern/southern hemisphere, the convective motions inject negative/positive helicity into each hemisphere. The simulations show that: (i) On a north-south orientated PIL, both differential rotation and convective motions inject the same sign of helicity which matches that required to reproduce the hemispheric pattern of filaments. (ii) On a high latitude east-west orientated polar crown or sub-polar crown PIL, the vorticity of the cells has to be approximately 2-3 times greater than the local differential rotation gradient in order to overcome the incorrect sign of helicity injection from differential rotation. (iii) In the declining phase of the cycle, as a bipole interacts with the polar field, in some cases helicity condensation can reverse the effect of differential rotation along the East-West lead arm, but not in all cases. The results show that this newly developed concept of magnetic helicity injection and condensation is a viable method to explain the hemispheric pattern of filaments in conjunction with the mechanisms used in Yeates et al. (2008). Future observational studies should focus on determining the vorticity component within convective motions to determine, both its magnitude and latitudinal variation relative to the differential rotation gradient on the Sun.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya
2011-07-01
Aiming at understanding of magnetic field generation process in rapidly rotating stars and planets represented by the Earth, computer simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo were performed in a rotating spherical shell geometry. Thermal convection and dynamo process with Ekman number of the order of 10-7 were studied. New structures of convection motion, dynamo-generated electrical current, and magnetic field are found. The flow is organized as a set of thin, sheet-like plumes. The current is made of small-scale coil structure with magnetic flux tubes within each of the coil. These flux tubes are connected each other to form a large scale helical magnetic field structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W. W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.
2013-04-01
The principle of using multiple partial helical magnets to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during its acceleration was applied successfully to the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) which currently operates with two partial helical magnets. In this paper we further explore this idea by using four partial helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS, which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets and their relatively lower field of operation allows for better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection and allows both the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed within the “spin tune gap,” therefore eliminating the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS during the acceleration cycle. Second, it provides a wider spin tune gap. Third, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical. Although the spin tune gap, which is created with four partial helices, can also be created with a single or two partial helices, the high field strength of a single helical magnet which is required to generate such a spin tune gap makes the use of the single helical magnet impractical, and that of the two helical magnets rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare them with those from the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. Although in this paper we specifically discuss the effect of the four partial helices on the AGS, this method which can eliminate simultaneously the vertical and horizontal intrinsic spin resonances is a general method and can be applied to any medium energy synchrotron which operates in similar energy range like the AGS and provides the required space to accommodate the four
Schuerle, Simone; Pané, Salvador; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria D; Nelson, Bradley J
2012-05-21
Hybrid magnetic phospholipidic-based tubular and helical microagents are wirelessly manipulated by means of a 5-DOF electromagnetic system. Two different strategies are used to manipulate these nanostructures in simulated biologic capillaries. Tubules are pulled by applying magnetic field gradients and oriented by magnetic fields. Helices exhibit a cork-screw motion similar to the swimming strategy used by motile bacteria such as E. coli.
One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang
2016-02-01
In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system- magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally.
One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma
Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang
2016-01-01
In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system- magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally. PMID:26883883
Magnetic Quenching of α and Diffusivity Tensors in Helical Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, Axel; Rädler, Karl-Heinz; Rheinhardt, Matthias; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2008-11-01
The effect of a dynamo-generated mean magnetic field of Beltrami type on the mean electromotive force is studied. In the absence of the mean magnetic field the turbulence is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, but it becomes inhomogeneous and anisotropic with this field. Using the test-field method the dependence of the α and turbulent diffusivity tensors on the magnetic Reynolds number ReM is determined for magnetic fields that have reached approximate equipartition with the velocity field. The tensor components are characterized by a pseudoscalar α and a scalar turbulent magnetic diffusivity ηt. Increasing ReM from 2 to 600 reduces ηt by a factor ≈5, suggesting that the quenching of ηt is, in contrast to the two-dimensional case, only weakly dependent on ReM. Over the same range of ReM, however, α is reduced by a factor ≈14, which can be explained by a corresponding increase of a magnetic contribution to the α-effect with opposite sign. Within this framework, the corresponding kinetic contribution to the α-effect turns out to be independent of ReM for 2 <= ReM <= 600. The level of fluctuations of α and ηt is only 10% and 20% of the respective kinematic reference values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fust, Sergej; Mukherjee, Saumya; Paul, Neelima; Stahn, Jochen; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh
2016-09-01
Topologically stabilized spin configurations like helices in the form of planar domain walls (DWs) or vortex-like structures with magnetic functionalities are more often a theoretical prediction rather than experimental realization. In this paper we report on the exchange coupling and helical phase characteristics within Dy-Fe multilayers. The magnetic hysteresis loops with temperature show an exchange bias field of around 1.0 kOe at 10 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity reveal (i) ferrimagnetic alignment of the layers at low fields forming twisted magnetic helices and a more complicated but stable continuous helical arrangement at higher fields (ii) direct evidence of helices in the form of planar 2π-DWs within both layers of Fe and Dy. The helices within the Fe layers are topologically stabilized by the reasonably strong induced in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Dy and the exchange coupling at the Fe-Dy interfaces. The helices in Dy are plausibly reminiscent of the helical ordering at higher temperatures induced by the field history and interfacial strain. Stability of the helical order even at large fields have resulted in an effective modulation of the periodicity of the spin-density like waves and subsequent increase in storage energy. This opens broad perspectives for future scientific and technological applications in increasing the energy density for systems in the field of all-spin-based engineering which has the potential for energy-storing elements on nanometer length scales.
Fust, Sergej; Mukherjee, Saumya; Paul, Neelima; Stahn, Jochen; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh
2016-01-01
Topologically stabilized spin configurations like helices in the form of planar domain walls (DWs) or vortex-like structures with magnetic functionalities are more often a theoretical prediction rather than experimental realization. In this paper we report on the exchange coupling and helical phase characteristics within Dy-Fe multilayers. The magnetic hysteresis loops with temperature show an exchange bias field of around 1.0 kOe at 10 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity reveal (i) ferrimagnetic alignment of the layers at low fields forming twisted magnetic helices and a more complicated but stable continuous helical arrangement at higher fields (ii) direct evidence of helices in the form of planar 2π-DWs within both layers of Fe and Dy. The helices within the Fe layers are topologically stabilized by the reasonably strong induced in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Dy and the exchange coupling at the Fe-Dy interfaces. The helices in Dy are plausibly reminiscent of the helical ordering at higher temperatures induced by the field history and interfacial strain. Stability of the helical order even at large fields have resulted in an effective modulation of the periodicity of the spin-density like waves and subsequent increase in storage energy. This opens broad perspectives for future scientific and technological applications in increasing the energy density for systems in the field of all-spin-based engineering which has the potential for energy-storing elements on nanometer length scales. PMID:27677227
Helical Magnetic Fields in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A Protostellar Outflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping; Zhang, Qizhou; Yang, Louis; Girart, Josep M.; Rao, Ramprasad
2016-03-01
We present Submillimeter Array polarization observations of the CO J = 3-2 line toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The CO Stokes I maps at an angular resolution of ˜1″ reveal two bipolar outflows from the binary sources of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The kinematic features of the CO emission can be modeled by wind-driven outflows at ˜20° inclined from the plane of the sky. Close to the protostars the CO polarization, at an angular resolution of ˜2.″3, has a position angle approximately parallel to the magnetic field direction inferred from the dust polarizations. The CO polarization direction appears to vary smoothly from an hourglass field around the core to an arc-like morphology wrapping around the outflow, suggesting a helical structure of magnetic fields that inherits the poloidal fields at the launching point and consists of toroidal fields at a farther distance of outflow. The helical magnetic field is consistent with the theoretical expectations for launching and collimating outflows from a magnetized rotating disk. Considering that the CO polarized emission is mainly contributed from the low-velocity and low-resolution data, the helical magnetic field is likely a product of the wind-envelope interaction in the wind-driven outflows. The CO data reveal a PA of ˜30° deflection in the outflows. The variation in the CO polarization angle seems to correlate with the deflections. We speculate that the helical magnetic field contributes to ˜10° deflection of the outflows by means of Lorentz force.
Formation of Opposite-Sign Magnetic Helicity by an Erupting Filament in a Coronal Mass Ejection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu; Kurokawa, Hiroki
2004-06-01
It is unclear whether it is possible for magnetic helical fields of opposite signs to co-exist in a coronal mass ejection (CME). During filament eruption with high-cadence observations for the initial stage, evidence is found for the formation of right-handed helical fields in a rising dextral filament that is embedded in a CME with helical fields in a left-handed sense. The data include Mees multi-off-band Hα observations with 16s cadence and TRACE 1600Å observations of 2s cadence. The filament material is ejected outward and is associated with the expanding CME, suggesting that both of the opposite-sign helical fields are injected into interplanetary space. In this paper, we consider the key observational features, including the formation of a coil-like structure (due to barb reconnections) and the alignment of reconnected field lines with the primary axis of the filament. It is found that they are consistent with the predicted changes during filament eruption by the filament model of Martin and McAllister. However, our results do not reject the filament model of Rust and Kumar. Moreover, a model that reconciles both of them seems to be more convenient for understanding the complicated observations. Therefore, the formation of opposite-sign helicity in an eruptive flux rope should be common for such types of filament eruptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-04-01
In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Tao; Huang, Qiang; Shi, Qing; Wang, Huaping; Hu, Chengzhi; Li, Pengyun; Nakajima, Masahiro; Fukuda, Toshio
2016-10-01
Helical structures assembled using alginate microfibers have a promising spatial architecture mimicking in vivo vessels for culturing vascular cells. However, the helical structure can only be assembled at the macroscale, since a microassembly-based approach has not yet been developed. In this paper, we propose a magnetic-field-based micromanipulation method to fabricate a helical microstructure. By microfluidic spinning, alginate microfibers encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized to enable the control of an electromagnetic needle (EMN). We developed a microrobotic system to actuate a micropipette to fix a free end of the microfiber, and then move the EMN to reel the microfiber around a micropillar. The motion of the EMN is guided using an upright microscope and a side-view camera. Because of the limitation of operation space, a spacer sleeve was designed to keep the tip of the EMN attracted to the microfiber, and simultaneously to keep the other part of the EMN isolated from the microfiber. To ensure the availability of the microfiber for continuously coiling, we enable the EMN tip to slide on the surface of the microfiber without changing the tensioning of the microfiber for positioning control. Furthermore, stable and repeatable micromanipulation was achieved to form multi-turn microfiber coils based on the motion planning of the EMN. Finally, we successfully fabricated a helical microstructure that can be applied in vascular tissue engineering in the future.
Numerical simulation of a helical shape electric arc in the external axial magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urusov, R. M.; Urusova, I. R.
2016-10-01
Within the frameworks of non-stationary three-dimensional mathematical model, in approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, a numerical calculation was made of characteristics of DC electric arc burning in a cylindrical channel in the uniform external axial magnetic field. The method of numerical simulation of the arc of helical shape in a uniform external axial magnetic field was proposed. This method consists in that that in the computational algorithm, a "scheme" analog of fluctuations for electrons temperature is supplemented. The "scheme" analogue of fluctuations increases a weak numerical asymmetry of electrons temperature distribution, which occurs randomly in the course of computing. This asymmetry can be "picked up" by the external magnetic field that continues to increase up to a certain value, which is sufficient for the formation of helical structure of the arc column. In the absence of fluctuations in the computational algorithm, the arc column in the external axial magnetic field maintains cylindrical axial symmetry, and a helical form of the arc is not observed.
Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging Reveals Helical Magnetic Fields in Solar Prominence Feet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Díaz, A. J.
2015-03-01
Solar prominences are clouds of cool plasma levitating above the solar surface and insulated from the million-degree corona by magnetic fields. They form in regions of complex magnetic topology, characterized by non-potential fields, which can evolve abruptly, disintegrating the prominence and ejecting magnetized material into the heliosphere. However, their physics is not yet fully understood because mapping such complex magnetic configurations and their evolution is extremely challenging, and must often be guessed by proxy from photometric observations. Using state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric data, we reconstruct the structure of the magnetic field in a prominence. We find that prominence feet harbor helical magnetic fields connecting the prominence to the solar surface below.
Inductionless magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with a helical magnetic field.
Priede, Jānis; Grants, Ilmārs; Gerbeth, Gunter
2007-04-01
We consider the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0) . This leads to a considerable simplification of the problem eventually containing only hydrodynamic variables. First, we point out that magnetic field adds more dissipation while it does not change the base flow which is the only source of energy for growing perturbations. Thus, it seems unclear from the energetic point of view how such a hydrodynamically stable flow can turn unstable in the presence of a helical magnetic field as it has been found recently by Hollerbach and Rüdiger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 124501 (2005)]. We revisit this problem by using a Chebyshev collocation method to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the linearized problem. In this way, we confirm that a helical magnetic field can indeed destabilize the flow in the inductionless approximation. Second, we integrate the linearized equations in time to study the transient behavior of small amplitude perturbations, thus showing that the energy arguments are correct as well. However, there is no real contradiction between both facts. The linear stability theory predicts the asymptotic development of an arbitrary small-amplitude perturbation, while the energy stability theory yields the instant growth rate of any particular perturbation, but it does not account for the evolution of this perturbation. Thus, although switching on the magnetic field instantly increases the energy decay rate of the dominating hydrodynamic perturbation, in the same time this perturbation ceases to be an eigenmode in the presence of the magnetic field. Consequently, this perturbation is transformed with time and so becomes able to extract energy from the base flow necessary for the growth. PMID:17501021
Inductionless magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with a helical magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priede, Jānis; Grants, Ilmārs; Gerbeth, Gunter
2007-04-01
We consider the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0) . This leads to a considerable simplification of the problem eventually containing only hydrodynamic variables. First, we point out that magnetic field adds more dissipation while it does not change the base flow which is the only source of energy for growing perturbations. Thus, it seems unclear from the energetic point of view how such a hydrodynamically stable flow can turn unstable in the presence of a helical magnetic field as it has been found recently by Hollerbach and Rüdiger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 124501 (2005)]. We revisit this problem by using a Chebyshev collocation method to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the linearized problem. In this way, we confirm that a helical magnetic field can indeed destabilize the flow in the inductionless approximation. Second, we integrate the linearized equations in time to study the transient behavior of small amplitude perturbations, thus showing that the energy arguments are correct as well. However, there is no real contradiction between both facts. The linear stability theory predicts the asymptotic development of an arbitrary small-amplitude perturbation, while the energy stability theory yields the instant growth rate of any particular perturbation, but it does not account for the evolution of this perturbation. Thus, although switching on the magnetic field instantly increases the energy decay rate of the dominating hydrodynamic perturbation, in the same time this perturbation ceases to be an eigenmode in the presence of the magnetic field. Consequently, this perturbation is transformed with time and so becomes able to extract energy from the base flow necessary for the growth.
Collective instabilities of the electron beam in magnetic fields of a helical undulator and solenoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artamonov, A. S.; Inozemtsev, N. I.
1989-03-01
The collective instabilities of a continuous electron beam propagating in the magnetic fields of a helical undulator and solenoid are analyzed theoretically in the framework of a one-dimensional model. Modulation of charge density is investigated along with modulation of the transverse velocity of the electrons by an electromagnetic wave. A dispersion equation describing the collective-excitation spectrum is obtained, and analyzed in the hydrodynamic approximation for two-, three-, and four-wave interaction.
Nanoscale and proximity effects on low-dimensional helical magnetic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandratskii, Leonid; Fisher, J.; Park, S.; Ouazi, S.; Sander, D.; Kirschner, J.
We combine symmetry arguments, first-principles calculations and spin-resolved STS measurements to study a 2D helical magnet of some nm extension in proximity to ferromagnetic Co and vacuum regions. Considering the prototypical helical 2D system, an Fe bilayer with intrinsic helical spin structure (1), we report a non-uniform distortion of the spin helix which depends on the lateral extension of the bilayer and on the proximity to either Co or vacuum. The proximity effect manifests itself in different modifications of the magnetic and electronic structures of Fe in vicinity of the interfaces with Co and vacuum. These nanosize and proximity effects have not been discussed before. We demonstrate that, in contrast to an ideal helix of infinite length, the lack of symmetry of the nm-long distorted Fe spin helix, induces an energy dependence of the direction of the electronic magnetization which is revealed in the measured energy dependence of the spin-asymmetry of the differential tunneling conductance. (1) Phark, S. H.; Fischer, J. A.; Corbetta, M.; Sander, D.; Nakamura, K. & Kirschner, J. Reduced-dimensionality-induced helimagnetism in iron nanoislands Nat Commun 5 (2014) 5183.
Final Techical Report - "Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works"
Paul M. Bellan
2005-02-15
This research program involved direct observation of the complicated plasma dynamics underlying spheromak formation. Spheromaks are self-organizing magnetically dominated plasma configurations which potentially offer a simple, low-cost means for confining the plasma in a controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor. The spheromak source used in these studies was a coaxial co-planar magnetized plasma gun which was specifically designed to have the simplest relevant geometry. The simplicity of the geometry facilitated understanding of the basic physics and minimized confusion that would otherwise have resulted from complexities due to the experimental geometry. The coaxial plasma gun was mounted on one end of a large vacuum tank that had excellent optical access so the spheromak formation process could be tracked in detail using ultra-high speed cameras. The main accomplishments of this research program were (1) obtaining experimental data characterizing the detailed physics underlying spheromak formation and the development of new theoretical models motivated by these observations, (2) determining the relationship between spheromak physics and astrophysical jets, (3) developing a new high-speed camera diagnostic for the SSPX spheromak at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and (4) training graduate students and postdoctoral fellows.
Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-10-01
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.
Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-08-01
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seligman, Darryl; Petrie, G.; Komm, R.
2014-01-01
We compare the average photospheric current helicity H_c, photospheric twist parameter α (a well-known proxy for the full relative magnetic helicity), and subsurface kinetic helicity K_h for 128 active regions observed between 2006-2012. We use 1436 Hinode photospheric vector magnetograms and subsurface fluid velocity data from GONG Dopplergrams. We find a significant hemispheric bias in all three parameters. The K_h parameter is preferentially positive/negative in the southern/northern hemisphere. The H_c and α parameters have the same bias for strong fields |{B}|>1000 G). We examine the temporal variability of each parameter for each active region and identify a significant subset of regions whose three helicity parameters all exhibit clear increasing or decreasing trends. The temporal profiles of these regions have the same bias: positive/negative helicity in the northern/southern hemisphere. The results are consistent with Longcope et al.'s Σ-effect. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the NSF REU Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangeetha, C. R.; Rajaguru, S. P.
2016-06-01
We derive horizontal fluid motions on the solar surface over large areas covering the quiet-Sun magnetic network from local correlation tracking of convective granules imaged in continuum intensity and Doppler velocity by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From these we calculate the horizontal divergence, the vertical component of vorticity, and the kinetic helicity of fluid motions. We study the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity, and between vorticity (kinetic helicity) and the magnetic field. We find that the vorticity (kinetic helicity) around small-scale fields exhibits a hemispherical pattern (in sign) similar to that followed by the magnetic helicity of large-scale active regions (containing sunspots). We identify this pattern to be a result of the Coriolis force acting on supergranular-scale flows (both the outflows and inflows), consistent with earlier studies using local helioseismology. Furthermore, we show that the magnetic fields cause transfer of vorticity from supergranular inflow regions to outflow regions, and that they tend to suppress the vortical motions around them when magnetic flux densities exceed about 300 G (from HMI). We also show that such an action of the magnetic fields leads to marked changes in the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity. These results are speculated to be of importance to local dynamo action (if present) and to the dynamical evolution of magnetic helicity at the small-scale.
Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity
Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca
2010-08-01
The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation.
Sign-Singularity of the Reduced Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind Plasma
Carbone, V.; Perri, S.; Yordanova, E.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Andre, M.; Veltri, P.; Bruno, R.
2010-05-07
We investigate the scaling laws of a signed measure derived from the reduced magnetic helicity which has been determined from Cluster data in the solar wind. This quantifies the handedness of the magnetic field; namely, it can be related to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations (right or left hand). The measure results to be sign-singular; that is, we do not observe any scale-dependent effect at the ion- and at electron-cyclotron frequencies. Cancellations between right- and left-hand polarizations go on in the dispersive or dissipative range, beyond the electron-cyclotron frequency. This means that the mechanism responsible for the generation of the dispersive or dissipative range is rather insensitive to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations.
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-05-13
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
Ion heating during magnetic relaxation in the helicity injected torus-II experiment
O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Hamp, W.T.; Smith, R.J.; Jarboe, T.R.
2005-12-15
Ion doppler spectroscopy (IDS) is applied to the helicity injected torus (HIT-II) spherical torus to measure impurity ion temperature and flows. [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] The IDS instrument employs a 16-channel photomultiplier and can track temperature and velocity continuously through a discharge. Data for the coaxial helicity injection (CHI), transformer, and combined current drive configurations are presented. Ion temperatures for transformer-driven discharges are typically equal to or somewhat lower than electron temperatures measured by Thomson scattering. Internal reconnection events in transformer-driven discharges cause rapid ion heating. The CHI discharges exhibit anomalously high ion temperatures >250 eV, which are an order of magnitude higher than Thomson measurements, indicating ion heating through magnetic relaxation. The CHI discharges that exhibit current and poloidal flux buildup after bubble burst show sustained ion heating during current drive.
Vollhardt invariant and phase transition in the helical itinerant magnet MnSi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stishov, S. M.; Petrova, A. E.
2016-10-01
In this Rapid Communication we argue that rounded "hills" or "valleys" demonstrated by the heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and elastic moduli are indications of a smeared second-order phase transition, which is flattened and spread out by the application of a magnetic field. As a result, some of the curves which display a temperature dependence of the corresponding quantities cross almost at a single point. Thus, the Vollhardt crossing point should not be identified with any specific energy scale. The smeared phase transition in MnSi preceding the helical first-order transition most probably corresponds to planar ferromagnetic ordering, with a small or negligible correlation between planes. At lower temperatures, the system of ferromagnetic planes becomes correlated, acquiring a helical twist.
Mondal, Amit Kumar; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Malviya, Amita; Konar, Sanjit
2016-06-01
A rare class of four tetranuclear lanthanide based quadruple stranded helicates namely, [Ln4L4(OH)2](OAc)2·xH2O (Ln = Gd(III)(1), Dy(III)(2) and x = 4, 5 respectively), [Er4L4(OH)2](NO3)2·9H2O (3), and [Dy4L4(NO3)](NO3)2·2CH3OH·H2O (4) were synthesized by employing succinohydrazone derived bis-tridentate ligand (H2L) and characterized. Structures of 1-3 are similar to each other except the nature of counterions and number of lattice water molecules. In 4, a distorted nitrate ion was arranged in a hexagonal manner holding four dysprosium centers in a slightly twisted manner. Because of the symmetrical nature of each complex, the C4 axis crosses the center of helicate resulting a pseudo-D4 coordination environment. Each ligand coordinates to lanthanide centers in helical manner forming mixture of left (Λ) and right (Δ) handed discrete units. Complex 1 exhibits antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between nearby Gd(III) centers and shows magnetic refrigeration (-ΔSm = 24.4 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 7 T at 3 K). AC magnetic susceptibility measurements of 2 and 4 demonstrate slow relaxation behavior, with Ueff (effective energy barrier) of 20.5 and 4.6 K, respectively. As per our knowledge, complexes 1, 2, and 4 represent the first examples of aesthetically pleasing quadruple stranded helicates showing potential magnetocaloric effect and single-molecule-magnet-like behavior. PMID:27196362
Helical states with ordered magnetic topology in the Reversed Field Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonfiglio, D.; Cappello, S.; Gobbin, M.; Spizzo, G.
2008-11-01
The reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration for magnetic confinement has shown to develop helical configurations characterized by good magnetic surfaces both in experiments and visco-resistive 3D MHD numerical computations [1]. In the RFX-mod experiment, quasi-single helicity (QSH) states with ordered magnetic topology have been found to develop both spontaneously during high current discharges [2] and in a stimulated way through the periodic oscillation of the toroidal flux (so-called OPCD technique) [3]. In both cases, the expulsion of the separatrix of the dominant mode has proved to be the key for significant chaos healing [4], as expected by theory [5]. In this work, we present results of visco-resistive 3D MHD numerical modeling aiming at clarifying the mechanism and the conditions for separatrix expulsion and chaos healing in spontaneous and stimulated cases. The effect is investigated by reconstruction of the magnetic topology through field line tracing algorithms and by study of test particle dynamics. [1] S. Cappello, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46, B313 (2004) & references therein. [2] M. Valisa et al., invited oral, EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (2008). [3] D. Terranova et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 095001 (2007). [4] R. Lorenzini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 025005 (2008). [5] D. F. Escande, R. Paccagnella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3169 (2000).
Dvornikov, Maxim; Semikoz, Victor B. E-mail: semikoz@yandex.ru
2015-05-01
We study the instability of magnetic fields in a neutron star core driven by the parity violating part of the electron-nucleon interaction in the Standard Model. Assuming a seed field of the order 10{sup 12} G, that is a common value for pulsars, one obtains its amplification due to such a novel mechanism by about five orders of magnitude, up to 10{sup 17} G, at time scales ∼ (10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}) yr. This effect is suggested to be a possible explanation of the origin of the strongest magnetic fields observed in magnetars. The growth of a seed magnetic field energy density is stipulated by the corresponding growth of the magnetic helicity density due to the presence of the anomalous electric current in the Maxwell equation. Such an anomaly is the sum of the two competitive effects: (i) the chiral magnetic effect driven by the difference of chemical potentials for the right and left handed massless electrons and (ii) constant chiral electroweak electron-nucleon interaction term, which has the polarization origin and depends on the constant neutron density in a neutron star core. The remarkable issue for the decisive role of the magnetic helicity evolution in the suggested mechanism is the arbitrariness of an initial magnetic helicity including the case of non-helical fields from the beginning. The tendency of the magnetic helicity density to the maximal helicity case at large evolution times provides the growth of a seed magnetic field to the strongest magnetic fields in astrophysics.
Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Liu Yang
2013-08-01
In previous works, we introduced a nonlinear force-free method that self-consistently calculates the instantaneous budgets of free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in solar active regions (ARs). Calculation is expedient and practical, using only a single vector magnetogram per computation. We apply this method to a time series of 600 high-cadence vector magnetograms of the eruptive NOAA AR 11158 acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory over a five-day observing interval. Besides testing our method extensively, we use it to interpret the dynamical evolution in the AR, including eruptions. We find that the AR builds large budgets of both free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity, sufficient to power many more eruptions than the ones it gave within the interval of interest. For each of these major eruptions, we find eruption-related decreases and subsequent free-energy and helicity budgets that are consistent with the observed eruption (flare and coronal mass ejection (CME)) sizes. In addition, we find that (1) evolution in the AR is consistent with the recently proposed (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of solar ARs, (2) eruption-related decreases occur before the flare and the projected CME-launch times, suggesting that CME progenitors precede flares, and (3) self terms of free energy and relative helicity most likely originate from respective mutual terms, following a progressive mutual-to-self conversion pattern that most likely stems from magnetic reconnection. This results in the non-ideal formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and instigates further research on the triggering of solar eruptions with magnetic helicity firmly placed in the eruption cadre.
Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching.
Mangin, S; Gottwald, M; Lambert, C-H; Steil, D; Uhlíř, V; Pang, L; Hehn, M; Alebrand, S; Cinchetti, M; Malinowski, G; Fainman, Y; Aeschlimann, M; Fullerton, E E
2014-03-01
The possibility of manipulating magnetic systems without applied magnetic fields have attracted growing attention over the past fifteen years. The low-power manipulation of the magnetization, preferably at ultrashort timescales, has become a fundamental challenge with implications for future magnetic information memory and storage technologies. Here we explore the optical manipulation of the magnetization in engineered magnetic materials. We demonstrate that all-optical helicity-dependent switching (AO-HDS) can be observed not only in selected rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) alloy films but also in a much broader variety of materials, including RE-TM alloys, multilayers and heterostructures. We further show that RE-free Co-Ir-based synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures designed to mimic the magnetic properties of RE-TM alloys also exhibit AO-HDS. These results challenge present theories of AO-HDS and provide a pathway to engineering materials for future applications based on all-optical control of magnetic order.
Structural and magnetic properties of a variety of transition metal incorporated DNA double helices.
Samanta, Pralok K; Pati, Swapan K
2014-02-01
By using density functional theory calculations, the structural, energetic, magnetic, and optical properties for a variety of transition metal (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) ions incorporated modified-DNA (M-DNA) double helices has been investigated. The DNA is modified with either hydroxypyridone (H) or bis(salicylaldehyde)ethylenediamine (S-en) metalated bases. We find the formation of extended M-O network leading to the ferromagnetic interactions for the case of H-DNA for all the metal ions. More ordered stacking arrangement was found for S-en-DNA. We calculate the exchange coupling constant (J) considering Heisenberg Hamiltonian for quantitative description of magnetic interactions. The ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are obtained by varying different transition metal ions. The extent of the magnetic interaction depends on the number of transition metal ions. Optical profiles show peaks below 2 eV, a clear signature of spin-spin coupling.
Evidence for a large-scale helical magnetic field in the quasar 3C 454.3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamaninasab, M.; Savolainen, T.; Clausen-Brown, E.; Hovatta, T.; Lister, M. L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.
2013-12-01
Most current theoretical models link the launching of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei to the presence of twisted magnetic fields close to the supermassive black hole. While these models predict a large-scale, ordered, helical magnetic field near the central engine, it is not clear if, and to what extent, this order is preserved further downstream in the jet. Here, we present compelling evidence that suggests that the radio emission from the jet of the quasar 3C 454.3 exhibits multiple signatures of a large-scale, ordered helical magnetic field component at a distance of hundreds of parsecs from the launching point. Our results provide observational support for magnetic jet launching models and indicate that the ordered helical field component may remain stable over a large distance down the jet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, S. M.; Jang, G. H.; Choi, H. C.; Park, S. H.; Park, J. O.
2012-04-01
Different magnetic navigation systems (MNSs) have been investigated for the wireless manipulation of microrobots in human blood vessels. Here we propose a MNS and methodology for generation of both the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot to improve its maneuverability in complex human blood vessel. We then present experiments demonstrating the helical and translational motions of a spiral-type microrobot to verify the proposed MNS.
Electrically controlled spin-transistor operation in a helical magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.
2016-03-01
A proposal of an electrically controlled spin transistor in a helical magnetic field is presented. In the proposed device, the transistor action is driven by the Landau-Zener transitions that lead to a backscattering of spin polarized electrons and switching the transistor into the high-resistance state (off state). The on/off state of the transistor can be controlled by the all-electric means using Rashba spin-orbit coupling that can be tuned by the voltages applied to the side electrodes.
Single to multiparticle excitations in the itinerant helical magnet CeRhIn5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, Chris; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.
CeRhIn5is an itinerant magnet where the Ce3+ spins order in a simple helical phase. We investigate the spin excitations in this material using triple-axis neutron spectroscopy and observe sharp spin waves at low energies consistent with previous reports and a nearest neighbour exchange of ~1 meV. At higher energies, the fluctuations are heavily damped where the single-quasiparticle excitations are replaced by a momentum and energy-broadened continuum constrained by kinematics of energy and momentum conservation. The delicate energy balance between localized and itinerant characters results in the breakdown of the single-quasiparticle picture in CeRhIn5.
Single to Multiquasiparticle Excitations in the Itinerant Helical Magnet CeRhIn5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.
2015-06-01
CeRhIn5 is an itinerant magnet where the Ce3 + spins order in a simple helical phase. We investigate the spin excitations and observe sharp spin waves parameterized by a nearest-neighbor exchange, JRKKY=0.88 ±0.05 meV . At higher energies, the spin fluctuations are heavily damped, where single-quasiparticle excitations are replaced by a momentum- and energy-broadened continuum constrained by kinematics of energy and momentum conservation. The delicate energy balance between localized and itinerant characters results in the breakdown of the single-quasiparticle picture in CeRhIn5 .
Moser, K W; Raguin, L G; Georgiadis, J G
2001-07-01
The quantitative visualization of flow in a wide-gap annulus (radius ratio 0.5) between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and a superimposed axial flow reveals a novel mixed-mode state at relatively high flow rates. A fast magnetic resonance imaging sequence allows the cinematographic dissection and three-dimensional reconstruction of supercritical nonaxisymmetric modes in a regime where stationary helical and propagating toroidal vortices coexist. The findings shed light on symmetry-breaking instabilities, flow pattern selection, and their consequences for hydrodynamic mixing in a complex laminar flow that constitutes a celebrated prototype of many mixing or fractionation processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Kevin W.; Raguin, L. Guy; Georgiadis, John G.
2001-07-01
The quantitative visualization of flow in a wide-gap annulus (radius ratio 0.5) between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and a superimposed axial flow reveals a novel mixed-mode state at relatively high flow rates. A fast magnetic resonance imaging sequence allows the cinematographic dissection and three-dimensional reconstruction of supercritical nonaxisymmetric modes in a regime where stationary helical and propagating toroidal vortices coexist. The findings shed light on symmetry-breaking instabilities, flow pattern selection, and their consequences for hydrodynamic mixing in a complex laminar flow that constitutes a celebrated prototype of many mixing or fractionation processes.
Self-similar inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by the chiral anomaly
Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi
2015-12-28
For systems with charged chiral fermions, the imbalance of chirality in the presence of magnetic field generates an electric current—this is the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We study the dynamical real-time evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled by the anomaly to the chiral charge density and the CME current by solving the Maxwell-Chern-Simons equations. We find that the CME induces the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity toward the large distances, and that at late times this cascade becomes self-similar, with universal exponents. We also find that in terms of gauge field topology the inverse cascade represents the transition from linked electricmore » and magnetic fields (Hopfions) to the knotted configuration of magnetic field (Chandrasekhar-Kendall states). The magnetic reconnections are accompanied by the pulses of the CME current directed along the magnetic field lines. In conclusion, we devise an experimental signature of these phenomena in heavy ion collisions, and speculate about implications for condensed matter systems.« less
Self-similar inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by the chiral anomaly
Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi
2015-12-28
For systems with charged chiral fermions, the imbalance of chirality in the presence of magnetic field generates an electric current—this is the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We study the dynamical real-time evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled by the anomaly to the chiral charge density and the CME current by solving the Maxwell-Chern-Simons equations. We find that the CME induces the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity toward the large distances, and that at late times this cascade becomes self-similar, with universal exponents. We also find that in terms of gauge field topology the inverse cascade represents the transition from linked electric and magnetic fields (Hopfions) to the knotted configuration of magnetic field (Chandrasekhar-Kendall states). The magnetic reconnections are accompanied by the pulses of the CME current directed along the magnetic field lines. In conclusion, we devise an experimental signature of these phenomena in heavy ion collisions, and speculate about implications for condensed matter systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauregui, Luis A.; Pettes, Michael T.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Shi, Li; Chen, Yong P.
2016-04-01
The spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states in a topological insulator nanowire or nanoribbon promise novel topological devices and exotic physics such as Majorana fermions. Here, we report local and non-local transport measurements in Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoribbons that exhibit quasi-ballistic transport over ˜2 μm. The conductance versus axial magnetic flux Φ exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with maxima occurring alternately at half-integer or integer flux quanta (Φ0 = h/e, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge) depending periodically on the gate-tuned Fermi wavevector (kF) with period 2π/C (where C is the nanoribbon circumference). The conductance versus gate voltage also exhibits kF-periodic oscillations, anti-correlated between Φ = 0 and Φ0/2. These oscillations enable us to probe the Bi2Te3 band structure, and are consistent with the circumferentially quantized topological surface states forming a series of one-dimensional subbands, which undergo periodic magnetic field-induced topological transitions with the disappearance/appearance of the gapless Dirac point with a one-dimensional spin helical mode.
Jauregui, Luis A; Pettes, Michael T; Rokhinson, Leonid P; Shi, Li; Chen, Yong P
2016-04-01
The spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states in a topological insulator nanowire or nanoribbon promise novel topological devices and exotic physics such as Majorana fermions. Here, we report local and non-local transport measurements in Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoribbons that exhibit quasi-ballistic transport over ∼2 μm. The conductance versus axial magnetic flux Φ exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with maxima occurring alternately at half-integer or integer flux quanta (Φ0 = h/e, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge) depending periodically on the gate-tuned Fermi wavevector (kF) with period 2π/C (where C is the nanoribbon circumference). The conductance versus gate voltage also exhibits kF-periodic oscillations, anti-correlated between Φ = 0 and Φ0/2. These oscillations enable us to probe the Bi2Te3 band structure, and are consistent with the circumferentially quantized topological surface states forming a series of one-dimensional subbands, which undergo periodic magnetic field-induced topological transitions with the disappearance/appearance of the gapless Dirac point with a one-dimensional spin helical mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Fautrelle, Yves; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Baltaretu, Florin
2016-08-01
The present study considers the transient and modulated flow behaviors of liquid metal driven by a helical permanent magnetic field. The transient process, in which the fluid at rest experiences an increase in the angular velocity, is observed both in secondary and global axial flow with duration time less than 1 second. The flow fields are measured quantitatively to reveal the evolution of the transient flow, and the transient process is due to the variation of the electromagnetic force. Besides, the modulated flow behaviors of global axial flow, which is significantly different from that of secondary flow, is expected to avoid flow-induced macrosegregation in solidification process if the modulated time is suitable because its direction reversed periodically with the modulated helical stirrer. In addition, an optimal modulation frequency, under which the magnetic field could efficiently stir the solute at the solidification front, exists both in secondary and global axial flow (0.1 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively). Future investigations will focus on additional metallic alloy solidification experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauregui, Luis A.; Pettes, Michael T.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Shi, Li; Chen, Yong P.
2016-04-01
The spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states in a topological insulator nanowire or nanoribbon promise novel topological devices and exotic physics such as Majorana fermions. Here, we report local and non-local transport measurements in Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoribbons that exhibit quasi-ballistic transport over ∼2 μm. The conductance versus axial magnetic flux Φ exhibits Aharonov–Bohm oscillations with maxima occurring alternately at half-integer or integer flux quanta (Φ0 = h/e, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge) depending periodically on the gate-tuned Fermi wavevector (kF) with period 2π/C (where C is the nanoribbon circumference). The conductance versus gate voltage also exhibits kF-periodic oscillations, anti-correlated between Φ = 0 and Φ0/2. These oscillations enable us to probe the Bi2Te3 band structure, and are consistent with the circumferentially quantized topological surface states forming a series of one-dimensional subbands, which undergo periodic magnetic field-induced topological transitions with the disappearance/appearance of the gapless Dirac point with a one-dimensional spin helical mode.
Magnetic crystals and helical liquids in alkaline-earth fermionic gases
Barbarino, Simone; Taddia, Luca; Rossini, Davide; Mazza, Leonardo; Fazio, Rosario
2015-01-01
The joint action of a magnetic field and of interactions is crucial for the appearance of exotic quantum phenomena, such as the quantum Hall effect. Owing to their rich nuclear structure, equivalent to an additional synthetic dimension, one-dimensional alkaline-earth(-like) fermionic gases with synthetic gauge potential and atomic contact repulsion may display similar related properties. Here we show the existence and the features of a hierarchy of fractional insulating and conducting states by means of analytical and numerical methods. We demonstrate that the gapped states are characterized by density and magnetic order emerging solely for gases with effective nuclear spin larger than 1/2, whereas the gapless phases can support helical modes. We finally argue that these states are related to an unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in the thin-torus limit and that their properties can be studied in state-of-the-art laboratories. PMID:26350624
Helical plasma striations in liners in the presence of an external axial magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atoyan, L.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Byvank, T.; Cahill, A. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.
2016-02-01
Awe et al. found on the 20 MA Z machine [Acta Phys. Pol. A 115, 956 (2009)] that applying an externally generated axial magnetic field to an imploding liner leads to a helical pattern in the liner when viewed with soft x-ray radiography ([Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] and [Phys. Plasmas 21, 056303 (2014)]). Here, we show that this phenomenon is also observed in extreme ultraviolet self-emission images of 10 mm long cylindrical metal liners having varying diameters and varying wall thicknesses on a 1 MA, 100-200 ns pulsed power generator. The magnetic field in these experiments is created using either twisted return current wires positioned close to the liner, generating a time-varying Bz, or a Helmholtz coil, generating a steady-state Bz.
Circular polarimetry reveals helical magnetic fields in the young stellar object HH 135-136.
Chrysostomou, Antonio; Lucas, Philip W; Hough, James H
2007-11-01
Magnetic fields are believed to have a vital role in regulating and shaping the flow of material onto and away from protostars during their initial mass accretion phase. It is becoming increasingly accepted that bipolar outflows are generated and collimated as material is driven along magnetic field lines and centrifugally accelerated off a rotating accretion disk. However, the precise role of the magnetic field is poorly understood and evidence for its shape and structure has not been forthcoming. Here we report imaging circular polarimetry in the near-infrared and Monte Carlo modelling showing that the magnetic field along the bipolar outflow of the HH 135-136 young stellar object is helical. The field retains this shape for large distances along the outflow, so the field structure can also provide the necessary magnetic pressure for collimation of the outflow. This result lends further weight to the hypothesis--central to any theory of star formation--that the outflow is an important instrument for the removal of high-angular-momentum material from the accretion disk, thereby allowing the central protostar to increase its mass.
Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.
2014-07-01
We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1\\leqslant {{\\mu }_{r}}\\leqslant 20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation
IR phonons induced by the helical magnetic order in multiferroic TbMn2O5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdes Aguilar, Rolando; Sushkov, A.; Drew, H. D.; Cheong, S. W.
2006-03-01
The interplay between magnetic order and the lattice in multiferroic crystals has produced such interesting phenomena as polarization reversal and change of dielectric properties with magnetic fields . Ferroelectricity in the multiferroic materials REMn2O5 (RE = rare earth) is thought to originate from a helical antiferromagnetic order. In order to study this possiblity we have made an infrared study of TbMn2O5. We find that several IR phonons show correlations with the distinct magnetic and dielectric phase transitions. Of special interest is the phonon spectrum for light polarization along the b axis where a mode at ˜ 706 cm-1 exists only in the commensurate magnetic phase with k = (1/2,0,1/4) in the temperature range of 24-33 K. Possible scenarios for this phonon are: (1) the appearance of zone-folded modes; (2) the activation of previously silent modes due to the reduction of crystal symmetry. These scenarios are discussed in terms of the spin-lattice coupling in this class of materials. Hur, N et al. Nature 429 (2004) 392.
Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Panina, L. V.; Mapps, D. J.
2001-06-01
This article concerns the investigation of the magnetic behavior of the surface impedance tensor {cflx {var_sigma}} in CoSiB amorphous wires having a residual torsion stress and a helical anisotropy. The full tensor {cflx {var_sigma}} involving three different components is found by measuring the S{sub 21} parameter at a required excitation with a Hewlett-Packard network/spectrum analyzer at MHz frequencies. In general, the impedance plots versus axial magnetic field H{sub ex} exhibit a hysteresis related to that for the case of static magnetization. The diagonal components of {cflx {var_sigma}} (longitudinal {var_sigma}{sub zz} and circular {var_sigma}{sub {var_phi}{var_phi}}) show a sharp peak in a narrow field interval where the domain walls form and contribute to the ac magnetization dynamics. This peak is not seen for the off-diagonal component {var_sigma}{sub z{var_phi}} ({var_sigma}{sub {var_phi}z}) since the existence of the domain structure suppresses it. Applying a dc bias current results in a gradual transition to a nonhysteretic asymmetrical behavior with an enhanced sensitivity. The portions of the experimental plots associated with the rotational dynamic process are in qualitative agreement with the theory based on a single-domain model. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Panina, L. V.; Mapps, D. J.
2001-06-01
This article concerns the investigation of the magnetic behavior of the surface impedance tensor final_sigmâ in CoSiB amorphous wires having a residual torsion stress and a helical anisotropy. The full tensor final_sigmâ involving three different components is found by measuring the S21 parameter at a required excitation with a Hewlett-Packard network/spectrum analyzer at MHz frequencies. In general, the impedance plots versus axial magnetic field Hex exhibit a hysteresis related to that for the case of static magnetization. The diagonal components of final_sigmâ (longitudinal final_sigmazz and circular final_sigmaφφ) show a sharp peak in a narrow field interval where the domain walls form and contribute to the ac magnetization dynamics. This peak is not seen for the off-diagonal component final_sigmazφ (final_sigmaφz) since the existence of the domain structure suppresses it. Applying a dc bias current results in a gradual transition to a nonhysteretic asymmetrical behavior with an enhanced sensitivity. The portions of the experimental plots associated with the rotational dynamic process are in qualitative agreement with the theory based on a single-domain model.
Status of UCLA Helical Permanent-Magnet Inverse Free Electron Laser
Knyazik, A.; Tikhoplav, R.; Frederico, J. T.; Affolter, M.; Rosenzweig, J. B.
2009-01-22
A helical undulator, utilizing permanent-magnet of cylindrically symmetric (Halbach) geometry is being developed at UCLA's Neptune Facility. The initial prototype is a short 10 cm, 7 periods long helical undulator, designed to test the electron-photon coupling by observing the micro-bunching is currently being constructed. The Neptune IFEL facility utilizes a 15 MeV Photoinjector-generated electron beam of 0.5 nC interacting with CO{sub 2} of peak energy up to 100 J, estimated to have acceleration of 100 MeV/m. An Open Iris-Loaded Waveguide Structure (OILS) scheme which conserves laser mode size and wave fronts throughout the undulator, is utilized to avoid Gouy phase shift caused by focusing of the drive laser. Undulator design was tested by computer simulations Radia and Genesis 1.3. Coherent Transition Radiation and Coherent Cherenkov Radiation will be used for micro-bunching diagnostic. Currently permanent dipoles and their aluminum holders have been built, and the project is in its final state of assembly and undulator testing.
Trend of photospheric helicity flux in active regions generating halo CMEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyrli, Aimilia; Zuccarello, Francesco; Zuccarello, Francesca; Romano, Paolo; Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi; Spadaro, Daniele; Hood, Alan; Mackay, Duncan
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are very energetic events initiated in the solar atmosphere, re-sulting in the expulsion of magnetized plasma clouds that propagate into interplanetary space. It has been proposed that CMEs can play an important role in shedding magnetic helicity, avoiding its endless accumulation in the corona. We therefore investigated the behavior of magnetic helicity accumulation in sites where the initiation of CMEs occurred, in order to de-termine whether and how changes in magnetic helicity accumulation are temporally correlated with CME occurrence. After identifying the active regions (AR) where the CMEs were ini-tiated by means of a double cross-check based on the flaring-eruptive activity and the use of SOHO/EIT difference images, we used MDI magnetograms to calculate magnetic flux evolu-tion, magnetic helicity injection rate and magnetic helicity injection in 10 active regions that gave rise to 12 halo CMEs observed during the period February 2000 -June 2003. No unique behavior in magnetic helicity injection accompanying halo CME occurrence is found. In fact, in some cases there is an abrupt change in helicity injection timely correlated with the CME event, while in some others no significant variation is recorded. However, our analysis show that the most significant changes in magnetic flux and magnetic helicity injection are associated with impulsive CMEs rather than gradual CMEs. Moreover, the most significant changes in mag-netic helicity are observed when X-class flares or eruptive filaments occur, while the occurrence of flares of class C or M seems not to affect significantly the magnetic helicity accumulation.
Evolution of Magnetic Helicity in NOAA 10923 Over Three Consecutive Solar Rotations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Joshi, Jayant; Gosain, Sanjay; Venkatakrishnan, P.
We have studied the evolution of magnetic helicity and chirality in an active region over three consecutive solar rotations. The region where it first appeared was named NOAA10923 and in subsequent rotations it was numbered NOAA 10930, 10935 and 10941. We compare the chirality of these regions at photospheric, chromospheric and coronal heights. The observations used for photospheric and chromospheric heights are taken from Solar Vector Magnetograph (SVM) and H-α imaging telescope of Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO), respectively. We discuss the chirality of the sunspots and associated H-α filaments in these regions. We find that the twistedness of superpenumbral filaments is maintained in the photospheric transverse field vectors also. We also compare the chirality at photospheric and chromospheric heights with the chirality of the associated coronal loops, as observed from the HINODE X-Ray Telescope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2014-05-01
We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τV<τrec≈τA√S (1+Pm)1/4<τR, where τV is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τA is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τR is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.
Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.
2014-05-15
We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.
Simulation of RF Cavity Dark Current In Presence of Helical Magnetic Field
Romanov, Gennady; Kashikhin, Vladimir; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
In order to produce muon beam of high enough quality to be used for a Muon Collider, its large phase space must be cooled several orders of magnitude. This task can be accomplished by ionization cooling. Ionization cooling consists of passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal focusing channel. But first high power tests of RF cavity with beryllium windows in solenoidal magnetic field showed a dramatic drop in accelerating gradient due to RF breakdowns. It has been concluded that external magnetic fields parallel to RF electric field significantly modifies the performance of RF cavities. However, magnetic field in Helical Cooling Channel has a strong dipole component in addition to solenoidal one. The dipole component essentially changes electron motion in a cavity compare to pure solenoidal case, making dark current less focused at field emission sites. The simulation of dark current dynamic in HCC performed with CST Studio Suit is presented in this paper.
Simulation of RF Cavity Dark Current in Presence of Helical Magnetic Field
Romanov, Gennady; Kashikhin, Vladimir; /Unlisted
2010-09-01
In order to produce muon beam of high enough quality to be used for a Muon Collider, its large phase space must be cooled several orders of magnitude. This task can be accomplished by ionization cooling. Ionization cooling consists of passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal focusing channel. But first high power tests of RF cavity with beryllium windows in solenoidal magnetic field showed a dramatic drop in accelerating gradient due to RF breakdowns. It has been concluded that external magnetic fields parallel to RF electric field significantly modifies the performance of RF cavities. However, magnetic field in Helical Cooling Channel has a strong dipole component in addition to solenoidal one. The dipole component essentially changes electron motion in a cavity compare to pure solenoidal case, making dark current less focused at field emission sites. The simulation of dark current dynamic in HCC performed with CST Studio Suit is presented in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleeorin, Y.; Safiullin, N.; Kleeorin, N.; Porshnev, S.; Rogachevskii, I.; Sokoloff, D.
2016-08-01
We investigate the dynamics of solar activity using a nonlinear one-dimensional dynamo model and a phenomenological equation for the evolution of Wolf numbers. This system of equations is solved numerically. We take into account the algebraic and dynamic nonlinearities of the alpha effect. The dynamic nonlinearity is related to the evolution of a small-scale magnetic helicity, and it leads to a complicated behaviour of solar activity. The evolution equation for the Wolf number is based on a mechanism of formation of magnetic spots as a result of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). This phenomenon was predicted 25 yr ago and has been investigated intensively in recent years through direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations. The evolution equation for the Wolf number includes the production and decay of sunspots. Comparison between the results of numerical simulations and observational data of Wolf numbers shows a 70 per cent correlation over all intervals of observation (about 270 yr). We determine the dependence of the maximum value of the Wolf number versus the period of the cycle and the asymmetry of the solar cycles versus the amplitude of the cycle. These dependences are in good agreement with observations.
He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Yao Shuo; Tian Hui; Marsch, Eckart
2011-04-20
The fluctuating magnetic helicity is considered an important parameter in diagnosing the characteristic modes of solar wind turbulence. Among them is the Alfven-cyclotron wave, which is probably responsible for the solar wind plasma heating, but has not yet been identified from the magnetic helicity of solar wind turbulence. Here, we present the possible signatures of Alfven-cyclotron waves in the distribution of magnetic helicity as a function of {theta}{sub VB}, which is the angle between the solar wind velocity and local mean magnetic field. We use magnetic field data from the STEREO spacecraft to calculate the {theta}{sub VB} distribution of the normalized reduced fluctuating magnetic helicity {sigma}{sub m}. We find a dominant negative {sigma}{sub m} for 1 s < p < 4 s (p is time period) and for {theta}{sub VB} < 30 deg. in the solar wind outward magnetic sector, and a dominant positive {sigma}{sub m} for 0.4 s < p < 4 s and for {theta}{sub VB}>150 deg. in the solar wind inward magnetic sector. These features of {sigma}{sub m} appearing around the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron frequencies may be consistent with the existence of Alfven-cyclotron waves among the outward propagating fluctuations. Moreover, right-handed polarized waves at larger propagation angles, which might be kinetic Alfven waves or whistler waves, have also been identified on the basis of the {sigma}{sub m} features in the angular range 40 deg. < {theta}{sub VB} < 140 deg. Our findings suggest that Alfven-cyclotron waves (together with other wave modes) play a prominent role in turbulence cascading and plasma heating of the solar wind.
Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullerton, Eric
2014-03-01
The possibilities of manipulating magnetization without applied magnetic fields have attracted growing attention over the last fifteen years. The low-power manipulation of magnetization, preferably at ultra-short time scales, has become a fundamental challenge with implications for future magnetic information memory and storage technologies. Here we explore the optical manipulation of the magnetization of engineered materials and devices using 100 fs optical pulses. We demonstrate that all optical - helicity dependent switching (AO-HDS) can be observed not only in selected rare-earth transition-metal (RE-TM) alloy films but also in a much broader variety of materials, including alloys, multilayers, heterostructures and RE-free Co-Ir-based synthetic ferrimagnets. The discovery of AO-HDS in RE-free TM-based synthetic ferrimagnets can enable breakthroughs for numerous applications since it exploits materials that are currently used in magnetic data storage, memories and logic technologies. In addition, this materials study of AO-HDS offers valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms involved. Indeed the common denominator of the diverse structures showing AO-HDS in this study is that two ferromagnetic sub-lattices exhibit magnetization compensation (and therefore angular momentum compensation) at temperatures near or above room temperature. We are highlighting that compensation plays a major role and that this compensation can be established at the atomic level as in alloys but also over a larger nanometers scale as in the multilayers or in heterostructures. We will also discuss the potential to extend AO-HDS to new classes of magnetic materials. This work was done in collaboration with S. Mangin, M. Gottwald, C-H. Lambert, D. Steil, V. Uhlíř, L. Pang, M. Hehn, S. Alebrand, M. Cinchetti, G. Malinowski, Y. Fainman, and M. Aeschlimann. Supported by the ANR-10-BLANC-1005 ``Friends,'' a grant from the Advanced Storage Technology Consortium, Partner University Fund
Helicity transport from solar convection zone to interplanetary space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Mei
2013-07-01
Magnetic helicity is a physical quantity that describes field topology. It is also a conserved quantity as Berger in 1984 demonstrated that the total magnetic helicity is still conserved in the corona even when there is a fast magnetic reconnection. It is generally believed that solar magnetic fields, together with their helicity, are created in the convection zone by various dynamo processes. These fields and helicity are transported into the corona through solar photosphere and finally released into the interplanetary space via various processes such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar winds. Here I will give a brief review on our recent works, first on helicity observations on the photosphere and how to understand these observations via dynamo models. Mostly, I will talk about what are the possible consequences of magnetic helicity accumulation in the corona, namely, the formation of magnetic flux ropes, CMEs taking place as an unavoidable product of coronal evolution, and flux emergences as a trigger of CMEs. Finally, I will address on in what a form magnetic field in the interplanetary space would accommodate a large amount of magnetic helicity that solar dynamo processes have been continuously producing.
Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Kusano, Kanya; Chae, Jongchul; Park, So-Young
2013-11-20
To better understand a preferred magnetic field configuration and its evolution during coronal mass ejection (CME) events, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in the active region NOAA 9236 that produced eight flare-associated CMEs during the time period of 2000 November 23-26. The time variations of the total magnetic helicity injection rate and the total unsigned magnetic flux are determined and examined not only in the entire active region but also in some local regions such as the main sunspots and the CME-associated flaring regions using SOHO/MDI magnetogram data. As a result, we found that (1) in the sunspots, a large amount of positive (right-handed) magnetic helicity was injected during most of the examined time period, (2) in the flare region, there was a continuous injection of negative (left-handed) magnetic helicity during the entire period, accompanied by a large increase of the unsigned magnetic flux, and (3) the flaring regions were mainly composed of emerging bipoles of magnetic fragments in which magnetic field lines have substantially favorable conditions for making reconnection with large-scale, overlying, and oppositely directed magnetic field lines connecting the main sunspots. These observational findings can also be well explained by some MHD numerical simulations for CME initiation (e.g., reconnection-favored emerging flux models). We therefore conclude that reconnection-favored magnetic fields in the flaring emerging flux regions play a crucial role in producing the multiple flare-associated CMEs in NOAA 9236.
Magnetic moments in a helical edge can make weak correlations seem strong
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Väyrynen, Jukka I.; Geissler, Florian; Glazman, Leonid I.
2016-06-01
We study the effect of localized magnetic moments on the conductance of a helical edge. Interaction with a local moment is an effective backscattering mechanism for the edge electrons. We evaluate the resulting differential conductance as a function of temperature T and applied bias V for any value of V /T . Backscattering off magnetic moments, combined with the weak repulsion between the edge electrons, results in a power-law temperature and voltage dependence of the conductance; the corresponding small positive exponent is indicative of insulating behavior. Local moments may naturally appear due to charge disorder in a narrow-gap semiconductor. Our results provide an alternative interpretation of the recent experiment by Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 136804 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.136804 where a power-law suppression of the conductance was attributed to strong electron repulsion within the edge, with the value of Luttinger-liquid parameter K fine tuned close to 1 /4 .
Phase diagram of the itinerant helical magnet MnSi at high pressures and strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stishov, Sergei
We performed a series of resistivity, heat capacity and ultrasound speed measurements of a MnSi single crystal at high pressures and strong magnetic fields [1-3]. Two notable features of the phase transition in MnSi that disappear on pressure increasin are a sharp peak marking the first order phase transition and a shallow maximum, situated slightly above the critical temperature and pointing to the domain of prominent helical fluctuations. The longitudinal and transverse ultrasound speeds and attenuation were measured in a MnSi single crystal in the temperature range of 2-40 K and magnetic fields to 7 Tesla. The magnetic phase transition in MnSi in zero magnetic field is signified by a quasi-discontinuity in the c11 elastic constant, which almost vanishes at the skyrmion - paramagnetic transition at high magnetic fields. The powerful fluctuations at the minima of c11 make the mentioned crossing point of the minima and the phase transition lines similar to a critical end point, where a second order phase transition meets a first order one.
Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects
Ji, Hantao
1998-11-01
The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Hadri, Mohammed Salah; Hehn, Michel; Pirro, Philipp; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Malinowski, Grégory; Fullerton, Eric E.; Mangin, Stéphane
2016-08-01
To understand the necessary condition for the observation of all-optical helicity-dependent switching (AO-HDS) of magnetization in thin films, we investigated ferromagnetic Co/Pt and Co/Ni multilayers as well as ferrimagnetic TbCo alloys as a function of magnetic layer compositions and thicknesses. We show that both ferro- and ferrimagnets with high saturation magnetization show AO-HDS if their magnetic thickness is strongly reduced below a material-dependent threshold thickness. By taking into account the demagnetizing energy and the domain wall energy, we are able to define a criterion to predict whether AO-HDS or thermal demagnetization (TD) will be observed. This criterion for the observation of AO-HDS is that the equilibrium size of magnetic domains forming during the cooling process should be larger than the laser spot size. From these results we anticipate that more magnetic materials are expected to show AO-HDS. However, the effect of the optical pulses' helicity is hidden by the formation of small magnetic domains during the cooling process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Jun'ichi; Asai, Tomohiko
In the formation of magnetized plasmoid by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the magnetic helicity content of the generated plasmoid is one of the critical parameters. Typically, the bias coil to generate a poloidal flux is mounted either on the outer electrode or inside the inner electrode. However, most of the flux generated in the conventional method spreads even radially outside of the formation region. Thus, only a fraction of the total magnetic flux is actually exploited for helicity generation in the plasmoid. In the proposed system, the plasma gun incorporates a copper shell mounted on the outer electrode. By changing the rise time of the discharge bias coil current and the geometrical structure of the shell, the magnetic field structure and its time evolution can be controlled. The effect of the copper shell has been numerically simulated for the actual gun structure, and experimentally confirmed. This may increase the magnetic helicity content results, through increased poloidal magnetic field.
Magnetic field analysis and achievable on-axis field for helical undulators.
Kim, S. H.; Accelerator Systems Division
2008-01-01
The on- and off-axis magnetic fields for infinitely long, helical undulators were analyzed for linear and nonlinear poles. An analytical expression of the on-axis field for linear poles was derived in terms of coil current density, undulator period length, and coil dimensions. The derived expression showed that, when the undulator dimensions were scaled according to the period ratios, the on-axis fields were proportional to the periods, which is in agreement with calculations of model undulators. For undulators with nonlinear steel poles, when the undulator dimensions were scaled, the field distributions remained unchanged for a constant value of (current density x period). It was also shown that, for two scaled undulators, one with linear and one with nonlinear poles, the off-axis field components, normalized to the respective on-axis fields, had the same field distributions near the axis within the calculation errors. This implies that the derived normalized off-axis field for linear poles may be used for beam dynamic analysis in the fields of undulators with nonlinear poles within the beam chamber. Achievable on-axis fields were calculated for short-period undulators with parameters close to those for the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) positron production undulators. The required undulator parameters for the ILC appear to be achievable depending on the Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor packing factor in the coil and on how close the chosen operating current is to the critical current.
Evidence for Helical Magnetic fields in Kiloparsec-Scale AGN Jets and the Action of a Cosmic Battery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabuzda, D. C.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopulos, I.; Kazanas, D.
2012-01-01
A search for transverse kiloparsec-scale gradients in Faraday rotation-measure (RM) maps of extragalactic radio sources in the literature has yielded 6 AGNs displaying continuous, monotonic RM gradients across their jets, oriented roughly orthogonal to the local jet direction. The most natural interpretation of such transverse RM gradients is that they are caused by the systematic change in the line-of-sight components of helical magnetic fields associated with these jets. All the identified transverse RM gradients increase in the counterclockwise (CCW) direction on the sky relative to the centers of these AGNs. Taken together with the results of Contopoulos et al. who found evidence for a predominance of clockwise (CW) transverse RM gradients across parsec-scale (VLBI) jets, this provides new evidence for preferred orientations of RM gradients due to helical jet magnetic fields, with a reversal from CW in the inner jets to CCW farther from the centers of activity. This can be explained by the "Poynting-Robertson cosmic-battery" mechanism, which can generate helical magnetic fields with a. characteristic "twist," which are expelled with the jet outflows. If the Poynting-Robertson battery mechanism is not operating, an alternative mechanism must be identified, which is able to explain the 'predominance of CW /CCW RM gradients on parsec/kiloparsec scales.
Bonfiglio, Daniele; Veranda, M.; Cappello, Susanna; Chacon, Luis; Spizzo, G.
2010-01-01
The emergence of a self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) helical regime, first shown by 3D MHD numerical simulations, has been highlighted in the RFX-mod experiment at high current operation (IP above 1 MA). In fact, a quasi-stationary helical configuration spontaneously appears, characterized by strong internal electron transport barriers. In such regime electron temperature and density become, to a very good approximation, functions of the helical flux coordinate related to the dominant helical magnetic component. In addition, this regime is diagnosed to be associated with the topological transition to a single-helical-axis (SHAx) state, achieved after the expulsion of the separatrix of the dominant mode's magnetic island. The SHAx state is theoretically predicted to be resilient to the magnetic chaos induced by secondary modes. In this paper, we present initial results of the volume-preserving field line tracing code nemato [Finn J M and Chacon L 2005 Phys. Plasmas 12 054503] applied to study the magnetic topology resulting from 3D MHD simulations of the RFP. First, a successful 2D verification test of the code is shown, then, initial application to a systematic study of chaos healing in the helical RFP is discussed. The separatrix disappearance is confirmed to play an essential role for chaos healing. The triggering effect of a reversed magnetic shear for the formation of ordered surfaces within magnetic chaos is also diagnosed.
Litvinenko, Yuri E.
2012-06-10
Transport of solar energetic particles in interplanetary space is analyzed. A new systematic derivation of the diffusion approximation is given, which incorporates the effects of non-isotropic scattering, magnetic helicity, and adiabatic focusing in a non-uniform large-scale magnetic field. The derivation is based on a system of stochastic differential equations, equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation, and the new method is a generalization of the Smoluchowski approximation in the theory of the Brownian motion. Simple, physically transparent expressions for the transport coefficients are derived. Different results of earlier treatments of the problem are related to the assumptions regarding the evolving particle distribution.
Helicity content and tokamak applications of helicity
Boozer, A.H.
1986-05-01
Magnetic helicity is approximately conserved by the turbulence associated with resistive instabilities of plasmas. To generalize the application of the concept of helicity, the helicity content of an arbitrary bounded region of space will be defined. The definition has the virtues that both the helicity content and its time derivative have simple expressions in terms of the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes, the average toroidal loop voltage and the electric potential on the bounding surface, and the volume integral of E-B. The application of the helicity concept to tokamak plasmas is illustrated by a discussion of so-called MHD current drive, an example of a stable tokamak q profile with q less than one in the center, and a discussion of the possibility of a natural steady-state tokamak due to the bootstrap current coupling to tearing instabilities.
Wavelet Analysis as a Tool to Localize Magnetic and Cross-helicity Events in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telloni, D.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Pietropaolo, E.; Carbone, V.
2012-05-01
In this paper, we adopt the use of the wavelet transform as a new tool to investigate the time behavior at different scales of reduced magnetic helicity, cross-helicity, and residual energy in space plasmas. The main goal is a better characterization of the fluctuations in which interplanetary flux ropes are embedded. This kind of information is still missing in the present literature, and our tool can represent the basis for a new treatment of in situ measurements of this kind of event. There is a debate about the origins of small-scale flux ropes. It has been suggested that they are formed through magnetic reconnection in the solar wind, such as across the heliospheric current sheet. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that they are formed in the corona, similar to magnetic clouds. Thus, it looks like that there are two populations, one originating in the solar wind via magnetic reconnection across the current sheet in the inner heliosphere and the other originating in the corona. Small-scale flux ropes might be the remnants of the streamer belt blobs formed from disconnection; however, a one-to-one observation of a blob and a small-scale flux rope in the solar wind has yet to be found. Within this panorama of possibilities, this new technique appears to be very promising in investigating the origins of these objects advected by the solar wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podesta, J. J.; Gary, S. P.
2011-06-01
Magnetic field data acquired by the Ulysses spacecraft in high-speed streams over the poles of the Sun are used to investigate the normalized magnetic helicity spectrum σ m as a function of the angle θ between the local mean magnetic field and the flow direction of the solar wind. This spectrum provides important information about the constituent modes at the transition to kinetic scales that occurs near the spectral break separating the inertial range from the dissipation range. The energetically dominant signal at scales near the thermal proton gyroradius k bottomρ i ~ 1 often covers a wide band of propagation angles centered about the perpendicular direction, θ ~= 90° ± 30°. This signal is consistent with a spectrum of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén waves with k bottom Gt k par in which there is more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun and along the direction of the local mean magnetic field than toward the Sun. Moreover, this signal is principally responsible for the reduced magnetic helicity spectrum measured using Fourier transform techniques. The observations also reveal a subdominant population of nearly parallel propagating electromagnetic waves near the proton inertial scale k par c/ωpi ~ 1 that often exhibit high magnetic helicity |σ m | ~= 1. These waves are believed to be caused by proton pressure anisotropy instabilities that regulate distribution functions in the collisionless solar wind. Because of the existence of a drift of alpha particles with respect to the protons, the proton temperature anisotropy instability that operates when T pbottom/T ppar > 1 preferentially generates outward propagating ion-cyclotron waves and the fire-hose instability that operates when T pbottom/T ppar < 1 preferentially generates inward propagating whistler waves. These kinetic processes provide a natural explanation for the magnetic field observations.
Podesta, J. J.; Gary, S. P.
2011-06-10
Magnetic field data acquired by the Ulysses spacecraft in high-speed streams over the poles of the Sun are used to investigate the normalized magnetic helicity spectrum {sigma}{sub m} as a function of the angle {theta} between the local mean magnetic field and the flow direction of the solar wind. This spectrum provides important information about the constituent modes at the transition to kinetic scales that occurs near the spectral break separating the inertial range from the dissipation range. The energetically dominant signal at scales near the thermal proton gyroradius k{sub perpendicular{rho}i} {approx} 1 often covers a wide band of propagation angles centered about the perpendicular direction, {theta} {approx_equal} 90{sup 0} {+-} 30{sup 0}. This signal is consistent with a spectrum of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves with k{sub perpendicular} >> k{sub ||} in which there is more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun and along the direction of the local mean magnetic field than toward the Sun. Moreover, this signal is principally responsible for the reduced magnetic helicity spectrum measured using Fourier transform techniques. The observations also reveal a subdominant population of nearly parallel propagating electromagnetic waves near the proton inertial scale k{sub ||} c/{omega}{sub pi} {approx} 1 that often exhibit high magnetic helicity |{sigma}{sub m}| {approx_equal} 1. These waves are believed to be caused by proton pressure anisotropy instabilities that regulate distribution functions in the collisionless solar wind. Because of the existence of a drift of alpha particles with respect to the protons, the proton temperature anisotropy instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} > 1 preferentially generates outward propagating ion-cyclotron waves and the fire-hose instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} < 1 preferentially generates inward propagating whistler waves. These kinetic processes
Gosain, S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.
2013-07-20
We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of the observed radial field with the radial field estimate from line-of-sight magnetograms. Furthermore, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, H{sub c} , during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e., H{sub c} is predominantly negative in the north and positive in the south. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears to be no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of the cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Furthermore, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 Degree-Sign {<=} {theta} {<=} 30 Degree-Sign ) separately for weak (100 G < |B{sub r} | < 500 G) and strong (|B{sub r} | > 1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., {theta} {center_dot} H{sub c} < 0), H{sub c} of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., {theta} {center_dot} H{sub c} > 0), albeit with large statistical scatter. We discuss two plausible scenarios to explain the opposite hemispheric trend of helicity in weak and strong field regions.
Li, Xun; Xu, Zheng
2012-12-15
Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ► The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ► The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.
Cheung, Mark C. M.; Pontieu, B. De; Tarbell, T. D.; Fu, Y.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Boerner, P.; Wülser, J. P.; Lemen, J.; Title, A. M.; Hurlburt, N.; Tian, H.; Testa, P.; Reeves, K. K.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S.; Kleint, L.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; Carlsson, M.; and others
2015-03-10
We report on observations of recurrent jets by instruments on board the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and Hinode spacecraft. Over a 4 hr period on 2013 July 21, recurrent coronal jets were observed to emanate from NOAA Active Region 11793. Far-ultraviolet spectra probing plasma at transition region temperatures show evidence of oppositely directed flows with components reaching Doppler velocities of ±100 km s{sup −1}. Raster Doppler maps using a Si iv transition region line show all four jets to have helical motion of the same sense. Simultaneous observations of the region by SDO and Hinode show that the jets emanate from a source region comprising a pore embedded in the interior of a supergranule. The parasitic pore has opposite polarity flux compared to the surrounding network field. This leads to a spine-fan magnetic topology in the coronal field that is amenable to jet formation. Time-dependent data-driven simulations are used to investigate the underlying drivers for the jets. These numerical experiments show that the emergence of current-carrying magnetic field in the vicinity of the pore supplies the magnetic twist needed for recurrent helical jet formation.
Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2010-06-15
A drift-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) fluid model is developed for an isolated, steady-state, helical magnetic island chain, embedded in the pedestal of a large aspect ratio, low-beta, circular cross section, H-mode tokamak plasma, to which an externally generated, multiharmonic, static magnetic perturbation whose amplitude is sufficiently large to fully relax the pedestal toroidal ion flow is applied. The model is based on a set of single helicity, reduced, drift-MHD fluid equations which take into account neoclassical poloidal and toroidal flow damping, the perturbed bootstrap current, diamagnetic flows, anomalous cross-field diffusion, average magnetic-field line curvature, and coupling to drift-acoustic waves. These equations are solved analytically in a number of different ordering regimes by means of a systematic expansion in small quantities. For the case of a freely rotating island chain, the main aims of the calculation are to determine the chain's phase velocity, and the sign and magnitude of the ion polarization term appearing in its Rutherford radial width evolution equation. For the case of a locked island chain, the main aims of the calculation are to determine the sign and magnitude of the polarization term.
Lafouti, Mansoureh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Meshkani, Sakineh; Salar Elahi, Ahmad
2013-05-01
In this paper, both Resonant Helical magnetic Field (RHF) and limiter biasing have been applied to the tokamak. We have investigated their effects on the turbulence and transport of the particles at the edge of the plasma. The biased limiter voltage has been fixed at 200 V and RHF has L = 2 and L = 3. Also, the effects of the time order of the application of RHF and biasing to the tokamak have been explored. The experiment has been performed under three conditions. At first, the biasing and RHF were applied at t = 15 ms and at t = 20 ms. In the next step, RHF and biasing were applied at t = 15 ms and t = 20 ms, respectively. Finally, both of them were turned on at t = 15 ms until the end of the shot. For this purpose, the ion saturation current (I(sat)) and the floating potential (V(f)) have been measured by the Langmuir probe at r/a = 0.9. Moreover, the power spectra of I(sat) and floating potential gradient (∇V(f)), the coherency, the phase between them, and the particle diffusion coefficient have been calculated. The density fluctuations of the particles have been measured by the Rake probe and they have been analyzed with the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) technique. Also the particle diffusion coefficient has been determined by the Fick's law. The results show that, when RHF and biasing were applied at the same time to the plasma (during flatness region of plasma current), the radial particle density gradient, the radial particle flux, and the particle diffusion coefficient decrease about 50%, 60%, and 55%, respectively, compared to the other conditions. For more precision, the average values of the particle flux and the particle density gradient were calculated in the work. When the time is less than 15 ms, the average values of the particle flux and the particle density gradient are identical under all conditions, but in the other time interval they change. They reduce with the simultaneous application of biasing and RHF. The same results obtain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao; Hou, Xiang-Yang; Zhai, Quan-Guo; Hu, Man-Cheng
2016-11-01
Two three-dimensional coordination polymers (CPs), namely [Cd(bpydb)- (H2bpydb)]n·0.5nH2O (1), and [Cu2(bpydb)2]n (2) (2,6-di-p-carboxyphenyl-4,4'- bipyridine1 = H2bpydb), containing a novel double-helical chains, which have been solvothermal synthesized, characterized, and structure determination. CPs 1-2 reveal the new (3,5)-net and (3,6)-net alb topology, respectively. The fluorescence properties of CPs 1-2 were investigated, and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 has dominating antiferromagnetic couplings between metal ions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, Jimmy L.
1992-01-01
The same kind of standard and controls are established that are currently in use for the procurement of new analog, digital, and IBM/IBM compatible 3480 tape cartridges, and 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. The Magnetic Tape Certification Facility (MTCF) maintains a Qualified Products List (QPL) for the procurement of new magnetic media and uses the following specifications for the QPL and Acceptance Tests: (1) NASA TM-79724 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new analog magnetic tapes; (2) NASA TM-80599 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new digital magnetic tapes; (3) NASA TM-100702 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new IBM/IBM compatible 3840 magnetic tape cartridges; and (4) NASA TM-100712 is used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new 1 in wide channel video magnetic tapes. This document will be used for the QPL and Acceptance Testing of new Helical Scan 8 mm digital data tape cartridges.
Comment on 'Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow'
Ruediger, G.; Hollerbach, R.
2007-12-15
Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 74, 056302 (2006)] have presented a WKB analysis of the helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI), and claim that it does not exist for Keplerian rotation profiles. We show that, if radial boundary conditions are included, the HMRI can exist even for rotation profiles as flat as Keplerian, provided only that at least one of the boundaries is sufficiently conducting.
Beklemishev, A. D.
2015-10-15
A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beklemishev, A. D.
2015-10-01
A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR® rocket engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; Ida, K.; Kamiya, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Kawamura, G.; Ohdachi, S.; Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Hudson, S.; Feng, Y.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, T.; Morisaki, T.; The LHD Experiment Group
2016-09-01
The radial electric field in the plasma edge is studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments. When magnetic field lines become stochastic or open at the plasma edge and connected to the vessel, electrons are lost faster than ions along these field lines. Then, a positive electric field appears in the plasma edge. The radial electric field profile can be used to detect the effective plasma boundary. Magnetic topology is an important issue in stellarator and tokamak research because the 3D boundary has the important role of controlling MHD edge stability with respect to ELMs, and plasma detachment. Since the stochastic magnetic field layer can be controlled in the LHD by changing the preset vacuum magnetic axis, this device is a good platform to study the properties of the radial electric field that appear with the different stochastic layer width. Two magnetic configurations with different widths of the stochastic layer as simulated in vacuum are studied for low-β discharges. It has been found that a positive electric field appeared outside of the last closed flux surface. In fact the positions of the positive electric field are found in the boundary between of the stochastic layer and the scrape-off layer. To understand where is the boundary of the stochastic layer and the scrape-off layer, the magnetic field lines are analyzed statistically. The variance of the magnetic field lines in the stochastic layer is increased outwards for both configurations. However, the skewness, which means the asymmetry of the distribution of the magnetic field line, increases for only one configuration. If the skewness is large, the connection length becomes effectively short. Since that is consistent with the experimental observation, the radial electric field can be considered as an index of the magnetic topology.
Nonlinear theory of a free electron laser with a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginzburg, N. S.; Peskov, N. Yu.
2013-09-01
A 1D nonlinear theory of a free electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field is developed based on averaged equations of the electron motion. By averaging we separated two different cases of the e-beam/rf-wave interaction. The first one corresponds to the traditional wiggler synchronism (resonance) of rf wave with the electrons moving along stationary helical trajectories. The second one corresponds to combination resonances distinguishing by excitation of oscillation of the electrons near the stationary helical trajectory. Comparative analysis of the FEL operation in different regimes has been studied under the traditional wiggler synchronism condition. It was shown that FELs operated far from cyclotron resonance (including a reversed guide field orientation) possess low sensitivity to the initial velocity spread in the driving beam resulting in high electron efficiency. In contrast, under the weak guide field (the gyrofrequency is less than the bounce frequency) of a conventional orientation, the FEL efficiency is restricted by a significant increase in the transverse velocity of the electrons during the interaction with the rf wave that results in violation of the synchronism conditions and is accompanied by electron current losses. An additional mechanism of FEL efficiency enhancement under the conventional guide field orientation in the conditions when the gyrofrequency is higher than the bounce frequency, based on the dependence of the effective mass of the oscillating electrons on their energy, was demonstrated. Results of the theoretical analysis are compared with the results of experimental studies of FEL oscillators. The specific features of energy extraction from the electron beam under condition of an abnormal Doppler effect in the case of the combination resonance are described. This regime is beneficial to increase radiation frequency keeping wiggler period and electron energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alizadeh Pahlavani, M. R.; Shoulaie, A.
2010-04-01
In this paper, formulas are proposed for the self and mutual inductance calculations of the helical toroidal coil (HTC) by the direct and indirect methods at superconductivity conditions. The direct method is based on the Neumann’s equation and the indirect approach is based on the toroidal and the poloidal components of the magnetic flux density. Numerical calculations show that the direct method is more accurate than the indirect approach at the expense of its longer computational time. Implementation of some engineering assumptions in the indirect method is shown to reduce the computational time without loss of accuracy. Comparison between the experimental measurements and simulated results for inductance, using the direct and the indirect methods indicates that the proposed formulas have high reliability. It is also shown that the self inductance and the mutual inductance could be calculated in the same way, provided that the radius of curvature is >0.4 of the minor radius, and that the definition of the geometric mean radius in the superconductivity conditions is used. Plotting contours for the magnetic flux density and the inductance show that the inductance formulas of helical toroidal coil could be used as the basis for coil optimal design. Optimization target functions such as maximization of the ratio of stored magnetic energy with respect to the volume of the toroid or the conductor’s mass, the elimination or the balance of stress in some coordinate directions, and the attenuation of leakage flux could be considered. The finite element (FE) approach is employed to present an algorithm to study the three-dimensional leakage flux distribution pattern of the coil and to draw the magnetic flux density lines of the HTC. The presented algorithm, due to its simplicity in analysis and ease of implementation of the non-symmetrical and three-dimensional objects, is advantageous to the commercial software such as ANSYS, MAXWELL, and FLUX. Finally, using the
Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils
Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.
1987-01-01
A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.
Lamkowsky, Marie-Christin; Geppert, Mark; Schmidt, Maike M; Dringen, Ralf
2012-02-01
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) are considered for various biomedical and neurobiological applications that involve the presence of external magnetic fields. However, little is known on the effects of a magnetic field on the uptake of such particles by brain cells. Cultured brain astrocytes accumulated dimercaptosuccinate-coated Fe-NP in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. This accumulation was strongly enhanced by the presence of the magnetic field generated by a permanent neodymium iron boron magnet that had been positioned below the cells. The magnetic field-induced acceleration of the accumulation of Fe-NP increased almost proportional to the strength of the magnetic field applied, increasing the cellular-specific iron content from an initial 10 nmol/mg protein within 4 h of incubation at 37°C to up to 12,000 nmol/mg protein. However, presence of a magnetic field also increased the amounts of iron that attached to the cells during incubation with Fe-NP at 4°C. These results suggest that the presence of an external magnetic field promotes in cultured astrocytes both the binding of Fe-NP to the cell membrane and the internalization of Fe-NP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kasahara, H.; Evans, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kamiya, K.; Ohdach, S.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sudo, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohno, N.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; T., Ii; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Collaborators
2015-10-01
The progress in the understanding of the physics and the concurrent parameter extension in the large helical device since the last IAEA-FEC, in 2012 (Kaneko O et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 095024), is reviewed. Plasma with high ion and electron temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 6 keV) with simultaneous ion and electron internal transport barriers is obtained by controlling recycling and heating deposition. A sign flip of the nondiffusive term of impurity/momentum transport (residual stress and convection flow) is observed, which is associated with the formation of a transport barrier. The impact of the topology of three-dimensional magnetic fields (stochastic magnetic fields and magnetic islands) on heat momentum, particle/impurity transport and magnetohydrodynamic stability is also discussed. In the steady state operation, a 48 min discharge with a line-averaged electron density of 1 × 1019 m-3 and with high electron and ion temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 2 keV), resulting in 3.36 GJ of input energy, is achieved.
Specific features of the motion of neutrons in a medium with a helical magnetic structure
Fraerman, A. A. Udalov, O. G.
2007-02-15
The specific features of the motion of neutrons in a noncoplanar magnetic field are considered by an example of the magnetization distribution in the form of a conical helix. The reflection coefficients of neutrons from holmium crystals are calculated. It is shown that, for a noncoplanar distribution of a magnetic field in a crystal, the reflection coefficient of neutrons with spin flip exhibits an additional feature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chun-Yang; Zhu, Shao-Ping; He, Xian-Tu
2002-07-01
The quasi-static magnetic fields created in the interaction of relativistic laser pulses with under-dense plasmas have been investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The relativistic ponderomotive force can drive an intense electron current in the laser propagation direction, which is responsible for the generation of a helical magnetic field. The axial magnetic field results from a difference beat of wave-wave, which drives a solenoidal current. In particular, the physical significance of the kinetic model for the generation of the axial magnetic field is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finken, K. H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Biel, W.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Busch, C.; Farshi, E.; von Hellermann, M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lazaros, A.; Lehnen, M.; Liang, Y.; Nicolai, A.; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, B.; Westerhof, E.; Wolf, R.; Zimmermann, O.; de Baar, M.; Bertschinger, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Classen, I. G. J.; Donné, A. J. H.; Esser, H. G.; Gerhauser, H.; Giesen, B.; Harting, D.; Hoekzema, J. A.; Huettemann, P. W.; Jachmich, S.; Jakubowska, K.; Kalupin, D.; Kelly, F.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kirschner, A.; Koch, R.; Korten, M.; Kreter, A.; Krom, J.; Kruezi, U.; Litnovsky, A.; Loozen, X.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Lyssoivan, A.; Marchuk, O.; Mertens, Ph; Messiaen, A.; Neubauer, O.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Reiser, D.; Reiter, D.; Rogister, A. L.; Van Rompuy, T.; Savtchkov, A.; Samm, U.; Schorn, R. P.; Schueller, F. C.; Schweer, B.; Sergienko, G.; Telesca, K. H. G.; Tokar, M.; Van Oost, G.; Uhlemann, R.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Weynants, R.; Wiesen, S.; Xu, Y.
2004-12-01
Recently, the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) of TEXTOR has been studied in an m/n = 3/1 set-up which is characterized by a relatively deep penetration of the perturbation field. The perturbation field creates (a) a helical divertor, (b) an ergodic pattern and/or (c) excitation of tearing modes, depending on whether the DED current is static, rotating in the co-current direction or in the counter-current direction. Characteristic divertor properties such as the high recycling regime or enhanced shielding have been studied. A strong effect of the ergodization is spin up of the plasma rotation, possibly due to the electric field at the plasma edge. Tearing modes are excited in a rather reproducible way and their excitation threshold value, their motion and their reduction due to the ECRH/ECCD have been studied. The different scenarios are characterized by strong modifications of the toroidal velocity profile and by a reduced or enhanced radial transport.
Pardi, Arthur; Martin, Francis H.; Tinoco, Jr., Ignacio
1980-11-01
The nonexchangeable base protons and the hydrogen- bonding NH-N imino protons were used to study the conformations and the helix-coil transitions in the following oligonucleotides: (I) dCT{sub 5}G + dCA{sub 5}G, (II) rCU{sub 5}G + rCA{sub 5}G, (III) dCT{sub 5}G + rCA{sub 5}G, (IV) rCU{sub 5}G + dCA{sub 5}G. The first three mixtures all form stable double-helical structures at 5{degrees}C, whereas IV forms a triple strand with a ratio of 2:1 rCU{sub 5}G:dCA{sub 5}G. The chemical shifts of the imino protons in the double strands indicate that I, II, and III have different conformations in solution. For example, the hydrogen-bonded proton of one of the C-G base pairs is more shielded (a 0.4-ppm upfield shift) in helix I than in helix II or III. This implies a significant change in helical parameters, such as the winding angle, the distance between base pairs, or overlap of the bases. The coupling constants of the H1’ sugar protons show that helix I has 90% 2’-endo sugar conformation, whereas helix III has greater than 85% 3’-endo conformation for the observed sugar rings. The sugar pucker data are consistent with helix I having B-family geometry; III has A-family geometry. The chemical shifts of the nonexchangeable base protons in system I were followed with increasing temperature. The midpoints for the transitions, T{sub m}’s, for all the base protons were 28-30 {degrees}C; this indicates an all-or-none transition.
Schaffer, M.J.
1997-08-01
A stabilized pinch configuration is described, consisting of a D-shaped plasma cross section wrapped tightly around a guiding axis. The {open_quotes}helical-D{close_quotes} geometry produces a very large axial (toroidal) transform of magnetic line direction that reverses the pitch of the magnetic lines without the need of azimuthal (poloidal) plasma current. Thus, there is no need of a {open_quotes}dynamo{close_quotes} process and its associated fluctuations. The resulting configuration has the high magnetic shear and pitch reversal of the reversed field pinch (RFP). (Pitch = P = qR, where R = major radius). A helical-D pinch might demonstrate good confinement at q << 1.
CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.
PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI,J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.; ET AL.
2005-05-16
Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabi Orou, Jean Bio; Pomalégni, Gisèle
2015-11-01
We investigate the combined effects of rotation , magnetic field and helical force on the onset of stationary and oscillatory convection in a horizontal electrically conducting fluid layer heated from below with free-free boundary conditions. For this investigation the linear stability analysis studied by Chandrasekhar (1961) is used. We obtain the condition for the formation of a single large scale structure. In (Pomalégni et al., 2014) it was shown the existence of a critical value Scr of the intensity of the helical force for which the apparition of two cells at marginal stability for the oscillatory convection is obtained. Then, we have shown here how the increasing of parameter Ta influences this critical value of the helical force intensity.
Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; TenBarge, Jason M.; Podesta, John J.
2014-04-20
Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.
Chinks in Solar Dynamo Theory: Turbulent Diffusion, Dynamo Waves and Magnetic Helicity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeLuca, E. E.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have investigated the generation of magnetic fields in the Sun using two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations. The results of our investigations have been presented at scientific meetings and published.
Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Asri, Mehdi; Toosi, Ershad Sadeghi
2006-12-15
Electron bunch acceleration by a laser pulse having Gaussian radial and temporal profiles of intensity has been studied numerically in a static helical magnetic wiggler in vacuum. The main electron bunch parameters for simulations are 10 MeV initial energy with 0.1% longitudinal energy spread, 1 mm mrad rms transverse emittance, and 3x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} density. It is shown that the radial Gaussian profile can decrease the acceleration gradient compared with that of the plane-wave approximation due to the reduction of electron-pulse interaction area. In order to collimate electron bunch and overcome the decreasing of the acceleration gradient, an external axial magnetic field is used. The importance of the electron initial phase with respect to laser pulse is considered, and some appropriate values are found. Finally, acceleration of a femtosecond (fs) microbunch with an optimum appropriate initial phase is considered, which leads to a nearly monoenergetic microbunch and an acceleration gradient of about {approx_equal}0.2 GeV/m.
Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan
2016-07-01
We explicitly compute the plasma wave (PW) induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) traveling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma, governed by force-free electrodynamics. The PW comoves with the GW and absorbs its energy to grow over time, creating an essentially force-free counterpart to the inverse-Gertsenshtein effect. The time-averaged Poynting flux of the induced PW is comparable to the vacuum case, but the associated current may offer a more sensitive alternative to photodetection when designing experiments for detecting/constraining high-frequency gravitational waves. Aside from the exact solutions, we also offer an analysis of the general properties of the GW to PW conversion process, which should find use when evaluating electromagnetic counterparts to astrophysical gravitational waves that are generated directly by the latter as a second-order phenomenon.
Test of a NbTi Superconducting Quadrupole Magnet Based on Alternating Helical Windings
Caspi, S.; Trillaud, F.; Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G.; Giloux, C.; Perez, J. G.; Karppinen, M.
2009-08-16
It has been shown that by superposing two solenoid-like thin windings, that are oppositely skewed (tilted) with respect to the bore axis, the combined current density on the surface is cos({theta})-like and the resulting magnetic field in the bore is a pure dipole field. Following a previous test of such a superconducting dipole magnet, a quadrupole magnet was designed and built using similar principles. This paper describes the design, construction and test of a 75 mm bore 600 mm long superconducting quadrupole made with NbTi wire. The simplicity of the design, void of typical wedges, end-spacers and coil assembly, is especially suitable for future high field insert coils using Nb{sub 3}Sn as well as HTS wires. The 3 mm thick coil reached 46 T/m but did not achieve its current plateau.
Chiral single-chain magnet: helically stacked [Mn(III)2Cu(II)] triangles.
Shiga, Takuya; Maruyama, Kazuya; Newton, Graham N; Inglis, Ross; Brechin, Euan K; Oshio, Hiroki
2014-05-01
The one-dimensional complex [Mn(III)2Cu(II)(μ3-O)(Cl-sao)3(EtOH)2]·EtOH (Mn2Cu) was obtained by the metal replacement reaction of the trinuclear manganese complex (Et3NH)[Mn(III)3(μ3-O)Cl2(Cl-sao)3(MeOH)2(H2O)2] with [Cu(acac)2]. The Mn2Cu chain exhibits single-chain-magnet behavior with finite-size effects due to its large magnetic anisotropy.
Estrada; Roach; Tan; Yesley; Gabrielse
2000-01-31
Magnetized Rydberg positronium forms when an energetic positron ( e(+)) slows within a tungsten crystal and picks up an electron ( e(-)) as it emerges in a strong magnetic field. The signature is equal numbers of e(+) and e(-) when a weak electric field is applied, either of which can be accumulated and counted. The new e(+) accumulation technique is simple, robust, and much more efficient than any other demonstrated to be compatible with a cryogenic vacuum. Possible applications include the study of cold single component plasmas of e(+) and the formation of cold antihydrogen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrova, A. E.; Stishov, S. M.
2015-06-01
The longitudinal and transverse ultrasound speeds and attenuation were measured in a MnSi single crystal in the temperature range of 2-40 K and magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla. The magnetic phase diagram of MnSi in applied magnetic field appears to depend on the experimental setups, which is related to a difference in demagnetization factors arising due to the disk shape of the sample. The magnetic phase transition in MnSi in zero magnetic field is signified by a quasidiscontinuity in the c11 elastic constant, which varies significantly with magnetic field. It is notable that the region where the c11 discontinuity almost vanishes closely corresponds to the extent of skyrmion phase along the magnetic to paramagnetic transition. This implies that the c11 elastic constant is almost continuous through the transition from the skyrmion to paramagnetic phases. A recovery of the discontinuity of c11 and enhanced sound absorption occur at the crossing of the phase transition line and the line of minima in c11. The powerful fluctuations at the minima of c11 make the mentioned crossing point similar to a critical end point, where a second order phase transition meets a first order one.
Ciaccio, G. Spizzo, G.; Schmitz, O. Frerichs, H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Evans, T. E.; White, R. B.
2015-10-15
The electrostatic response of the edge plasma to a magnetic island induced by resonant magnetic perturbations to the plasma edge of the circular limiter tokamak TEXTOR is analyzed. Measurements of plasma potential are interpreted by simulations with the Hamiltonian guiding center code ORBIT. We find a strong correlation between the magnetic field topology and the poloidal modulation of the measured plasma potential. The ion and electron drifts yield a predominantly electron driven radial diffusion when approaching the island X-point while ion diffusivities are generally an order of magnitude smaller. This causes a strong radial electric field structure pointing outward from the island O-point. The good agreement found between measured and modeled plasma potential connected to the enhanced radial particle diffusivities supports that a magnetic island in the edge of a tokamak plasma can act as convective cell. We show in detail that the particular, non-ambipolar drifts of electrons and ions in a 3D magnetic topology account for these effects. An analytical model for the plasma potential is implemented in the code ORBIT, and analyses of ion and electron radial diffusion show that both ion- and electron-dominated transport regimes can exist, which are known as ion and electron root solutions in stellarators. This finding and comparison with reversed field pinch studies and stellarator literature suggest that the role of magnetic islands as convective cells and hence as major radial particle transport drivers could be a generic mechanism in 3D plasma boundary layers.
Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.
2014-03-01
Magnetic twist in solar active regions (ARs) has been found to have a hemispheric preference in sign (hemisphere rule): negative in the northern hemisphere and positive in the southern. The preference reported in previous studies ranges greatly, from ∼ 58% to 82%. In this study, we examine this hemispheric preference using vector magnetic field data taken by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and find that 75% ± 7% of 151 ARs studied obey the hemisphere rule, well within the preference range in previous studies. If the sample is divided into two groups—ARs having magnetic twist and writhe of the same sign and having opposite signs—the strength of the hemispheric preference differs substantially: 64% ± 11% for the former group and 87% ± 8% for the latter. This difference becomes even more significant in a sub-sample of 82 ARs having a simple bipole magnetic configuration: 56% ± 16% for the ARs having the same signs of twist and writhe, and 93% with lower and upper confidence bounds of 80% and 98% for the ARs having the opposite signs. The error reported here is a 95% confidence interval. This may suggest that, prior to emergence of magnetic tubes, either the sign of twist does not have a hemispheric preference or the twist is relatively weak.
Chinks in Solar Dynamo Theory: Turbulent Diffusion, Dynamo Waves and Magnetic Helicity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeLuca, E. E.; Hurlburt, N.
1998-01-01
In this first year of our investigation we explored the role of compressibility and stratification in the dissipation of magnetic fields. The predictions of Mean Field Electrodynamics have been questioned because of the strong feedback of small scale magnetic structure on the velocity fields. In 2-D, this nonlinear feedback results in a lengthening of the turbulent decay time. In 3-D alpha-quenching is predicted. Previous studies assumed a homogeneous fluid. This first year we present recent results from 2-D compressible MHD decay simulations in a highly stratified atmosphere that more closely resembles to solar convection zone. We have applied for NCCS T3E time to assist in the performance of our 3-D calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2016-05-01
The effect of the perturbed ion polarization current on the stability of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamak plasmas is calculated using an improved, neoclassical, four-field, drift-magnetohydrodynamical model. The calculation involves the self-consistent determination of the pressure and scalar electric potential profiles in the vicinity of the associated magnetic island chain, which allows the chain's propagation velocity to be fixed. Two regimes are considered. First, a regime in which neoclassical ion poloidal flow damping is not strong enough to enhance the magnitude of the polarization current (relative to that found in slab geometry). Second, a regime in which neoclassical ion poloidal flow damping is strong enough to significantly enhance the magnitude of the polarization current. In both regimes, two types of solution are considered. First, a freely rotating solution (i.e., an island chain that is not interacting with a static, resonant, magnetic perturbation). Second, a locked solution (i.e., an island chain that has been brought to rest in the laboratory frame via interaction with a static, resonant, magnetic perturbation). In all cases, the polarization current is found to be either always stabilizing or stabilizing provided that ηi≡d ln Ti/d ln ne does not exceed some threshold value. In certain ranges of ηi, the polarization current is found to have a stabilizing effect on a freely rotating island, but a destabilizing effect on a corresponding locked island.
Thermodynamics of finite-momentum states: From degenerate atomic gases to helical magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sungsoo
We present a theoretical study of finite momentum states in the context of degenerate gases and iron-based magnet. The unifying theme of these seemingly disparate states of condensed matter is the finite momentum of their respective grounds states and the associated enhanced fluctuations. For the degenerate atomic gases, we study in the first part of the thesis a system of two species of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as realized in Rubidium-85/Rubidium-87 mixture. In mapping out the phase diagram, we show that the system exhibits atomic (ASF), molecular (MSF) and atomic-molecular (AMSF) superfluid phases, where atoms, molecules, and atoms and molecules Bose condense, respectively. The ASF and MSF states are respectively characterized by a nonzero s-wave atomic and p-wave (orbital) spinor molecular condensates. The AMSF is distinguished by the presence of both of these condensates, with the s-wave atomic condensate component necessarily periodically modulated at a wavevector that is tunable with a magnetic field; that is, generically AMSF is a robust supersolid, that simultaneously breaks spatial translational and gauge symmetries. We explore the rich phenomenology of these phases and phase transitions between them, that we find to be strongly influenced by the quantum and thermal fluctuations. In the second part of the thesis, we study magnetism in Fe1+yTe, a parent compound of the iron-based high-temperature superconductors. Motivated by earlier studies that have provided evidences of finite momentum spiral states in these materials, we show that a spin-1 exchange model, supplemented by a single-ion anisotropy accounts well for the experimentally observed magnetic phase diagram, that prominently exhibits commensurate bi-collinear and incommensurate spin-spiral orders with the associated low-energy spin-wave spectra. We derive the low energy hydrodynamic models for these magnetic states and use it to describe the magneto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pevtsov, A.
Solar magnetic fields exhibit hemispheric preference for negative (pos- itive) helicity in northern (southern) hemisphere. The hemispheric he- licity rule, however, is not very strong, - the patterns of opposite sign helicity were observed on different spatial scales in each hemisphere. For instance, many individual sunspots exhibit patches of opposite he- licity inside the single polarity field. There are also helicity patterns on scales larger than the size of typical active region. Such patterns were observed in distribution of active regions with abnormal (for a give hemisphere) helicity, in large-scale photospheric magnetic fields and coronal flux systems. We will review the observations of large-scale pat- terns of helicity in solar atmosphere and their possible relationship with (sub-)photospheric processes. The emphasis will be on large-scale pho- tospheric magnetic field and solar corona.
The transport of relative canonical helicity
You, S.
2012-09-15
The evolution of relative canonical helicity is examined in the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic formalism. Canonical helicity is defined here as the helicity of the plasma species' canonical momentum. The species' canonical helicity are coupled together and can be converted from one into the other while the total gauge-invariant relative canonical helicity remains globally invariant. The conversion is driven by enthalpy differences at a surface common to ion and electron canonical flux tubes. The model provides an explanation for why the threshold for bifurcation in counter-helicity merging depends on the size parameter. The size parameter determines whether magnetic helicity annihilation channels enthalpy into the magnetic flux tube or into the vorticity flow tube components of the canonical flux tube. The transport of relative canonical helicity constrains the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields, and provides a more general framework for driving flows and currents from enthalpy or inductive boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Y.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Finken, K. H.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lehnen, M.; Liang, Y.; Matsunaga, G.; Reiser, D.; Wolf, R. C.; Zimmermann, O.
2006-08-01
The magnetic field penetration process into a magnetized plasma is of basic interest both for plasma physics and astrophysics. In this context special measurements on the field penetration and field amplification are performed by a Hall probe on the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) on the TEXTOR tokamak and the data are interpreted by a two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED field is accompanied by a change of the plasma fluid rotation. The differential rotation frequency between the DED field and the plasma plays an important role in the process of the excitation of tearing modes. The momentum input from the rotating DED field to the plasma is interpreted by both a ponderomotive force at the rational surface and a radial electric field modified by an edge ergodization.
Conductance of a helical edge liquid coupled to a magnetic impurity.
Tanaka, Yoichi; Furusaki, A; Matveev, K A
2011-06-10
Transport in an ideal two-dimensional quantum spin Hall device is dominated by the counterpropagating edge states of electrons with opposite spins, giving the universal value of the conductance, 2e(2)/h. We study the effect on the conductance of a magnetic impurity, which can backscatter an electron from one edge state to the other. In the case of isotropic Kondo exchange we find that the correction to the electrical conductance caused by such an impurity vanishes in the dc limit, while the thermal conductance does acquire a finite correction due to the spin-flip backscattering.
Wang, Jian-Guang
2006-01-01
We have performed 3D computing simulations to study the magnetic field distribution of the injection chicane dipoles in the SNS accumulator ring. The simulations yield the performance characteristics of the magnets and generate the magnetic field data in three dimensional grids for further beam tracking study. Based on the simulation data, a 3D multipole expansion of the chicane dipole field, consisting of the generalized gradients and their derivatives, has been made. The harmonic and pseudo-harmonic components in the expansion give much insight into the magnet physics and can fit directly into theoretical frame work of beam optics. The expansion is quasi-analytical by fitting numeric data into interpolation functions. A 5th-order representation of the magnetic field is generated, and the effects of even higher order terms on the field representation are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J. G.
2006-01-01
We have performed 3D computing simulations to study the magnetic field distribution of the injection chicane dipoles in the SNS accumulator ring. The simulations yield the performance characteristics of the magnets and generate the magnetic field data in three dimensional grids for further beam tracking study. Based on the simulation data, a 3D multipole expansion of the chicane dipole field, consisting of the generalized gradients and their derivatives, has been made. The harmonic and pseudoharmonic components in the expansion give much insight into the magnet physics and can fit directly into theoretical frame work of beam optics. The expansion is quasianalytical by fitting numeric data into interpolation functions. A 5th-order representation of the magnetic field is generated, and the effects of even higher-order terms on the field representation are discussed.
Electric and thermoelectric transport in graphene and helical metal in finite magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, Sung-Po; Aji, Vivek
2011-10-01
We study the electrical and thermoelectric transport properties of the surface state of a topological insulator and graphene in the presence of randomly distributed impurities. For finite impurity strength, the dependence of the transport coefficients as a function of the gate voltage, magnetic field, and impurity potential are obtained numerically. In the limit of zero impurities (clean limit), analytic results for the peak values of the magneto-oscillations in thermopower are derived. Analogous with the conventional two-dimensional electron gas, the peak values are universal in the clean limit. Unlike graphene, in topological insulators the coupling of the electron spin to its momentum leads to a dependence of the transport coefficients on the gyromagnetic ratio (g). We compare our results with data on graphene and identify unique signatures expected in topological insulators due to the magnetoelectric coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reza, Khazaeinezhad; Mahdi, Esmaeilzadeh
2012-09-01
Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) with a helical wiggler in the presence of ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field is investigated in this article. The effects of tapering wiggler amplitude and axial magnetic field are calculated for the electron acceleration. In free electron lasers, electron beams lose energy through radiation while in IFEL electron beams gain energy from the laser. The equation of electron motion and the equation of energy exchange between a single electron and electromagnetic waves are derived and then solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The tapering effects of a wiggler magnetic field on electron acceleration are investigated and the results show that the electron acceleration increases in the case of a tapered wiggler magnetic field with a proper taper constant.
Zhang, Li; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Guo, Mei; Tang, Jinkui
2016-06-28
An unprecedented octanuclear dysprosium(iii) cluster with the formula [Dy8L6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-CH3O)2(CH3OH)6(H2O)2]·6H2O·10CH3OH·2CH3CN () based on a nonlinearly tritopic aroylhydrazone ligand H3L has been isolated, realizing the successful linking of pairwise interesting triangular Dy3 SMMs. It is noteworthy that two enantiomers (Λ and Δ configurations) individually behaving as a coordination-induced chirality presented in the Dy3 helicate are connected in the meso Dy8 cluster. Remarkably, alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that the Dy8 cluster shows typical SMM behavior inherited from its Dy3 helical precursor. It is one of the rare polynuclear Lnn SMMs (n > 7) under zero dc field. PMID:27231152
Zhang, Li; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Guo, Mei; Tang, Jinkui
2016-06-28
An unprecedented octanuclear dysprosium(iii) cluster with the formula [Dy8L6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-CH3O)2(CH3OH)6(H2O)2]·6H2O·10CH3OH·2CH3CN () based on a nonlinearly tritopic aroylhydrazone ligand H3L has been isolated, realizing the successful linking of pairwise interesting triangular Dy3 SMMs. It is noteworthy that two enantiomers (Λ and Δ configurations) individually behaving as a coordination-induced chirality presented in the Dy3 helicate are connected in the meso Dy8 cluster. Remarkably, alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that the Dy8 cluster shows typical SMM behavior inherited from its Dy3 helical precursor. It is one of the rare polynuclear Lnn SMMs (n > 7) under zero dc field.
ICPP: Results from Helical Axis Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackwell, B. D.
2000-10-01
Helical axis stellarators produce magnetic surfaces of high rotational transform and moderate shear solely by means of external currents, with the promise of high β. Several machines with quite different toroidal, helical, and ``bumpy'' Fourier components of magnetic field are now operating. The H-1 Heliac (1m, 1Tesla: Canberra, Australia), an M=3, low aspect ratio flexible heliac has been operated up to 0.5 Tesla with RF heating up to Ti ~ 100eV. Confinement transitions observed in this plasma exhibit many features of improved confinement regimes in tokamaks obtained at much larger power. ECH at 28GHz is being commissioned, and results from a suite of scattering, scalar and vector tomographic and multipoint probe and optical measurements will be presented. The M=4 Flexible Heliac ``TJ-II'' (1.5m, 1.2T: CIEMAT, Madrid) has accumulated a database of ECH plasma (1T) for a variety of configurations, (iota ~ 1.3--2.24) and a comprehensive set of diagnostics. Temperatures up to 2keV were measured by Thomson scattering/ECE. Observations include stored energy dependence, evidence of internal transport barriers, ELM-like bursts of magnetic activity and E×B sheared flows near rational surfaces in the plasma boundary. A new advanced configuration, the helical-axis heliotron, ``Heliotron J'' (1.2m, 1.5T: IAE, Kyoto University), the successor to Heliotron E, uses a ``bumpy'' magnetic component to improve high-energy particle confinement and reduce neoclassical transport. A combination of toroidal and helical coils produces a range of configurations. First plasma was successfully produced on December 1999, by ECH at 53GHz(2ω_ce). Following field mapping and final installation of diagnostics, the full experiment will start July 2000. The Helically Symmetric Experiment, ``HSX'' (Univ. Wisconsin, Madison) employs computer optimized non-planar coils to exploit a quasi-symmetry that minimizes toroidal magnetic field harmonics, confirmed by recent mapping of the drift orbits
EVOLUTION OF SPINNING AND BRAIDING HELICITY FLUXES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930
Ravindra, B.; Yoshimura, Keiji; Dasso, Sergio E-mail: yosimura@solar.physics.montana.edu
2011-12-10
The line-of-sight magnetograms from Solar Optical Telescope Narrowband Filter Imager observations of NOAA Active Region 10930 have been used to study the evolution of spinning and braiding helicities over a period of five days starting from 2006 December 9. The north (N) polarity sunspot was the follower and the south (S) polarity sunspot was the leader. The N-polarity sunspot in the active region was rotating in the counterclockwise direction. The rate of rotation was small during the first two days of observations and it increased up to 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} on the third day of the observations. On the fourth and fifth days it remained at 4 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} with small undulations in its magnitude. The sunspot rotated about 260 Degree-Sign in the last three days. The S-polarity sunspot did not complete more than 20 Degree-Sign in five days. However, it changed its direction of rotation five times over a period of five days and injected both the positive and negative type of spin helicity fluxes into the corona. Through the five days, both the positive and negative sunspot regions injected equal amounts of spin helicity. The total injected helicity is predominantly negative in sign. However, the sign of the spin and braiding helicity fluxes computed over all the regions were reversed from negative to positive five times during the five-day period of observations. The reversal in spinning helicity flux was found before the onset of the X3.4-class flare, too. Though, the rotating sunspot has been observed in this active region, the braiding helicity has contributed more to the total accumulated helicity than the spinning helicity. The accumulated helicity is in excess of -7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} over a period of five days. Before the X3.4-class flare that occurred on 2006 December 13, the rotation speed and spin helicity flux increased in the S-polarity sunspot. Before the flare, the total injected helicity was larger than -6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Y.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Finken, K. H.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lehnen, M.; Liang, Y.; Loewenbrueck, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Reiser, D.; Samm, U.; Sewell, G.; Takamura, S.; Unterberg, B.; Wolf, R. C.; Zimmermann, O.; TEXTOR-team
2007-05-01
Penetration processes of rotating helical magnetic perturbation field into tokamak plasmas have been investigated by the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) in TEXTOR. Experimental observations of the field penetration and field amplification are performed and the data are interpreted by theoretical analyses based on a linearized two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED-field is accompanied by a change in the plasma fluid rotation. The theoretical model is also applied to the DED experiment in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. It is confirmed that the theoretical analyses can explain the observed radial profiles of the DED-field in the plasma by inserting small magnetic pick-up coils in HYBTOK-II.
Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A.
2015-07-15
An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selkin, Peter A.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Meurer, William P.
2014-08-01
Fabric studies of layered mafic intrusions have led to improved understanding of the mechanical processes operating in large magma chambers, including crystal accumulation and crystal mush deformation. Such studies, however, are typically limited by a tradeoff between breadth (number of sites studied, characteristic of field-focused work) and sensitivity (ability to discern subtle fabric elements, characteristic of laboratory fabric analyses). Magnetic anisotropy, if analyzed in a systematic way and supported by single-crystal and petrofabric measurements, permits relatively rapid characterization of magmatic fabrics for large numbers of samples. Here we present the results of a study of remanence and susceptibility anisotropy from three transects through the Middle Banded Series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. All three transects exhibit a magnetic foliation that increases with stratigraphic height up to the top of Olivine Bearing Zone III, consistent with crystal mush compaction. Perhaps more importantly, each transect is characterized by a subtle lineation in the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with a consistent direction within that transect. The magnetic lineation directions, which generally coincide with crystallographic preferred orientations of silicate minerals, likely record a pre-compaction fabric. Lineation directions differ from one transect to another, implying that the process generating the lineation - either slumping of a semiconsolidated crystal mush or magma transport - acted on length scales of at most a few km. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of magnetic anisotropy to petrofabric in mafic rocks.
2013-01-01
Background In orthopaedic surgery, accumulation of agents such as anti-infectives in the bone as target tissue is difficult. The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers principally enables their accumulation via an externally applied magnetic field. Magnetizable implants are principally able to increase the strength of an externally applied magnetic field to reach also deep-seated parts in the body. Therefore, the integration of bone-addressed therapeutics in MNPs and their accumulation at a magnetic orthopaedic implant could improve the treatment of implant related infections. In this study a martensitic steel platelet as implant placeholder was used to examine its accumulation and retention capacity of MNPs in an in vitro experimental set up considering different experimental frame conditions as magnet quantity and distance to each other, implant thickness and flow velocity. Results The magnetic field strength increased to approximately 112% when a martensitic stainless steel platelet was located between the magnet poles. Therewith a significantly higher amount of magnetic nanoparticles could be accumulated in the area of the platelet compared to the sole magnetic field. During flushing of the tube system mimicking the in vivo blood flow, the magnetized platelet was able to retain a higher amount of MNPs without an external magnetic field compared to the set up with no mounted platelet during flushing of the system. Generally, a higher flow velocity led to lower amounts of accumulated MNPs. A higher quantity of magnets and a lower distance between magnets led to a higher magnetic field strength. Albeit not significantly the magnetic field strength tended to increase with thicker platelets. Conclusion A martensitic steel platelet significantly improved the attachment of magnetic nanoparticles in an in vitro flow system and therewith indicates the potential of magnetic implant materials in orthopaedic surgery. The use of a remanent magnetic implant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gashti, M. A.; Jafari, S.
2016-06-01
Electron acceleration based on a laser pulse propagating through plasma channel has been studied in the simultaneous presence of a helical magnetic wiggler and an obliquely applied external magnetic field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectory has been made using the fourth-order Runge-kutta method. Numerical results indicate that electron energy increases with decreasing θ -angle of the obliquely external magnetic field. Besides, it increases with increasing the amplitude of the obliquely magnetic field. It is also found that the electron attains a higher energy at shorter distances for higher amplitude of the wiggler field Ωw . Therefore, employing a magnetic wiggler field is very beneficial for electron acceleration in short distances. Further new results reveal that in the absence of the wiggler field (Ωw=0) , the electron energy increases with increasing the laser intensity, whereas in the presence of the wiggler field (Ωwneq0) , the electron energy increases with decreasing the laser intensity. As a result, employing a wiggler magnetic field in the laser-based electron accelerators can be worthwhile in the design of table top accelerators and it can enhance the electron energy at lower laser intensities.
Mohsenpour, Taghi; Mehrabi, Narges
2013-08-15
The dispersion relation of a two-stream free-electron laser (TSFEL) with a one-dimensional helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field is studied. Also, all relativistic effects on the space-charge wave and radiation are considered. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to find the unstable interaction among the all wave modes. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream FEL. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the two-stream instability and the FEL resonance is investigated. The maximum growth rate of FEL resonance is investigated numerically as a function of the axial magnetic field.
Helically linked mirror arrangement
Ranjan, P.
1986-08-01
A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average ..beta.. and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned.
Flexible helical-axis stellarator
Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.
1988-01-01
An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gitgeatpong, G.; Zhao, Y.; Avdeev, M.; Piltz, R. O.; Sato, T. J.; Matan, K.
2015-07-01
Magnetic properties of the S =1/2 antiferromagnet α -Cu2V2O7 have been studied using magnetization, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, and neutron diffraction. Magnetic susceptibility shows a broad peak at ˜50 K followed by an abrupt increase indicative of a phase transition to a magnetically ordered state at TN=33.4 (1 ) K. Above TN, a fit to the Curie-Weiss law gives a Curie-Weiss temperature of Θ =-73 (1 ) K suggesting the dominant antiferromagnetic coupling. The result of the QMC calculations on the helical-honeycomb spin network with two antiferromagnetic exchange interactions J1 and J2 provides a better fit to the susceptibility than the previously proposed spin-chain model. Two sets of the coupling parameters J1:J2=1 :0.45 with J1=5.79 (1 ) meV and 0.65 :1 with J2=6.31 (1 ) meV yield equally good fits down to ˜TN . Below TN, weak ferromagnetism due to spin canting is observed. The canting is caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with an estimated b c -plane component |Dp|≃0.14 J1 . Neutron diffraction reveals that the S =1/2 Cu2 + spins antiferromagnetically align in the F d'd'2 magnetic space group. The ordered moment of 0.93(9) μB is predominantly along the crystallographic a axis.
HELICITY CONDENSATION AS THE ORIGIN OF CORONAL AND SOLAR WIND STRUCTURE
Antiochos, S. K.
2013-07-20
Three of the most important and most puzzling features of the Sun's atmosphere are the smoothness of the closed-field corona (the so-called coronal loops), the accumulation of magnetic shear at photospheric polarity inversion lines (PILs; filament channels), and the complex dynamics of the slow wind. We propose that a single process, helicity condensation, is the physical mechanism giving rise to all three features. A simplified model is presented for how helicity is injected and transported in the closed corona by magnetic reconnection. With this model, we demonstrate that magnetic shear must accumulate at PILs and coronal hole boundaries, and estimate the rate of shear growth at PILs and the loss to the wind. Our results can account for many of the observed properties of the corona and wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pattabi, A.; Gu, Z.; Gorchon, J.; Yang, Y.; Finley, J.; Lee, O. J.; Raziq, H. A.; Salahuddin, S.; Bokor, J.
2015-10-01
Strong spin-orbit coupling in non-magnetic heavy metals has been shown to lead to large spin currents flowing transverse to a charge current in such a metal wire. This in turn leads to the buildup of a net spin accumulation at the lateral surfaces of the wire. Spin-orbit torque effects enable the use of the accumulated spins to exert useful magnetic torques on adjacent magnetic layers in spintronic devices. We report the direct detection of spin accumulation at the free surface of nonmagnetic metal films using magnetization-induced optical surface second harmonic generation. The technique is applied to probe the current induced surface spin accumulation in various heavy metals such as Pt, β-Ta, and Au with high sensitivity. The sensitivity of the technique enables us to measure the time dynamics on a sub-ns time scale of the spin accumulation arising from a short current pulse. The ability of optical surface second harmonic generation to probe interfaces suggests that this technique will also be useful for studying the dynamics of spin accumulation and transport across interfaces between non-magnetic and ferromagnetic materials, where spin-orbit torque effects are of considerable interest.
Pattabi, A. Gu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Finley, J.; Lee, O. J.; Raziq, H. A.; Gorchon, J.; Salahuddin, S.; Bokor, J.
2015-10-12
Strong spin-orbit coupling in non-magnetic heavy metals has been shown to lead to large spin currents flowing transverse to a charge current in such a metal wire. This in turn leads to the buildup of a net spin accumulation at the lateral surfaces of the wire. Spin-orbit torque effects enable the use of the accumulated spins to exert useful magnetic torques on adjacent magnetic layers in spintronic devices. We report the direct detection of spin accumulation at the free surface of nonmagnetic metal films using magnetization-induced optical surface second harmonic generation. The technique is applied to probe the current induced surface spin accumulation in various heavy metals such as Pt, β-Ta, and Au with high sensitivity. The sensitivity of the technique enables us to measure the time dynamics on a sub-ns time scale of the spin accumulation arising from a short current pulse. The ability of optical surface second harmonic generation to probe interfaces suggests that this technique will also be useful for studying the dynamics of spin accumulation and transport across interfaces between non-magnetic and ferromagnetic materials, where spin-orbit torque effects are of considerable interest.
Çelik, Mustafa Salih; Güven, Kemal; Akpolat, Veysi; Akdağ, Mehmet Zulkuf; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Gül-Güven, Reyhan; Çelik, M Yusuf; Erdoğan, Sait
2015-06-01
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the kidney, liver and brain of rats. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Four control groups received 0, 3.75, 15 and 60 mg Mn per kg body weight orally every 2 days for 45 days, respectively. The remaining four groups received same concentrations of Mn and were also exposed to ELF-MF (1.5 mT; 50 Hz) for 4 h for 5 days a week during 45 days. Following the last exposure, kidney, liver and brain were taken from all rats and they were analyzed for Mn accumulation levels using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. In result of the current study, we observed that Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were higher in Mn groups than in control groups. Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were also higher in Mn plus ELF-MF groups than in Mn groups. In conclusion, result of the current study showed that the ELF-MF induced manganese accumulation in kidney, liver and brain of rats.
Vemareddy, P.; Ambastha, A.; Maurya, R. A.; Chae, J. E-mail: ambastha@prl.res.in E-mail: jcchae@snu.ac.kr
2012-12-20
An investigation of helicity injection by photospheric shear motions is carried out for two active regions (ARs), NOAA 11158 and 11166, using line-of-sight magnetic field observations obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We derived the horizontal velocities in the ARs from the differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE) technique. Persistent strong shear motions at maximum velocities in the range of 0.6-0.9 km s{sup -1} along the magnetic polarity inversion line and outward flows from the peripheral regions of the sunspots were observed in the two ARs. The helicities injected in NOAA 11158 and 11166 during their six-day evolution period were estimated as 14.16 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} and 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The estimated injection rates decreased up to 13% by increasing the time interval between the magnetograms from 12 minutes to 36 minutes, and increased up to 9% by decreasing the DAVE window size from 21 Multiplication-Sign 18 to 9 Multiplication-Sign 6 pixel{sup 2}, resulting in 10% variation in the accumulated helicity. In both ARs, the flare-prone regions (R2) had inhomogeneous helicity flux distribution with mixed helicities of both signs and coronal mass ejection (CME) prone regions had almost homogeneous distribution of helicity flux dominated by a single sign. The temporal profiles of helicity injection showed impulsive variations during some flares/CMEs due to negative helicity injection into the dominant region of positive helicity flux. A quantitative analysis reveals a marginally significant association of helicity flux with CMEs but not flares in AR 11158, while for the AR 11166, we find a marginally significant association of helicity flux with flares but not CMEs, providing evidence of the role of helicity injection at localized sites of the events. These short-term variations of helicity flux are further discussed in view of possible
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitnov, M. I.; Merkin, V. G.
2016-08-01
Generalizations of the class of quasi-1-D solutions of the 2-D Grad-Shafranov equation, first considered by Schindler in 1972, are investigated. It is shown that the effect of the dipole field, treated as a perturbation, can be included into the original 1972 class solution by modification of the boundary conditions. Some of the solutions imply the formation of singularly thin current sheets. Equilibrium solutions for such sheets resolving their singular current structure on the scales comparable to the thermal ion gyroradius can be obtained assuming anisotropic and nongyrotropic plasma distributions. It is shown that one class of such equilibria with the dipole-like boundary perturbation describes bifurcation of the near-Earth current sheet. Another class of weakly anisotropic equilibria with thin current sheets embedded into a thicker plasma sheet helps explain the formation of thin current sheets in a relatively distant tail, where such sheets can provide ion Landau dissipation for spontaneous magnetic reconnection. The free energy for spontaneous reconnection can be provided due to accumulation of the magnetic flux at the tailward end of the closed field line region. The corresponding hump in the normal magnetic field profile Bz(x,z = 0) creates a nonzero gradient along the tail. The resulting gradient of the equatorial magnetic field pressure is shown to be balanced by the pressure gradient and the magnetic tension force due to the higher-order correction of the latter in the asymptotic expansion of the tail equilibrium in the ratio of the characteristic tail current sheet variations across and along the tail.
Sarkar-Banerjee, Suparna; Chowdhury, Sourav; Paul, Simanta Sarani; Dutta, Debashis; Ghosh, Anisa; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda
2016-08-16
There has been widespread interest in studying early intermediate states and their roles in protein folding. The interest in intermediate states has been further emphasized in the recent literature because of their implications for protein aggregation. Unfortunately, direct kinetic characterization of intermediates has been difficult because of the limited time resolutions offered by the kinetic techniques and the heterogeneity of the folding and aggregation landscape. Even in equilibrium experiments, the characterization of intermediate states could be difficult because (a) their populations in equilibrium could be low and/or (b) they lack any specific biochemical or biophysical signatures for their identification. In this paper, we have used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study the nature of a low-pH intermediate state of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein, a small protein with predominantly β-sheet structure. Our results have shown that the pH 3 intermediate diffuses faster than the folded protein and has strong helix forming propensity. These behaviors support Lim's hypothesis according to which even an entirely β-sheet protein would form helical bundles at the early stage. Using dynamic light scattering and thioflavin T binding measurements, we have observed that the pH 3 intermediate is prone to aggregation. We believe that early helix formation is the result of a local effect, which originates from the interaction of the neighboring amino acids around the hydrophobic core residues. This early intermediate reorganizes subsequently, and this structural reorganization is initiated by the destabilizing interactions induced by the distant residues, unfavorable entropic costs, and steric constraints of the hydrophobic side chains. Mutational analyses show further that the increase in the hydrophobicity in the hydrophobic core region increases the population of the α-helical intermediate, enhancing the aggregation propensity of the protein
Helicity Inferences Stemming from a Mean-Field Solar Dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pipin, Valery
The global magnetic field of the Sun is generated by dynamo instability that stems from interactions of magnetic field with the large and small-scale flows. Theoretically, it is expected that such interactions produce a helical magnetic field which evolves following to magnetic helicity conservation law. We discuss some consequences of magnetic helicity conservation for the mean-field solar dynamo. We also discuss the observational aspect of the problem including the recent results about observations of the current helicity of solar active regions, the magnetic helicity of the global magnetic field as revealed by SOHO/MDI observations, and the problem of magnetic helicity transport from the solar convection zone to the outer atmosphere.
Aly, J.J. )
1993-01-01
The problem of the existence of a minimum energy state is studied in the set H of all the magnetic fields [bold B]: (i) occupying the half-cylinder [ital D]=[l brace][ital r][lt][ital R],[ital z][gt]0[r brace]; (ii) having a normal component vanishing on the vertical part [l brace][ital r]=[ital R][r brace] of the boundary of [ital D] and taking given values [ital Q]([ital r]) on its horizontal part [l brace][ital z]=0[r brace]; (iii) having a relative helicity equal to a prescribed value [ital H]. It is first shown that the only field that may possibly be an energy minimizer in H is the unique (and therefore axisymmetric) constant-[alpha] force-free field [bold B][sub [alpha
Li, Xing; Morgan, Huw; Leonard, Drew; Jeska, Lauren
2012-06-20
During 2011 September 24, as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument of the Solar Dynamic Observatory and ground-based H{alpha} telescopes, a prominence and associated cavity appeared above the southwest limb. On 2011 September 25 8:00 UT, material flows upward from the prominence core along a narrow loop-like structure, accompanied by a rise ({>=}50,000 km) of the prominence core and the loop. As the loop fades by 10:00, small blobs and streaks of varying brightness rotate around the top part of the prominence and cavity, mimicking a cyclone. The most intense and coherent rotation lasts for over three hours, with emission in both hot ({approx}1 MK) and cold (hydrogen and helium) lines. We suggest that the cyclonic appearance and overall evolution of the structure can be interpreted in terms of the expansion of helical structures into the cavity, and the movement of plasma along helical structures which appears as a rotation when viewed along the helix axis. The coordinated movement of material between prominence and cavity suggests that they are structurally linked. Complexity is great due to the combined effect of these actions and the line-of-sight integration through the structure which contains tangled fields.
Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawan, M. E.; Ghoniem, N. M.; Snead, L.; Katoh, Y.
2011-10-01
Radiation damage parameters in SiC/SiC composite structures are determined in both magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems. Variations in the geometry, neutron energy spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters between the two systems. With the same neutron wall loading, the displacement damage rate in the first wall in an IFE system is ˜10% lower than in an MFE system, while gas production and burnup rates are a factor of 2 lower. Self-cooled LiPb and Flibe blankets were analyzed. While using LiPb results in higher displacement damage, Flibe yields higher gas production and burnup rates. The effects of displacement damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed.
Helical flux ropes in solar prominences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martens, P. C. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.
1990-01-01
The present numerical method for the computation of force-free, cancelling magnetic structures shows that flux cancellation at the neutral line in a sheared magnetic arcade generates helical field lines that can support a prominence's plasma. With increasing flux cancellation, the axis of the helical fields moves to greater heights; this is suggestive of a prominence eruption. Two alternative scenarios are proposed for the formation of polar crown prominences which yield the correct axial magnetic field sign. Both models are noted to retain the formation of helical flux tubes through flux cancellation as their key feature.
Selective control for helical microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsamba, Panayiota; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
One of the greatest aspirations for artificial microswimmers is their application in non-invasive medicine. For any practical use, adequate mechanisms enabling control of multiple artificial swimmers is of paramount importance. Here we propose a multi-helical, freely-jointed motor as a novel selective control mechanism. We show that the nonlinear step-out behavior of a magnetized helix driven by a rotating magnetic field can be exploited, when used in conjunction with other helices, to obtain a velocity profile that is non-negligible only within a chosen interval of operating frequencies. Specifically, the force balance between the competing opposite-handed helices is tuned to give no net motion at low frequencies while in the middle frequency range, the swimming velocity increases monotonically with the driving frequency if two opposite helices are used, thereby allowing speed adjustment by varying the driving frequency. We illustrate this idea in detail on a two-helix system, and demonstrate how to generalize to N helices, both numerically and theoretically. We finish by explaining how to solve the inverse problem and design an artificial swimmer with an arbitrarily-complex velocity vs. frequency relationship.
Varela, J.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S.; Narushima, Y.
2014-09-15
The aim of this study was to analyze the feedback process between the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradients in Large Helical Device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations as well as its role in the transition between the soft-hard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regimes for instabilities driven by the mode 1/2 in the middle plasma. In the present paper, we summarize the results of two simulations with different Lundquist numbers, S=2.5×10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}, assuming a plasma in the slow reconnection regime. The results for the high Lundquist number simulation show that the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradient in the middle plasma region of LHD are below the critical value to drive the transition to the hard MHD regime, therefore only relaxations in the soft MHD limit are triggered (1/2 sawtooth-like events) [Phys. Plasmas 19, 082512 (2012)]. In the case of the simulation with low Lundquist number, the system reaches the hard MHD limit and a plasma collapse is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavel, A.; Trifan, M.; Bara, I. I.; Creanga, D. E.; Cotae, C.
1999-07-01
In this paper we studied the capacity of magnetic liquids which are biocompatible (as previous literature reports showed) to influence germination, de-differentiation and re-differentiation processes in vitro, as well as to influence both the mitotic index and the chromosomal aberration frequency. In vitro cultures of two species of pharmaceutical interest, Chelidonium majus L. and Papaver somniferum L., on media supplemented with various concentrations of magnetic liquid, for various explant types, revealed a small but significant effect of the petroleum magnetic liquid on the callus accumulation and induced a considerable rate of chromosomal aberrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.
2010-11-01
Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the drug therapy technologies to accumulate the drug at the targeted part efficiently. The ferromagnetic particle is attached to the medicine, antibody, hormones and so on. The magnetic seeded drug is injected into the blood vessel, and then is accumulated in capillary vessel of target organ by magnetic field generated by the superconducting magnet placed outside of the body. The technology is great prospective for not only human medical treatment but also stockbreeding field. Treatment for cow ovarian diseases (decay of ovarian hormone secretion) requires an improvement in suppression of the drug diffusion to non-diseased part by the blood flow. In order to solve the problem, the applicability of the MDDS was examined. The behavior of the magnetic drug under the magnetic field generated by high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet were studied by the model experiment and computer simulation with the capillary model of the corpus luteum. As a result, it was shown that MDDS is able to apply to the capillaries of the corpus luteum (yellow body).
Studies of Solar Helicity Using Vector Magnetograms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagyard, Mona J.; Pevstov, Alexei A.
1999-01-01
observations of photospheric magnetic fields made with vector magnetographs have been used recently to study solar helicity. In this paper we indicate what can and cannot be derived from vector magnetograms, and point out some potential problems in these data that could affect the calculations of 'helicity'. Among these problems are magnetic saturation, Faraday rotation, low spectral resolution, and the method of resolving the ambiguity in the azimuth.
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-01
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Eslami, L. Faizabadi, E.
2014-05-28
The effect of magnetic contacts on spin-dependent electron transport and spin-accumulation in a quantum ring, which is threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. The quantum ring is made up of four quantum dots, where two of them possess magnetic structure and other ones are subjected to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic quantum dots, referred to as magnetic quantum contacts, are connected to two external leads. Two different configurations of magnetic moments of the quantum contacts are considered; the parallel and the anti-parallel ones. When the magnetic moments are parallel, the degeneracy between the transmission coefficients of spin-up and spin-down electrons is lifted and the system can be adjusted to operate as a spin-filter. In addition, the accumulation of spin-up and spin-down electrons in non-magnetic quantum dots are different in the case of parallel magnetic moments. When the intra-dot Coulomb interaction is taken into account, we find that the electron interactions participate in separation between the accumulations of electrons with different spin directions in non-magnetic quantum dots. Furthermore, the spin-accumulation in non-magnetic quantum dots can be tuned in the both parallel and anti-parallel magnetic moments by adjusting the Rashba spin-orbit strength and the magnetic flux. Thus, the quantum ring with magnetic quantum contacts could be utilized to create tunable local magnetic moments which can be used in designing optimized nanodevices.
Zhang, Haocheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Bottcher, Markus
2016-01-20
The optical radiation and polarization signatures in blazars are known to be highly variable during flaring activities. It is frequently argued that shocks are the main driver of the flaring events. However, the spectral variability modelings generally lack detailed considerations of the self-consistent magnetic field evolution modeling; thus, so far the associated optical polarization signatures are poorly understood. We present the first simultaneous modeling of the optical radiation and polarization signatures based on 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shocks in the blazar emission environment, with the simplest physical assumptions. By comparing the results with observations, we find that shocks inmore » a weakly magnetized environment will largely lead to significant changes in the optical polarization signatures, which are seldom seen in observations. Hence an emission region with relatively strong magnetization is preferred. In such an environment, slow shocks may produce minor flares with either erratic polarization fluctuations or considerable polarization variations, depending on the parameters; fast shocks can produce major flares with smooth polarization angle rotations. In addition, the magnetic fields in both cases are observed to actively revert to the original topology after the shocks. In addition, all these features are consistent with observations. Future observations of the radiation and polarization signatures will further constrain the flaring mechanism and the blazar emission environment.« less
Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields
Buniy, Roman V.; Kephart, Thomas W.
2014-05-15
We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫{sub Ω}trF{sub μν}F{sup μν}d{sup 4}x subject to the local constraint ε{sup μναβ}trF{sub μν}F{sub αβ}=0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity.
Structure and interactions of biological helices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Lee, Dominic J.; Leikin, Sergey; Wynveen, Aaron
2007-07-01
Helices are essential building blocks of living organisms, be they molecular fragments of proteins ( α -helices), macromolecules (DNA and collagen), or multimolecular assemblies (microtubules and viruses). Their interactions are involved in packing of meters of genetic material within cells and phage heads, recognition of homologous genes in recombination and DNA repair, stability of tissues, and many other processes. Helical molecules form a variety of mesophases in vivo and in vitro. Recent structural studies, direct measurements of intermolecular forces, single-molecule manipulations, and other experiments have accumulated a wealth of information and revealed many puzzling physical phenomena. It is becoming increasingly clear that in many cases the physics of biological helices cannot be described by theories that treat them as simple, unstructured polyelectrolytes. The present article focuses on the most important and interesting aspects of the physics of structured macromolecules, highlighting various manifestations of the helical motif in their structure, elasticity, interactions with counterions, aggregation, and poly- and mesomorphic transitions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Just, Janna; Kröpelin, Stefan; Karls, Jens; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin
2014-05-01
The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the Holocene Humid Period have favored the formation of big lake systems (e.g. Lake Megachad) and are evident in terrestrial and marine archives. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics of a continuous 16 m long sediment record (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). The sedimentary section covers the past 11,000 years. In an earlier core (Kröpelin et al. 2008), a humid climate during the Mid-Holocene is indicated by fresh-water conditions in the lake. At about 4,000 cal. years BP, a fresh-to-saline transition is reflected in the record. However, a major rise in magnetic susceptibility, interpreted as an increase in the accumulation of wind-blown material, is only visible after 3,000 cal. years BP. Beyond using the concentration of magnetic minerals (susceptibility), environmental magnetic proxies, e.g. magnetic grain size and the composition of the magnetic mineral fabric, are often used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The underlying assumption is that the formation of magnetic minerals during pedogenesis is catalyzed by precipitation and soil-temperature. The application of magnetic proxies as reliable climofunctions has, however, recently been challenged. Possible problems are that soil formation might not reach an equilibrium state if climate perturbations are too short (e.g. hundreds of years) or that other variables such as soil organic carbon and vegetation have varied. In this study, we will focus on the variability of magnetic parameters in Lake Yoa sediments and its implication for the regional environmental development throughout Holocene times. 400 discrete
Helicity in dynamical processes in the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurgansky, Michael; Maksimenkov, Leonid; Khapaev, Alexey; Chkhetiani, Otto
2016-04-01
In modern geophysical fluid dynamics and dynamic meteorology, a notable interest is observed to the notion of helicity ("kinetic helicity" to be distinguished from "magnetic helicity" widely used in magnetohydrodynamics, astrophysics and Solar physics), which is defined by the scalar product of 3D vectors of velocity and vorticity. In this contribution, we bring together different, both known in the literature and novel formulations of the helicity balance equation, by also taking into account the effects of air compressibility and Earth rotation. Equations and relationships are presented that are valid under different approximations customarily made in the dynamic meteorology, e.g. Boussinesq approximation, quasi-static approximation, quasi-geostrophic approximation. An emphasis is placed on the helicity budget analysis in large-scale atmospheric motions. An explicit expression is presented for the rate of helicity injection from the free atmosphere into a non-linear Ekman boundary layer. This injection is shown to be exactly balanced by the helicity viscous destruction within the boundary layer. It is conjectured that this helicity injection may characterize the intensity of atmospheric circulation in extratropical latitudes of both terrestrial hemispheres. Examples are provided based on re-analyses data. Vertical distribution of helicity and superhelicity in different Ekman boundary layers is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüdiger, G.; Küker, M.
2016-07-01
Motivated by the empirical finding that the known hemispheric rules for the current helicity at the solar surface are not strict, we demonstrate the excitation of small-scale current helicity by the influence of large-scale helical magnetic background fields on nonrotating magnetoconvection. This is shown within a quasilinear analytic theory of driven turbulence and by nonlinear simulations of magnetoconvection that the resulting small-scale current helicity has the same sign as the large-scale current helicity, while the ratio of both pseudoscalars is of the order of the magnetic Reynolds number of the convection. The same models do not provide finite values of the small-scale kinetic helicity. On the other hand, a turbulence-induced electromotive force is produced including the diamagnetic pumping term, as well as the eddy diffusivity but, however, no α effect. It has thus been argued that the relations for the simultaneous existence of small-scale current helicity and α effect do not hold for the model of nonrotating magnetoconvection under consideration. Calculations for various values of the magnetic Prandtl number demonstrate that, for the considered diffusivities, the current helicity increases for growing magnetic Reynolds number, which is not true for the velocity of the diamagnetic pumping, which is in agreement with the results of the quasilinear analytical approximation.
Nahar, Kamrun; Absar, Shahriar; Patel, Brijeshkumar; Ahsan, Fakhrul
2014-01-01
In this study, we tested the feasibility of magnetic liposomes as a carrier for pulmonary preferential accumulation of fasudil, an investigational drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To develop an optimal inhalable formulation, various magnetic liposomes were prepared and characterized for physicochemical properties, storage stability and in vitro release profiles. Select formulations were evaluated for uptake by pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)–target cells–using fluorescence microscopy and HPLC. The efficacy of the magnetic liposomes in reducing hyperplasia was tested in 5-HT-induced proliferated PASMCs. The drug absorption profiles upon intratracheal administration were monitored in healthy rats. Optimized spherical liposomes–with mean size of 164 nm, zeta potential of −30 mV and entrapment efficiency of 85%–exhibited an 80% cumulative drug release over 120 hours. Fluorescence microscopic study revealed an enhanced uptake of liposomes by PASMCs under an applied magnetic field: the uptake was 3-fold greater compared with that observed in the absence of magnetic field. PASMC proliferation was reduced by 40% under the influence of the magnetic field. Optimized liposomes appeared to be safe when incubated with PASMCs and bronchial epithelial cells. Compared with plain fasudil, intratracheal magnetic liposomes containing fasudil extended the half-life and area under the curve by 27- and 14-fold, respectively. Magnetic-liposomes could be a viable delivery system for site-specific treatment of PAH. PMID:24463004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saviz, S.; Lashani, E.; Ashkarran, A.
2014-02-01
The theory for the two-stream free electron laser (FEL) consisting of a relativistic electron beam transporting along the axis of a helical wiggler in the presence of an axial guiding magnetic field is proposed and investigated. In the analysis, the effects of self-fields are taken into account. The electron trajectories and the small signal gain are derived. The characteristics of the linear-gain and the normalized maximum gain are studied numerically. The results show that there are seven stable groups of orbits in the presence of self-fields instead of two groups reported in the absence of the self-fields. It is also shown that the normalized gains of three groups decrease while the rest increase with the increasing of normalized cyclotron frequency Ω0. Furthermore, it is found that the two-stream instability and the self-field lead to a decrease in the maximum gain except for group 3. The results show that the normalized maximum gain is enhanced in comparison with that of the single stream.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Dapeng; Yu, Naisen; Zhao, Haiyan; Liu, Dedi; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhenghua; Liu, Dongping
2016-01-01
A novel homochiral manganese (III) Mn(5-Brsalen) coordination polymer with left-handed helical character by spontaneous resolution on crystallization by using Mn(5-Brsalen) and 4,4-bipyridine, [MnIII(5-Brsalen)(4,4-bipy)]·ClO4·CH3OH (1) (4,4-bipy = 4,4-bipyridine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. In compound 1, each manganese(III) anion is six-coordinate octahedral being bonded to four atoms of 5-Brsalen ligand in an equatorial plane and two nitrogen atoms from a 4,4-bipyridine ligand in axial positions. The structure of compound 1 can be described a supramolecular 2D-like structure which was formed by the intermolecular π-stacking interactions between the neighboring chains of the aromatic rings of 4,4-bipyridine and 5-Brsalen molecules. UV-vis absorption spectrum, electrochemistry and magnetic properties of the compound 1 have also been studied.
Overview of the Large Helical Device project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iiyoshi, A.; Komori, A.; Ejiri, A.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Inagaki, S.; Kado, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Minami, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Morisaki, T.; Morita, S.; Murakami, S.; Muto, S.; Mutoh, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Narihara, K.; Nishimura, K.; Noda, N.; Ohdachi, S.; Ohyabu, N.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ozaki, T.; Peterson, B. J.; Sagara, A.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sasao, H.; Sasao, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, M.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Suzuki, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toi, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsumori, K.; Tsuzuki, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Watari, T.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Akiyama, R.; Chikaraishi, H.; Haba, K.; Hamaguchi, S.; Iima, M.; Imagawa, S.; Inoue, N.; Iwamoto, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Kodaira, J.; Kubota, Y.; Maekawa, R.; Mito, T.; Nagasaka, T.; Nishimura, A.; Takahashi, C.; Takahata, K.; Takita, Y.; Tamura, H.; Tsuzuki, T.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Yanagi, N.; Yonezu, H.; Hamada, Y.; Matsuoka, K.; Murai, K.; Ohkubo, K.; Ohtake, I.; Okamoto, M.; Satoh, S.; Satow, T.; Sudo, S.; Tanahashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Motojima, O.
1999-09-01
The Large Helical Device (LHD) has successfully started running plasma confinement experiments after a long construction period of eight years. During the construction and machine commissioning phases, a variety of milestones were attained in fusion engineering which successfully led to the first operation, and the first plasma was ignited on 31 March 1998. Two experimental campaigns were carried out in 1998. In the first campaign, the magnetic flux mapping clearly demonstrated a nested structure of magnetic surfaces. The first plasma experiments were conducted with second harmonic 84 and 82.6 GHz ECH at a heating power input of 0.35 MW. The magnetic field was set at 1.5 T in these campaigns so as to accumulate operational experience with the superconducting coils. In the second campaign, auxiliary heating with NBI at 3 MW has been carried out. Averaged electron densities of up to 6 × 1019m-3, central temperatures ranging from 1.4 to 1.5 keV and stored energies of up to 0.22 MJ have been attained despite the fact that the impurity level has not yet been minimized. The obtained scaling of energy confinement time has been found to be consistent with the ISS95 scaling law with some enhancement.
Traikov, L; Antonov, I; Gerou, A; Vesselinova, L; Hadjiolova, R; Raynov, J
2015-09-01
Ferro-Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe-MNP) have gained a lot of attention in biomedical and industrial applications due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and paramagnetic properties. The basic idea of our study is whether it is possible to use glucose-conjugate Fe-MNP (Glc-Fe-MNP) for targeting and more accurate focusing in order to increase the effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields induced hyperthermia in solid tumors. Tumors demonstrate high metabolic activity for glucose in comparison with other somatic cells.Increasing of accumulation of glucose conjugated (Glc)-Fe-MNP on tumor site and precision of radio frequency electro-magnetic field (RF-EMF) energy absorption in solid tumors, precede RF-EMF induced hyperthermia. Rat model for monitoring the early development of breast cancer. Twenty female Wistar rats (MU-line-6171) were divided into two groups of 10 rats that were either treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea to induce breast cancer and 10 with carrageenan to induce inflammation (control). Glc-Fe-MNP can offer a solution to increase hyperthermia effect to the desired areas in the body by accumulation and increasing local concentration due to high tissue metabolic assimilation. In this condition, it is considered that the magnetization of the nanoparticles is a single-giant magnetic moment, the sum of all the individual magnetic moments and is proportional to the concentration of Glc-Fe-MNP. PMID:26444197
Helical channel design and technology for cooling of muon beams
Yonehara, K; Derbenev, Y.S.; Johnson, R.P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia
2010-08-01
Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.
An experimental superconducting helical undulator
Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.
1995-12-31
Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.
Equilibrium and transport for quasi-helical reversed field pinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappello, S.; Bonfiglio, D.; Escande, D. F.; Guo, S. C.; Predebon, I.; Sattin, F.; Veranda, M.; Zanca, P.; Angioni, C.; Chacón, L.; Dong, J. Q.; Garbet, X.; Liu, S. F.
2011-10-01
This paper presents the most recent results in theoretical/numerical studies on the physics of the quasi-helical regime in reversed field pinch (RFP) configurations. Such regime systematically characterizes RFX-mod experiments at high currents (Ip > 1.2 MA), producing clear internal electron transport barriers. Several approaches, ranging from a macroscopic (MHD) to a microscopic (transport) description, have been used to tackle the related complex physics. From the macroscopic point of view, we derive analytically the electrostatic velocity field consistent with a generic helical ohmic equilibrium. We also provide the first MHD initial-value simulation results in toroidal geometry obtained with the PIXIE3D code. Concerning transport, the effect of magnetic chaos healing by mode separatrix expulsion, believed to favour the formation of transport barriers, is discussed. Results indicate that helical equilibria originated by non-resonant modes are more resilient to chaos formation. Finally, gyrofluid and gyrokinetic tools have been used towards a first assessment of the role of microturbulence in the RFP. Concerning the electrostatic branches, ion temperature gradient mode stability is robustly improved in RFP with respect to tokamaks, due to stronger Landau damping effects, and the marginality condition is estimated to be only spottily reached in present experimental regimes, unless the effects of impurities are considered. Impurities, which in RFX-mod accumulate in the edge, may also significantly impact the stability of the impurity-driven modes. On the electromagnetic side, microtearing turbulence is found to probably play a role at the transport barriers.
HELICITY CONSERVATION IN NONLINEAR MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO
Pipin, V. V.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Zhang, H.; Kuzanyan, K. M.
2013-05-01
It is believed that magnetic helicity conservation is an important constraint on large-scale astrophysical dynamos. In this paper, we study a mean-field solar dynamo model that employs two different formulations of the magnetic helicity conservation. In the first approach, the evolution of the averaged small-scale magnetic helicity is largely determined by the local induction effects due to the large-scale magnetic field, turbulent motions, and the turbulent diffusive loss of helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that the typical strength of the large-scale magnetic field generated by the dynamo is much smaller than the equipartition value for the magnetic Reynolds number 10{sup 6}. This is the so-called catastrophic quenching (CQ) phenomenon. In the literature, this is considered to be typical for various kinds of solar dynamo models, including the distributed-type and the Babcock-Leighton-type dynamos. The problem can be resolved by the second formulation, which is derived from the integral conservation of the total magnetic helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that magnetic helicity propagates with the dynamo wave from the bottom of the convection zone to the surface. This prevents CQ because of the local balance between the large-scale and small-scale magnetic helicities. Thus, the solar dynamo can operate in a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers up to 10{sup 6}.
New Exact Relations for Helicities in Hall Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Supratik; Galtier, Sebastien
2016-04-01
Hall magnetohydrodynamics is a mono-fluid plasma model appropriate for probing Final{some of the} physical processes (other than pure kinetic effects) at length scales smaller than the scales of standard MHD. In sub-ionic space plasma turbulence (e.g. the solar wind) this fluid model has been proved to be useful. Three-dimensional incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) possesses three inviscid invariants which are the total energy, the magnetic helicity and the generalized helicity. In this presentation, we would like to discuss new exact relations for helicities (magnetic helicities and generalized helicities) which are derived for homogeneous stationary (not necessarily isotropic) Hall MHD turbulence (and also for its inertialess electron MHD limit) in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers. The universal laws are written only in terms of mixed second-order structure functions, i.e. the scalar product of two different increments and are written simply as ηM = di < δ ( {b} × {j}) \\cdot δ {b} >, with ηM the average magnetic helicity flux rate, {b} the magnetic field, {j} the current and ± ηG = < δ ( {v} × {Ω} ) \\cdot δ {Ω} > , with ηM the average generalized helicity flux rate, {v} the fluid velocity and {Ω} = {b} + dI {ω} being the generalized helicity where ω is simply the fluid vorticity ( = nabla × {v}). It provides, therefore, a direct measurement of the dissipation rates for the corresponding helicities even in case of an anisotropic plasma turbulence. This study shows that the generalized helicity cascade is strongly linked to the left polarized fluctuations while the magnetic helicity cascade is linked to the right polarized fluctuations. The newly derived relations also show that like energy, a non-zero helicity flux can only be associated to a departure of Beltrami flow state. {Reference} S. Banerjee & S. Galtier, {Chiral Exact Relations for Helicities in Hall Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence} (submitted).
Enhanced helical swimming in Boger fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godinez, Francisco; Mendez-Rojano, Rodrigo; Zenit, Roberto; Lauga, Eric
2014-11-01
We conduct experiments with force-free magnetically-driven helical swimmers in Newtonian and viscoelastic (Boger) fluids. In order assess the effect of viscoelasticity on the swimming performance, we conduct experiments for swimmers with different helical tail geometries. We use helices with the same wave length and total length but vary the angle of the helix. As previously reported by the computational study of Spagniole and collaborators, we found that the swimming performance can either increase, decrease or remain unchanged, depending on the geometry of the tail. With the right geometry, the enhancement can be up to a factor of two.
Dynamic Dust Accumulation and Dust Removal Observed on the Mars Exploration Rover Magnets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertelsen, P.; Bell, J. F., III; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hviid, S. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Kinch, K. M.; Knudsen, J. M.; Madsen, M. B.
2005-01-01
The Mars Exploration Rovers each carry a set of Magnetic Properties Experiments designed to investigate the properties of the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is a preferred interpretation of previous experiments that the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere is primarily composed by composite silicate particles containing one or more highly magnetic minerals as a minor constituent. The ultimate goal of the magnetic properties experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover mission is to provide some information/ constraints on whether the dust is formed by volcanic, meteoritic, aqueous, or other processes. The first problem is to identify the magnetic mineral(s) in the airborne dust on Mars. While the overall results of the magnetic properties experiments are presented in, this abstract will focus on dust deposition and dust removal on some of the magnets.
He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Yao Shuo
2012-04-10
The angular distribution of the normalized reduced magnetic helicity density ({sigma} r{sub m}) in solar wind turbulence reveals two components of distinct polarity in different angle ranges. This kind of two-component {sigma}{sup r}{sub m} may indicate the possible wave modes and power spectral densities (PSDs) of the turbulent fluctuations. Here we model the measured angular distribution of {sigma}{sup r}{sub m} by assuming a PSD distribution for Alfven fluctuations in wavevector space, and then fit the model results to the observations by adjusting the pattern of the PSD distribution. It is found that the two-component form of the PSD, which has a major and minor component close to k and k{sub ||}, respectively, seems to be responsible for the observed two-component {sigma}{sup r}{sub m}. On the other hand, both an isotropic PSD and a PSD with only a single component bending toward k fail to reproduce the observations. Moreover, it is shown that the effect of gradual balance between outward and inward wave-energy fluxes with decreasing spatial scale needs to be considered in order to reproduce the observed diminishing of |{sigma}{sup r}{sub m}| at shorter scales. Therefore, we suggest that the observed two-component {sigma}{sup r}{sub m} in the solar wind turbulence may be due to a superposition of Alfven waves with quasi-perpendicular (major part) and quasi-parallel (minor part) propagation. The waves seem to become gradually balanced toward shorter scales.
Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils
Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.H.
1984-03-06
The present invention generates stellarator fields having favorable properties (magnetic well and large rotational transform) by a simple coil system consisting only of unlinked planar non-circular coils. At large rotational transform toroidal effects on magnetic well and rotational transform are small and can be ignored. We do so herein, specializing in straight helical systems.
A low energy positron accumulator for the plasma confinement in a compact magnetic mirror trap
Higaki, Hiroyuki Kaga, Chikato; Nagayasu, Katsushi; Okamoto, Hiromi; Nagata, Yugo; Kanai, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yasunori
2015-06-29
A low energy positron accumulator was constructed at RIKEN for the purpose of confining an electron-positron plasma. The use of 5 mCi {sup 22}Na RI source with a standard solid Ne moderator and N{sub 2} buffer gas cooling resulted in a low energy positron yield of ∼ 3 × 10{sup 5} e+/s. So far, 2 × 10{sup 6} positrons have been accumulated in 120s.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gary, G. Allen; Moore, R. L.
2004-01-01
We present observations and an interpretation of a unique multiple-turn spiral flux tube eruption from active region 10030 on 2002 July 15. The TRACE C IV observations clearly show a flux tube that is helical and erupting from within a sheared magnetic field. These observations are interpreted in the context of the breakout model for magnetic field explosions. The initiation of the helix eruption. as determined by a linear backward extrapolation, starts 25 s after the peak of the flare's strongest impulsive spike of microwave gyrosynchrotron radiation early in the flare s explosive phase, implying that the sheared core field is not the site of the initial reconnection. Within the quadrupolar configuration of the active region, the external and internal reconnection sites are identified in each of two consecutive eruptive flares that produce a double coronal mass ejection (CME). The first external breakout reconnection apparently releases an underlying sheared core field and allows it to erupt, leading to internal reconnection in the wake of the erupting helix. This internal reconnection releases the helix and heats the two-ribbon flare. These events lead to the first CME and are followed by a second breakout that initiates a second and larger halo CME. The strong magnetic shear in the region is compatible with the observed rapid proper motion and evolution of the active region. The multiple-turn helix originates from above a sheared-field magnetic inversion line within a filament channel. and starts to erupt only after fast breakout reconnection has started. These observations are counter to the standard flare model and support the breakout model for eruptive flare initiation.
Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2015-01-01
The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos (2013) to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the system. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of, for example, a bipolar active region. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, coronal loops having opposite helicity do not reconnect, whereas loops having the same sense of helicity do reconnect. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.
Gersbach, P V; Reddy, N
2002-08-01
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to localize the site of essential oil accumulation in fruit of Carum copticum L. (Apiaceae). A chemical shift method is described that utilized the spectral properties of the aromatic monoterpene thymol, the major component of the essential oil, to image thymol selectively. The presence of essential oil secretory structures in the fruit and an essential oil containing a high proportion of thymol were confirmed with optical microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Selective imaging of whole C. copticum fruits showed that thymol accumulation was localized to the secretory structures (canals) situated in the fruit wall. The technique was considered non-invasive as the seeds used in the imaging experiments remained intact and viable.
Two-fluid and finite Larmor radius effects on helicity evolution in a plasma pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.
2016-03-01
The evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during nonlinear relaxation of a driven-damped plasma pinch is compared in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics and two-fluid models with and without the ion gyroviscous stress tensor. Magnetic energy and helicity are supplied via a boundary electric field which initially balances the resistive dissipation, and the plasma undergoes multiple relaxation events during the nonlinear evolution. The magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy over each event, which is short compared with the global resistive diffusion time. The magnetic energy decreases by roughly 1.5% of its initial value over a relaxation event, while the magnetic helicity changes by at most 0.2% of the initial value. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in low-β pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1% between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution. The cross helicity is found to change appreciably due to the first-order finite Larmor radius effects which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The plasma current evolves towards the flat parallel current state predicted by Taylor relaxation theory but does not achieve it. Plasma flow develops significant structure for two-fluid models, and the flow perpendicular to the magnetic field is much more substantial than the flow along it.
Wang, Meng; Li, Jingjing; Li, Xuejuan; Mu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xuemei; Shi, Yanan; Chu, Yongchao; Wang, Aiping; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang
2016-06-28
Dendrosomes are new tumor targeted drug delivery systems to improve safety and therapeutic effects of antitumor agents. In this study we designed and synthesized magnetically and pH dual responsive dendrosomes with magnetic nanoparticles and folate-targeted dendrimers encapsulated in long-circulating pH sensitive liposomes. Cellular uptake and tissue penetration were assessed on cell lines and tumor spheroids respectively. Xenograft mice were used to study tumor accumulation. The dendrosomes were stable at pH7.4, but responsively released their content at acidic pH. In slightly acid environments, the hybrid vectors showed similar cytotoxicity and cellular uptake to the free folate-dendrimers conjugate due to rapid release. The dendrosomes showed a greater cellular uptake by HeLa cells (FA receptor positive) due to the conjugation with folic acid (FA). In multicellular tumor spheroid tests, a slightly acidic environment and the application of magnet both promoted the permeation efficiency of the hybrid vectors. In the xenograft mice model both in vivo images and tissue distribution assessment indicated that the dendrosomes had higher peak intensity and a longer residence time. Through the synergistic effects of magnetic responsiveness and both passive and active targeting properties, the multi-functional dendrosomes were demonstrated to have great potential as a promising anticancer drug delivery platform. PMID:27090165
Simulations of Filament Channel Formation in a Coronal Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knizhnik, Kalman; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.
2016-05-01
A major unanswered problem in solar physics has been explaining the presence of sheared filament channels above photospheric polarity inversion lines (PILs) and the simultaneous lack of structure in the ‘loop’ portion of the coronal magnetic field. The shear inherent in filament channels represents not only a form of magnetic energy, but also magnetic helicity. As a result, models of filament channel formation need to explain not only why helicity is observed above PILs, but also why it is apparently not observed anywhere else in the corona. Previous results (Knizhnik, Antiochos & DeVore, 2015) have suggested that any helicity injected into the coronal field inverse-cascades in scale, a process known as magnetic helicity condensation (Antiochos, 2013). In this work, we present high resolution numerical simulations of photospheric helicity injection into a coronal magnetic field that contains both a PIL and a coronal hole (CH). We show conclusively that the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity terminates at the PIL, resulting in the formation of highly sheared filament channels and a smooth, untwisted corona. We demonstrate that even though magnetic helicity is injected throughout the flux system, it accumulates only at the PIL, where it manifests itself in the form of highly sheared filament channels, while any helicity obtained by the CH is ejected out of the system. We show that the formation of filament channels is both qualitatively and quantitatively in agreement with observations and discuss the implications of our simulations for observations.This work was supported by the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship, LWS TR&T and H-SR Programs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
Ideal fluid flow conserves a special quantity known as helicity, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. Helicity can be understood as a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines of the flow, providing an important geometric tool to study diverse physical systems such as turbulent fluids and plasmas. Since superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, a natural question arises: Is there an extra conserved quantity akin to helicity in superfluids? We address the question of a ''superfluid helicity'' theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.
Helicity as a Component of Filament Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackay, D. H.; Gaizauskas, V.
2003-09-01
In this paper we seek the origin of the axial component of the magnetic field in filaments by adapting theory to observations. A previous paper (Mackay, Gaizauskas, and van Ballegooijen, 2000) showed that surface flows acting on potential magnetic fields for 27 days the maximum time between the emergence of magnetic flux and the formation of large filaments between the resulting activity complexes cannot explain the chirality or inverse polarity nature of the observed filaments. We show that the inclusion of initial helicity, for which there is observational evidence, in the flux transport model results in sufficiently strong dextral fields of inverse polarity to account for the existence and length of an observed filament within the allotted time. The simulations even produce a large length of dextral chirality when just small amounts of helicity are included in the initial configuration. The modeling suggests that the axial field component in filaments can result from a combination of surface (flux transport) and sub-surface (helicity) effects acting together. Here surface effects convert the large-scale helicity emerging in active regions into a smaller-scale magnetic-field component parallel to the polarity inversion line so as to form a magnetic configuration suitable for a filament.
Plasma density accumulation on a conical surface for diffusion along a diverging magnetic field
Saha, S. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Ghosh, A.; Hui, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.
2014-04-15
Two-dimensional (2-D) density and potential measurements have been carried out for plasma diffusing through an aperture in a diverging magnetic field. The radial density profile near the source is peaked on the axis but gradually evolves into a hollow profile away from the source. We observe a slow increase of the peak density along a hollow conical surface and correlate with the 2-D potential measurement reported earlier. It is also shown that the formation of 2-D structures with similar features are observed whenever plasma is allowed to diffuse through a physical aperture in such diverging magnetic field configuration, with or without the presence of electric double layer, i.e., the phenomenon is generic in nature.
Helicity and singular structures in fluid dynamics
Moffatt, H. Keith
2014-01-01
Helicity is, like energy, a quadratic invariant of the Euler equations of ideal fluid flow, although, unlike energy, it is not sign definite. In physical terms, it represents the degree of linkage of the vortex lines of a flow, conserved when conditions are such that these vortex lines are frozen in the fluid. Some basic properties of helicity are reviewed, with particular reference to (i) its crucial role in the dynamo excitation of magnetic fields in cosmic systems; (ii) its bearing on the existence of Euler flows of arbitrarily complex streamline topology; (iii) the constraining role of the analogous magnetic helicity in the determination of stable knotted minimum-energy magnetostatic structures; and (iv) its role in depleting nonlinearity in the Navier-Stokes equations, with implications for the coherent structures and energy cascade of turbulence. In a final section, some singular phenomena in low Reynolds number flows are briefly described. PMID:24520175
Double Helical Fluid Containment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowry, Brian
2003-11-01
In the absence of gravity or at micro-scales, helical wires can support cylindrical volumes of fluid of infinite length, making them convenient as conduits. However, fixed contact line double helical fluid volumes have the additional property that they can be drained to zero volume without loss of stability to constant pressure disturbances. Thus the two-wire support is a convenient microgravity or micro-scale container as well as conduit. For evenly spaced wires, continuous draining of a cylindrical volume to zero is possible for double helices ranging from moderate pitch to the parallel wire case. Double helices of steeper pitch are stable as cylinders and at zero volume, but are unstable for some range of intermediate volumes. This unstable zone is very strongly dependent on the offset between the helical wires, varying rapidly for offsets other than 180 degrees. Preliminary experimental results validate the theoretical predictions.
What is the Most Important Origin of the Coronal Helicity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, L.
23 active regions (ARs) with well-defined SXR sigmoids are selected to study which is the more important origin of the coronal helicity -- the emergence of magnetic fields or photospheric horizontal motions. The radial magnetic flux of each polarity, the helicity injection rate, and total helicity flux (Δ Hlct) are calculated using local correlation tracking technique and {MDI 96m} line-of-sight magnetograms, and the helicity budget of the differential rotation (Δ Hrot) is also estimated. It is found that six ARs inject helicity flux greater than 1.0× 1043 {Mx}^2 (Δ H=Δ Hlct-Δ Hrot), in a sample of seven ARs with emerging magnetic flux greater than 1.0× 1022 Mx. On the other hand, in sixteen ARs with emerging magnetic flux less than 1.0× 1022 Mx, only four ARs inject helicity flux greater than 1.0× 1043 Mx^2, which denotes the main contribution of the horizontal motions. The statistical results suggest that the horizontal motions are not important to the coronal helicity injection when there is little magnetic field emergence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas; Rydtoft, Louise Munk; Lokanathan, Arcot R.; Hansen, Line; Østergaard, Leif; Kingshott, Peter; Howard, Kenneth A.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Kjems, Jørgen
2012-03-01
Iron oxide nanoparticles have found widespread applications in different areas including cell separation, drug delivery and as contrast agents. Due to water insolubility and stability issues, nanoparticles utilized for biological applications require coatings such as the commonly employed polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333-20 000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size, lower surface charge, longer circulation half-life, and lower uptake in macrophage cells when the particles were coated with high molecular weight (Mw) PEG molecules. By use of magnetic resonance imaging, we show coating-dependent in vivo uptake in murine tumors with an optimal coating Mw of 10 000 Da.Iron oxide nanoparticles have found widespread applications in different areas including cell separation, drug delivery and as contrast agents. Due to water insolubility and stability issues, nanoparticles utilized for biological applications require coatings such as the commonly employed polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333-20 000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size, lower surface charge, longer circulation half-life, and lower uptake in macrophage cells when the particles were coated with high molecular weight (Mw) PEG molecules. By use of magnetic resonance imaging, we show coating-dependent in vivo uptake in murine tumors with an optimal coating Mw of 10 000 Da. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11554a
Nanomotor-based biocatalytic patterning of helical metal microstructures.
Manesh, Kalayil Manian; Campuzano, Susana; Gao, Wei; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; Shitanda, Isao; Kiantaj, Kiarash; Wang, Joseph
2013-02-21
A new nanomotor-based surface-patterning technique based on the movement of a magnetically powered enzyme-functionalized flexible nanowire swimmer offers the ability to create complex helical metal microstructures.
Miyake, Hiroyuki; Tsukube, Hiroshi
2012-11-01
'Chirality switching' is one of the most important chemical processes controlling many biological systems. DNAs and proteins often work as time-programmed functional helices, in which specific external stimuli alter the helical direction and tune the time scale of subsequent events. Although a variety of organic foldamers and their hybrids with natural helices have been developed, we highlight coordination chemistry strategies for development of structurally and functionally defined metal helicates. These metal helicates have characteristic coordination geometries, redox reactivities and spectroscopic/magnetic properties as well as complex chiralities. Several kinds of inert metal helicates maintain rigid helical structures and their stereoisomers are separable by optical resolution techniques, while labile metal helicates offer dynamic inversion of their helical structures via non-covalent interactions with external chemical signals. The latter particularly have dynamically ordered helical structures, which are controlled by the combinations of metal centres and chiral ligands. They further function as time-programmable switches of chirality-derived dynamic rotations, translations, stretching and shape flipping, which are useful applications in nanoscience and related technology.
Chiral exact relations for helicities in Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Banerjee, Supratik; Galtier, Sébastien
2016-03-01
Besides total energy, three-dimensional incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) possesses two inviscid invariants, which are the magnetic helicity and the generalized helicity. Exact relations are derived for homogeneous (nonisotropic) stationary Hall MHD turbulence (and also for its inertialess electron MHD limit) with nonzero helicities and in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers. The universal laws are written only in terms of mixed second-order structure functions, i.e., the scalar product of two different increments. It provides, therefore, a direct measurement of the dissipation rates for the corresponding invariant flux. This study shows that the generalized helicity cascade is strongly linked to the left polarized fluctuations, while the magnetic helicity cascade is linked to the right polarized fluctuations. PMID:27078460
Chiral exact relations for helicities in Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Banerjee, Supratik; Galtier, Sébastien
2016-03-01
Besides total energy, three-dimensional incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) possesses two inviscid invariants, which are the magnetic helicity and the generalized helicity. Exact relations are derived for homogeneous (nonisotropic) stationary Hall MHD turbulence (and also for its inertialess electron MHD limit) with nonzero helicities and in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers. The universal laws are written only in terms of mixed second-order structure functions, i.e., the scalar product of two different increments. It provides, therefore, a direct measurement of the dissipation rates for the corresponding invariant flux. This study shows that the generalized helicity cascade is strongly linked to the left polarized fluctuations, while the magnetic helicity cascade is linked to the right polarized fluctuations.
Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design
Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G; Kazakevich, G M; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T; Yoshikawa, C; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V S; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A
2013-06-01
The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.
Zhang, Shi-Chang
2013-10-15
Analytical formulas of the Larmor rotation are derived in detail for the equilibrium electrons motion in a free-electron laser with combination of a three-dimensional (3-D) helical wiggler and a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field. Generally, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a reversed guide field is much smaller than that in a positive guide field. At non-resonance, a helical orbit governed by the zero-order component of a 3-D wiggler field could hold; meanwhile, the higher-harmonic effect definitely influences those electrons with off-axis guiding centers and induces the electron-beam spreads. At resonance, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a positive guide field has a singularity with a limit tending to infinite, which causes all the electrons to hit the waveguide wall before the exit of the wiggler. Although Larmor-radius singularity does not exist in the configuration of a reversed guide field, at anti-resonance, the first-order harmonic of a 3-D wiggler field induces a transverse displacement which rapidly grows in proportion to a square of time, and leads part of the electron beam to hit the waveguide wall before reaching the wiggler exit, which depends on the specific parameters of the individual electrons. The analytical conclusions derived in the present paper are examined by the nonlinear simulations and the experimental observation. Disagreement with the previous literatures is discussed in detail.
Helical superconducting black holes.
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P
2012-05-25
We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.
Field of a helical Siberian Snake
Luccio, A.
1995-02-01
To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.
Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2015-05-01
The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences are observed to form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the corona. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of a bipolar active region, for example. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, opposite helicity twists do not lead to significant reconnection in such a coronal system, whereas twists with the same sense of helicity do produce substantial reconnection. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.
Adding helicity to inflationary magnetogenesis
Caprini, Chiara; Sorbo, Lorenzo E-mail: sorbo@physics.umass.edu
2014-10-01
The most studied mechanism of inflationary magnetogenesis relies on the time-dependence of the coefficient of the gauge kinetic term F{sub μν} F{sup μν}. Unfortunately, only extremely finely tuned versions of the model can consistently generate the cosmological magnetic fields required by observations. We propose a generalization of this model, where also the pseudoscalar invariant F{sub μν} F-tilde {sup μν} is multiplied by a time dependent function. The new parity violating term allows more freedom in tuning the amplitude of the field at the end of inflation. Moreover, it leads to a helical magnetic field that is amplified at large scales by magnetohydrodynamical processes during the radiation dominated epoch. As a consequence, our model can satisfy the observational lower bounds on fields in the intergalactic medium, while providing a seed for the galactic dynamo, if inflation occurs at an energy scale ranging from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 10} GeV. Such energy scale is well below that suggested by the recent BICEP2 result, if the latter is due to primordial tensor modes. However, the gauge field is a source of tensors during inflation and generates a spectrum of gravitational waves that can give a sizable tensor to scalar ratio r=O(0.2) even if inflation occurs at low energies. This system therefore evades the Lyth bound. For smaller values of r, lower values of the inflationary energy scale are required. The model predicts fully helical cosmological magnetic fields and a chiral spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.
Inverse moments equilibria for helical anisotropic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Depassier, M. C.
1987-11-01
An energy functional is devised for magnetic confinement schemes that have anisotropic plasma pressure. The minimization of this energy functional is demonstrated to reproduce components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force balance relation in systems with helical symmetry. An iterative steepest descent procedure is applied to the Fourier moments of the inverse magnetic flux coordinates to minimize the total energy and thus generate anisotropic pressure MHD equilibria. Applications to straight ELMO Snaky Torus (NTIS Document No. DE-84002406) configurations that have a magnetic well on the outermost flux surfaces have been obtained.
Spheromak Power and Helicity Balance
Thomassen, K.I.
2000-05-18
This note addresses the division of gun power and helicity between the open line volume and the closed flux surface volume in a steady state flux core spheromak. Our assumptions are that fine scale turbulence maintains each region close to a Taylor state, {mu}{sub o}J = {lambda}B. The gun region that feeds these two volumes surrounded by a flux conserver is shown topologically below. (The actual geometry is toroidal). Flux and current from the magnetized gun flow on open lines around the entire closed surface containing the spheromak. The gun current flows down the potential gradient, the potential difference between the two ends of each line being the gun voltage. Here, the gun voltage excludes the sheath drops at each end. When these volumes have different values of {lambda} (ratio of {mu}{sub o}B{sup -2}j {center_dot} B in each region) in the open line volume V{sub 1} and the closed spheromak volume V{sub 2} the efficiency of transferring the gun power to the spheromak to sustain the ohmic loss is the {lambda}-ratio of these regions, in the limit V{sub 1} << V{sub 2}. This result follows immediately from helicity balance in that limit. Here we give an accounting of all the gun power, and do not assume a small edge (open line) region.
Helical Cerenkov effect, a novel radiation source
Soln, J. )
1994-10-01
The observability of the helical Cerenkov effect as a novel radiation source is discussed. Depending on the value of the index of refraction of the medium, the strength of the uniform magnetic field, and the electron beam energy, helical Cerenkov radiation can occur in the same spectral regions as the ordinary Cerenkov effect, that is, from microwave to visible wavelengths. From the kinematics point of view, the author argues that for a microwave wavelength of 10[sup [minus]1] cm this effect should be observable in a medium with an index of refraction of 1.4, with a beam energy of 3 MeV, and a uniform magnetic field of 4 T. On the specific level, however, for the sake of simplicity, he discusses the observability of this effect for visible light with the central wavelength of 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] cm which can be achieved with 2 MeV in beam energy, silica aerogel as a medium (with an index of refraction of 1.075), and uniform magnetic fields from 5 to 10 T. For a 10-T magnetic field, he calculates that in the visible region of 250 to 750 nm an electron will produce a photon per 10 cm of traveled length. As to the stimulated helical Cerenkov emission, the author estimates that respectable gains are possible even if the beam passes close to the dielectric rather than through it. In addition to being potentially a new radiation source, the helical Cerenkov effect could possibly be used as a detector of radiation by energetic electrons that are trapped in a medium by strong magnetic fields.
Aubert, J.H.; Chapman, R.N.; Kraynik, A.M.
1983-06-30
A helical screw viscometer for the measurement of the viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids comprising an elongated cylindrical container closed by end caps defining a circular cylindrical cavity within the container, a cylindrical rotor member having a helical screw or ribbon flight carried by the outer periphery thereof rotatably carried within the cavity whereby the fluid to be measured is confined in the cavity filling the space between the rotor and the container wall. The rotor member is supported by axle members journaled in the end caps, one axle extending through one end cap and connectable to a drive source. A pair of longitudinally spaced ports are provided through the wall of the container in communication with the cavity and a differential pressure meter is connected between the ports for measuring the pressure drop caused by the rotation of the helical screw rotor acting on the confined fluid for computing viscosity.
PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE
Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.; Shimizu, Toshifumi
2009-05-20
The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.
CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES
Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay
2015-01-01
We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.
The quantum Hall effect helicity
Shrivastava, Keshav N.
2015-04-16
The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.
Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design
Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia
2012-05-01
The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.
Accumulate repeat accumulate codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung
2004-01-01
In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.
Helicon wave excitation with helical antennas
Light, M.; Chen, F.F.
1995-04-01
Components of the wave magnetic field in a helicon discharge have been measured with a single-turn, coaxial magnetic probe. Left- and right-handed helical antennas, as well as plane-polarized antennas, were used; and the results were compared with the field patterns computed for a nonuniform plasma. The results show that the right-hand circularly polarized mode is preferentially excited with all antennas, even those designed to excite the left-hand mode. For right-hand excitation, the radial amplitude profiles are in excellent agreement with computations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
The Writhe of Helical Structures in the Solar Corona
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toeroek, T.; Berger, M. A.; Kliem, B.
2010-01-01
Context. Helicity is a fundamental property of magnetic fields, conserved in ideal MHD. In flux rope topology, it consists of twist and writhe helicity. Despite the common occurrence of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, little is known about how their shape relates to the writhe, which fraction of helicity is contained in writhe, and how much helicity is exchanged between twist and writhe when they erupt. Aims. Here we perform a quantitative investigation of these questions relevant for coronal flux ropes. Methods. The decomposition of the writhe of a curve into local and nonlocal components greatly facilitates its computation. We use it to study the relation between writhe and projected S shape of helical curves and to measure writhe and twist in numerical simulations of flux rope instabilities. The results are discussed with regard to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. (1) We demonstrate that the relation between writhe and projected S shape is not unique in principle, but that the ambiguity does not affect low-lying structures, thus supporting the established empirical rule which associates stable forward (reverse) S shaped structures low in the corona with positive (negative) helicity. (2) Kink-unstable erupting flux ropes are found to transform a far smaller fraction of their twist helicity into writhe helicity than often assumed. (3) Confined flux rope eruptions tend to show stronger writhe at low heights than ejective eruptions (CMEs). This argues against suggestions that the writhing facilitates the rise of the rope through the overlying field. (4) Erupting filaments which are S shaped already before the eruption and keep the sign of their axis writhe (which is expected if field of one chirality dominates the source volume of the eruption), must reverse their S shape in the course of the rise. Implications for the occurrence of the helical kink instability in such events are discussed.
Coherent electron transport in a helical nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yong-Long; Du, Long; Jiang, Hua; Kang, Guang-Zhen; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-09-01
The quantum dynamics of carriers bound to helical tube surfaces is investigated in a thin-layer quantization scheme. By numerically solving the open-boundary Schrödinger equation in curvilinear coordinates, geometric effect on the coherent transmission spectra is analysed in the case of single propagating mode as well as multimode. It is shown that, the coiling endows the helical nanotube with different transport properties from a bent cylindrical surface. Fano resonance appears as a purely geometric effect in the conductance, the corresponding energy of quasibound state is obviously influenced by the torsion and length of the nanotube. We also find new plateaus in the conductance. The transport of double-degenerate mode in this geometry is reminiscent of the Zeeman coupling between the magnetic field and spin angular momentum in quasi-one-dimensional structure.
Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection
Laing, Christian E.; Ricca, Renzo L.; Sumners, De Witt L.
2015-01-01
Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts. PMID:25820408
Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically
Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro
2015-01-01
Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (∼10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure. PMID:26416086
Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro
2015-09-01
Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (~10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure.
Reversed field pinch current drive with oscillating helical fields
Farengo, Ricardo; Clemente, Roberto Antonio
2006-04-15
The use of oscillating helical magnetic fields to produce and sustain the toroidal and poloidal currents in a reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated. A simple physical model that assumes fixed ions, massless electrons, and uniform density and resistivity is employed. Thermal effects are neglected in Ohm's law and helical coordinates are introduced to reduce the number of coupled nonlinear equations that must be advanced in time. The results show that it is possible to produce RFP-like magnetic field profiles with pinch parameters close to the experimental values. The efficiencies obtained for moderate resistivity, and the observed scaling, indicate that this could be a very attractive method for high temperature plasmas.
Helicity transport through the photosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuck, P. W.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M.
2013-12-01
Solar eruptions are driven by energy and helicity transported through the photosphere and into the Corona. However, the mechanism by which helicity is transferred from the solar dynamo to coronal structures is pooly understood. We recast the Berger and Field (1984) helicity transport equation in manifestly gauge invariant form and examine the individual terms leading to the transport of helicity through the emergence of closed field, and twisting and tangling of potential fields. These theoretical results are applied to erupting active regions observed by SDO/HMI. The plasma velocity fields in the photosphere, necessary for computing energy and helicity fluxes are determined using an upgraded version of DAVE4VM that incorporates the spherical geometry of the solar images. We find that the bulk of the helicity into the corona is injected by twisting motions, and we discuss the implications of our results for understanding coronal activity. This work was supported, in part, by NASA.
Helicity transport through the photosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuck, P. W.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M.
2013-05-01
Solar eruptions are driven by energy and helicity transported through the photosphere and into the Corona. However, the mechanism by which helicity is transferred from the solar dynamo to coronal structures is pooly understood. We recast the Berger and Field (1984) helicity transport equation in manifestly gauge invariant form and examine the individual terms leading to the transport of helicity through the emergence of closed field, and twisting and tangling of potential fields. These theoretical results are applied to erupting active regions observed by SDO/HMI. The plasma velocity fields in the photosphere, necessary for computing energy and helicity fluxes are determined using an upgraded version of DAVE4VM that incorporates the spherical geometry of the solar images. We find that the bulk of the helicity into the corona is injected by twisting motions, and we discuss the implications of our results for understanding coronal activity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kettering, Melanie; Richter, Heike; Wiekhorst, Frank; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Trahms, Lutz; Alois Kaiser, Werner; Hilger, Ingrid
2011-12-01
Localized magnetic heating treatments (hyperthermia, thermal ablation) using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) continue to be an active area of cancer research. For generating the appropriate heat to sufficiently target cell destruction, adequate MNP concentrations need to be accumulated into tumors. Furthermore, the knowledge of MNP bio-distribution after application and additionally after heating is significant, firstly because of the possibility of repeated heating treatments if MNPs remain at the target region and secondly to study potential adverse effects dealing with MNP dilution from the target region over time. In this context, little is known about the behavior of MNPs after intra-tumoral application and magnetic heating. Therefore, the present in vivo study on the bio-distribution of intra-tumorally injected MNPs in mice focused on MNP long term monitoring of pre and post therapy over seven days using multi-channel magnetorelaxometry (MRX). Subsequently, single-channel MRX was adopted to study the bio-distribution of MNPs in internal organs and tumors of sacrificed animals. We found no distinct change of total MNP amounts in vivo during long term monitoring. Most of the MNP amounts remained in the tumors; only a few MNPs were detected in liver and spleen and less than 1% of totally injected MNPs were excreted. Apparently, the application of magnetic heating and the induction of apoptosis did not affect MNP accumulation. Our results indicate that MNP mainly remained within the injection side after magnetic heating over a seven-days-observation and therefore not affecting healthy tissue. As a consequence, localized magnetic heating therapy of tumors might be applied periodically for a better therapeutic outcome.
Conservation of helicity in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-03-01
Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veranda, M.; Bonfiglio, D.; Cappello, S.; Chacón, L.; Escande, D. F.
2013-07-01
Helical self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) regimes emerge both numerically—in 3D visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations—and experimentally, as in the RFX-mod device at high current (IP above 1 MA). These states, called quasi-single helicity (QSH) states, are characterized by the action of a MHD mode that impresses a quasi-helical symmetry to the system, thus allowing a high degree of magnetic chaos healing. This is in contrast with the multiple helicity (MH) states, where magnetic fluctuations create a chaotic magnetic field degrading the confinement properties of the RFP. This paper reports an extensive numerical study performed in the frame of 3D visco-resistive MHD which considers the effect of helical magnetic boundary conditions, i.e. of a finite value of the radial magnetic field at the edge (magnetic perturbation, MP). We show that the system can be driven to a selected QSH state starting from both spontaneous QSH and MH regimes. In particular, a high enough MP can force a QSH helical self-organization with a helicity different from the spontaneous one. Moreover, MH states can be turned into QSH states with a selected helicity. A threshold in the amplitude of MP is observed above which is able to influence the system. Analysis of the magnetic topology of these simulations indicates that the dominant helical mode is able to temporarily sustain conserved magnetic structures in the core of the plasma. The region occupied by conserved magnetic surfaces increases reducing secondary modes' amplitude to experimental-like values.
Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design
Johnson, Rolland
2015-08-07
The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb_{3}Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb_{3}Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb_{3}Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary
Li, C H; van 't Erve, O M J; Jonker, B T
2011-01-01
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors has identified the electron's spin angular momentum as a new state variable that should be explored as an alternative to the electron's charge for use beyond the size scaling of Moore's Law. A major obstacle has been achieving control of the spin variable at temperatures required for practical applications. Here we demonstrate electrical injection, detection and precession of spin accumulation in silicon, the cornerstone material of device technology, at temperatures that easily exceed these requirements. We observe Hanle precession of electron spin accumulation in silicon for a wide range of bias, show that the magnitude of the Hanle signal agrees well with theory, and that the spin lifetime varies with silicon carrier density. These results confirm spin accumulation in the silicon transport channel to 500 K rather than trapping in localized interface states, and enable utilization of the spin variable in practical device applications.
Controlling skyrmion helicity via engineered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions.
Díaz, Sebastián A; Troncoso, Roberto E
2016-10-26
Single magnetic skyrmion dynamics in chiral magnets with a spatially inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) is considered. Based on the relation between DMI coupling and skyrmion helicity, it is argued that the latter must be included as an extra degree of freedom in the dynamics of skyrmions. An effective description of the skyrmion dynamics for an arbitrary inhomogeneous DMI coupling is obtained through the collective coordinates method. The resulting generalized Thiele equation is a dynamical system for the center of mass position and helicity of the skyrmion. It is found that the dissipative tensor and hence the Hall angle become helicity dependent. The skyrmion position and helicity dynamics are fully characterized by our model in two particular examples of engineered DMI coupling: half-planes with opposite-sign DMI and linearly varying DMI. In light of the experiment of Shibata et al (2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 723) on the magnitude and sign of the DMI, our results constitute the first step toward a more complete understanding of the skyrmion helicity as a new degree of freedom that could be harnessed in future high-density magnetic storage and logic devices. PMID:27588612
Controlling skyrmion helicity via engineered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz, Sebastián A.; Troncoso, Roberto E.
2016-10-01
Single magnetic skyrmion dynamics in chiral magnets with a spatially inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) is considered. Based on the relation between DMI coupling and skyrmion helicity, it is argued that the latter must be included as an extra degree of freedom in the dynamics of skyrmions. An effective description of the skyrmion dynamics for an arbitrary inhomogeneous DMI coupling is obtained through the collective coordinates method. The resulting generalized Thiele equation is a dynamical system for the center of mass position and helicity of the skyrmion. It is found that the dissipative tensor and hence the Hall angle become helicity dependent. The skyrmion position and helicity dynamics are fully characterized by our model in two particular examples of engineered DMI coupling: half-planes with opposite-sign DMI and linearly varying DMI. In light of the experiment of Shibata et al (2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 723) on the magnitude and sign of the DMI, our results constitute the first step toward a more complete understanding of the skyrmion helicity as a new degree of freedom that could be harnessed in future high-density magnetic storage and logic devices.
Detection of in-depth helical spin structures by planar Hall effect
Basaran, Ali C. Guénon, S.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Morales, R.
2015-06-22
We developed a method to determine the magnetic helicity and to study reversal mechanisms in exchange biased nanostructures using Planar Hall Effect (PHE). As a test case, we use an in-depth helical spin configuration that occurs during magnetization reversal in exchange coupled Ni/FeF{sub 2} heterostructures. We show the way to induce and determine the sign of the helicity from PHE measurements on a lithographically patterned cross. The helicity sign can be controlled by the angle between the externally applied magnetic field and a well-defined unidirectional anisotropy axis. Furthermore, the PHE signal reveals complex reversal features due to small deviations of the local unidirectional anisotropy axes from the crystallographic easy axis. The simulations using an incomplete domain wall model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. These studies show that helical spin formations in nanomagnetic systems can be studied using laboratory-based magnetotransport.
Note on the helicity decomposition of spin and orbital optical currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aiello, Andrea; Berry, M. V.
2015-06-01
In the helicity representation, the Poynting vector (current) for a monochromatic optical field, when calculated using either the electric or the magnetic field, separates into right-handed and left-handed contributions, with no cross-helicity contributions. Cross-helicity terms do appear in the orbital and spin contributions to the current. But when the electric and magnetic formulas are averaged (‘electric-magnetic democracy’), these terms cancel, restoring the separation into right-handed and left-handed currents for orbital and spin separately.
Helicity-Density And Normalized-Helicity Maps Of Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, David; Levy, Yuval; Seginer, Arnan
1991-01-01
Maps of helicity density and normalized helicity useful as graphical representations of important features of three-dimensional flow fields containg vortexes. Emphasize complicated and important parts of flow field, identify vortexes, differentiate between primary and secondary vortexes, indicate sense of swirling motion, locate free singular points, and trace vortex-core streamlines emanating from these points.
Chaotic coordinates for the Large Helical Device
Hudson, S. R.; Suzuki, Y.
2014-10-15
The theory of quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFM) surfaces is reviewed, and numerical techniques that allow high-order QFM surfaces to be efficiently constructed for experimentally relevant, non-integrable magnetic fields are described. As a practical example, the chaotic edge of the magnetic field in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is examined. A precise technique for finding the boundary surface is implemented, the hierarchy of partial barriers associated with the near-critical cantori is constructed, and a coordinate system, which we call chaotic coordinates, that is based on a selection of QFM surfaces is constructed that simplifies the description of the magnetic field, so that flux surfaces become “straight” and islands become “square.”.
Cool and hot flux ropes, their helicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nindos, Alexander
2016-07-01
We will review recent indirect and direct evidence for the existence of magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere. Magnetic flux ropes may appear as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped (sigmoidal) structures in regions that are likely to erupt, and may also show in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations that use data from photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The availability of high sensitivity data recorded with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution in hot EUV wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has revealed the existence of coherent structures identified as hot flux ropes. In this presentation, we will review the properties of both cool and hot flux ropes with an emphasis on the frequency of their occurrence in large flares and on their magnetic helicity content.
Spheromak Power and Helicity Balance
Thomassen, K.I.
2000-05-18
This note addresses the division of gun power and helicity between the open line volume and the closed flux surface volume in a steady state flux core spheromak. Our assumptions are that fine scale turbulence maintains each region close to an axisymmetric Taylor state, {mu}{sub o}j = {lambda}B. The gun region that feeds these two volumes surrounded by a flux conserver is shown topologically below. (The actual geometry is toroidal). Flux and current from the magnetized gun flow on open lines around the entire closed surface containing the spheromak. The gun current flows down the potential gradient, the potential difference between the two ends of each line being the gun voltage. Here, the gun voltage excludes the sheath drops at each end. These volumes have different values of {lambda} in each region (open line volume V{sub 1} and closed spheromak volume V{sub 2}) and we want to calculate the efficiency of transferring the gun power to the spheromak to sustain the ohmic loss in steady state.
Bifurcated helical core equilibrium states in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. A.; Chapman, I. T.; Schmitz, O.; Turnbull, A. D.; Tobias, B. J.; Lazarus, E. A.; Turco, F.; Lanctot, M. J.; Evans, T. E.; Graves, J. P.; Brunetti, D.; Pfefferlé, D.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Halpern, F. D.; Tran, T. M.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Pochelon, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; Lao, L.; Luce, T. C.; Buttery, R.; Ferron, J. R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Petty, C. C.; van Zeeland, M.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Lütjens, H.
2013-07-01
Tokamaks with weak to moderate reversed central shear in which the minimum inverse rotational transform (safety factor) qmin is in the neighbourhood of unity can trigger bifurcated magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states, one of which is similar to a saturated ideal internal kink mode. Peaked prescribed pressure profiles reproduce the ‘snake’ structures observed in many tokamaks which has led to a novel explanation of the snake as a bifurcated equilibrium state. Snake equilibrium structures are computed in simulations of the tokamak à configuration variable (TCV), DIII-D and mega amp spherical torus (MAST) tokamaks. The internal helical deformations only weakly modulate the plasma-vacuum interface which is more sensitive to ripple and resonant magnetic perturbations. On the other hand, the external perturbations do not alter the helical core deformation in a significant manner. The confinement of fast particles in MAST simulations deteriorate with the amplitude of the helical core distortion. These three-dimensional bifurcated solutions constitute a paradigm shift that motivates the applications of tools developed for stellarator research in tokamak physics investigations.
Design principles for Bernal spirals and helices with tunable pitch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fejer, Szilard N.; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Wales, David J.
2014-07-01
Using the framework of potential energy landscape theory, we describe two in silico designs for self-assembling helical colloidal superstructures based upon dipolar dumbbells and Janus-type building blocks, respectively. Helical superstructures with controllable pitch length are obtained using external magnetic field driven assembly of asymmetric dumbbells involving screened electrostatic as well as magnetic dipolar interactions. The pitch of the helix is tuned by modulating the Debye screening length over an experimentally accessible range. The second design is based on building blocks composed of rigidly linked spheres with short-range anisotropic interactions, which are predicted to self-assemble into Bernal spirals. These spirals are quite flexible, and longer helices undergo rearrangements via cooperative, hinge-like moves, in agreement with experiment.Using the framework of potential energy landscape theory, we describe two in silico designs for self-assembling helical colloidal superstructures based upon dipolar dumbbells and Janus-type building blocks, respectively. Helical superstructures with controllable pitch length are obtained using external magnetic field driven assembly of asymmetric dumbbells involving screened electrostatic as well as magnetic dipolar interactions. The pitch of the helix is tuned by modulating the Debye screening length over an experimentally accessible range. The second design is based on building blocks composed of rigidly linked spheres with short-range anisotropic interactions, which are predicted to self-assemble into Bernal spirals. These spirals are quite flexible, and longer helices undergo rearrangements via cooperative, hinge-like moves, in agreement with experiment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00324a
Helical Luttinger liquid in topological insulator nanowires.
Egger, R; Zazunov, A; Yeyati, A Levy
2010-09-24
We derive and analyze the effective low-energy theory for interacting electrons in a cylindrical nanowire made of a strong topological insulator. Three different approaches provide a consistent picture for the band structure, where surface states forming inside the bulk gap correspond to one-dimensional bands indexed by total angular momentum. When a half-integer magnetic flux pierces the nanowire, we find a strongly correlated helical Luttinger liquid topologically protected against weak disorder. We describe how transport experiments can detect this state.
The Advanced Helical Generator
Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B
2009-10-26
A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.
Primary Cardiac Lymphoma: Helical CT Findings and Radiopathologic Correlation
Marco de Lucas, Enrique Pagola, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Fidel; Lastra, Pedro; Delgado, M. Luisa Ruiz; Sadaba, Pablo; Pinto, Jesus; Ballesteros, Ma Angeles; Ortiz, Antonio
2004-03-15
Primary tumors of the heart are extremely rare.Clinical manifestations are nondiagnostic and the patients are often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are standard in this diagnostic workup. We report a case of a man with acromegaly, dysphagia, chest pain and weight loss. An invasive cardiac mass was diagnosed by helical-CT. Autopsy demonstrated a B-cell aggressive lymphoma.
A fully relaxed helicity balance model for an inductively driven spheromak
O'Neill, R. G.; Marklin, G. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Akcay, C.; Hamp, W. T.; Nelson, B. A.; Redd, A. J.; Smith, R. J.; Stewart, B. T.; Wrobel, J. S.; Sieck, P. E.
2007-11-15
Magnetic helicity balance and a fully relaxed Taylor-state model are shown to predict the magnitude of sustained equilibrium current in an inductively driven spheromak. The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive (HIT-SI) [T. R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 115003 (2006)] forms and sustains spheromaks using two inductively driven helicity injectors. By assuming helicity is injected at a rate 2V{psi}, and only decays through Spitzer resistivity using T{sub e} measured with a Langmuir probe, the magnitude of the sustained equilibrium current is predicted with no fitting parameters. The model correctly predicts a threshold helicity injection rate for spheromak formation. Although the experimental results suggest a higher effective helicity dissipation rate by a factor of {approx}1.37 compared to the Spitzer value, the prediction is still within the uncertainties of the measured parameters.
Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy
2004-01-01
Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.
Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas
Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2015-05-15
Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinova, Tamara; Kudryavtsev, Ivan
2016-04-01
The paper considers the results of re-interpretation of geophysical data within the water continuation of the Korotaikha depression. To solve the issue of identifying promising areas of oil and gas accumulation in the region, magnetic and gravity materials were reprocessed: digital maps of potential fields at 1: 500 000 scale were compiled on a frame network of seismic lines (3 lines on land and 3 lines in water area) made by reflection-CDP, density models to a depth of 20 km by solving the direct problem of gravity prospecting in GM-SYS module (Geosoft) in 2D formulation were constructed. Deep reflection-CDP seismic sections specified according to the deep wells were used as starting models. Correctness of the selected density models was controlled by comparing the theoretical curve with the values interpolated on the profile line from the digital model of gravity anomaly (Bouguer, density of the intermediate layer of 2.67 g/cm3). Magnetic modeling was performed using geometry of blocks from the obtained density models to a depth of 20 km and is based on selection of local anomaly sources in the upper section (in the Triassic strata). Blocks of the Precambrian basement were used as sources of regional magnetic anomalies in the considered models. Modeling constructs show the defining role of the topography of terrigenous and carbonate complex boundary within the Paleozoic section as a source of gravity anomalies for the region under study. These findings are confirmed by comparison of gravity and seismic data (maps of local gravity anomalies and structural maps of reflecting horizons) and additionally substantiated by analysis of the nature of local magnetic anomalies distribution. The latter are associated with the Triassic basalt horizons at the top of the terrigenous complex and thus also reflect structures of the sedimentary cover, which are registered independently by gravity data.
INVESTIGATION OF HELICITY AND ENERGY FLUX TRANSPORT IN THREE EMERGING SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS
Vemareddy, P.
2015-06-20
We report the results of an investigation of helicity and energy flux transport from three emerging solar active regions (ARs). Using time sequence vector magnetic field observations obtained from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, the velocity field of plasma flows is derived by the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms. In three cases, the magnetic fluxes evolve to pump net positive, negative, and mixed-sign helicity flux into the corona. The coronal helicity flux is dominantly coming from the shear term that is related to horizontal flux motions, whereas energy flux is dominantly contributed by the emergence term. The shear helicity flux has a phase delay of 5–14 hr with respect to absolute magnetic flux. The nonlinear curve of coronal energy versus relative helicity identifies the configuration of coronal magnetic fields, which is approximated by a fit of linear force-free fields. The nature of coronal helicity related to the particular pattern of evolving magnetic fluxes at the photosphere has implications for the generation mechanism of two kinds of observed activity in the ARs.
Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms
Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Yue Bun Pun, Edwin; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong
2015-01-01
Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices. PMID:26354497
Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar
2013-11-01
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly lethal primary brain tumours. Treatment of these malignant gliomas remains ineffective as these are extremely resistant to chemotherapeutic applications. Furthermore, combination therapy for cancer treatment is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, by reducing individual drug-related toxicity and associated side effects. Currently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based drug delivery system has attracted much more attention owing to its intrinsic magnetic properties and drug loading capacity. In the present study, MNPs based drug delivery approach for co-delivering of potent chemotherapeutic drugs such as Curcumin (herbal drug) and Temozolomide (DNA methylating agent) has been implemented. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations were evaluated in two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture and three-dimensional (3-D) tumour spheroid culture of T-98G cells for understanding the therapeutic discrepancy. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations demonstrated higher cytotoxic effect than single drug loaded MNPs formulations as compared to their corresponding native drugs in 2-D and 3-D culture. The combination index (CI) analysis revealed synergistic mode of action of dual drug loaded MNPs formulations, which was further confirmed by cell death induction assay mediated by acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining, illustrating higher efficacy of the formulation towards GBM therapy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zi; Dai, Eric; Zheng, Huang
2014-03-01
Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, is traditionally viewed as an amusing pastime and medium of artistic expression. However, in recent years, origami has begun to inspire innovations in science and engineering. For example, K. Miura led the study of a paper folding pattern in regards to deployment of solar panels to outer space, resulting in more efficient packing and unpacking of the solar panels into tightly constrained spaces. In this work, we study the geometric and mechanical properties of a twisting origami pattern. The pattern created by the fold exhibits several interesting properties, including rigid foldibility, and finely tunable helical coiling, with control over pitch, radius, and handedness of the helix. In addition, the pattern closely mimics the twist buckling patterns shown by thin materials, for example, a mobius strip. In our work, we relate the six parameters of the twisting origami pattern to generate a fully tunable graphical model of the fold. In addition, we demonstrate that the morphogenesis of such folding pattern can be modeled through finite element analysis. We hope our research into the diagonal fold brings insight into the potential scientific and engineering applications of origami and spark further research into how the traditional paper art can be applied as a simple, inexpensive model for complex problems.
Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy
2007-01-01
Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.
Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.
2016-05-01
Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.
Enkhbayar, Purevjav; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Matsushima, Norio
2010-05-01
A modification of the alpha-helix, termed the omega-helix, has four residues in one turn of a helix. We searched the omega-helix in proteins by the HELFIT program which determines the helical parameters-pitch, residues per turn, radius, and handedness-and p = rmsd/(N - 1)(1/2) estimating helical regularity, where "rmsd" is the root mean square deviation from the best fit helix and "N" is helix length. A total of 1,496 regular alpha-helices 6-9 residues long with p < or = 0.10 A were identified from 866 protein chains. The statistical analysis provides a strong evidence that the frequency distribution of helices versus n indicates the bimodality of typical alpha-helix and omega-helix. Sixty-two right handed omega-helices identified (7.2% of proteins) show non-planarity of the peptide groups. There is amino acid preference of Asp and Cys. These observations and analyses insist that the omega-helices occur really in proteins.
Enkhbayar, Purevjav; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Matsushima, Norio
2010-05-01
A modification of the alpha-helix, termed the omega-helix, has four residues in one turn of a helix. We searched the omega-helix in proteins by the HELFIT program which determines the helical parameters-pitch, residues per turn, radius, and handedness-and p = rmsd/(N - 1)(1/2) estimating helical regularity, where "rmsd" is the root mean square deviation from the best fit helix and "N" is helix length. A total of 1,496 regular alpha-helices 6-9 residues long with p < or = 0.10 A were identified from 866 protein chains. The statistical analysis provides a strong evidence that the frequency distribution of helices versus n indicates the bimodality of typical alpha-helix and omega-helix. Sixty-two right handed omega-helices identified (7.2% of proteins) show non-planarity of the peptide groups. There is amino acid preference of Asp and Cys. These observations and analyses insist that the omega-helices occur really in proteins. PMID:20496104
Storry, C. H.; Carew, A.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E. A.; Weel, M.; George, M. C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; LeSage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Speck, A.; Markert, F.
2008-08-08
ATRAP has made many important improvements since CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) was restarted in 2006. These include substantial increases in the number of positrons (e{sup +}) and antiprotons (Pbars) used to make antihydrogen (Hbar) atoms, a new technique for loading electrons (e{sup -}) that are used to cool Pbars and e{sup +}, implementation of a completely new, larger and more robust apparatus in our second experimental zone and the inclusion of a quadrupole Ioffe trap intended to trap the coldest Hbar atoms produced. Using this new apparatus we have produced large numbers of Hbar atoms within a Penning trap that is located within this quadrupole Ioffe trap using a new technique which shows promise for producing even colder atoms. These observed Hbar atoms resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap.
Mustafi, Devkumar; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Bissonnette, Marc; Hart, John; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S
2015-01-01
Contrast agents that specifically enhance cancers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow earlier detection. Vanadium-based chelates (VCs) selectively enhance rodent cancers on MRI, suggesting selective uptake of VCs by cancers. Here we report x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of VC uptake by murine colon cancer. Colonic tumors in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium were identified by MRI. Then a gadolinium-based contrast agent and a VC were injected intravenously; mice were sacrificed and colons sectioned. VC distribution was sampled at 120 minutes after injection to evaluate the long-term accumulation. Gadolinium distribution was sampled at 10 minutes after injection due to its rapid washout. XFM was performed on 72 regions of normal and cancerous colon from five normal mice and four cancer-bearing mice. XFM showed that all gadolinium was extracellular, with similar concentrations in colon cancers and normal colon. In contrast, the average VC concentration was twofold higher in cancers versus normal tissue (p < .002). Cancers also contained numerous "hot spots" with intracellular VC concentrations sixfold higher than the concentration in normal colon (p < .0001). No hot spots were detected in normal colon. This is the first direct demonstration that VCs selectively accumulate in cancer cells and thus may improve cancer detection.
Optically Active Hybrid Materials Constructed from Helically Substituted Polyacetylenes.
Zhang, Huanyu; Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jianping
2016-04-01
Functional materials derived from synthetic helical polymers are attracting increasing interest. Helically substituted polyacetylenes (HSPAs) are especially interesting as typical artificial helical polymers. In recent years, we designed and prepared a series of functional materials based on HSPAs and inorganic materials. The target is to establish some novel hybrid materials that combine the superior properties of both. The examined inorganic materials include silica, graphene, and magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Such new functional materials hold great promise and are expected to find practical applications, for instance, as chiral absorbents, chiral sensors, chiral selectors for inducing enantioselective crystallization, chiral catalysts towards asymmetric catalysis, and chiral carriers for enantioselective release. The Personal Account summarizes our major achievements in preparing optically active hybrid materials. We hope it will speed up progress in chiral-related research areas.
[Helical (spiral or swirling) blood flow in cardiovascular system].
Kirsanov, R I; Kulikov, V P
2013-01-01
In article covers theoretical preconditions for the hypothesis about helical (spiral or swirling) blood flow in cardiovascular system followed by its experimental corroboration. The role of the modern blood flow visualization methods--such as Color Doppler ultrasound and magnetic-resonance angiography--in registration and investigation of the regularities of the given phenomenon is described. The data describing the known parameters of helical blood flow--such as direction of the rotation and its quantitative parameters in large arteries--are given. The main hypotheses for flow screw mechanisms are considered from the point of view of cardiovascular system structural organization. Biological role of helical blood flow is discussed, in respect of which there are diametrically opposed points of view, which consider it as a physiological phenomenon on one side, and as a patogenetic factor of atherosclerosis development on the other.
Subsurface helicity of active regions 12192 and 10486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komm, Rudolf; Tripathy, Sushant; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank
2015-04-01
The active region 10486 that produced the Halloween flares in 2003 initiated our interest in the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows associated with active regions. This lead to the realization that the helicity of subsurface flows is related to the flare activity of active regions. Eleven years later, a similarly enormous active region (12192) appeared on the solar surface. We plan to study the kinetic helicity of the subsurface flows associated with region 12192 and compare it to that of region 10486. For 10486, we have analyzed Dopplergrams obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) with a dense-pack ring-diagram analysis. For 12192, we have analyzed Dopplergrams from GONG and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We will present the latest results.
Self-assembly of magnetite nanocubes into helical superstructures.
Singh, Gurvinder; Chan, Henry; Baskin, Artem; Gelman, Elijah; Repnin, Nikita; Král, Petr; Klajn, Rafal
2014-09-01
Organizing inorganic nanocrystals into complex architectures is challenging and typically relies on preexisting templates, such as properly folded DNA or polypeptide chains. We found that under carefully controlled conditions, cubic nanocrystals of magnetite self-assemble into arrays of helical superstructures in a template-free manner with >99% yield. Computer simulations revealed that the formation of helices is determined by the interplay of van der Waals and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, Zeeman coupling, and entropic forces and can be attributed to spontaneous formation of chiral nanocube clusters. Neighboring helices within their densely packed ensembles tended to adopt the same handedness in order to maximize packing, thus revealing a novel mechanism of symmetry breaking and chirality amplification. PMID:25061133
Chakarvorty, Munmun; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Patil, Shiva Kumar; Shukla, Swati; Niyogi, Ambalika; Saraf, Arun Kumar
2014-05-01
The winter fog in India is a recurrent phenomenon for more than a decade now affecting the entire Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions covering an area of nearly 500,000 km(2). Every winter (December-January), the air and surface transports in cities of northern India (Amritsar, New Delhi, Agra, Gwalior, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Allahabad) are severely disrupted with visibility reduced to <50 m at times. Since dust particles are known to act as nuclei for the fog formation, this study is aimed to carry out physicochemical characterization of the dust particulates accumulated during a protracted fog period from one of the severely fog affected cities of north India (Allahabad; 25°27'33.40″N-81°52'45.47″E). The dust-loaded tree leaves belonging to Ficus bengalensis and Ficus religiosa from 50 different locations between January 24 and 31, 2010 are sampled and characterized. The mass of dust, color, grain shape, size, phase constituents, and mineral magnetic parameters, such as magnetic susceptibility, SIRM, χ fd%, and S-ratio, show minor variation and the regional influence outweighs local anthropogenic contributions. The dust compositions show fractionated rare earth element pattern with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly similar to upper continental crust and further suggesting their derivation from sources located in parts of north and central India.
Position and Trajectrories of helical microswimmers inside circular channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caldag, Hakan; Yesilyurt, Serhat
2015-11-01
This work reports the position and orientation of helical mm-sized microswimmers in circular channels obtained by image processing of recorded images. Microswimmers are biologically inspired structures with huge potential for medical practices such as delivery of potent drugs into tissues. In order to understand the hydrodynamic effects of confinement on the velocity and stability of trajectories of swimmers, we developed helical microswimmers with a magnetic head and a rigid helical tail, similar to those of E. coli bacteria. The experiments are recorded using a digital camera, which is placed above the experimental setup that consists of three Helmholtz pairs, generating a rotating magnetic field. A channel containing the microswimmer is placed along the axis of the innermost coil. Image processing tools based on contrast-enhancement are used to obtain the centroid of the head of the swimmer and orientation of the whole swimmer in the channel. Swimmers that move in the direction of the head, i.e. pushed kinematically by the tail, has helical trajectories, which are more unstable in the presence of Poiesuille flow inside the channel; and the swimmers that are pulled by the tail, have trajectories that stabilize at the centerline of the channel.
Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Zhang, Na; Anderson, Joel G; Erikson, Keith M; Avison, Malcolm J; Gore, John C; Aschner, Michael
2008-05-01
Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) may lead to a movement disorder due to preferential Mn accumulation in the globus pallidus and other basal ganglia nuclei. Iron (Fe) deficiency also results in increased brain Mn levels, as well as dysregulation of other trace metals. The relationship between Mn and Fe transport has been attributed to the fact that both metals can be transported via the same molecular mechanisms. It is not known, however, whether brain Mn distribution patterns due to increased Mn exposure vs. Fe deficiency are the same, or whether Fe supplementation would reverse or inhibit Mn deposition. To address these questions, we utilized four distinct experimental populations. Three separate groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats on different diets (control diet [MnT], Fe deficient [FeD], or Fe supplemented [FeS]) were given weekly intravenous Mn injections (3 mg Mn/kg body mass) for 14 weeks, whereas control (CN) rats were fed the control diet and received sterile saline injections. At the conclusion of the study, both blood and brain Mn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. The data indicate that changes in dietary Fe levels (either increased or decreased) result in regionally specific increases in brain Mn levels compared with CN or MnT animals. Furthermore, there was no difference in either Fe or Mn accumulation between FeS or FeD animals. These data suggest that dietary Fe manipulation, whether increased or decreased, may contribute to brain Mn deposition in populations vulnerable to increased Mn exposure.
Resilience of helical fields to turbulent diffusion - II. Direct numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, Pallavi; Blackman, Eric G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2014-03-01
Blackman and Subramanian (Paper I) found that sufficiently strong large-scale helical magnetic fields are resilient to turbulent diffusion, decaying on resistively slow rather than turbulently fast time-scales. This bolsters fossil field origins for magnetic fields in some astrophysical objects. Here, we study direct numerical simulations (DNS) of decaying large-scale helical magnetic fields in the presence of non-helical turbulence for two cases: (1) the initial helical field is large enough to decay resistively but transitions to fast decay; (2) the case of Paper I, wherein the transition energy for the initial helical field to decay fast directly is sought. Simulations and two-scale modelling (based on Paper 1) reveal the transition energy, Ec1 to be independent of the turbulent forcing scale, within a small range of RM. For case (2), the two-scale theory predicts a large-scale helical transition energy of Ec2 = (k1/kf)2Meq, where k1 and kf are the large-scale and small turbulent forcing scale, respectively, and Meq is the equipartition magnetic energy. The DNS agree qualitatively with this prediction but the RM, currently achievable, is too small to satisfy a condition 3/RM ≪ (k1/kf)2, necessary to robustly reveal the transition, Ec2. That two-scale theory and DNS agree wherever they can be compared suggests that Ec2 of Paper I should be identifiable at higher RM in DNS.
Brownian motion of helical flagella.
Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N
1979-07-01
We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages
Model NbTi Helical Solenoid Fabrication and Test Results
Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Makarov, A.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; /Fermilab
2011-09-01
A program to develop model magnets for a helical cooling channel is under way at Fermilab. In the first steps of a planned sequence of magnets, two four-coil helical solenoid models with 300 mm aperture have been fabricated and tested. These two models, HSM01 and HSM02, used insulated NbTi Rutherford cable wound onto stainless steel rings with spliceless transitions between coils. Strip heaters were included for quench protection of each coil, and the coils were epoxy-impregnated after winding inside the support structures. Based on the results of the first model the second model was made using a cable with optimized cross-section, improved winding and epoxy-impregnation procedures, enhanced ground insulation, and included heat exchange tubing for a test of conduction cooling. We report on the results and lessons learned from fabrication and tests of these two models.
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Helical Polymers
Egelman, Edward H.
2015-01-01
The field of three-dimensional electron microscopy began more than 45 years ago with a reconstruction of a helical phage tail, and helical polymers continue to be important objects for three-dimensional reconstruction due to the centrality of helical protein and nucleoprotein polymers in all aspects of biology. We are now witnessing a fundamental revolution in this area, made possible by direct electron detectors, which has led to near-atomic resolution for a number of important helical structures. Most importantly, the possibility of achieving such resolution routinely for a vast number of helical samples is within our reach. One of the main problems in helical reconstruction, ambiguities in assigning the helical symmetry, is overcome when one reaches a resolution where secondary structure is clearly visible. However, obstacles still exist due to the intrinsic variability within many helical filaments. PMID:25912526
Three-dimensional reconstruction of helical polymers.
Egelman, Edward H
2015-09-01
The field of three-dimensional electron microscopy began more than 45years ago with a reconstruction of a helical phage tail, and helical polymers continue to be important objects for three-dimensional reconstruction due to the centrality of helical protein and nucleoprotein polymers in all aspects of biology. We are now witnessing a fundamental revolution in this area, made possible by direct electron detectors, which has led to near-atomic resolution for a number of important helical structures. Most importantly, the possibility of achieving such resolution routinely for a vast number of helical samples is within our reach. One of the main problems in helical reconstruction, ambiguities in assigning the helical symmetry, is overcome when one reaches a resolution where secondary structure is clearly visible. However, obstacles still exist due to the intrinsic variability within many helical filaments.
Full-wave simulations on ultrashort-pulse reflectometry for helical plasmas
Hojo, H.; Fukuchi, A.; Itakura, A.; Mase, A.
2004-10-01
The full-wave simulations on ultrashort-pulse reflectometry for helical plasmas are studied based on the FDTD method in two dimensions. The propagation of an ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic wave is computed in helical plasmas modeled for the Large Helical Device magnetic field configuration. The density-profile reconstruction is performed by the Abel inversion method with the time delay data for the reflected waves from plasma, and it is shown that the reconstructed density profile coincides well with the original profile.
Note: Helical nanobelt force sensors
Hwang, G.; Hashimoto, H.
2012-12-15
We present the fabrication and characterization of helical nanobelt force sensors. These self-sensing force sensors are based on the giant piezoresistivity of helical nanobelts. The three-dimensional helical nanobelts are self-formed from 27 nm-thick n-type InGaAs/GaAs bilayers using rolled-up techniques, and assembled onto electrodes on a micropipette using nanorobotic manipulations. The helical nanobelt force sensors can be calibrated using a calibrated atomic force microscope cantilever system under scanning electron microscope. Thanks to their giant piezoresistance coefficient (515 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Pa{sup -1}), low stiffness (0.03125 N/m), large-displacement capability ({approx}10 {mu}m), and good fatigue resistance, they are well suited to function as stand-alone, compact ({approx}20 {mu}m without the plug-in support), light ({approx}5 g including the plug-in support), versatile and large range ({approx}{mu}N) and high resolution ({approx}nN) force sensors.
Mechanical analysis and test results of 4-coil superconducting helical solenoid model
Yu, M.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Makarov, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab
2010-01-01
Novel configurations of helical superconducting magnets for muon beam 6D phase space cooling channels and demonstration experiments are being designed at Fermilab. Operating as needed for the beam cooling in a cryogenic environment, the helical solenoid generates longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields; meanwhile, large Lorentz forces are produced, so rigid coil support structures need to be designed. A short model of a helical solenoid (HS), consisting of four coils and supporting structures, was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The magnetic and mechanical designs were analyzed using TOSCA and ANSYS. The supporting structures were fabricated and assembled using SSC NbTi cable. Strain gauges were utilized to monitor the deformation of the structures due to both thermal contraction and Lorentz forces. The superconducting coils were trained during the test. The model should prove the design concept, fabrication technology, and the magnet system performance.
Large-scale convective instability in an electroconducting medium with small-scale helicity
Kopp, M. I.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.
2015-04-15
A large-scale instability occurring in a stratified conducting medium with small-scale helicity of the velocity field and magnetic fields is detected using an asymptotic many-scale method. Such a helicity is sustained by small external sources for small Reynolds numbers. Two regimes of instability with zero and nonzero frequencies are detected. The criteria for the occurrence of large-scale instability in such a medium are formulated.
The wobbling-to-swimming transition of rotated helices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric
2013-07-01
A growing body of work aims at designing and testing micron-scale synthetic swimmers. One method, inspired by the locomotion of flagellated bacteria, consists of applying a rotating magnetic field to a rigid, helically shaped, propeller attached to a magnetic head. When the resulting device, termed an artificial bacteria flagellum, is aligned perpendicularly to the applied field, the helix rotates and the swimmer moves forward. Experimental investigation of artificial bacteria flagella shows that at low frequency of the applied field, the axis of the helix does not align perpendicularly to the field but wobbles around the helix, with an angle decreasing as the inverse of the field frequency. Using numerical computations and asymptotic analysis, we provide a theoretical explanation for this wobbling behavior. We numerically demonstrate the wobbling-to-swimming transition as a function of the helix geometry and the dimensionless Mason number which quantifies the ratio of viscous to magnetic torques. We then employ an asymptotic expansion for near-straight helices to derive an analytical estimate for the wobbling angle allowing to rationalize our computations and past experimental results. These results can help guide future design of artificial helical swimmers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nathani, B.; Blaha, U.; Das, P. K.; Kannan, D.
2011-12-01
Spatial magnetic susceptibility analysis provides a tool for fast characterization of the impact of road traffic and industrial activity on the accumulation of harmful particulate matter in road dust in the Mega-city of Mumbai. The collection of 262 dust samples from the "Bombay Arc", an area that stretches bow-like from Mumbai peninsula -located between the Arabian Sea and Thane Creek- towards the newly settled areas of Navi Mumbai some 50 km in the east, enables for comparison of 6 independent areas of in total ~110 km^2 with rather heterogeneous settlement structures. The various kinds of settlement structures range from residential areas to industrial zones along the "Bombay Arc" including all categories of minor and major roads. Spatial magnetic analysis preferably reveals low values of ~80×10^-7 m^3kg^-1 in the coastal areas, e.g. at the southern tip of Mumbai peninsula and on the eastern shore of Thane Creek in the Nerul and Vashi area, suggesting lower magnetic particle loads of anthropogenic origin in these districts. High values of MS of ~250×10^-7 m^3kg^-1 are observed along main roads with high traffic density such as the Eastern-Express-Highway, the Sion-Panvel-Highway and locally in industrial zones. The MS patterns clearly show that road traffic on main roads has the most significant impact on the enhancement of values within the "Bombay Arc". The highest value in the entire area of ~1000×10^-7 m^3kg^-1 was detected in the Taloja industrial zone in Navi Mumbai. An E-W transect across the heart of Mumbai peninsula reveals high MS values close to the still active dock yards in the E and low values in the residential and recreation areas in the W towards the Arabian Sea. The profile reveals an expressed and stable gradient. Strong impact of dust particles from roads on the adjacent curbside is expressed by characteristic MS profiles, revealing increased values up to 5 m from the rim of the road. Such pattern is seen along surface MS profiles
Investigation of electron beam transport in a helical undulator
Jeong, Y.U.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, S.K.
1995-12-31
Lossless transport of electrons through the undulator is essential for CW operation of the FELs driven by recirculating electrostatic accelerators. We calculate the transport ratio of an electron beam in a helical undulator by using a 3-D simulation code and compare the results with the experimental results. The energy and the current of the electron beam are 400 keV and 2 A, respectively. The 3-D distribution of the magnetic field of a practical permanent-magnet helical undulator is measured and is used in the calculations. The major parameters of the undutlator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, number of periods in adiabatic region = 3.5, magnetic field strength = 1.3 kG. The transport ratio is very sensitive to the injection condition of the electron beam such as the emittance, the diameter, the divergence, etc.. The injection motion is varied in the experiments by changing the e-gun voltage or the field strength of the focusing magnet located at the entrance of the undulator. It is confirmed experimentally and with simulations that most of the beam loss occurs at the adiabatic region of the undulator regardless of the length of the adiabatic region The effect of axial guiding magnetic field on the beam finish is investigated. According to the simulations, the increase of the strength of axial magnetic field from 0 to 1 kG results in the increase of the transport ratio from 15 % to 95%.
Current drive by coaxial helicity injection in a spherical torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, X. Z.; Boozer, A. H.
2004-05-01
Noninductive current drive by coaxial helicity injection can be understood through the poloidal flux evolution of the toroidally averaged magnetic field B¯0. In the open flux region of B¯0, electrostatic biasing provides an effective loop voltage that overcomes the resistive decay and supports the dynamo loop voltage in the closed flux region via the primary nonaxisymmetric open field line kinks. The current gradient in the closed flux region of B¯0 drives secondary nonaxisymmetric closed flux magnetohydrodynamical modes that facilitate further current relaxation toward the magnetic axis. The decreasing parallel current gradient and high-q magnetic surfaces as one approaches the magnetic axis implies that the eventual current relaxation consistent with magnetic confinement must benefit from a cascade of weaker and comparatively short wavelength modes localized to the high-q resonant home flux surfaces.
Das, Kuheli; Datta, Amitabha; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Huang, Jui-Hsien; Garribba, Eugenio; Hsiao, Ching-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Lin
2012-04-01
The reactions of the tridentate hydrazone ligand, N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]acetohydrazide (HL), obtained by condensation of 2-acetylpyridine with acetic hyadrazide, with copper nitrate trihydrate in the presence of thiocyanate, or with CuCl2 produce two distinct coordination compounds, namely a one-dimensional helical coordination chain of [CuL(NCS)] n (1) units, and a doubly chlorido-bridged dinuclear complex [Cu2L2Cl2] (2) (where L=CH3C(O)=N-N=CCH3C5H4N). Single-crystal X-ray structural determination studies reveal that in complex 1, a deprotonated hydrazone ligand L(-) coordinates a copper(II) ion that is bridged to two neighbouring metal centres by SCN(-) anions, generating a one-dimensional helical coordination chain. In complex 2, two symmetry-related, adjacent copper(II) coordination entities are doubly chlorido-bridged, producing a dicopper entity with a Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu distance of 3.402 (1) Å. The two coordination compounds have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques including IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance, and variable-temperature magnetic studies. The biological effects of 1 and 2 on the viability of human colorectal carcinoma cells (COLO-205 and HT-29) were evaluated using an MTT assay, and the results indicate that these complexes induce a decrease in cell-population growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells with apoptosis.
Predictive supracolloidal helices from patchy particles
Guo, Ruohai; Mao, Jian; Xie, Xu-Ming; Yan, Li-Tang
2014-01-01
A priori prediction of supracolloidal architectures from nanoparticle and colloidal assembly is a challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics. Despite intense research in this area, much less has been known about the predictive science of supracolloidal helices from designed building blocks. Therefore, developing conceptually new rules to construct supracolloidal architectures with predictive helicity is becoming an important and urgent task of great scientific interest. Here, inspired by biological helices, we show that the rational design of patchy arrangement and interaction can drive patchy particles to self-assemble into biomolecular mimetic supracolloidal helices. We further derive a facile design rule for encoding the target supracolloidal helices, thus opening the doors to the predictive science of these supracolloidal architectures. It is also found that kinetics and reaction pathway during the formation of supracolloidal helices offer a unique way to study supramolecular polymerization, and that well-controlled supracolloidal helices can exhibit tailorable circular dichroism effects at visible wavelengths. PMID:25387544
Predictive supracolloidal helices from patchy particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ruohai; Mao, Jian; Xie, Xu-Ming; Yan, Li-Tang
2014-11-01
A priori prediction of supracolloidal architectures from nanoparticle and colloidal assembly is a challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics. Despite intense research in this area, much less has been known about the predictive science of supracolloidal helices from designed building blocks. Therefore, developing conceptually new rules to construct supracolloidal architectures with predictive helicity is becoming an important and urgent task of great scientific interest. Here, inspired by biological helices, we show that the rational design of patchy arrangement and interaction can drive patchy particles to self-assemble into biomolecular mimetic supracolloidal helices. We further derive a facile design rule for encoding the target supracolloidal helices, thus opening the doors to the predictive science of these supracolloidal architectures. It is also found that kinetics and reaction pathway during the formation of supracolloidal helices offer a unique way to study supramolecular polymerization, and that well-controlled supracolloidal helices can exhibit tailorable circular dichroism effects at visible wavelengths.
Helical screw expander evaluation project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckay, R.
1982-01-01
A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.
Elementary study on superconducting electromagnetic ships with helical insulation wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishigaki, Kazu; Sha, Ciwen; Takeda, Minoru; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Kuo; Yang, Aihua; Suyama, Daiki; Qing, Qin Jun; Yan, Luguang; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Wada, Hitoshi
2000-01-01
We, Kobe University of Mercantile Marine (KUMM) and Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE) research teams, have carried out in Japan, the joint experimental test of the high magnetic field (˜14 T) superconducting electromagnetic ship performance in co-operation with the researchers of NRIM. In this experimental study, the major system components are thruster, seawater circulating system and various measuring instruments. The NRIMs 15 T class superconducting magnet that forms the outmost member of the 40 T class hybrid magnet was used. The flow guide and flow rectifier are of same lengths of 0.2 m, and the length of the electrodes are 0.6 m. The anode's outer diameter is 0.1 m, and the cathode's inner diameter is 0.346 m. The helical insulation wall is 10 mm thick and the pitch number is 3.8. During the experiment, magnetic fields were changed to six stages 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 14 T, whereby seawater pressures, temperatures and flow rates were measured. Electric currents were changed from 10 to 700 A. In one of results, the thruster efficiency increases in association with the increase of the magnetic field. It has been demonstrated that the helical-type superconducting electromagnetic thruster is superior, in terms of thruster efficiency, than that of earlier works by Iwata et al. and YAMATO-1's group. So, it is considered that this thruster is better suited to commerical application than earlier works.
Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides
Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng
2015-06-11
Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
Eruption of the magnetic flux rope in a fast decayed active region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shangbin
2012-07-01
An isolated and fast decayed active region was observed when passing through solar disk. There is only one CME related with it that give us a good opportunity to investigate the whole process of the CME. Filament in this active region rises up rapidly and then hesitates and disintegrates into flare loops. The rising filament from EIT images separates into two parts just before eruption. It is interesting that this filament rises up with positive kink which is opposite to the negative helicity according to the inverse S-shaped X-ray sigmoid and accumulated magnetic helicity. A new filament reforms several hours later after CME and the axis of this new one rotates clockwise about 22° comparing with that of the former one. We also observed a bright transient J-shaped X-ray sigmoid immediately appears after filament eruption. It quickly develops into a soft X-ray cusp and rises up firstly then drops down. We propose that field lines underneath bald-patch sparatrix surface (BPSS) where for the formation of a magnetic tangential discontinuity are locally rooted to the photosphere near the bald-patch (BP) inversion line. Field lines above the surface are detached from the photosphere to form this CME and partially open the field which make the filament loses equilibrium to rise quickly and then be drawn back by the tension force of magnetic field after eruption to form a new filament. Two magnetic cancelation regions have been observed clearly just before filament eruption that reflect the existence of BPs. On the other hand, the values of total magnetic helicity to the corona taken by emergence and differential rotation normalized by the square total magnetic flux implies the possibility of upper bound on the total magnetic helicity that a force-free field can contain.
Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo
2014-12-01
The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.
Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment
García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo
2014-12-15
The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.
Non-solenoidal Startup through Local Helicity Injection in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Schoenbeck, N. L.; Shriwise, P. C.; Thome, K. E.
2012-10-01
Non-solenoidal plasma startup via local helicity injection is governed by helicity balance and Taylor relaxation constraints. Local helicity injection capabilities at Pegasus have been increased, supporting an expansion of the existing operational space towards Ip˜ 0.3 MA and characterization of helicity dissipation mechanisms during plasma startup, growth, and sustainment. After discharge initiation with an active current source, helicity injection may be provided by passive electrodes to continue its evolution and extend pulse length. Local magnetic measurements confirm that a local field null is transiently created by injected current streams prior to relaxation into a tokamak-like state and sustained helicity injection. Bursts of MHD activity during the growth phase are correlated with rapid equilibrium changes, redistribution of the toroidal current density, and observations of strong ion heating (Ti ˜ 1 keV). The impedance of active injectors and thereby their helicity input rate appears constrained by a double-layer space charge limit at low currents and the Alfv'en-Lawson limit for intense electron beams at high currents. Facility and diagnostic upgrades include an expanded poloidal field coil system for improved plasma control, new divertor coils, new plasma gun-electrode injector assemblies, a Thomson scattering system, expanded gas fueling techniques, and support for doubling the toroidal field.
Engineering and Design of the Steady Inductive Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--SI)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieck, P. E.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.; Shumlak, U.
1999-11-01
Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) is an inductive helicity injection method that injects helicity at a nearly constant rate, without open field lines, and without removing any helicity or magnetic energy from the plasma.(T.R. Jarboe, Fusion Technology, 36) (1), p. 85, 1999 SIHI directly produces a rotating magnetic field structure, and in the frame of the rotating field the current profile is nearly time independent. The Steady Inductive Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--SI) is a spheromak designed to implement SIHI so that the current profile in the rotating frame is optimized. The geometry of HIT--SI will be presented, including the manufacturing techniques and metallurgical processes planned for construction of the close-fitting flux conserver. The flux conserver is made of aged chromium copper with 80% the conductivity of pure copper. The detailed electrical insulation requirements in the helicity injector design lead to a complex o-ring seal and a plasma-sprayed alumina insulation coating. This has prompted the construction of an o-ring prototype test fixture having the main features of the o-ring design and the alumina coating. The design and evaluation of this fixture will also be presented with vacuum and voltage test results.
Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung
2004-01-01
In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.
Dynamics of three-dimensional helical domain wall in cylindrical NiFe nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, D. W.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Gan, W. L.; Purnama, I.; Lew, W. S.
2015-05-01
We report on a micromagnetic study on the dynamics of current-driven helical domain wall (DW) in cylindrical NiFe nanowires. The helical DW is a three-dimensional transition region between magnetizations with clockwise and anticlockwise vortex orientations. A minimum current density is needed to overcome an intrinsic pinning to drive the helical DW, and the propagation along the nanowire is accompanied by a rotational motion. As the driving current strength is increased, the rotation ceases while the DW propagates at an increased velocity. However, a velocity barrier is experienced which results in the decrease of the DW mobility. Throughout its motion, the propagated helical DW maintains a stable profile without showing any sign of structural breakdown even at relatively high driving current.
2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator
Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U.
1995-12-31
We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moritaka, Toseo; Sakawa, Youichi; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Morita, Taichi; Yamaura, Yuta; Ishikawa, Taishi; Takabe, Hideaki
2016-03-01
Collisionless shocks mediated by Weibel instability are attracting attention for their relevance to experimental demonstrations of astrophysical shocks in high-intensity laser facilities. The three dimensional structure of Weibel-mediated shocks is investigated through a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation. The structures obtained are characterized by the following features: (i) helical magnetic field lines elongated in the direction upstream of the shock region, (ii) high and low density filaments inside the helical field lines. These structures originate from the interaction between counter-streaming plasma flow and magnetic vortexes caused by Weibel instability, and potentially affect the shock formation mechanism.
Probing and controlling liquid crystal helical nanofilaments.
Zhu, Chenhui; Wang, Cheng; Young, Anthony; Liu, Feng; Gunkel, Ilja; Chen, Dong; Walba, David; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel; Hexemer, Alexander
2015-05-13
We report the first in situ measurement of the helical pitch of the helical nanofilament B4 phase of bent-core liquid crystals using linearly polarized, resonant soft X-ray scattering at the carbon K-edge. A strong, anisotropic scattering peak corresponding to the half-pitch of the twisted smectic layer structure was observed. The equilibrium helical half-pitch of NOBOW is found to be 120 nm, essentially independent of temperature. However, the helical pitch can be tuned by mixing guest organic molecules with the bent-core host, followed by thermal annealing.
Building blocks for subleading helicity operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.
2016-05-01
On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. We also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks can be assembled.
Helical tomotherapy superficial dose measurements
Ramsey, Chester R.; Seibert, Rebecca M.; Robison, Benjamin; Mitchell, Martha
2007-08-15
Helical tomotherapy is a treatment technique that is delivered from a 6 MV fan beam that traces a helical path while the couch moves linearly into the bore. In order to increase the treatment delivery dose rate, helical tomotherapy systems do not have a flattening filter. As such, the dose distributions near the surface of the patient may be considerably different from other forms of intensity-modulated delivery. The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions near the surface for helical tomotherapy plans with a varying separation between the target volume and the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom. A hypothetical planning target volume (PTV) was defined on an anthropomorphic head phantom to simulate a 2.0 Gy per fraction IMRT parotid-sparing head and neck treatment of the upper neck nodes. A total of six target volumes were created with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm of separation between the surface of the phantom and the outer edge of the PTV. Superficial doses were measured for each of the treatment deliveries using film placed in the head phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed on the phantom's surface underneath an immobilization mask. In the 0 mm test case where the PTV extends to the phantom surface, the mean TLD dose was 1.73{+-}0.10 Gy (or 86.6{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose). The measured superficial dose decreases to 1.23{+-}0.10 Gy (61.5{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose) for a PTV-surface separation of 5 mm. The doses measured by the TLDs indicated that the tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimates superficial doses by 8.9{+-}3.2%. The radiographic film dose for the 0 mm test case was 1.73{+-}0.07 Gy, as compared to the calculated dose of 1.78{+-}0.05 Gy. Given the results of the TLD and film measurements, the superficial calculated doses are overestimated between 3% and 13%. Without the use of bolus, tumor volumes that extend to the surface may be underdosed. As such, it is recommended that bolus be added for these
Steady-state operation and high energy particle production of MeV energy in the Large Helical Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Masuzaki, S.; Kubo, S.; Takeiri, Y.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Shoji, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Nishimura, K.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Oka, Y.; Chikaraishi, H.; Funaba, H.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Inagaki, S.; Narihara, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Morisaki, T.; Peterson, B. J.; Tanaka, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Nishiura, M.; Ozaki, T.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Takahashi, C.; Yokota, M.; Zhao, Y. P.; Kwak, J. G.; Murakami, S.; Okada, H.; Yamada, H.; Kawahata, K.; Ohyabu, N.; Kaneko, O.; Ida, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Noda, N.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.
2007-09-01
Achieving steady-state plasma operation at high plasma temperatures is one of the important goals of worldwide magnetic fusion research. High temperatures of approximately 1-2 keV, and steady-state plasma sustainment operations have been reported. Recently the steady-state operation regime was greatly extended in the Large Helical Device (LHD). A high-temperature plasma was created and maintained for 54 min with 1.6 GJ in the 2005FY experimental programme. The three-dimensional heat-deposition profile of the LHD helical divertor was modified, and during long-pulse discharges it effectively dispersed the heat load using a magnetic axis swing technique developed at the LHD. A sweep of only 3 cm in the major radius of the magnetic axis position (less than 1% of the major radius of the LHD) was enough to disperse the divertor heat load. The steady-state plasma was heated and sustained mainly by hydrogen minority ion heating using ion cyclotron range of frequencies and partially by electron cyclotron of fundamental resonance frequency. By accumulating the small flux of charge-exchanged neutral particles during the long-pulse operation, a high energy ion tail which extended up to 1.6 MeV was observed. This is the first experimental evidence of high energetic ion confinement of MeV range in helical devices. The long-pulse operations lasted until a sudden increase in radiation loss occurred, presumably because of metal wall flakes dropping into the plasma. The sustained line-averaged electron density and temperature were approximately 0.8 × 1019 m-3 and 2 keV, respectively, at a 1.3 GJ discharge (#53776) and 0.4 × 1019 m-3 and 1 keV at a 1.6 GJ discharge (#66053). The average input power was 680 kW and 490 kW, and the plasma duration was 32 min and 54 min, respectively. These successful long operations show that the heliotron configuration has a high potential as a steady-state fusion reactor.
SUNSPOT ROTATION, FLARE ENERGETICS, AND FLUX ROPE HELICITY: THE ERUPTIVE FLARE ON 2005 MAY 13
Kazachenko, Maria D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Longcope, Dana W.; Qiu, Jiong; DesJardins, Angela; Nightingale, Richard W.
2009-10-20
We use the Michelson Doppler Imager and TRACE observations of photospheric magnetic and velocity fields in NOAA 10759 to build a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field model. The most dramatic feature of this active region is the 34{sup 0} rotation of its leading polarity sunspot over 40 hr. We describe a method for including such rotation in the framework of the Minimum Current Corona model. We apply this method to the buildup of energy and helicity associated with the eruptive flare of 2005 May 13. We find that including the sunspot rotation almost triples the modeled flare energy (1.0 x 10{sup 31} erg) and flux rope self-helicity (-7.1 x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}). This makes the results consistent with observations: the energy derived from GOES is 1.0 x 10{sup 31} erg, the magnetic cloud helicity from WIND is -5 x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}. Our combined analysis yields the first quantitative picture of the helicity and energy content processed through a flare in an active region with an obviously rotating sunspot and shows that rotation dominates the energy and helicity budget of this event.
MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS
Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina; Brandenburg, Axel
2012-11-01
We study the evolution of QCD phase transition-generated magnetic fields (MFs) in freely decaying MHD turbulence of the expanding universe. We consider an MF generation model that starts from basic non-perturbative QCD theory and predicts stochastic MFs with an amplitude of the order of 0.02 {mu}G and small magnetic helicity. We employ direct numerical simulations to model the MHD turbulence decay and identify two different regimes: a 'weakly helical' turbulence regime, when magnetic helicity increases during decay, and 'fully helical' turbulence, when maximal magnetic helicity is reached and an inverse cascade develops. The results of our analysis show that in the most optimistic scenario the magnetic correlation length in the comoving frame can reach 10 kpc with the amplitude of the effective MF being 0.007 nG. We demonstrate that the considered model of magnetogenesis can provide the seed MF for galaxies and clusters.
Helical coil thermal hydraulic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.
2014-11-01
A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.
Bracht, A.
1981-09-29
A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.
Optimization of the AGS superconducting helical partial snake strength.
Lin,F.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.U.; Roser, T.
2008-06-23
Two helical partial snakes, one super-conducting (a.k.a cold snake) and one normal conducting (a.k.a warm snake), have preserved the polarization of proton beam up to 65% in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the extraction energy from 85% at injection. In order to overcome spin resonances, stronger partial snakes would be required. However, the stronger the partial snake, the more the stable spin direction tilted producing a stronger horizontal intrinsic resonance. The balance between increasing the spin tune gap generated by the snakes and reducing the tilted stable spin direction has to be considered to maintain the polarization. Because the magnetic field of the warm snake has to be a constant, only the cold snake with a maximum 3T magnetic field can be varied to find out the optimum snake strength. This paper presents simulation results by spin tracking with different cold snake magnetic fields. Some experimental data are also analyzed.
A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel
2016-09-01
We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.
Hydrodynamic characteristics of the helical flow pump.
Ishii, Kohei; Hosoda, Kyohei; Nishida, Masahiro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ariyoshi, Koki; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Sato, Masami; Hara, Sintaro; Lee, Xinyang; Wu, Sheng-Yuan; Imachi, Kou; Abe, Yusuke
2015-09-01
The helical flow pump (HFP) was invented to be an ideal pump for developing the TAH and the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) using two HFPs has been developed. However, since the HFP is quite a new pump, hydrodynamic characteristics inside the pump are not clarified. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of the HFP, flow visualization study using the particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics analysis were performed. The experimental and computational models were developed to simulate the left HFP of the HFTAH and distributions of flow velocity vectors, shear stress and pressure inside the pump were examined. In distribution of flow velocity vectors, the vortexes in the vane were observed, which indicated that the HFP has a novel and quite unique working principle in which centrifugal force rotates the fluid in the helical volutes and the fluid is transferred from the inlet to the outlet helical volutes according to the helical structure. In distribution of shear stress, the highest shear stress that was considered to be occurred by the shunt flow across the impeller was found around the entrance of the inlet helical volute. However, it was not so high to cause hemolysis. This shunt flow is thought to be improved by redesigning the inlet and outlet helical volutes. In distribution of pressure, negative pressure was found near the entrance of the inlet helical volute. However, it was not high. Negative pressure is thought to be reduced with an improvement in the design of the impeller or the vane shape. PMID:25784463
Simplified Fabrication of Helical Copper Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petro, Andrew
2006-01-01
A simplified technique has been devised for fabricating helical antennas for use in experiments on radio-frequency generation and acceleration of plasmas. These antennas are typically made of copper (for electrical conductivity) and must have a specific helical shape and precise diameter.
Modeling and Navigation of Artificial Helical Swimmers in Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Acemoglu, Alperen; Yesilyurt, Serhat
2013-11-01
Recent developments in micro/nanotechnology and manufacturing techniques make use of micro robots for biomedical applications realizable. Controlled in-channel navigation of swimming micro robots is necessary for medical applications performed in conduits and vessels in living bodies. Successful design and control of micro swimmers can be achieved with full understanding of hydrodynamic behavior inside channels and their interaction with channel walls and resultant flows. We performed experimental and modeling studies on untethered mm-sized magnetic helical swimmers inside glycerol-filled rectangular channels. In experiments it is observed that rotation of swimmers in the direction of helical axis leads to forward motion due to fluidic propulsion and lateral motion due to traction forces near the wall. Effects of surface roughness, swimming direction and rotation frequency on the swimmers' speed are analyzed. The flow induced by the tail motion is visualized using micro-particle image velocimetry and analyzed at different radial positions using Computational Fluid Dynamics models. Results indicate that at low frequencies traction forces are effective, however as frequency increases fluid forces become dominant and fluid flow is affecting the swimming motion of helical swimmers. We acknowledge the support from TUBITAK (Techonological & Research Council of Turkey) under the grant no: 111M376.
Relaxation models for single helical reversed field pinch plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paccagnella, Roberto
2016-09-01
In this paper, a relaxation theory for plasmas where a single dominant mode is present [Bhattacharjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 347 (1980)], is revisited. The solutions of a related eigenvalue problem are numerically calculated and discussed. Although these solutions can reproduce well, the magnetic fields measured in experiments, there is no way within the theory to determine the dominant mode, whose pitch is a free parameter in the model. To find the preferred helical perturbation, a procedure is proposed that minimizes the "distance" of the relaxed state from a state which is constructed as a two region generalization of the Taylor's relaxation model [Taylor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1139 (1974); Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 751 (1986)] and that allows current discontinuities. It is found that this comparison is able to predict the observed scaling with the aspect ratio and reversal parameter for the dominant mode in the Single Helical states. The aspect ratio scaling alone is discussed in a previous paper [Paccagnella, Nucl. Fusion 56, 046010 (2016)] in terms of the efficient response of a toroidal shell to specific modes (leaving a sign undetermined), showing that the ideal wall boundary condition, a key ingredient in relaxation theories, is particularly well matched for them. Therefore, the present paper altogether [Paccagnella, Nucl. Fusion 56, 046010 (2016)] can give a new and satisfactory explanation of some robust and reproducible experimental facts observed in the Single Helical Reversed Field Pinch plasmas and never explained before.
Hypermagnetic helicity evolution in early universe: leptogenesis and hypermagnetic diffusion
Semikoz, V.B.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Sokoloff, D.D. E-mail: smirnoff.alexandr@gmail.com
2013-10-01
We study hypermagnetic helicity and lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via inverse Higgs decays and sphaleron transitions which violate the left lepton number and wash out the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). In the scenario where the right electron asymmetry supports the BAU alone through the conservation law B/3−L{sub eR} = const at temperatures T > T{sub RL} ≅ 10 TeV the following universe cooling leads to the production of a non-zero left lepton (electrons and neutrinos) asymmetry. This is due to the Higgs decays becoming more faster when entering the equilibrium at T = T{sub RL} with the universe expansion, Γ{sub RL} ∼ T > H ∼ T{sup 2}, resulting in the parallel evolution of both the right and the left electron asymmetries at T < T{sub RL} through the corresponding Abelian anomalies in SM in the presence of a seed hypermagnetic field. The hypermagnetic helicity evolution proceeds in a self-consistent way with the lepton asymmetry growth. The role of sphaleron transitions decreasing the left lepton number turns out to be negligible in given scenario. The hypermagnetic helicity can be a supply for the magnetic one in Higgs phase assuming a strong seed hypermagnetic field in symmetric phase.
Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler
Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Imasaki, K.
1995-12-31
Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.
Baryon asymmetry from hypermagnetic helicity in dilaton hypercharge electromagnetism
Bamba, Kazuharu
2006-12-15
The generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe from the hypermagnetic helicity, the physical interpretation of which is given in terms of hypermagnetic knots, is studied in inflationary cosmology, taking into account the breaking of the conformal invariance of hypercharge electromagnetic fields through both a coupling with the dilaton and with a pseudoscalar field. It is shown that, if the electroweak phase transition is strongly first order and the present amplitude of the generated magnetic fields on the horizon scale is sufficiently large, a baryon asymmetry with a sufficient magnitude to account for the observed baryon-to-entropy ratio can be generated.
Gabrys, Charles M; Qiang, Wei; Sun, Yan; Xie, Li; Schmick, Scott D; Weliky, David P
2013-10-01
Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane protein of HIV. The fusion peptide (FP) is the ∼25 N-terminal residues of gp41 and is a domain of gp41 that plays a key role in fusion catalysis likely through interaction with the host cell membrane. Much of our understanding of the FP domain has been accomplished with studies of "HFP", i.e., a ∼25-residue peptide composed of the FP sequence but lacking the rest of gp41. HFP catalyzes fusion between membrane vesicles and serves as a model system to understand fusion catalysis. HFP binds to membranes and the membrane location of HFP is likely a significant determinant of fusion catalysis perhaps because the consequent membrane perturbation reduces the fusion activation energy. In the present study, many HFPs were synthesized and differed in the residue position that was (13)CO backbone labeled. Samples were then prepared that each contained a singly (13)CO labeled HFP incorporated into membranes that lacked cholesterol. HFP had distinct molecular populations with either α helical or oligomeric β sheet structure. Proximity between the HFP (13)CO nuclei and (31)P nuclei in the membrane headgroups was probed by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) measurements. For many samples, there were distinct (13)CO shifts for the α helical and β sheet structures so that the proximities to (31)P nuclei could be determined for each structure. Data from several differently labeled HFPs were then incorporated into a membrane location model for the particular structure. In addition to the (13)CO labeled residue position, the HFPs also differed in sequence and/or chemical structure. "HFPmn" was a linear peptide that contained the 23 N-terminal residues of gp41. "HFPmn_V2E" contained the V2E mutation that for HIV leads to greatly reduced extent of fusion and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabrys, Charles M.; Qiang, Wei; Sun, Yan; Xie, Li; Schmick, Scott D.; Weliky, David P.
2013-10-01
Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane protein of HIV. The fusion peptide (FP) is the -25 N-terminal residues of gp41 and is a domain of gp41 that plays a key role in fusion catalysis likely through interaction with the host cell membrane. Much of our understanding of the FP domain has been accomplished with studies of -HFP-, i.e., a -25-residue peptide composed of the FP sequence but lacking the rest of gp41. HFP catalyzes fusion between membrane vesicles and serves as a model system to understand fusion catalysis. HFP binds to membranes and the membrane location of HFP is likely a significant determinant of fusion catalysis perhaps because the consequent membrane perturbation reduces the fusion activation energy. In the present study, many HFPs were synthesized and differed in the residue position that was 13CO backbone labeled. Samples were then prepared that each contained a singly 13CO labeled HFP incorporated into membranes that lacked cholesterol. HFP had distinct molecular populations with either α helical or oligomeric - sheet structure. Proximity between the HFP 13CO nuclei and 31P nuclei in the membrane headgroups was probed by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) measurements. For many samples, there were distinct 13CO shifts for the α helical and - sheet structures so that the proximities to 31P nuclei could be determined for each structure. Data from several differently labeled HFPs were then incorporated into a membrane location model for the particular structure. In addition to the 13CO labeled residue position, the HFPs also differed in sequence and/or chemical structure. -HFPmn- was a linear peptide that contained the 23 N-terminal residues of gp41. -HFPmn_V2E- contained the V2E mutation that for HIV leads to greatly reduced extent of fusion and infection. The
Progress in Non-solenoidal Startup via Local Helicity Injection in the Pegasus Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fonck, R. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Schoenbeck, N. L.; Shriwise, P. C.; Thome, K. E.
2012-10-01
The operating space for localized helicity injection for non-solenoidal startup is constrained by helicity input and dissipation rates and a geometric limit on plasma current set by Taylor relaxation. To test the understanding of dissipation mechanisms during helicity-driven startup, the helicity injection startup and growth is being expanded to ˜0.3 MA plasma currents and longer pulse lengths on the Pegasus experiment. Following initiation via active current sources, passive electrodes can be used to grow discharges for relatively long pulse lengths. Bursts of MHD activity are observed during helicity injection, and correlate with rapid equilibrium changes, including inward motion of the magnetic axis, redistribution of the toroidal current, and strong ion heating with ion temperatures ˜1 keV observed. The plasma arc injector impedance and the associated helicity injection rate appear to be constrained by a double-layer space charge limit at low currents and by the Alfv'en-Lawson limit for strong electron beams at high currents. Additions to the experiment include an expanded poloidal field coil system for added plasma control, new divertor coils, new plasma gun-electrode injector assemblies, expanded gas fueling techniques, and eventually a doubling of the toroidal field.
The helical flow pump with a hydrodynamic levitation impeller.
Abe, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Nakano, Emiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Ono, Minoru; Imachi, Kou
2012-12-01
The helical flow pump (HFP) is a novel rotary blood pump invented for developing a total artificial heart (TAH). The HFP with a hydrodynamic levitation impeller, which consists of a multi-vane impeller involving rotor magnets, stator coils at the core position, and double helical-volute pump housing, was developed. Between the stator and impeller, a hydrodynamic bearing is formed. Since the helical volutes are formed at both sides of the impeller, blood flows with a helical flow pattern inside the pump. The developed HFP showed maximum output of 19 l/min against 100 mmHg of pressure head and 11 % maximum efficiency. The profile of the H-Q (pressure head vs. flow) curve was similar to that of the undulation pump. Hydrodynamic levitation of the impeller was possible with higher than 1,000 rpm rotation speed. The normalized index of the hemolysis ratio of the HFP to centrifugal pump (BPX-80) was from 2.61 to 8.07 depending on the design of the bearing. The HFP was implanted in two goats with a left ventricular bypass method. After surgery, hemolysis occurred in both goats. The hemolysis ceased on postoperative days 14 and 9, respectively. In the first experiment, no thrombus was found in the pump after 203 days of pumping. In the second experiment, a white thrombus was found in the pump after 23 days of pumping. While further research and development are necessary, we are expecting to develop an excellent TAH with the HFP. PMID:22926404
Best packing of identical helices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huh, Youngsik; Hong, Kyungpyo; Kim, Hyoungjun; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang
2016-10-01
In this paper we prove the unique existence of a ropelength-minimizing conformation of the θ-spun double helix in a mathematically rigorous way, and find the minimal ropelength {{{Rop}}}* (θ )=-\\tfrac{8π }{t} where t is the unique solution in [-θ ,0] of the equation 2-2\\cos (t+θ )={t}2. Using this result, the pitch angles of the standard, triple and quadruple helices are around 39.3771^\\circ , 42.8354^\\circ and 43.8351^\\circ , respectively, which are almost identical with the approximated pitch angles of the zero-twist structures previously known by Olsen and Bohr. We also find the ropelength of the standard N-helix.
Thermal deformation of helical gears
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong; Fei, Ye-tai; Liu, Shan-lin
2010-08-01
The analytical equation for the thermal field of a helical gear under normal working condition in a stable thermal field is established using mathematical physics, and the thermal deformation of the gear can be computed using this equation. The variations of gear geometric parameters, such as radial dimension, tooth depth, spiral angle, pressure angle, flank clearance and etc., are investigated with respect to the temperature change. According to the analytical and computational results obtained using the equation, the thermal deformation of the gear is strongly dependent on the choice of parameters, which is also confirmed using simulation software (COMSOL Multiphysic software). This is significant for the improvement of the rotation precision and working efficiency of screw gears.
THE PHOTOSPHERIC ENERGY AND HELICITY BUDGETS OF THE FLUX-INJECTION HYPOTHESIS
Schuck, P. W.
2010-05-01
The flux-injection hypothesis for driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) requires the transport of substantial magnetic energy and helicity flux through the photosphere concomitant with the eruption. Under the magnetohydrodynamics approximation, these fluxes are produced by twisting magnetic field and/or flux emergence in the photosphere. A CME trajectory, observed 2000 September 12 and fitted with a flux-rope model, constrains energy and helicity budgets for testing the flux-injection hypothesis. Optimal velocity profiles for several driving scenarios are estimated by minimizing the photospheric plasma velocities for a cylindrically symmetric flux-rope magnetic field subject to the flux budgets required by the flux-rope model. Ideal flux injection, involving only flux emergence, requires hypersonic upflows in excess of the solar escape velocity 617 km s{sup -1} over an area of 6 x 10{sup 8} km{sup 2} to satisfy the energy and helicity budgets of the flux-rope model. These estimates are compared with magnetic field and Doppler measurements from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager on 2000 September 12 at the footpoints of the CME. The observed Doppler signatures are insufficient to account for the required energy and helicity budgets of the flux-injection hypothesis.
Conformational transitions in peptides containing two putative alpha-helices of the prion protein.
Zhang, H; Kaneko, K; Nguyen, J T; Livshits, T L; Baldwin, M A; Cohen, F E; James, T L; Prusiner, S B
1995-07-21
Prions are composed largely, if not entirely, of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Conversion of the cellular isoform (PrPC) to PrPSc is accompanied by a diminution in the alpha-helical content and an increase in the beta-sheet structure. To investigate the structural basis of this transition, peptide fragments corresponding to Syrian hamster PrP residues 90 to 145 and 109 to 141, which contain the most conserved residues of the prion protein and the first two putative alpha-helical regions in a PrPC model, were studied using infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The peptides could be induced to form alpha-helical structures in aqueous solutions in the presence of organic solvents, such as trifluoroethanol and hexafluoroisopropanol, or detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl phosphocholine. NaCl at physiological concentration or acetonitrile induced the peptides to acquire substantial beta-sheet. The intermolecular nature of the beta-sheet was evident in the formation of rod-shaped polymers as detected by electron microscopy. Resistance to hydrolysis by proteinase K and epitope mapping argue that the beta-sheet structures were formed by the interaction of residues lying between 109 and 141. A similar range of residues was shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be capable of forming alpha-helices. The alpha-helical structures seem to require a hydrophobic support from either intermolecular interactions or the hydrophobic environment provided by micelles, in agreement with the predicted hydrophobic nature of the packing surface among the four putative helices of PrPC and the outer surfaces of the first two helices. Our results suggest that perturbation of the packing environment of the highly conserved residues is a possible mechanism for triggering the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc where alpha-helices appear to be converted into beta-sheets.
Experimental studies of helical solenoid model based on YBCO tape-bridge joints
Yu, M.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flangan, G.; Lopes, M.L.; Johnson, R.P.; /Fermilab
2011-06-01
Helical solenoids that provide solenoid, helical dipole and helical gradient field components are designed for a helical cooling channel (HCC) proposed for cooling of muon beams in a muon collider. The high temperature superconductor (HTS), 12 mm wide and 0.1 mm thick YBCO tape, is used as the conductor for the highest-field section of HCC due to certain advantages, such as its electrical and mechanical properties. To study and address the design, and technological and performance issues related to magnets based on YBCO tapes, a short helical solenoid model based on double-pancake coils was designed, fabricated and tested at Fermilab. Splicing joints were made with Sn-Pb solder as the power leads and the connection between coils, which is the most critical element in the magnet that can limit the performance significantly. This paper summarizes the test results of YBCO tape and double-pancake coils in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and then focuses on the study of YBCO splices, including the soldering temperatures and pressures, and splice bending test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, E. N.
1987-01-01
The dynamics of thermal shadows which develop in the convective zone of a star around an insulating obstacle such as a horizontal band in intense magnetic field are studied. The depth of the shadow on the cool side of the obstacle is found to depend largely on the width of the obstacle multiplied by the temperature gradient. Thermal shadows pressing fields up to 10,000 G downward against the bottom of the convective zone are produced by the broad bands of the azimuthal field in the sun's convective zone. In the third part, the time-dependent accumulation of heat beneath a thermal barrier simulating such a band in the lower convective zone of the sun is considered. The resulting Rayleigh-Taylor instability is shown to cause tongues of heated gas to penetrate upward through the field, providing the emerging magnetic fields that give rise to the activity of the sun.
Method and apparatus for maintaining equilibrium in a helical axis stellarator
Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen
1987-01-01
Apparatus for maintaining three-dimensional MHD equilibrium in a plasma contained in a helical axis stellerator includes a resonant coil system, having a configuration such that current therethrough generates a magnetic field cancelling the resonant magnetic field produced by currents driven by the plasma pressure on any given flux surface resonating with the rotational transform of another flux surface in the plasma. Current through the resonant coil system is adjusted as a function of plasma beta.
Method and apparatus for maintaining equilibrium in a helical axis stellarator
Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.
1984-10-31
Apparatus for maintaining three-dimensional MHD equilibrium in a plasma contained in a helical axis stellarator includes a resonant coil system, having a configuration such that current therethrough generates a magnetic field cancelling the resonant magnetic field produced by currents driven by the plasma pressure on any given flux surface resonating with the rotational transform of another flux surface in the plasma. Current through the resonant coil system is adjusted as a function of plasma beta.
Helices in the wake of precipitation fronts.
Thomas, Shibi; Lagzi, István; Molnár, Ferenc; Rácz, Zoltán
2013-08-01
A theoretical study of the emergence of helices in the wake of precipitation fronts is presented. The precipitation dynamics is described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the fronts are obtained by quenching the system into a linearly unstable state. Confining the process onto the surface of a cylinder and using the pulled-front formalism, our analytical calculations show that there are front solutions that propagate into the unstable state and leave behind a helical structure. We find that helical patterns emerge only if the radius of the cylinder R is larger than a critical value R>R(c), in agreement with recent experiments. PMID:24032809
Steering Chiral Swimmers along Noisy Helical Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank
2009-08-01
Chemotaxis along helical paths towards a target releasing a chemoattractant is found in sperm cells and many microorganisms. We discuss the stochastic differential geometry of the noisy helical swimming path of a chiral swimmer. A chiral swimmer equipped with a simple feedback system can navigate in a concentration gradient of chemoattractant. We derive an effective equation for the alignment of helical paths with a concentration gradient which is related to the alignment of a dipole in an external field and discuss the chemotaxis index.
Magnetic polymer composite artificial bacterial flagella.
Peyer, K E; Siringil, E; Zhang, L; Nelson, B J
2014-11-18
Artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs) are magnetically actuated swimming microrobots inspired by Escherichia coli bacteria, which use a helical tail for propulsion. The ABFs presented are fabricated from a magnetic polymer composite (MPC) containing iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded in an SU-8 polymer that is shaped into a helix by direct laser writing. The paper discusses the swim performance of MPC ABFs fabricated with varying helicity angles. The locomotion model presented contains the fluidic drag of the microrobot, which is calculated based on the resistive force theory. The robot's magnetization is approximated by an analytical model for a soft-magnetic ellipsoid. The helicity angle influences the fluidic and magnetic properties of the robot, and it is shown that weakly magnetized robots prefer a small helicity angle to achieve corkscrew-type motion.
Magnetic Field Topology in Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.
2000-01-01
We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.
Revisiting the Mode-Beating Model of AC Helicity Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.
2010-11-01
Oscillating field current drive (OFCD), or AC helicity injection, is an important candidate for current sustainment in reversed-field pinch devices. Bellan examined AC helicity injection in a slab geometry and described it as a beating between two plasma modes that produces a mean current parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field [P. M. Bellan. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1381 (1985)]. This mean current is confined to within a classical resistive skin depth of the plasma surface, and plasma relaxation is responsible for transporting this current to the core. We revisit this analytical work and examine how this wave-beating effect is represented in zero-beta MHD simulations, including consideration of the choice of boundary conditions. In addition to the expected parallel current, numerical simulations show a pinch effect from a cycle-averaged current that is perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, which is not described in Bellan's original work. Our results are discussed with respect to Boozer's general anti-dynamo theorem [A. H. Boozer. Phys. Fluids B Vol. 5, 2271 (1993)].
NMR Assignments for a Helical 40 kDa Membrane Protein
Oxenoid, Kirill; Kim, Hak J.; Jacob, Jaison; Soennichsen, Frank D.; Sanders, Charles R.
2004-04-28
Backbone nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments were achieved for diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) in detergent micelles. DAGK is a homotrimeric integral membrane protein comprised of 121 residue subunits, each having three transmembrane segments. Assignments were made using TROSY-based pulse sequences. DAGK was found to be an almost exclusively helical protein. This work points to the feasibility of both solving the structure of DAGK using solution NMR methods and using NMR as a primary tool in structural studies of other helical integral membrane proteins of similar size and complexity.
Lee, Ki-Suk; Kim, Sang-Koog; Kortright, J.B.
2004-06-01
We have calculated the soft x-ray resonant Kerr intensities as a function of the incident grazing angle of linearly p-polarized waves from the model spin structures, where the chirality (handedness) of the spin spirals (twist in depth) in a magnetic layer and the periodicity of a unit spiral are designed to vary. Variations in the chirality and the periodicity lead to noticeable changes in the Kerr intensity versus the grazing angle, which is due not only to a large sensitivity of the Kerr intensity of the linear p polarization to both the magnitude and direction of the transverse components of magnetizations, but also to a large dependence of the depth sensitivity on the grazing angle at the resonance regions. The measurement and analysis of the specular Kerr intensity are relatively straightforward in determining the inhomogeneous spin structures in depth, compared to those of the Kerr rotation and ellipticity. This is proven to be a convenient and useful probe to determine the handedness of spin spiral structures, as well as to resolve the detailed magnetic heterostructures in depth in ultrathin-layered films.
Flux-transfer losses in helically wound superconducting power cables
Clem, John R; Malozemoff, A P
2013-06-25
Minimization of ac losses is essential for economic operation of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) ac power cables. A favorable configuration for the phase conductor of such cables has two counter-wound layers of HTS tape-shaped wires lying next to each other and helically wound around a flexible cylindrical former. However, if magnetic materials such as magnetic substrates of the tapes lie between the two layers, or if the winding pitch angles are not opposite and essentially equal in magnitude to each other, current distributes unequally between the two layers. Then, if at some point in the ac cycle the current of either of the two layers exceeds its critical current, a large ac loss arises from the transfer of flux between the two layers. A detailed review of the formalism, and its application to the case of paramagnetic substrates including the calculation of this flux-transfer loss, is presented.
Helical motion during a failed eruption of a filament
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.
2012-12-01
Solar magnetized "tornadoes" in different scales with varying lifetime have been widely reported and discussed recently. They are found to be possibly related to the formation of prominences and coronal heating. However, the physical details of the tornadoes still remain unclear, though lots of work including observational analysis in varies wavelengths and numerical simulations have been done. Here, we report a failed eruption of a filament on 2012 July 8, during which rotating motion of the filament materials can be clearly recognized. Based on the multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoints observations from SDO and STEREO spacecraft, we tentatively think that the highly twist magnetic field lines in the filament probably lead to the helical motion of the ejected plasma. A detailed analysis will give us more information.
Dissecting π-helices: sequence, structure and function.
Kumar, Prasun; Bansal, Manju
2015-11-01
A new procedure for the identification of regular secondary structures using a C(α) trace has identified 659 π-helices in 3582 protein chains, solved at high resolution. Taking advantage of this significantly expanded database of π-helices, we have analysed the functional and structural roles of π-helices and determined the position-wise amino acid propensity within and around them. These helices range from 5 to 18 residues in length with the average twist and rise being 85.2 ± 7.2° and 1.28 ± 0.31 Å, respectively. A total of 546 (~ 83%) out of 659 π-helices occur in conjunction with α-helices, with 101 π-helices being interspersed between two α-helices. The majority of interspersed π-helices were found to be conserved across a large number of structures within a protein family and produce a significant bend in the overall helical segment as well as local distortions in the neighbouring α-helices. The presence of a π-helical fragment leads to appropriate orientation of the constituent residues, so as to facilitate favourable interactions and also help in proper folding of the protein chain. In addition to intra helical 6→1 N-H···O hydrogen bonds, π-helices are also stabilized by several other non-bonded interactions. π-Helices show distinct positional residue preferences, which are different from those of α-helices.
Emergence of helicity in rotating stratified turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, Raffaele; Mininni, Pablo D.; Rosenberg, Duane; Pouquet, Annick
2013-03-01
We perform numerical simulations of decaying rotating stratified turbulence and show, in the Boussinesq framework, that helicity (velocity-vorticity correlation), as observed in supercell storms and hurricanes, is spontaneously created due to an interplay between buoyancy and rotation common to large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. Helicity emerges from the joint action of eddies and of inertia-gravity waves (with inertia and gravity with respective associated frequencies f and N), and it occurs when the waves are sufficiently strong. For N/f<3 the amount of helicity produced is correctly predicted by a quasilinear balance equation. Outside this regime, and up to the highest Reynolds number obtained in this study, namely Re≈10000, helicity production is found to be persistent for N/f as large as ≈17, and for ReFr2 and ReRo2, respectively, as large as ≈100 and ≈24000.
Building blocks for subleading helicity operators
Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.
2016-05-24
On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. In conclusion, we also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks canmore » be assembled.« less
Passive micromixers with dual helical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Keyin; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhao, Yulong; Meng, Xiangwei; Shan, Chao; Li, Yanyang
2015-02-01
In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) micromixer with cross-linked double helical microchannels is studied to achieve rapid mixing of fluids at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The 3D micromixer takes full advantages of the chaotic advection model with helical microchannels; meanwhile, the proposed crossing structure of double helical microchannels enables two flow patterns of repelling flow and straight flow in the fluids to promote the agitation effect. The complex 3D micromixer is realized by an improved femtosecond laser wet etching (FLWE) technology embedded in fused silica. The mixing results show that cross-linked double helical microchannels can achieve excellent mixing within 3 cycles (300 μm) over a wide range of low Re (1.5×10-3~600), which compare well with the conventional passive micromixers. This highly-effective micromixer is hoped to contribute to the integration of microfluidic systems.
Motion of multiple helical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velasco Fuentes, Oscar
2015-11-01
In 1912 Joukowsky deduced that in an unbounded ideal fluid a set of helical vortices--when these are equal, coaxial and symmetrically arranged--would translate and rotate steadily while the vortices preserve their form and relative position. Each vortex is an infinite tube whose cross-section is circular (with radius a) and whose centerline is a helix of pitch L and radius R. The motion is thus determined by three non-dimensional parameters only: the number of vortices N, the vortex radius α = a / R and the vortex pitch τ = L / 2 πR . Here, we express the linear and angular velocities of the vortices as the sum of the mutually induced velocities found by Okulov (2004) and the self-induced velocities found by Velasco Fuentes (2015). We verified that our results are accurate over the whole range of values of the vortices' pitch and radius by numerically computing the vortex motion with two smoothed versions of the Biot-Savart law. It was found that the translation velocity U grows with the number of vortices (N) but decreases as the vortices' radius and pitch (a and τ, respectively) increase; in contrast, the rotation velocity Ω grows with N and a but has a local minimum around τ = 1 for fixed values of N and a.
Duality and helicity: A symplectic viewpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elbistan, M.; Duval, C.; Horváthy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.
2016-10-01
The theorem which says that helicity is the conserved quantity associated with the duality symmetry of the vacuum Maxwell equations is proved by viewing electromagnetism as an infinite dimensional symplectic system. In fact, it is shown that helicity is the moment map of duality acting as an SO (2) group of canonical transformations on the symplectic space of all solutions of the vacuum Maxwell equations.
Fourier-Bessel reconstruction of helical assemblies.
Diaz, Ruben; Rice, William J; Stokes, David L
2010-01-01
Helical symmetry is commonly used for building macromolecular assemblies. Helical symmetry is naturally present in viruses and cytoskeletal filaments and also occurs during crystallization of isolated proteins, such as Ca-ATPase and the nicotinic acetyl choline receptor. Structure determination of helical assemblies by electron microscopy has a long history dating back to the original work on three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. A helix offers distinct advantages for structure determination. Not only can one improve resolution by averaging across the constituent subunits, but each helical assembly provides multiple views of these subunits and thus provides a complete 3D data set. This review focuses on Fourier methods of helical reconstruction, covering the theoretical background, a step-by-step guide to the process, and a practical example based on previous work with Ca-ATPase. Given recent results from helical reconstructions at atomic resolution and the development of graphical user interfaces to aid in the process, these methods are likely to continue to make an important contribution to the field of structural biology. PMID:20888960
Gluons in glueballs: Spin or helicity?
Mathieu, Vincent; Buisseret, Fabien; Semay, Claude
2008-06-01
In the past decade, lattice QCD has been able to compute the low-lying glueball spectrum with accuracy. Like other effective approaches of QCD, potential models still have difficulties to cope with gluonic hadrons. Assuming that glueballs are bound states of valence gluons with zero current mass, it is readily understood that the use of a potential model, intrinsically noncovariant, could be problematic in this case. The main challenge for this kind of model is actually to find a way to introduce properly the more relevant degree of freedom of the gluon: spin or helicity. In this work, we use the so-called helicity formalism of Jacob and Wick to describe two-gluon glueballs. We show, in particular, that this helicity formalism exactly reproduces the J{sup PC} numbers which are observed in lattice QCD when the constituent gluons have a helicity-1, without introducing extra states as is the case in most of the potential models. These extra states appear when gluons are seen as spin-1 particles. Using a simple spinless Salpeter model with Cornell potential within the helicity formalism, we obtain a glueball mass spectrum which is in good agreement with lattice QCD predictions for helicity-1 gluons provided instanton-induced interactions are taken into account.
Helicity Annihilation in Trefoil Reconnection: Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, Robert M.
2015-11-01
The simulated evolution and self-reconnection of a perturbed trefoil vortex knot is compared to the experiment. To have a single initial reconnection, as in the experiments, the trefoil is perturbed by 4 weak vortex rings. Visualizations show that the simulations and experiments undergo similar topological changes. Quantitative comparisons using the helicity and global topological number show that both are preserved for a long period before reconnection begins, as in the experiments. Unlike the experiments, once reconnection begins, a significant fraction of the helicity is dissipated and the global topological number changes by a discrete amount in a fixed time. Helicity spectra and physical space correlations show that the change in helicity is associated with the appearance of negative helicity at lower wavenumbers and in the outer regions of the trefoil. Furthermore, using a range of Reynolds numbers, with the highest comparable to the experiments, it is demonstrated that a Reynolds number independent fraction of the initial helicity is dissipated in a finite time. This observation does not violate any current mathematics restricting the strong growth of Navier-Stokes norms as the viscosity goes to zero due to the structure of the trefoil.
Analysis of Helicities and Hall and MHD Dynamo Effects in Two-Fluid Reversed-Field Pinch Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauppe, Joshua; Sovinec, Carl
2015-11-01
Relaxation in the RFP is studied numerically with extended-MHD modeling that includes the Hall term and ion gyroviscous stress. Previous results show significant coupling between magnetic relaxation and parallel flow evolution [King PoP 19, 055905]. Computations presented here display quasi-periodic relaxation events with current relaxation through MHD and Hall dynamo drives. The MHD dynamo always relaxes currents while the Hall dynamo may add or subtract from it, but the total dynamo drive is similar to single-fluid MHD computations. Changes in plasma momentum are due to viscous coupling to the wall and fluctuation-induced Maxwell stresses transport momentum radially inward when two-fluid effects are included. The magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity, a two-fluid extension of magnetic helicity that includes cross and kinetic helicity [Turner, 1986], are well-conserved relative to magnetic energy at each event. The cross helicity is well-conserved in single-fluid MHD but is significantly affected by both two-fluid effects and ion gyroviscosity. The plasma parallel current evolves towards the predicted flat profile; however, the plasma flow does not. Work supported through NSF grant PHY-0821899 and DOE grant DE-FG02-06ER54850.
Hofacker, H.B.
1958-09-23
This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.
Magnetic microhelix coil structures.
Smith, Elliot J; Makarov, Denys; Sanchez, Samuel; Fomin, Vladimir M; Schmidt, Oliver G
2011-08-26
Together with the well-known ferro- and antiferromagnetic ordering, nature has created a variety of complex helical magnetic configurations. Here, we design and investigate three-dimensional microhelix coil structures that are radial-, corkscrew-, and hollow-bar-magnetized. The magnetization configurations of the differently magnetized coils are experimentally revealed by probing their specific dynamic response to an external magnetic field. Helix coils offer an opportunity to realize microscale geometries of the magnetic toroidal moment, observed so far only in bulk multiferroic materials. PMID:21929266
Magnetic Microhelix Coil Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Elliot J.; Makarov, Denys; Sanchez, Samuel; Fomin, Vladimir M.; Schmidt, Oliver G.
2011-08-01
Together with the well-known ferro- and antiferromagnetic ordering, nature has created a variety of complex helical magnetic configurations. Here, we design and investigate three-dimensional microhelix coil structures that are radial-, corkscrew-, and hollow-bar-magnetized. The magnetization configurations of the differently magnetized coils are experimentally revealed by probing their specific dynamic response to an external magnetic field. Helix coils offer an opportunity to realize microscale geometries of the magnetic toroidal moment, observed so far only in bulk multiferroic materials.
Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids
Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.
2015-05-01
Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.
Investigation of Fully Three-Dimensional Helical RF Field Effects on TWT Beam/Circuit Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
2000-01-01
A fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, helical traveling wave-tube (TWT) interaction model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAFIA. The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by RF input/output couplers, and electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing. All components of the model are simulated in three dimensions allowing the effects of the fully 3D helical fields on RF circuit/beam interaction to be investigated for the first time. The development of the interaction model is presented, and predicted TWT performance using 2.5D and 3D models is compared to investigate the effect of conventional approximations used in TWT analyses.
Relaxed state for the coaxial helicity injection current drive in toroidal plasmas
Zhang, C.; Zhu, S.; Shen, L.
1998-01-01
The plasma relaxed state for the coaxial helicity injection current drive in toroidal configuration is investigated by applying the principle of minimum rate of energy dissipation. The comparison between theory and helicity injection current drive experiment on HIT (the Helicity Injected Tokamak) [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Technol. {bold 15}, 7 (1989)] is presented. The calculation results indicate that the key features such as total toroidal driven current, current in closed field, current density profile, magnetic configuration, and j{sub t}/B{sub t} profile agree quite well with experiment. Analysis shows that plasma relaxes to a noncomplete relaxation state, and the toroidal current is effectively driven in this state. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
A unified convention for biological assemblies with helical symmetry
Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth
2011-08-01
A new representation of helical structure by four parameters, [n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, twist, rise], is able to generate an entire helical construct from asymmetric units, including cases of helical assembly with a seam. Assemblies with helical symmetry can be conveniently formulated in many distinct ways. Here, a new convention is presented which unifies the two most commonly used helical systems for generating helical assemblies from asymmetric units determined by X-ray fibre diffraction and EM imaging. A helical assembly is viewed as being composed of identical repetitive units in a one- or two-dimensional lattice, named 1-D and 2-D helical systems, respectively. The unification suggests that a new helical description with only four parameters [n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, twist, rise], which is called the augmented 1-D helical system, can generate the complete set of helical arrangements, including coverage of helical discontinuities (seams). A unified four-parameter characterization implies similar parameters for similar assemblies, can eliminate errors in reproducing structures of helical assemblies and facilitates the generation of polymorphic ensembles from helical atomic models or EM density maps. Further, guidelines are provided for such a unique description that reflects the structural signature of an assembly, as well as rules for manipulating the helical symmetry presentation.
Josephson effect through magnetic skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Takehito; Linder, Jacob
2015-08-01
We discover that the multiple degrees of freedom associated with magnetic skyrmions—size, position, and helicity—can all be used to control the Josephson effect and 0 -π transitions occurring in superconductor/magnetic skyrmion/superconductor junctions. In the presence of two skyrmions, the Josephson effect depends strongly on their relative helicity and leads to the possibility of a helicity-transistor effect for the supercurrent, where the critical current is changed by several orders of magnitude simply by reversing the helicity of a magnetic skyrmion. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Fraunhofer pattern can show a local minimum at zero flux as a direct result of the skyrmion magnetic texture. These findings demonstrate the rich physics that emerges when combining topological magnetic objects with superconductors and could lead to different perspectives in superconducting spintronics.
Hofman, Jelle; Wuyts, Karen; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Samson, Roeland
2014-09-15
Understanding the accumulation behaviour of atmospheric particles inside tree leaves is of great importance for the interpretation of biomagnetic monitoring results. In this study, we evaluated the temporal variation of the saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM) of leaves of a roadside urban Platanus × acerifolia Willd. tree in Antwerp, Belgium. We hereby examined the seasonal development of the total leaf SIRM signal as well as the leaf-encapsulated fraction of the deposited dust, by washing the leaves before biomagnetic analysis. On average 38% of the leaf SIRM signal was exhibited by the leaf-encapsulated particles. Significant correlations were found between the SIRM and the cumulative daily average atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 measurements. Moreover, a steady increase of the SIRM throughout the in-leaf season was observed endorsing the applicability of biomagnetic monitoring as a proxy for the time-integrated PM exposure of urban tree leaves. Strongest correlations were obtained for the SIRM of the leaf-encapsulated particles which confirms the dynamic nature of the leaf surface-accumulated particles.
SUNSPOT ROTATION, FLARE ENERGETICS, AND FLUX ROPE HELICITY: THE HALLOWEEN FLARE ON 2003 OCTOBER 28
Kazachenko, Maria D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Longcope, Dana W.; Qiu Jiong
2010-10-20
We study the X17 eruptive flare on 2003 October 28 using Michelson Doppler Imager observations of photospheric magnetic and velocity fields and TRACE 1600 A images of the flare in a three-dimensional model of energy buildup and release in NOAA 10486. The most dramatic feature of this active region is the 123{sup 0} rotation of a large positive sunspot over 46 hr prior to the event. We apply a method for including such rotation in the framework of the minimum current corona model of the buildup of energy and helicity due to the observed motions. We distinguish between helicity and energy stored in the whole active region and that released in the flare itself. We find that while the rotation of a sunspot contributes significantly to the energy and helicity budgets of the whole active region, it makes only a minor contribution to that part of the region that flares. We conclude that in spite of the fast rotation, shearing motions alone store sufficient energy and helicity to account for the flare energetics and interplanetary coronal mass ejection helicity content within their observational uncertainties. Our analysis demonstrates that the relative importance of shearing and rotation in this flare depends critically on their location within the parent active region topology.
Nishimura, Seiya
2014-12-15
Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produce magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas. Self-healing (annihilation) of RMP-induced magnetic islands has been observed in helical systems, where a possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by plasma flows, which is well known in tokamaks. Thus, fundamental physics of RMP shielding is commonly investigated in both tokamaks and helical systems. In order to check this mechanism, detailed informations of magnetic island phases are necessary. In experiments, measurement of radial magnetic responses is relatively easy. In this study, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands, behavior of radial magnetic fields during the self-healing is investigated. It is confirmed that flips of radial magnetic fields are typically observed during the self-healing. Such behavior of radial magnetic responses is also observed in LHD experiments.
Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in high-beta helical plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizawa, Akihiro
2013-10-01
Gyrokinetic simulation of electromagnetic turbulence in finite-beta plasmas is important for predicting the performance of fusion reactors. Whereas in low-beta tokamaks the zonal flow shear acts to regulate ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, it has often been observed that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) and, at moderate-beta, the ITG mode continue to grow without reaching a physically relevant level of saturation. The corresponding problem in helical high-beta plasmas, the identification of a saturation mechanism for microturbulence in regimes where zonal flow generation is too weak, is the subject of the present work. This problem has not been previously explored because of numerical difficulties associated with complex three-dimensional magnetic structures as well as multiple spatio-temporal scales related to electromagnetic ion and electron dynamics. The present study identifies a new saturation process of the KBM turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a high-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e. it has finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ITG modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing, rather than by the zonal flow shear. The mechanism is quantitatively evaluated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer.
Evaluation of helicity generation in the tropical storm Gonu
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farahani, Majid M.; Khansalari, Sakineh; Azadi, Majid
2016-06-01
Helicity is a valuable dynamical concept for the study of rotating flows. Consequently helicity flux, indicative of the source or sink of helicity, owns comparable importance. In this study, while reviewing the existing methods, a mathematical relation between helicity and helicity-flux is introduced, discussed and examined. The computed values of helicity and helicity fluxes in an actual case, using the classical and this proposed method are compared. The down-stream helicity flux including sources and sinks of helicity is considered for the tropical storm Gonu that occurred over the coasts of Oman and Iran on June 2-7, 2007. Results show that the buoyancy, through the upper troposphere down to a height within boundary layer, is the main source in producing helicity, and surface friction from earth surface up to a height within boundary layer, is the main dissipating element of helicity. The dominance of buoyancy forcing over the dissipative friction forcing results in generation of vortex or enhancement of it after bouncing the land. Furthermore, the increase (decrease) of helicity results in an increase (decrease) in the height of the level in which maximum helicity flux occurs. It is suggested that the maximum helicity flux occurs at the top of the turbulent boundary layer, so that the height of boundary layer could be obtained.
Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekanthappa, J.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.; Amith, B. M.; Gagan, M.
2016-09-01
In present scenario, the automobile industry sector is showing increased interest in reducing the unsprung weight of the automobile & hence increasing the fuel Efficiency. One of the feasible sub systems of a vehicle where weight reduction may be attempted is vehicle- suspension system. Usage of composite material is a proven way to lower the component weight without any compromise in strength. The composite materials are having high specific strength, more elastic strain energy storage capacity in comparison with those of steel. Therefore, helical coil spring made of steel is replaceable by composite cylindrical helical coil spring. This research aims at preparing a re-usable mandrel (mould) of Mild steel, developing a setup for fabrication, fabrication of FRP helical spring using continuous glass fibers and Epoxy Resin (Polymer). Experimentation has been conducted on fabricated FRP helical spring to determine its strength parameters & for failure analysis. It is found that spring stiffness (K) of Glass/Epoxy helical-spring is greater than steel-coil spring with reduced weight.
Thermoelectric Analysis for Helical Power Generation Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiangning; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.
2014-06-01
The performance of a three-dimensional helical thermoelectric generation (TEG) system is examined by exposing it to a temperature difference with hot and cold sources. The helical paths for the two thermal fluids give the TEG device the potential to efficiently convert thermal energy. The characteristic performance of the helical system is numerically analyzed by using the finite-volume method in a compact system. The helical system is compared with a straight system in which all the thermoelectric (TE) elements present equivalent geometry. The difference in the TE performance between the two systems is not significant when the TE surfaces are maintained at constant temperatures. Both the electromotive force and the current in the TEG system increase linearly with the temperature difference Δ T applied at the two module surfaces. The current preferentially flows through a main path determined by the geometry of the TE element. The merits of the helical design are its compactness, space saving, and smooth fluid flow due to gravity, compared with the straight system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobbin, M.; Franz, P.; Auriemma, F.; Lorenzini, R.; Marrelli, L.
2015-09-01
Electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) in high current plasmas with helical equilibria of the reversed field pinch experiment RFX-mod are analyzed and characterized in detail thanks to a high time resolution double filter diagnostic for the electron temperature spatial profile determination. The large amount of data provided by this diagnostic has required the development of dedicated algorithms and the identification of suitable parameters, reported and described in this paper, in order to perform automatic statistical studies. These numerical tools have been used to examine the effect of three dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by the RFX-mod 192 active coils in deuterium and hydrogen discharges with the aim to improve the sustainment and control of helical equilibria with eITBs. It is shown that 3D fields partially increase the occurring of helical states but with only a moderate effect on the eITBs duration; moreover, they have a different impact on the confinement properties in hydrogen and deuterium discharges. Numerical simulations, by the Hamiltonian guiding center code ORBIT, investigate the effect of magnetic topology in plasmas with and without the application of 3D fields on deuterium and hydrogen test ions transport. Results from numerical studies are in agreement with estimates of the particle confinement times showing that particle transport is reduced in deuterium plasmas but not significantly affected by the application of helical boundary conditions.
Studies of high-field sections of a muon helical cooling channel with coil separation
Lopes, M.L.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab
2011-03-01
The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) was proposed for 6D cooling of muon beams required for muon collider and some other applications. HCC uses a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets which produce solenoidal field superimposed with transverse helical dipole and helical gradient fields. HCC is usually divided into several sections each with progressively stronger fields, smaller aperture and shorter helix period to achieve the optimal muon cooling rate. This paper presents the design issues of the high field section of HCC with coil separation. The effect of coil spacing on the longitudinal and transverse field components is presented and its impact on the muon cooling discussed. The paper also describes methods for field corrections and their practical limits. The magnetic performance of the helical solenoid with coil separation was discussed in this work. The separation could be done in three different ways and the performances could be very different which is important and should be carefully described during the beam cooling simulations. The design that is currently being considered is the one that has the poorest magnetic performance because it presents ripples in all three components, in particular in the helical gradient which could be quite large. Moreover, the average gradient could be off, which could affect the cooling performance. This work summarized methods to tune the gradient regarding the average value and the ripple. The coil longitudinal thickness and the helix period can be used to tune G. Thinner coils tend to reduce the ripples and also bring G to its target value. However, this technique reduces dramatically the operational margin. Wider coils can also reduce the ripple (not as much as thinner coils) and also tune the gradient to its target value. Longer helix periods reduce ripple and correct the gradient to the target value.
Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in finite-beta helical plasmasa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Maeyama, S.; Nakajima, N.
2014-05-01
A saturation mechanism for microturbulence in a regime of weak zonal flow generation is investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations. The study identifies a new saturation process of the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a finite-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e., it has a finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ion-temperature gradient modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing as well as by the zonal flow. The saturation mechanism is quantitatively investigated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer that shows not only the mutual shearing but also a self-interaction with an elongated mode structure along the magnetic field line.
Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in finite-beta helical plasmas
Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Maeyama, S.
2014-05-15
A saturation mechanism for microturbulence in a regime of weak zonal flow generation is investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations. The study identifies a new saturation process of the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a finite-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e., it has a finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ion-temperature gradient modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing as well as by the zonal flow. The saturation mechanism is quantitatively investigated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer that shows not only the mutual shearing but also a self-interaction with an elongated mode structure along the magnetic field line.
Working member of a helical downhole motor for drilling wells
Kochnev, A.M.; Vshivkov, A.N.; Goldobin, V.B.
1993-06-22
A working member of a helical downhole motor is described for drilling wells comprising: separate tubular sections having helical teeth arranged in succession and interconnected by connecting elements, each connecting element having the form of a ring, rigidly secured at the tubular sections and having helical teeth of a pitch and a direction equal to a pitch and a direction, respectively, of the helical teeth of the tubular sections, whereas a profile of the helical teeth of the ring is equidistant to a profile of the helical teeth of the sections.
Imprinting artificial magnetic structures.
Lohstroh, W.
1998-09-25
Recently we created La/Fe multilayers with a helical magnetic structure imprinted from the conditions of growth rather than by the magnetic interactions between layers. Each sublayer was 30{angstrom} thick, and during deposition the sample was rotated in an external field of 3 Oe. a field strong enough to magnetize the Fe layer being deposited but not sufficient to perturb the magnetization of the Fe layers already grown. As a result adjacent Fe layers formed a helical structure with a chirality and periodicity determined by the rotational direction and speed of the substrate and the rate of deposition. Following this discovery, an extensive set of experiments (mainly using Kerr effect magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectivity) was undertaken to ascertain the stability of imprinted magnetic structures, and to understand the onset of magnetization during growth. La/Fe imprinted helical magnetic structures (of different La and Fe thicknesses) were found to be stable in time and to be permanently erased only by magnetic fields larger than 90 Oe.
The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan
2016-09-01
The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.
Nondispersive optical activity of meshed helical metamaterials.
Park, Hyun Sung; Kim, Teun-Teun; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyungjin; Min, Bumki
2014-11-17
Extreme optical properties can be realized by the strong resonant response of metamaterials consisting of subwavelength-scale metallic resonators. However, highly dispersive optical properties resulting from strong resonances have impeded the broadband operation required for frequency-independent optical components or devices. Here we demonstrate that strong, flat broadband optical activity with high transparency can be obtained with meshed helical metamaterials in which metallic helical structures are networked and arranged to have fourfold rotational symmetry around the propagation axis. This nondispersive optical activity originates from the Drude-like response as well as the fourfold rotational symmetry of the meshed helical metamaterials. The theoretical concept is validated in a microwave experiment in which flat broadband optical activity with a designed magnitude of 45° per layer of metamaterial is measured. The broadband capabilities of chiral metamaterials may provide opportunities in the design of various broadband optical systems and applications.
The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan
2016-09-01
The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction–diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.
Manipulation of wavefront using helical metamaterials.
Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhaokun; Tao, Huan; Zhao, Ming
2016-08-01
Helical metamaterials, a kind of 3-dimensional structure, has relatively strong coupling effect among the helical nano-wires. Therefore, it is expected to be a good candidate for generating phase shift and controlling wavefront with high efficiency. In this paper, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we studied the phase shift properties in the helical metamaterials. It is found that the phase shift occurs for both transmitted and reflected light waves. And the maximum of reflection coefficients can reach over 60%. In addition, the phase shift (φ) is dispersionless in the range of 600 nm to 860 nm, that is, it is only dominated by the initial angle (θ) of the helix. The relationship between them is φ = ± 2θ. Using Jones calculus we give a further explanation for these properties. Finally, by arranging the helixes in an array with a constant phase gradient, the phenomenon of anomalous refraction was also observed in a broad wavelength range.
Structural Transition from Helices to Hemihelices
Su, Tianxiang; Bertoldi, Katia; Clarke, David R.
2014-01-01
Helices are amongst the most common structures in nature and in some cases, such as tethered plant tendrils, a more complex but related shape, the hemihelix forms. In its simplest form it consists of two helices of opposite chirality joined by a perversion. A recent, simple experiment using elastomer strips reveals that hemihelices with multiple reversals of chirality can also occur, a richness not anticipated by existing analyses. Here, we show through analysis and experiments that the transition from a helical to a hemihelical shape, as well as the number of perversions, depends on the height to width ratio of the strip's cross-section. Our findings provides the basis for the deterministic manufacture of a variety of complex three-dimensional shapes from flat strips. PMID:24759785
Heat Loss by Helicity Injection II
Fowler, T K
2006-04-25
Arguments are reviewed showing that helicity transport always flattens the temperature profile, yielding unit current amplification in SSPX and flat temperature profiles in RFP's whenever the dynamo is active. The argument is based on transport theory yielding a hyper-resistivity {Lambda} {approx} (c{sup 2}/{omega}{sub pc}{sup 2}){chi}{sub c} with electron thermal diffusivity {chi}{sub c}, valid for any process producing a random-walk in electron constants of motion in the unperturbed field. The theory could be tested by deriving {Lambda} from helicity transport in SSPX, by analogy with recent analysis yielding {chi}{sub c} from heat transport. If the predicted ratio {Lambda}/{chi}{sub c} is confirmed, efforts to increase current amplification in SSPX must be based on scenario scenarios consistent with slow helicity transport compared to heat s transport (pulsed reactor, multipulse, neutral beam injection).
Nonlinear evolution of multi-helicity neo-classical tearing modes in rotating tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Wang, Jialei; Yang, Xuefeng
2016-10-01
Plasma perturbations from the core and/or boundary regions of tokamaks can provide seed islands for the excitation of neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs) with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} , where {{ Δ }\\prime} is the linear instability parameter of the classical tearing mode. In this work, by means of reduced magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we numerically investigate the nonlinear evolution of multi-helicity NTMs in rotating tokamak plasmas with these two types of plasma perturbations with different boundary conditions. In the first case of initial plasma perturbations from the core region with a zero boundary condition, the meta-stable property of seed-island triggered NTM with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} is verified in the single helicity simulation. Nevertheless in the multiple helicity simulation, this seed-island triggered NTM with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} can be suppressed by a spontaneous NTM with positive {{ Δ }\\prime} through the competitive interaction between NTMs with different helicities. If a fixed poloidal rotation is taken into account in the first case, two different helicity NTMs could coexist in the saturation stage, which is different qualitatively from the process without plasma rotation. In the second case of initial plasma perturbations from the boundary region with a nonzero boundary condition, as the amplitude of plasma perturbations on the boundary increases, the mode with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} gradually changes from the driven-reconnection state to the NTM state, accompanied by an enhancement of magnetic island width in the single helicity simulation. Nevertheless in the multi-helicity simulation, the spontaneous NTM with positive {{ Δ }\\prime} can make the driven-reconnection triggered NTM with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} transfer from the NTM state back to the driven-reconnection state again. The underlying mechanism behind these transitions is analyzed step by step. Effects of fixed and unfixed poloidal rotations on the nonlinear
[Examination of motion artifacts for helical and non-helical scanning modes in head CT].
Fujimura, Ichiro; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Terakawa, Shoichi; Hara, Takanori; Miura, Yohei
2011-01-01
For head computed tomography (CT), non-helical scanning has been recommended even in the widely used multi-slice CT (MSCT). Also, an acute stroke imaging standardization group has recommended the non-helical mode in Japan. However, no detailed comparison has been reported for current MSCT with more than 16 slices. In this study, we compared the non-helical and helical modes for head CT, focusing on temporal resolution and motion artifacts. The temporal resolution was evaluated by using temporal sensitivity profiles (TSPs) measured using a temporal impulse method. In both modes, the TSPs and temporal modulation transfer factors (MTFs) were measured for various pitch factors using 64-slice CT (Aquilion 64, Toshiba). Two motion phantoms were scanned to evaluate motion artifacts, and then quantitative analyses for motion artifacts and helical artifacts were performed by measuring multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the phantom images. In addition, the rates of artifact occurrence for retrospective clinical cases were compared. The temporal resolution increased as the pitch factor was increased. Remarkable streak artifacts appeared in the non-helical images of the motion phantom, in spite of the equivalent effective temporal resolution. In clinical analysis, results consistent with the phantom studies were shown. These results indicated that the low pitch helical mode would be effective for emergency head CT with patient movement.
Equilibrium calculations for helical axis stellarators
Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.
1984-04-01
An average method based on a vacuum flux coordinate system is presented. This average method permits the study of helical axis stellarators with toroidally dominated shifts. An ordering is introduced, and to lowest order the toroidally averaged equilibrium equations are reduced to a Grad-Shafranov equation. Also, to lowest order, a Poisson-type equation is obtained for the toroidally varying corrections to the equilibium. By including these corrections, systems that are toroidally dominated, but with significant helical distortion to the equilibrium, may be studied. Numerical solutions of the average method equations are shown to agree well with three-dimensional calculations.
Conversion from mutual helicity to self-helicity observed with IRIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L. P.; Peter, H.; Chen, F.; Zhang, J.
2014-10-01
Context. In the upper atmosphere of the Sun observations show convincing evidence for crossing and twisted structures, which are interpreted as mutual helicity and self-helicity. Aims: We use observations with the new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to show the conversion of mutual helicity into self-helicity in coronal structures on the Sun. Methods: Using far UV spectra and slit-jaw images from IRIS and coronal images and magnetograms from SDO, we investigated the evolution of two crossing loops in an active region, in particular, the properties of the Si IV line profile in cool loops. Results: In the early stage two cool loops cross each other and accordingly have mutual helicity. The Doppler shifts in the loops indicate that they wind around each other. As a consequence, near the crossing point of the loops (interchange) reconnection sets in, which heats the plasma. This is consistent with the observed increase of the line width and of the appearance of the loops at higher temperatures. After this interaction, the two new loops run in parallel, and in one of them shows a clear spectral tilt of the Si IV line profile. This is indicative of a helical (twisting) motion, which is the same as to say that the loop has self-helicity. Conclusions: The high spatial and spectral resolution of IRIS allowed us to see the conversion of mutual helicity to self-helicity in the (interchange) reconnection of two loops. This is observational evidence for earlier theoretical speculations. Movie associated with Fig. 1 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Prediction of three-dimensional transmembrane helical protein structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barth, Patrick
Membrane proteins are critical to living cells and their dysfunction can lead to serious diseases. High-resolution structures of these proteins would provide very valuable information for designing eficient therapies but membrane protein crystallization is a major bottleneck. As an important alternative approach, methods for predicting membrane protein structures have been developed in recent years. This chapter focuses on the problem of modeling the structure of transmembrane helical proteins, and describes recent advancements, current limitations, and future challenges facing de novo modeling, modeling with experimental constraints, and high-resolution comparative modeling of these proteins. Abbreviations: MP, membrane protein; SP, water-soluble protein; RMSD, root-mean square deviation; Cα RMSD, root-mean square deviation over Cα atoms; TM, transmembrane; TMH, transmembrane helix; GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor; 3D, three dimensional; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device
Kamio, S. Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T.
2014-11-15
In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.
Long-pulse plasma discharge on the Large Helical Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Narihara, K.; Shoji, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Ogawa, H.; Goto, M.; Morisaki, T.; Peterson, B. J.; Sato, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ashikawa, N.; Nishimura, K.; Funaba, H.; Chikaraishi, H.; Watari, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, M.; Ichimura, M.; Takase, Y.; Notake, T.; Takeuchi, N.; Torii, Y.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Takahashi, C.; Yokota, M.; Kato, A.; Zhao, Y.; Kwak, J. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Yamada, H.; Kawahata, K.; Ohyabu, N.; Ida, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Noda, N.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.; LHD experiment Group
2006-03-01
A long-pulse plasma discharge of more than 30 min duration was achieved on the Large Helical Device (LHD). A plasma of ne = 0.8 × 1019 m-3 and Ti0 = 2.0 keV was sustained with PICH = 0.52 MW, PECH = 0.1 MW and averaged PNBI = 0.067 MW. The total injected heating energy was 1.3 GJ. One of the keys to the success of the experiment was a dispersion of the local plasma heat load to divertors, accomplished by sweeping the magnetic axis inward and outward. Causes limiting the long pulse plasma discharge are discussed. An ion impurity penetration limited further long-pulse discharge in the 8th experimental campaign (2004).
Internal impedance of steel-reinforced helically stranded conductors at commercial frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkushev, A. G.; Elagin, I. A.
2015-04-01
An original simplified mathematical model is proposed that describes the distribution of a harmonic electromagnetic field at a commercial frequency in steel-reinforced high-voltage cables with helically stranded single-layer winding. In the framework of the idealized physical concepts on which the proposed model is based, stranded conductors are treated as an anisotropic conducting layer. It is shown that taking into account the helical twist of conductors leads to the appearance of an axial magnetic field, the presence of which can significantly influence the level of ac losses. The model has been used to calculate the dependence of the internal impedance on the magnetic permeability of the steel core for commercial AS-70 grade steel-reinforced stranded aluminum cable. The results are compared to those obtained using a hollow cylinder model and full-scale numerical calculations using the finite element method.
A Prospective Evaluation of Helical Tomotherapy
Bauman, Glenn ||. E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca; Yartsev, Slav; Rodrigues, George ||; Lewis, Craig; Hammond, Alex; Perera, Francisco; Ash, Robert, Dar, A. Rashid |; Venkatesan, Varagur M. |; Yu, Edward; Lock, Michael; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake ||; Baily, Laura; Coad, Terry C; Trenka, Kris C.; Warr, Barbara; Kron, Tomas
2007-06-01
Purpose: To report results from two clinical trials evaluating helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Patients were enrolled in one of two prospective trials of HT (one for palliative and one for radical treatment). Both an HT plan and a companion three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan were generated. Pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography was used for daily image guidance. Results: From September 2004 to January 2006, a total of 61 sites in 60 patients were treated. In all but one case, a clinically acceptable tomotherapy plan for treatment was generated. Helical tomotherapy plans were subjectively equivalent or superior to 3D-CRT in 95% of plans. Helical tomotherapy was deemed equivalent or superior in two thirds of dose-volume point comparisons. In cases of inferiority, differences were either clinically insignificant and/or reflected deliberate tradeoffs to optimize the HT plan. Overall imaging and treatment time (median) was 27 min (range, 16-91 min). According to a patient questionnaire, 78% of patients were satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment process. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy demonstrated clear advantages over conventional 3D-CRT in this diverse patient group. The prospective trials were helpful in deploying this technology in a busy clinical setting.
Multislice helical CT: image temporal resolution.
Hui, H; Pan, T; Shen, Y
2000-05-01
A multislice helical computed tomography (CT) halfscan (HS) reconstruction algorithm is proposed for cardiac applications. The imaging performances (in terms of the temporal resolution, z-axis resolution, image noise, and image artifacts) of the HS algorithm are compared to the existing algorithms using theoretical models and clinical data. A theoretical model of the temporal resolution performance (in terms of the temporal sensitivity profile) is established for helical CT, in general, i.e., for any number of detector rows and any reconstruction algorithm used. It is concluded that the HS reconstruction results in improved image temporal resolution than the corresponding 180 degrees LI (linear interpolation) reconstruction and is more immune to the inconsistent data problem induced by cardiac motions. The temporal resolution of multislice helical CT with the HS algorithm is comparable to that of single-slice helical CT with the HS algorithm. In practice, the 180 degrees LI and HS-LI algorithms can be used in parallel to generate two image sets from the same scan acquisition, one (180 degrees LI) for improved z-resolution and noises, and the other (HS-LI) for improved image temporal resolution.
QCD Evolution of Helicity and Transversity TMDs
Prokudin, Alexei
2014-01-01
We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.
Deformation of flexible micro helices under flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daieff, Marine; Lindner, Anke; Du Roure, Olivia; Morozov, Alexander; Pham, Jonathan; Crosby, Alfred
The interaction of small helices with fluids is important because of its relevance to both fundamental science and technological applications, such as swimming microrobots or microflow sensors. Helically shaped flagella are also exploited by swimming microorganisms to move through their surrounding fluids. Here we study experimentally the deformation of flexible helical ribbons under flow in a microfluidic channel. The size of the helix is typically microscale for the diameter and nanoscale for the thickness. We focus on two different aspects: the overall shape of the helix and the viscous frictional properties. The frictional coefficients determined by our experiments are consistent with calculated values in the context of resistive force theory. Deformation of helices by viscous flow is well-described by non-linear finite extensibility. Due to the non-uniform distribution of the pitch under distributed loading, we identify both linear and nonlinear behavior along the contour length of a single helix. Utilizing our system, we explore the impact of non-Newtonian fluid properties on the mechanics of helix-fluid interactions.
Phase diagram of two interacting helical states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Raul A.; Gutman, D. B.; Carr, Sam T.
2016-06-01
We consider two coupled time-reversal-invariant helical edge modes of the same helicity, such as would occur on two stacked quantum spin Hall insulators. In the presence of interaction, the low-energy physics is described by two collective modes, one corresponding to the total current flowing around the edge and the other one describing relative fluctuations between the two edges. We find that quite generically, the relative mode becomes gapped at low temperatures, but only when tunneling between the two helical modes is nonzero. There are two distinct possibilities for the gapped state depending on the relative size of different interactions. If the intraedge interaction is stronger than the interedge interaction, the state is characterized as a spin-nematic phase. However, in the opposite limit, when the interaction between the helical edge modes is strong compared to the interaction within each mode, a spin-density wave forms, with emergent topological properties. First, the gap protects the conducting phase against localization by weak nonmagnetic impurities; second, the protected phase hosts localized zero modes on the ends of the edge that may be created by sufficiently strong nonmagnetic impurities.
Artificial, parallel, left-handed DNA helices.
Tian, Cheng; Zhang, Chuan; Li, Xiang; Li, Yingmei; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde
2012-12-19
This communication reports an engineered DNA architecture. It contains multiple domains of half-turn-long, standard B-DNA duplexes. While each helical domain is right-handed and its two component strands are antiparallel, the global architecture is left-handed and the two component DNA strands are oriented parallel to each other.
Paul, Amitesh
2016-01-01
Vortex domain walls poses chirality or 'handedness' which can be exploited to act as memory units by changing their polarity with electric field or driving/manupulating the vortex itself by electric currents in multiferroics. Recently, domain walls formed by one dimensional array of vortex-like structures have been theoretically predicted to exist in disordered rare-earth helical magnets with topological defects. Here, in this report, we have used a combination of two rare-earth metals, e.g. superlattice that leads to long range magnetic order despite their competing anisotropies along the out-of-plane (Er) and in-plane (Tb) directions. Probing the vertically correlated magnetic structures by off-specular polarized neutron scattering we confirm the existence of such magnetic vortex-like domains associated with magnetic helical ordering within the Er layers. The vortex-like structures are predicted to have opposite chirality, side-by-side, and are fairly unaffected by the introduction of magnetic ordering between the interfacial Tb layers and also with the increase in magnetic field which is a direct consequence of screening of the vorticity in the system due to a helical background. Overall, the stability of these vortices over a wide range of temperatures, fields and interfacial coupling, opens up the opportunity for fundamental chiral spintronics in unconventional systems. PMID:26758314
Paul, Amitesh
2016-01-01
Vortex domain walls poses chirality or ‘handedness’ which can be exploited to act as memory units by changing their polarity with electric field or driving/manupulating the vortex itself by electric currents in multiferroics. Recently, domain walls formed by one dimensional array of vortex—like structures have been theoretically predicted to exist in disordered rare-earth helical magnets with topological defects. Here, in this report, we have used a combination of two rare-earth metals, e.g. superlattice that leads to long range magnetic order despite their competing anisotropies along the out-of-plane (Er) and in-plane (Tb) directions. Probing the vertically correlated magnetic structures by off-specular polarized neutron scattering we confirm the existence of such magnetic vortex—like domains associated with magnetic helical ordering within the Er layers. The vortex—like structures are predicted to have opposite chirality, side—by—side, and are fairly unaffected by the introduction of magnetic ordering between the interfacial Tb layers and also with the increase in magnetic field which is a direct consequence of screening of the vorticity in the system due to a helical background. Overall, the stability of these vortices over a wide range of temperatures, fields and interfacial coupling, opens up the opportunity for fundamental chiral spintronics in unconventional systems. PMID:26758314
Tunable ground states in helical p-wave Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Qiang; Zhang, Kunhua; Yu, Dongyang; Chen, Chongju; Zhang, Yinhan; Jin, Biao
2016-07-01
We study new types of Josephson junctions composed of helical p-wave superconductors with {k}x\\hat{x}+/- {k}y\\hat{y} and {k}y\\hat{x}+/- {k}x\\hat{y}-pairing symmetries using quasi-classical Green’s functions with generalized Riccati parametrization. The junctions can host rich ground states: π phase, 0 + π phase, φ 0 phase and φ phase. The phase transition can be tuned by rotating the magnetization in the ferromagnetic interface. We present the phase diagrams in the parameter space formed by the orientation of the magnetization or by the magnitude of the interfacial potentials. The selection rules for the lowest order current which are responsible for the formation of the rich phases are summarized from the current-phase relations based on the numerical calculation. We construct a Ginzburg–Landau type of free energy for the junctions with d-vectors and the magnetization, which not only reveals the interaction forms of spin-triplet superconductivity and ferromagnetism, but can also directly lead to the selection rules. In addition, the energies of the Andreev bound states and the novel symmetries in the current-phase relations are also investigated. Our results are helpful both in the prediction of novel Josephson phases and in the design of quantum circuits.
Tunable ground states in helical p-wave Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Qiang; Zhang, Kunhua; Yu, Dongyang; Chen, Chongju; Zhang, Yinhan; Jin, Biao
2016-07-01
We study new types of Josephson junctions composed of helical p-wave superconductors with {k}x\\hat{x}+/- {k}y\\hat{y} and {k}y\\hat{x}+/- {k}x\\hat{y}-pairing symmetries using quasi-classical Green’s functions with generalized Riccati parametrization. The junctions can host rich ground states: π phase, 0 + π phase, φ 0 phase and φ phase. The phase transition can be tuned by rotating the magnetization in the ferromagnetic interface. We present the phase diagrams in the parameter space formed by the orientation of the magnetization or by the magnitude of the interfacial potentials. The selection rules for the lowest order current which are responsible for the formation of the rich phases are summarized from the current-phase relations based on the numerical calculation. We construct a Ginzburg-Landau type of free energy for the junctions with d-vectors and the magnetization, which not only reveals the interaction forms of spin-triplet superconductivity and ferromagnetism, but can also directly lead to the selection rules. In addition, the energies of the Andreev bound states and the novel symmetries in the current-phase relations are also investigated. Our results are helpful both in the prediction of novel Josephson phases and in the design of quantum circuits.
Columbus, Linda; Kroncke, Brett
2015-01-01
Solution nuclear magnetic resonance structures of polytopic α-helical membrane proteins require additional restraints beyond the traditional Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) restraints. Several methods have been developed and this review focuses on paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). Important aspects of spin labeling, PRE measurements, structure calculations, and structural quality are discussed.
Sakurai, Shin-ichiro; Okoshi, Kento; Kumaki, Jiro; Yashima, Eiji
2006-05-01
We report the direct evidence for the macromolecular helicity inversion of a helical poly(phenylacetylene) bearing l- or d-alanine pendants with a long alkyl chain in different solvents by atomic force microscopy observations of the diastereomeric helical structures. The diastereomeric helical poly(phenylacetylene)s induced in polar and nonpolar solvents self-assembled into ordered, two-dimensional helix bundles with controlled molecular packing, helical pitch, and handedness on graphite upon exposure of each solvent. The macromolecular helicity deposited on graphite from a polar solvent further inverted to the opposite handedness by exposure to a specific nonpolar solvent, and these changes in the surface chirality based on the inversion of helicity could be visualized by atomic force microscopy with molecular resolution, and the results were quantified by X-ray diffraction of the oriented liquid crystalline, diastereomeric helical polymer films.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.
2009-07-01
The interaction of a static resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) with a tearing mode (TM) is becoming a relevant topic in fusion plasma physics. RMPs can be generated by active coils and then used to affect the properties of TMs and of the corresponding magnetic islands. This paper shows how the feedback system of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) can produce a RMP that affects a rotating TM and stimulate the transition to the so-called quasi-single helicity (QSH) regime, a RFP plasma state characterized by a magnetic island surrounded by low magnetic chaos. The application of the RMP can increase the QSH probability up to 10% and enlarge the size of the corresponding island. Part of the experimental results are supported by a theoretical study that models the effect of the active coils on the magnetic island.
Self-organized helical equilibria as a new paradigm for ohmically heated fusion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Piovesan, P.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Zuin, M.; Alfier, A.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Franz, P.; Gobbin, M.; Innocente, P.; Marrelli, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M. E.; Spolaore, M.; Valisa, M.; Vianello, N.; Martin, P.; Martin, P.; Apolloni, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Annibaldi, S. V.; Antoni, V.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Brotankova, J.; Buffa, A.; Buratti, P.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavinato, M.; Chapman, B. E.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S.; de Lorenzi, A.; de Masi, G.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Ferro, A.; Franz, P.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Grando, L.; Guazzotto, L.; Guo, S. C.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lorenzini, R.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Martines, E.; McCollam, K.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Novello, L.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, L.; Pizzimenti, A.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Reusch, J. A.; Rostagni, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sarff, J. S.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spizzo, G.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Toigo, V.; Valisa, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; White, R. B.; Yadikin, D.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zohm, H.; Zuin, M.
2009-08-01
In the quest for new energy sources, the research on controlled thermonuclear fusion has been boosted by the start of the construction phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). ITER is based on the tokamak magnetic configuration, which is the best performing one in terms of energy confinement. Alternative concepts are however actively researched, which in the long term could be considered for a second generation of reactors. Here, we show results concerning one of these configurations, the reversed-field pinch (RFP). By increasing the plasma current, a spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium occurs, with a change of magnetic topology. Partially conserved magnetic flux surfaces emerge within residual magnetic chaos, resulting in the onset of a transport barrier. This is a structural change and sheds new light on the potential of the RFP as the basis for a low-magnetic-field ohmic fusion reactor.
Computational Study of the Grad--Shafranov Equation with Flow in Helical Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddi, Lorenzo; Guazzotto, Luca; Lapenta, Giovanni; Paccagnella, Roberto
2012-10-01
We present a numerical solution of the modified Grad--Shafranov equation in cylinder geometry and in the presence of macroscopic rotation. The main challenge is the full inclusion of helical symmetry, a problem relevant in a variety of scenarios. Cylindrical symmetry is often used as lowest-order approximation of the Grad--Shafranov equation in Tokamaks. However, in many other situations in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, helical symmetry is a better assumption, in particular in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configurations in Single-Helicity states. The ``Grad--Shafranov'' equation is written in helical symmetry with a convective term expressed by toroidal and poloidal velocities. Two equations are obtained: a non-linear PDE for the magnetic flux ψ(r,u) and an algebraic equation for the density ρ(r,u,ψ) (u is the variable along the helix). Here, we report on our progress in the development of a numerical method and computational code to solve the coupled non-linear system. Examples of applications are described.
Prototype and test of a novel rotary magnetorheological damper based on helical flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jianqiang; Dong, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen
2016-02-01
To increase the output damping torque of a rotary magnetorheological (MR) damper with limited geometrical space, a novel rotary MR damper based on helical flow is proposed. A new working mode, helical flow mode, is discussed and applied to enlarge the flow path of MR fluids. The helical flow can improve the performance of the rotary damper by enlarging the length of the active region. Based on the idea, a rotary MR damper is designed. The rotary MR damper contains a spiral piston, dual-coil core, a rotating cylinder and a stator cylinder. Based on the Bingham model, the output damping torque of the damper is analytically derived. The finite element method (FEM) is applied to calculate the magnetic field of the active region. The multi-objective optimal design method is adopted to obtain the optimal geometric parameters. A prototype is fabricated based on the optimal results. To validate the proposed rotary MR damper, two types of experiments including the low rotation speed and the high rotation speed are investigated. The results show that the proposed rotary MR damper has high torque density and compact structure. The helical flow mode can increase the output damping torque with limited space.
Aspects of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection
Borgogno, D.; Grasso, D.; Porcelli, F.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Farina, D.
2005-03-01
The nonlinear behavior of reconnecting modes in three spatial dimensions (3D) is investigated, on the basis of a collisionless fluid model in slab geometry, assuming a strong constant guide field in one direction. Unstable modes in the so-called large {delta}{sup '} regime are considered. Single helicity modes, i.e., modes with the same orientation with respect to the guide field, depending on all three spatial coordinates correspond to 'oblique' modes with, in general, mixed parity around the corresponding resonant magnetic surface, giving rise to a nonlinear drift of the magnetic island X point. The nonlinear coupling of initial perturbations with different helicities introduces additional helicities that evolve in time in agreement with quasilinear estimates, as long as their amplitudes remain relatively small. Magnetic field lines become stochastic when islands with different helicities are present. Basic questions such as the proper definition of the reconnection rate in 3D are addressed.