Science.gov

Sample records for accumulated operating time

  1. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accumulation time. 262.34 Section 262.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d),...

  2. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  3. Identification of New Operating Tunes for the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1991-12-04

    Our current operating tunes for the accumulator, 6.606 and 8.610, are so close together that it is almost impossible to eliminate coupling completely even at the core orbit, and all the other orbits are nearly 100% coupled. Not only does this make diagnostic information difficult to interpret, but it also reduces the transverse acceptance of the accumulator. I propose that we attempt to find another operating point farther away from the coupling resonance. The attached plots show most of the operating range with a horizontal tune between 6.4 and 6.9, and a vertical tune from 8.4 to 8.9. Please note that the T128 program sometimes forgets to draw some resonance lines on the plot, so if a possible operating point is found it is necessary to plot it with several different scales to make sure that all the resonance lines are visible. The top plot shows our current operating point. The second plot shows a series of gaps near the tune 6.560 and 8.430. The third and fourth plots show a blowup of one of the identified gaps with resonances to 15th and 18th order displayed. The rest of the plots are included for completeness. The operating point shown in the third plot gives about 60 times more separation from the coupling resonance than we now have. I think it would be worthwhile to spend a few shifts to identify the proper bus currents for this operating point. We should then try to stack at this point to see if there is any advantage to running without coupling.

  4. Real-time monitoring of charge accumulation during pulse-time-modulated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, Hiroto; Jinnai, Butsurin; Suzuki, Yuya; Soda, Shinnosuke; Shimmura, Tadashi; Samukawa, Seiji

    2006-11-15

    The authors investigated real-time monitoring of charge accumulation during pulse-time-modulated plasma processes by using their developed on-wafer monitoring chip. The charge accumulation potential between the top surface and the bottom in a SiO{sub 2} contact structure was measured during pulse-time-modulated plasma exposure with an on-wafer monitoring device. In conventional plasma with rf bias, the electron shading effect could be clearly observed as the potential difference between the wafer surface and the contact-hole bottom. Conversely, the accumulated charge in the pulse-time-modulated operation was drastically decreased. Time-resolved electron and ion flows to the SiO{sub 2} contact hole were clarified by the on-wafer monitoring. Accordingly, it was confirmed that the on-wafer monitoring is a very effective tool for investigating the local charge accumulation in actual device structures.

  5. Real-time accumulative computation motion detectors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  6. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  7. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  8. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  9. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  10. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  11. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  12. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  13. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  14. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  15. A Note on Time Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Noriaki

    2016-09-01

    We construct a time operator of a self-adjoint operator H with finite dimensional CCR-domain. As corollaries, we show that there exists a time operator of H with infinite dimensional CCR-domain. Moreover, we construct a time operator of H with dense CCR-domain if there is a complete orthonormal systems which consists of eigenvectors of H.

  16. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulation time limits. 273.35 Section 273.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A...

  17. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulation time limits. 273.15 Section 273.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A...

  18. Timelines and Quantum Time Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Curt A.

    2015-04-01

    The failure of conventional quantum theory to recognize time as an observable and to admit time operators is addressed. Instead of focusing on the existence of a time operator for a given Hamiltonian, we emphasize the role of the Hamiltonian as the generator of translations in time to construct time states. Taken together, these states constitute what we call a timeline. Such timelines are adequate for the representation of any physical state, and appear to exist even for the semi-bounded and discrete Hamiltonian systems ruled out by Pauli's theorem. However, the step from a timeline to a valid time operator requires additional assumptions that are not always met. Still, this approach illuminates the issues surrounding the construction of time operators, and establishes timelines as legitimate alternatives to the familiar coordinate and momentum bases of standard quantum theory.

  19. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  20. EFFECT OF VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR OPERATION ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACTIVITY. (R826168)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess biomass accumulation and activity loss in vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) can lead to unreliable long-term operation. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in biomass accumulation, distribution and activity in VPBs treating toluene-contaminated air were monitored o...

  1. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation, TWOS is complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism - distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation.

  2. Evidence accumulation in a complex task: Making choices about concurrent multiattribute stimuli under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Palada, Hector; Neal, Andrew; Vuckovic, Anita; Martin, Russell; Samuels, Kate; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence accumulation models transform observed choices and associated response times into psychologically meaningful constructs such as the strength of evidence and the degree of caution. Standard versions of these models were developed for rapid (∼1 s) choices about simple stimuli, and have recently been elaborated to some degree to address more complex stimuli and response methods. However, these elaborations can be difficult to use with designs and measurements typically encountered in complex applied settings. We test the applicability of 2 standard accumulation models-the diffusion (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) and the linear ballistic accumulation (LBA) (Brown & Heathcote, 2008)-to data from a task representative of many applied situations: the detection of heterogeneous multiattribute targets in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator task. Despite responses taking more than 2 s and complications added by realistic features, such as a complex target classification rule, interruptions from a simultaneous UAV navigation task, and time pressured choices about several concurrently present potential targets, these models performed well descriptively. They also provided a coherent psychological explanation of the effects of decision uncertainty and workload manipulations. Our results support the wider application of standard evidence accumulation models to applied decision-making settings. PMID:26844369

  3. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  4. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  5. Operational quantum theory without predefined time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    The standard formulation of quantum theory assumes a predefined notion of time. This is a major obstacle in the search for a quantum theory of gravity, where the causal structure of space-time is expected to be dynamical and fundamentally probabilistic in character. Here, we propose a generalized formulation of quantum theory without predefined time or causal structure, building upon a recently introduced operationally time-symmetric approach to quantum theory. The key idea is a novel isomorphism between transformations and states which depends on the symmetry transformation of time reversal. This allows us to express the time-symmetric formulation in a time-neutral form with a clear physical interpretation, and ultimately drop the assumption of time. In the resultant generalized formulation, operations are associated with regions that can be connected in networks with no directionality assumed for the connections, generalizing the standard circuit framework and the process matrix framework for operations without global causal order. The possible events in a given region are described by positive semidefinite operators on a Hilbert space at the boundary, while the connections between regions are described by entangled states that encode a nontrivial symmetry and could be tested in principle. We discuss how the causal structure of space-time could be understood as emergent from properties of the operators on the boundaries of compact space-time regions. The framework is compatible with indefinite causal order, timelike loops, and other acausal structures.

  6. Modeling Information Accumulation in Psychological Tests Using Item Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a latent trait model is proposed for the response times in psychological tests. The latent trait model is based on the linear transformation model and subsumes popular models from survival analysis, like the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model. Core of the model is the assumption that an unspecified monotone…

  7. Matrix representation of the time operator

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna

    2012-06-15

    In quantum mechanics the time operator {Theta} satisfies the commutation relation [{Theta}, H]=i, and thus it may be thought of as being formally canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian H. The time operator associated with a given Hamiltonian H is not unique because one can replace {Theta} by {Theta}+{Theta}{sub hom}, where {Theta}{sub hom} satisfies the homogeneous condition [{Theta}{sub hom}, H]= 0. To study this nonuniqueness the matrix elements of {Theta} for the harmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian are calculated in the eigenstate basis. This calculation requires the summation of divergent series, and the summation is accomplished by using zeta-summation techniques. It is shown that by including appropriate homogeneous contributions, the matrix elements of {Theta} simplify dramatically. However, it is still not clear whether there is an optimally simple representation of the time operator.

  8. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  9. Multidecadal time series of satellite-detected accumulations of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scums. The area of these accumulations can reach ~ 200 000 km2. We describe the compilation of a 35-year-long time series (1979-2013) of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud-free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July-August). The total accumulated area affected was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the second half of the time series (13.8%, 1997-2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979-1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11-17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) during 1985-1990; they increased again starting in 1991 and particularly in 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25

  10. Effect of charge accumulation on the stability of PEDOT:PSS during device operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teguh, Jefri S.; Sum, Tze Chien; Yeow, Edwin K. L.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of charge imbalance and accumulation on the stability of the hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS in devices is studied during device operation. The principal Raman peak of PEDOT at around 1420-1430 cm-1 is weakened and undergoes band broadening cum shift due to oxidation by holes injected from the ITO anode (doping). Upon suspending the applied potential, the oxidized PEDOT converts back to its as-prepared state. The oxidation of PEDOT is found to be reversible as long as the applied potential is kept relatively low as higher potential would induce PEDOT decomposition.

  11. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  12. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van )

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  13. Satellite detection of multi-decadal time series of cyanobacteria accumulations in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.

    2014-02-01

    Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scum. We describe the compilation of a 35 year (1979-2013) long time series of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on increased remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. FCA was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July-August). TA was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. FCA and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the 2nd half of the time series (13.8%, 1997-2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979-1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11-17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) from 1985 to 1990; they increased again from 1991 and particularly from 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25%) and TA (~ 210 000 km2) in 2005 and 2008. After 2008 FCA declined to more moderate levels (6-17%). The timing of the accumulations has become earlier in the season, at a

  14. Influence of C-Trap Ion Accumulation Time on the Detectability of Analytes in IR-MALDESI MSI.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elias P; Bokhart, Mark T; Nazari, Milad; Muddiman, David C

    2015-10-20

    Laser desorption followed by post electrospray ionization requires synchronized timing of the key events (sample desorption/ionization, mass spectrometry analysis, and sample translation) necessary to conduct mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with adequate analyte sensitivity. In infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) MSI analyses, two laser pulses are used for analysis at each volumetric element, or voxel, of a biological sample and ion accumulation in the C-trap exceeding 100 ms is necessary to capture all sample-associated ions using an infrared laser with a 20 Hz repetition rate. When coupled to an Orbitrap-based mass spectrometer like the Q Exactive Plus, this time window for ion accumulation exceeds dynamically controlled trapping of samples with comparable ion flux by Automatic Gain Control (AGC), which cannot be used during MSI analysis. In this work, a next-generation IR-MALDESI source has been designed and constructed that incorporates a mid-infrared OPO laser capable of operating at 100 Hz and allows requisite C-trap inject time during MSI to be reduced to 30 ms. Analyte detectability of the next-generation IR-MALDESI integrated source has been evaluated as a function of laser repetition rate (100-20 Hz) with corresponding C-trap ion accumulation times (30-110 ms) in both untargeted and targeted analysis of biological samples. Reducing the C-trap ion accumulation time resulted in increased ion abundance by up to 3 orders of magnitude for analytes ranging from xenobiotics to endogenous lipids, and facilitated the reduction of voxel-to-voxel variability by more than 3-fold. PMID:26414177

  15. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  16. Diffusion versus linear ballistic accumulation: different models for response time with different conclusions about psychological mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Hayes, Brett

    2012-06-01

    Two similar classes of evidence-accumulation model have dominated theorizing about rapid binary choice: diffusion models and racing accumulator pairs. Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers (2011) examined mimicry between the Ratcliff diffusion (RD; Ratcliff & Smith, 2004) and the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008), the 2 least similar models from each class that provide a comprehensive account of a set benchmark phenomena in rapid binary choice. Where conditions differed only in the rate of evidence accumulation (the most common case in past research), simulations showed the models supported equivalent psychological inferences. In contrast, differences in 2 other parameters of key psychological interest, response caution (the amount of information required for a decision), and nondecision time, traded-off when fitting 1 model to data simulated from the other, implying the potential for divergent inferences about latent cognitive processes. However, Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers did not find such inconsistencies between fits of the RD and LBA models in a survey of data sets from paradigms using a range of experimental manipulations. We examined a further data set, collected by Dutilh, Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, and Wagenmakers (2009), which used a manipulation not surveyed by Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers's practice. Dutilh et al.'s RD model fits indicated that practice had large effects on all three types of parameters. We show that in this case the LBA provides a different and simpler account of practice effects. Implications for evidence accumulation modelling are discussed. PMID:22686161

  17. Development of accumulated heat stress index based on time-weighted function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Heat stress accumulates in the human body when a person is exposed to a thermal condition for a long time. Considering this fact, we have defined the accumulated heat stress (AH) and have developed the accumulated heat stress index (AHI) to quantify the strength of heat stress. AH represents the heat stress accumulated in a 72-h period calculated by the use of a time-weighted function, and the AHI is a standardized index developed by the use of an equiprobability transformation (from a fitted Weibull distribution to the standard normal distribution). To verify the advantage offered by the AHI, it was compared with four thermal indices the humidex, the heat index, the wet-bulb globe temperature, and the perceived temperature used by national governments. AH and the AHI were found to provide better detection of thermal danger and were more useful than other indices. In particular, AH and the AHI detect deaths that were caused not only by extremely hot and humid weather, but also by the persistence of moderately hot and humid weather (for example, consecutive daily maximum temperatures of 28-32 °C), which the other indices fail to detect.

  18. Development of accumulated heat stress index based on time-weighted function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Heat stress accumulates in the human body when a person is exposed to a thermal condition for a long time. Considering this fact, we have defined the accumulated heat stress (AH) and have developed the accumulated heat stress index (AHI) to quantify the strength of heat stress. AH represents the heat stress accumulated in a 72-h period calculated by the use of a time-weighted function, and the AHI is a standardized index developed by the use of an equiprobability transformation (from a fitted Weibull distribution to the standard normal distribution). To verify the advantage offered by the AHI, it was compared with four thermal indices the humidex, the heat index, the wet-bulb globe temperature, and the perceived temperature used by national governments. AH and the AHI were found to provide better detection of thermal danger and were more useful than other indices. In particular, AH and the AHI detect deaths that were caused not only by extremely hot and humid weather, but also by the persistence of moderately hot and humid weather (for example, consecutive daily maximum temperatures of 28-32 °C), which the other indices fail to detect.

  19. Unitary expansion of the time evolution operator

    SciTech Connect

    Zagury, N.; Aragao, A.; Casanova, J.; Solano, E.

    2010-10-15

    We propose an expansion of the unitary evolution operator, associated with a given Schroedinger equation, in terms of a finite product of explicit unitary operators. In this manner, this unitary expansion can be truncated at the desired level of approximation, as shown in the given examples.

  20. Guide to good practices for timely orders to operators

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Timely Orders to Operators, Chapter XV of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing Timely Orders to Operators programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Timely Orders to Operators is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for timely orders to operators to promote safe and efficient operations.

  1. Manufacturing time operators: Covariance, selection criteria, and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G. C.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.

    2010-07-15

    We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.

  2. 47 CFR 73.1705 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... educational TV and commercial FM stations will be licensed for unlimited time operation. Application may be made for voluntary share-time operation. (b) Noncommercial educational FM stations will be licensed...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1705 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational TV and commercial FM stations will be licensed for unlimited time operation. Application may be made for voluntary share-time operation. (b) Noncommercial educational FM stations will be licensed...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1705 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... educational TV and commercial FM stations will be licensed for unlimited time operation. Application may be made for voluntary share-time operation. (b) Noncommercial educational FM stations will be licensed...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1705 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... educational TV and commercial FM stations will be licensed for unlimited time operation. Application may be made for voluntary share-time operation. (b) Noncommercial educational FM stations will be licensed...

  6. FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT OPERATING COSTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Community Colleges, Richmond.

    CONCLUSIONS IN THREE AREAS WERE DERIVED FROM TABULAR PRESENTATIONS OF UNIT COST DATA FROM COLORADO, DELAWARE, GEORGIA, ILLINOIS, NORTH CAROLINA, OKLAHOMA, AND OREGON--(1) SMALL COLLEGES COST MORE TO OPERATE THAN LARGER COLLEGES. COSTS INCREASE AS MORE STUDENTS ENROLL IN A COLLEGE BUT NOT IN PROPORTION TO THE ENROLLMENT. (2) VOCATIONAL AND…

  7. The Holocene Thermal Maximum as a Time of Rapid Peat Accumulation and Peatland Expansion in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. C.; Yu, Z.; Peteet, D. M.

    2009-05-01

    High latitudes are particularly sensitive to climate warming resulting from a number of important positive feedbacks, including increasing albedo from changing sea ice extent, snow and vegetation cover, and feedbacks to the carbon cycle. The fate of high latitude ecosystems and associated climate feedbacks in response to warming remains uncertain, particularly in boreal peatlands, which store roughly one-third of the global carbon pool. In order to understand how peatlands respond to climate warming, we examined Holocene carbon accumulation rates from four peatlands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, focusing on the early Holocene (~11,000-9000 cal yr BP), a time when the climate was warmer than today. Basal dates from over 200 peat cores across Alaska were compiled to examine the timing and spatial distribution of peatland initiation across Alaska, and available pollen data from the North American Pollen Database (NAPD) and the Paleoenvironmental Arctic Sciences (PARCS) databases were used to examine associated vegetation distribution patterns. Our study reveals that the highest rates of carbon accumulation on the Kenai Peninsula occurred during the early Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), which also corresponds to the highest number of peat basal dates both on the Kenai and across Alaska, indicating that not only vertical peat growth but also lateral peatland expansion was high. We suggest that the warm summers and longer growing season during the early Holocene in Alaska resulted in high net primary productivity (NPP), rapid peat burial, and the greatest carbon accumulation rates. Rapid rates of accumulation and burial may have minimized the effects of aerobic decomposition. In addition, a change in the seasonal timing of precipitation and moisture availability and an increase in summer precipitation may have decreased drought stress, promoting peatland initiation and peat growth. We also speculate that the dominance of broad-leafed deciduous forests and abundant

  8. Real-Time Operating System/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  9. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  10. Physical limits of semiconductor laser operation: A time-resolved analysis of catastrophic optical damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Mathias; Hempel, Martin; Tomm, Jens W.; Elsaesser, Thomas; Larsen, Henning E.; Andersen, Peter E.; Clausen, Soennik; Elliott, Stella N.

    2010-07-12

    The early stages of catastrophic optical damage (COD) in 808 nm emitting diode lasers are mapped by simultaneously monitoring the optical emission with a 1 ns time resolution and deriving the device temperature from thermal images. COD occurs in highly localized damage regions on a 30 to 400 ns time scale which is determined by the accumulation of excess energy absorbed from the optical output. We identify regimes in which COD is avoided by the proper choice of operation parameters.

  11. A operational real time flood forecasting chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, N.; Cavallo, A.; Giannoni, F.; Turato, B.

    2003-04-01

    Extreme floods forecast represent an important modeling challenge for which it is crucial to utilize the simplest model representations that capture the dominant controls of extreme flood response. For extreme floods, the spatio-temporal structure of rainfall and drainage network structure often play a fundamental role. The integrated meteo-hydrologic real time forecasting chain in use at the Hydrometorological Center of Liguria Region is presented with particular regard to a specific case study. The meteorological forecasts are performed through the use of traditional means as Numerical Weather Predictions models at different resolutions and an innovative tool for the now-casting prediction as the meteorological Radar. The elements of the hydrologic model are a Hortonian infiltration model and a GIUH-based network response model. The basin scales of interest range from approximately 50 - 1,000 km2. The case study is the November 23-26, 2002 event.

  12. Simulation of the effects of time and size at stocking on PCB accumulation in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    Manipulations of size at stocking and timing of stocking have already been used to improve survival of stocked salmonines in the Great Lakes. It should be possible to stock salmonines into the Great Lakes in a way that reduces the rate of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in these fishes. An individual-based model (IBM) was used to investigate the effects of size at stocking and timing of stocking on PCB accumulation by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan. The individual-based feature of the model allowed lake trout individuals to encounter prey fish individuals and then consume sufficiently small prey fish. The IBM accurately accounted for the variation in PCB concentrations observed within the Lake Michigan lake trout population. Results of the IBM simulations revealed that increasing the average size at stocking from 110 to 160 mm total length led to an increase in the average PCB concentration in the stocked cohort at age 5, after the fish had spent 4 years in the lake, from 2.33 to 2.65 mg/kg; the percentage of lake trout in the cohort at the end of the simulated time period with PCB concentration of 2 mg/kg or more increased from 62% to 79%. Thus, PCB contamination was reduced when the simulated size at stocking was smallest. An overall stocking strategy for lake trout into Lake Michigan should weigh this advantage regarding PCB contamination against the poor survival of lake trout that may occur if the trout are stocked at too small a size.

  13. Preconditioning the pressure operator for the time dependent Stokes problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In implicit time stepping procedures for the linearized Navier Stokes equations, a linear perturbed Stokes problem must be solved at each time step. Many methods for doing this require a good preconditioner for the resulting pressure operator (Schur complement). In contrast to the time independent Stokes equations where the pressure operator is well conditioned, the pressure operator for the perturbed system becomes more illconditioned as the time step is reduced (and/or the Reynolds number is increased). The authors describe the method for solving the coupled velocity/pressure systems and, in particular, show how to construct good preconditioners for the poorly conditioned pressure operator.

  14. Timing of foliar Zn application plays a vital role in minimizing Cd accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Saifullah; Javed, Hina; Naeem, Asif; Rengel, Zed; Dahlawi, Saad

    2016-08-01

    Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), application of Zn may minimize Cd uptake by plants and ameliorate its toxicity. However, there is poor understanding of the comparative effectiveness of the foliar Zn application at different growth stages on Cd toxicity and accumulation in wheat. The present study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of foliarly applied Zn at different stages of plant growth to minimize Cd accumulation in wheat grains. Wheat (cv AARI-2011) was grown at three levels of soil Cd (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg kg(-1)). Foliar application of Zn was carried out at either tillering, jointing, booting, heading, or grain filling stage using 0.05 % w/v aqueous solution of ZnSO4 · 7H2O. Increasing soil Cd had a negative effect on growth and yield attributes, including tiller production, root length and dry weight, plant height, 100-grain weight and grain and straw yield. Zinc foliar spray increased grain yield by increasing tiller production; importantly, an application at booting was more effective than at other stages. Foliarly applied Zn decreased Cd concentration in the roots, straw, and grain. Similar to grain yield, the largest decrease (74 %) in Cd concentration was associated with Zn foliar spray at booting. Grain yield was negatively related to grain Cd concentration which in turn showed a negative relationship with Zn concentration in leaves and grains. It is concluded that the booting stage is the suitable time for foliar application of Zn to (i) effectively minimize a Cd-induced loss in grain yield and (ii) decrease grain Cd concentration. PMID:27164881

  15. Operator's manual on the visual-accumulation tube method for sedimentation analysis of sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, V.C.; Witzgman, F.W.

    1958-01-01

    The personnel who will be operating these units may have little or no previous knowledge of either the principles involved or the details of opera.ting procedure. This manual is intended as an aid to them in setting up the apparatus, learning the analytical procedure, interpreting the results, and understanding the primary principles encountered.

  16. 47 CFR 73.561 - Operating schedule; time sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operating schedule; time sharing. 73.561 Section 73.561 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.561 Operating schedule; time sharing. (a) All noncommercial educational...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1705 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time of operation. 73.1705 Section 73.1705 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1705 Time of operation. (a) Commercial and noncommercial educational TV and commercial...

  18. Simulation of time-dispersion spectral device with sample spectra accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Arseny; Khansuvarov, Ruslan; Korol, Georgy

    2014-09-01

    This research is conducted in order to design a spectral device for light sources power spectrum analysis. The spectral device should process radiation from sources, direct contact with radiation of which is either impossible or undesirable. Such sources include jet blast of an aircraft, optical radiation in metallurgy and textile industry. In proposed spectral device optical radiation is guided out of unfavorable environment via a piece of optical fiber with high dispersion. It is necessary for analysis to make samples of analyzed radiation as short pulses. Dispersion properties of such optical fiber cause spectral decomposition of input optical pulses. The faster time of group delay vary the stronger the spectral decomposition effect. This effect allows using optical fiber with high dispersion as a major element of proposed spectral device. Duration of sample must be much shorter than group delay time difference of a dispersive system. In the given frequency range this characteristic has to be linear. The frequency range is 400 … 500 THz for typical optical fiber. Using photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) gives much wider spectral range for analysis. In this paper we propose simulation of single pulse transmission through dispersive system with linear dispersion characteristic and quadratic-detected output responses accumulation. During simulation we propose studying influence of optical fiber dispersion characteristic angle on spectral measurement results. We also consider pulse duration and group delay time difference impact on output pulse shape and duration. Results show the most suitable dispersion characteristic that allow choosing the structure of PCF - major element of time-dispersion spectral analysis method and required number of samples for reliable assessment of measured spectrum.

  19. Improving on-time surgical starts in an operating room

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James G.; Roche, Ann; Khoury, Antoine E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Operating rooms are expensive to run, and hospitals strive to be efficient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an initiative to improve starting on time in the operating room in an academic pediatric hospital. Methods We used an 8-step approach to transforming an organization. A multidisciplinary team defined on-time starts, identified reasons for delays and instituted changes, including improving the same-day admission process, instituting a huddle of operating room staff each morning and providing feedback about on-time starts to staff. Results The most common reasons for delay were surgeon and anesthesiologist unavailability and lack of preparedness of patients. The percentage of operations that began on time, defined as the patient being in the room, increased from about 6% to 60% over a 9-month period. Conclusion A targeted, multifaceted and multidisciplinary approach can increase the percentage of operations that begin on time in a pediatric hospital. PMID:20507788

  20. Time-Dependent dust accumulation on the Telltale fibres of the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Merrison, J. P.; Ellehoj, M. D.; Lemmon, M. T.; Phoenix Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The NASA Mars Mission Phoenix lasted 152 sols corresponding to LS = 76° to 148° [1]. During this time wind speeds and directions were measured with the so-called Telltale wind indicator [2, 3]. The Telltale is a mechanical anemometer containing a lightweight Kapton tube suspended in Kevlar fibres. Wind speeds and directions were determined by analyzing the position of the Kapton cylinder in pictures taken with the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Time dependent dust accumulation on the Telltale fibres was observed during the Phoenix mission. The amount of dust on the fibres was estimated by calculating a dust factor assuming exponential absorption through the dust loaded fibres with the sun almost in the line of sight of the Telltale. Alternatively, and in the laboratory, the dust load can be monitored using light source behind the camera system. On Mars, however, this situation was only reached at 3 AM, where very little Telltale data was obtained. At the start of the mission (LS ~ 78°) the dust load is minor. The dust load increased at a steady rate until LS ~ 114°. On later sols, the fibres appear thinner, indicating that they have been partially cleared of dust. The removal of dust seems coupled with dust devil passing at the Phoenix landing site. The first major dust-devil days [4], were at LS ~ 112° and LS ~ 120°, correlate with the removal of dust of the fibres. The behaviour appears to be more erratic hereafter, but there are clear indications of periods with accumulation and removal. In this contribution we will present the data from Mars and compare with on-going simulation experiments performed at the Aarhus wind tunnel facilities [5]. References: [1] Smith, P. H., et al., (2009) Science, 325, 58. [2] Gunnlaugsson, H. P., et al., (2008) JGR, 113, E00A04 [3] Holstein-Rathlou, C., et al., (2010) JGR in press. [4] Ellehoj, M. D., et al., (2010) JGR in press. [5] Merrison, J. P., et al., (2007) Icarus, 191, 568

  1. Time Warp Operating System, Version 2.5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, Steven F.; Gieselman, John S.; Hawley, Lawrence R.; Peterson, Judy; Presley, Matthew T.; Reiher, Peter L.; Springer, Paul L.; Tupman, John R.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Wieland, Frederick P.; Younger, Herbert C.

    1993-01-01

    Time Warp Operating System, TWOS, is special purpose computer program designed to support parallel simulation of discrete events. Complete implementation of Time Warp software mechanism, which implements distributed protocol for virtual synchronization based on rollback of processes and annihilation of messages. Supports simulations and other computations in which both virtual time and dynamic load balancing used. Program utilizes underlying resources of operating system. Written in C programming language.

  2. A new mtDNA mutation showing accumulation with time and restriction to skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, K.; Wilson, J.N.; Taylor, L.

    1997-02-01

    We have identified a new mutation in mtDNA, involving tRNA{sup Leu(CUN)} in a patient manifesting an isolated skeletal myopathy. This heteroplasmic A{r_arrow}G transition at position 12320 affects the T{Psi}C loop at a conserved site and was not found in 120 controls. Analysis of cultured fibroblasts, white blood cells/platelets, and skeletal muscle showed that only skeletal muscle contained the mutation and that only this tissue demonstrated a biochemical defect of respiratory-chain activity. In a series of four muscle-biopsy specimens taken over a 12-year period, there was a gradual increase, from 70% to 90%, in the overall level of mutation, as well as a marked clinical deterioration. Single-fiber PCR confirmed that the proportion of mutant mtDNA was highest in cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. This study, which reports a mutation involving tRNA{sup Leu(CUN)}, demonstrates clearly that mtDNA point mutations can accumulate over time and may be restricted in their tissue distribution. Furthermore, clinical deterioration seemed to follow the increase in the level of mutation, although, interestingly, the appearance of fibers deficient in respiratory-chain activity showed a lag period. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. TIME FOR COFFEE controls root meristem size by changes in auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Li-Wei; Yan, Da-Wei; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Guo; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Roots play important roles in plant survival and productivity as they not only anchor the plants in the soil but are also the primary organ for the uptake of nutrients from the outside. The growth and development of roots depend on the specification and maintenance of the root meristem. Here, we report a previously unknown role of TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) in controlling root meristem size in Arabidopsis. The results showed that loss of function of TIC reduced root meristem length and cell number by decreasing the competence of meristematic cells to divide. This was due to the repressed expression of PIN genes for decreased acropetal auxin transport in tic-2, leading to low auxin accumulation in the roots responsible for reduced root meristem, which was verified by exogenous application of indole-3-acetic acid. Downregulated expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, key transcription factors in mediating the patterning of the root stem cell niche, was also assayed in tic-2. Similar results were obtained with tic-2 and wild-type plants at either dawn or dusk. We also suggested that the MYC2-mediated jasmonic acid signalling pathway may not be involved in the regulation of TIC in controlling the root meristem. Taken together, these results suggest that TIC functions in an auxin-PLTs loop for maintenance of post-embryonic root meristem. PMID:24277277

  4. Time-delayed operation of a telerobot via geosynchronous relay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1988-01-01

    Operation of a telerobot is compromised if a time delay of more than a few hundred milliseconds exists between the operator and remote manipulator. However, the most economically attractive way to perform telerobotic functions such as assembly, maintenance, and repair in Earth orbit is via geosynchronous relay satellites to a ground-based operator. This induces loop delays from one-half to two seconds, depending on how many relays are involved. Such large delays makes direct master-slave, force-reflecting teleoperated systems infeasible. Research at JPL on a useful telerobot that operates with such time delays is described.

  5. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  6. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  7. Pedagogical Aspects of Time-Dependent Rotation Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the reformulation of a classical magnetic moment interacting with various magnetic field configurations in terms of coordinate-free, time-dependent rotation operators. This approach provides useful exercises for the manipulation of three-dimensional rotation operators and provides examples for a number of quantum-mechanics related…

  8. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is not required to adhere to any regular schedule of operation. However, the licensee of a TV...

  9. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is not required to adhere to any regular schedule of operation. However, the licensee of a TV...

  10. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is not required to adhere to any regular schedule of operation. However, the licensee of a TV...

  11. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is not required to adhere to any regular schedule of operation. However, the licensee of a TV...

  12. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is not required to adhere to any regular schedule of operation. However, the licensee of a TV...

  13. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  14. Microbial community composition of polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating organisms in full-scale wastewater treatment plants operated in fully aerobic mode.

    PubMed

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11-18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5-38.2 mg-C g-VSS(-1) h(-1)). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  15. Virtual time and time warp on the JPL hypercube. [operating system implementation for distributed simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David; Beckman, Brian

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of virtual time and its implementation in the Time Warp Operating System at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Virtual time is a distributed synchronization paradigm that is appropriate for distributed simulation, database concurrency control, real time systems, and coordination of replicated processes. The Time Warp Operating System is targeted toward the distributed simulation application and runs on a 32-node JPL Mark II Hypercube.

  16. Zero-dead-time operation of interleaved atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, G W; Takase, K; Wu, X; Deslauriers, L; Roy, S; Kasevich, M A

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate a zero-dead-time operation of atomic clocks. This clock reduces sensitivity to local oscillator noise, integrating as nearly 1/τ whereas a clock with dead time integrates as 1/τ(1/2) under identical conditions. We contend that a similar scheme may be applied to improve the stability of optical clocks. PMID:24206471

  17. Operation of a liquid argon time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, H.J.; Chen, H.H.; Doe, P.J.

    1983-02-01

    For the first time, the operation of a three-dimensional liquid argon time projection chamber has been demonstrated. This was accomplished in a 50 liter test detector using a readout plane with a woven structure etched on a PC-board.

  18. Understanding the molecular mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in carrot (Daucus carota) using real time quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  19. Production, accumulation, and decomposition of Melaleuca quinquenervia litter biomass in time and space

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) is highly invasive in various habitats of southern Florida where it has invaded over 200,000 hectares. Some areas have become closed-canopy monocultures with thick layers of leaf litter covering the forest floor. We hypothesized that the dramatic accumulation of...

  20. Synchronized growth and neutral lipid accumulation in Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG under continuous mode of operation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikram; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Das, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Synchronized growth and neutral lipid accumulation with high lipid productivity under mixotrophic growth of the strain Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG was achieved via manipulation of substrates feeding mode and supplementation of lipid elicitors in the growth medium. Screening and optimization of lipid elicitors resulted in lipid productivity of 110.59mgL(-1)day(-1) under the combined effect of lipid inducers sodium acetate and sodium chloride. Fed-batch cultivation of the strain in bioreactor with intermittent feeding of limiting nutrients and lipid inducer resulted in maximum biomass and lipid productivity of 2.08 and 0.97gL(-1)day(-1) respectively. Further, continuous production of biomass with concomitant lipid accumulation was demonstrated via continuous feeding of BG11 media supplemented with lipid inducers sodium acetate and sodium chloride. The improved biomass and lipid productivity in chemostat was found to be 2.81 and 1.27gL(-1)day(-1) respectively operated at a dilution rate of 0.54day(-1). PMID:26575619

  1. Simultaneous measurements of ice sheet elevation change, accumulation, and firn compaction using Operation IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, Brooke; Ligtenberg, Stefan; van den Broeke, Michiel; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Nowicki, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Altimetric methods for determination of ice sheet mass balance are extremely valuable as they typically measure large regions of the ice sheet, from basin- to continental-scale. The measured volume change is converted to mass change if the density of the lost material is known. The complication lies in the fact that the observed elevation change consists of two components of differing densities: firn and ice. Annual fluctuations in snow accumulation and firn compaction cause the firn column to vary in thickness, which is often a large component of the total elevation change in the interior since the density of firn is less than that of ice. Further complication arises from the fact that fluctuations in the firn compaction rate do not result in mass change. Therefore, to properly determine mass change, the observed elevation change must be partitioned into accumulation, firn compaction, and ice components. Because altimetry studies are often large in scale, models are used to account for the firn processes, which are coarse in resolution (~10s kilometers) relative to the observed elevation changes (sub-kilometer). Here, we take advantage of a unique opportunity to simultaneously measure surface elevation change, snow accumulation, and firn compaction over the Thwaites catchment in West Antarctica using two Operation IceBridge (OIB) sensors. The firn processes are observed using the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) snow radar, and elevation changes are measured using the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Coincident observations such as the aforementioned allow us to not only accurately evaluate mass change over short distances, but also determine the importance of accounting for small-scale variations in firn processes in large-scale (basin-wide to continental) assessments of mass balance. Our results indicate that accumulation rates vary by more than 10% and compaction rates vary by more than 10 cm/yr over distances as little as 5 km in this region. Thus

  2. Workspace visualization and time-delay telerobotic operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P. S.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of telerobotic tasks where the operator and robot are physically separated, and a comunication time delay of up to several seconds between them exists. This situation is applicable to space robotic servicing-assembly-maintenance operations on low earth or geosynchronous orbits with a ground-based command station. Attention is given to two developments which address advanced time-delay teleoperations for unstructured tasks: (1) the 'phantom robot', a real-time predictive graphics simulator developed to allow teleoperator eye-to-hand coordination or robot free-space kinematics under a time delay of several seconds; and (2) shared compliance control, a modified form of automatic electromechanical impedance control employed in parallel with manual position control to permit soft contact and grasp compliance with workpiece geometry under a time delay of several seconds.

  3. Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

  4. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    PubMed Central

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  5. Self-adjoint time operators and invariant subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Fernando

    2008-02-01

    The question of existence of self-adjoint time operators for unitary evolutions in classical and quantum mechanics is revisited on the basis of Halmos-Helson theory of invariant subspaces, Sz.-Nagy-Foiaş dilation theory and Misra-Prigogine-Courbage theory of irreversibility. It is shown that the existence of self-adjoint time operators is equivalent to the intertwining property of the evolution plus the existence of simply invariant subspaces or rigid operator-valued functions for its Sz.-Nagy-Foiaş functional model. Similar equivalent conditions are given in terms of intrinsic randomness in the context of statistical mechanics. The rest of the contents are mainly a unifying review of the subject scattered throughout an unconnected literature. A well-known extensive set of equivalent conditions is derived from the above results; such conditions are written in terms of Schrrdinger couples, the Weyl commutation relation, incoming and outgoing subspaces, innovation processes, Lax-Phillips scattering, translation and spectral representations, and spectral properties. Also the natural procedure dealing with symmetric time operators in standard quantum mechanics involving their self-adjoint extensions is illustrated by considering the quantum Aharonov-Bohm time-of-arrival operator.

  6. The time course of potassium current following potassium accumulation in frog atrium: analytical solutions using a linear approximation.

    PubMed Central

    DiFrancesco, D; Noble, D

    1980-01-01

    1. Regular perturbation theory was used to obtain analytical solutions for the time course of membrane current decay following voltage-clamp depolarizing pulses when both time-dependent K conductance mechanisms and the process of K accumulation in extracellular spaces are present. These solutions apply when the current and K concentration changes are small enough for linear relations to be assumed between current and K concentration. 2. In the case of a single Hodgkin-Huxley type conductance variable with time constant tau chi the presence of an accumulation process which, by itself, would produce a current decay with time constant tau alpha, induces the appearance of two infinite sets of components with decreasing time constants (1/(n+1/tau chi) and 1/(1/tau alpha + n/tau chi), where n is integer), and decreasing magnitudes. 3. The analytical solutions are used to investigate the range of conditions over which semi-exponential (curve-stripping) analysis of current decay tails may give useful information on the kinetics of current change. It is shown that, except at very large decay tail amplitudes, the method may give a good estimate of the true time constants of conductance decay even when the currents are assumed to be strongly dependent on external K concentration. 4. The method introduces error in current amplitude, but over the range in which curve-stripping gives useful results, the direct distortion of activation curves by variations in external K concentration is fairly small. However, as the current decay becomes grossly distorted in its time course by accumulation, so does the activation curve. The effects are very similar both to those obtained using numerical computation without linearization, and to those obtained experimentally. 5. Even with a large dependence of current on external K concentration the linear model does not reproduce i chi, fast as a perturbation of i chi, slow by K accumulation. PMID:7463358

  7. Incorporate Hydrologic Forecast for Real-Time Reservoir Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Cai, X.; Zhao, J.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection relationships have significantly improved streamflow forecast precision and lead-time. The advances provide great opportunities to improve the operation rules of water resources systems, for example, updating reservoir operation curves using long-term forecast, or even replacing operation rules by real-time optimization and simulation models utilizing various streamflow forecast products. However, incorporation of forecast for real-time optimization of reservoir operation needs more understanding of the forecast uncertainty (FU) evolution with forecast horizon (FH, the advance time of a forecast) and the complicating effect of FU and FH. Increasing horizon may provide more information for decision making in a long time framework but with increasing error and less reliable information. This presentation addresses the challenges on the use of hydrologic forecast for real-time reservoir operations through the following two particular studies: 1) Evaluating the effectiveness of the various hydrological forecast products for reservoir operation with an explicit simulation of dynamic evolution of uncertainties involved in those products. A hypothetical example shows that optimal reservoir operation varies with the hydrologic forecast products. The utility of the reservoir operation with ensemble or probabilistic streamflow forecast (with a probabilistic uncertainty distribution) is the highest compared to deterministic streamflow forecast (DSF) with the forecast uncertainty represented in the form of deterministic forecast errors and DSF-based probabilistic streamflow forecast with the forecast uncertainty represented by a conditional distribution of forecast uncertainty for a given DSF. 2) Identifying an effective forecast horizon (EFH) under a limited inflow forecast considering the complicating effect of FH and FU, as well as streamflow variability and reservoir characteristics

  8. A dynamical time operator in Dirac's relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, M.

    2014-03-01

    A self-adjoint dynamical time operator is introduced in Dirac's relativistic formulation of quantum mechanics and shown to satisfy a commutation relation with the Hamiltonian analogous to that of the position and momentum operators. The ensuing time-energy uncertainty relation involves the uncertainty in the instant of time when the wave packet passes a particular spatial position and the energy uncertainty associated with the wave packet at the same time, as envisaged originally by Bohr. The instantaneous rate of change of the position expectation value with respect to the simultaneous expectation value of the dynamical time operator is shown to be the phase velocity, in agreement with de Broglie's hypothesis of a particle associated wave whose phase velocity is larger than c. Thus, these two elements of the original basis and interpretation of quantum mechanics are integrated into its formal mathematical structure. Pauli's objection is shown to be resolved or circumvented. Possible relevance to current developments in electron channeling, in interference in time, in Zitterbewegung-like effects in spintronics, graphene and superconducting systems and in cosmology is noted.

  9. 47 CFR 74.1263 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time of operation. 74.1263 Section 74.1263 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations...

  10. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acidmore » concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.« less

  11. Time range for accumulation of shell middens from Higashimyo (western Japan) and Kimhae (southern Korea) by AMS radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Matsui, Akira; Nishida, Iwao; Nakano, Mitsuru; Omori, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Numerous large and small shell middens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shell middens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shell middens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish 14C chronology of the middens. We have conducted 14C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shell middens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision 14C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of 14C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from -1.1 to -2.3 m a.s.l., Δd = 1.2 m) started at around 8050-7950 cal BP and ended at 7950-7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from -0.5 to -2.0 m a.s.l., Δd = 1.5 m) started at around 8050-7800 cal BP and ended at 7800-7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shell midden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., Δd = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.

  12. Time warp operating system version 2.7 internals manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is an implementation of the Time Warp synchronization method proposed by David Jefferson. In addition, it serves as an actual platform for running discrete event simulations. The code comprising TWOS can be divided into several different sections. TWOS typically relies on an existing operating system to furnish some very basic services. This existing operating system is referred to as the Base OS. The existing operating system varies depending on the hardware TWOS is running on. It is Unix on the Sun workstations, Chrysalis or Mach on the Butterfly, and Mercury on the Mark 3 Hypercube. The base OS could be an entirely new operating system, written to meet the special needs of TWOS, but, to this point, existing systems have been used instead. The base OS's used for TWOS on various platforms are not discussed in detail in this manual, as they are well covered in their own manuals. Appendix G discusses the interface between one such OS, Mach, and TWOS.

  13. The Partition Intervalometer: A Programmable Underwater Timer for Marking Accumulated Sediment Profiles Collected in Anderson Sediment Traps: Development, Operation, Testing Procedures, and Field Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendigs, Richard R.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Xu, Jingping; Davis, Raymond E.; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2009-01-01

    This manual illustrates the development of a programmable instrument designed to deploy a series of wafer-shaped discs (partitions) into the collection tube of a sediment trap in various aquatic environments. These hydrodynamically shaped discs are deployed at discrete time intervals from the Intervalometer and provide markers that delineate time intervals within the sediments that accumulate in the collection tube. The timer and mechanical system are lodged in an air-filled, water-tight pressure housing that is vertically hung within the confines of a cone-shaped sediment trap. The instrumentation has been operationally pressure tested to an equivalent water depth of approximately 1 km. Flaws discovered during extensive laboratory and pressure testing resulted in the implementation of several mechanical modifications (such as a redesign of the rotor and the discs) that improved the operation of the rotor assembly as well as the release of discs through the end cap. These results also identified a preferred azimuth placement of the rotor disc relative to the drop hole of the end cap. In the initial field trial, five sediment traps and coupled Intervalometers were attached to moored arrays and deployed at two sites off the coast of Southern California for approximately 8 months. Each of the instruments released 18 discs at the programmed 10 day intervals, except one unit, which experienced a malfunction after approximately 4 months. Most of the discs oriented in a near-horizontal position upon the surface of the sediment in the collection tubes. Sampling of the sediments for geochemical analyses was improved by these clearly defined markers, which indicated the changes in the flux and nature of sediments accumulated during the deployment period of each sediment trap.

  14. Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Berliner, Teri; Graves, Alan

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—Dynamic pricing schemes have been implemented in commercial and industrial application settings, and recently they are getting attention for application to residential customers. Time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing rates are in place in various regions and are being piloted in many more. These programs are proving themselves useful for balancing energy during peak periods; however, real-time (5 minute) pricing signals combined with automation in end-use systems have the potential to deliver even more benefits to operators and consumers. Besides system peak shaving, a real-time pricing system can contribute demand response based on the locational marginal price of electricity, reduce load in response to a generator outage, and respond to local distribution system capacity limiting situations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is teaming with a mid-west electricity service provider to run a distribution feeder-based retail electricity market that negotiates with residential automation equipment and clears every 5 minutes, thus providing a signal for lowering or raising electric consumption based on operational objectives of economic efficiency and reliability. This paper outlines the capability of the real-time pricing system and the operational scenarios being tested as the system is rolled-out starting in the first half of 2012.

  15. Extending the maximum operation time of the MNSR reactor.

    PubMed

    Dawahra, S; Khattab, K; Saba, G

    2016-09-01

    An effective modification to extend the maximum operation time of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to enhance the utilization of the reactor has been tested using the MCNP4C code. This modification consisted of inserting manually in each of the reactor inner irradiation tube a chain of three polyethylene-connected containers filled of water. The total height of the chain was 11.5cm. The replacement of the actual cadmium absorber with B(10) absorber was needed as well. The rest of the core structure materials and dimensions remained unchanged. A 3-D neutronic model with the new modifications was developed to compare the neutronic parameters of the old and modified cores. The results of the old and modified core excess reactivities (ρex) were: 3.954, 6.241 mk respectively. The maximum reactor operation times were: 428, 1025min and the safety reactivity factors were: 1.654 and 1.595 respectively. Therefore, a 139% increase in the maximum reactor operation time was noticed for the modified core. This increase enhanced the utilization of the MNSR reactor to conduct a long time irradiation of the unknown samples using the NAA technique and increase the amount of radioisotope production in the reactor. PMID:27442985

  16. An advanced algorithm for construction of Integral Transport Matrix Method operators using accumulation of single cell coupling factors

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B. P.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2013-07-01

    The Integral Transport Matrix Method (ITMM) has been shown to be an effective method for solving the neutron transport equation in large domains on massively parallel architectures. In the limit of very large number of processors, the speed of the algorithm, and its suitability for unstructured meshes, i.e. other than an ordered Cartesian grid, is limited by the construction of four matrix operators required for obtaining the solution in each sub-domain. The existing algorithm used for construction of these matrix operators, termed the differential mesh sweep, is computationally expensive and was developed for a structured grid. This work proposes the use of a new algorithm for construction of these operators based on the construction of a single, fundamental matrix representing the transport of a particle along every possible path throughout the sub-domain mesh. Each of the operators is constructed by multiplying an element of this fundamental matrix by two factors dependent only upon the operator being constructed and on properties of the emitting and incident cells. The ITMM matrix operator construction time for the new algorithm is demonstrated to be shorter than the existing algorithm in all tested cases with both isotropic and anisotropic scattering considered. While also being a more efficient algorithm on a structured Cartesian grid, the new algorithm is promising in its geometric robustness and potential for being applied to an unstructured mesh, with the ultimate goal of application to an unstructured tetrahedral mesh on a massively parallel architecture. (authors)

  17. Time Scale of Gas Accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (Iceland) from 210Po Radioactive Excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt. The early formed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po/210Pb)0= 1.88)] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po)0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte (end of May 2010) had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, on in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. A model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, allows calculating the ratio of mass of basalt magma degassing over mass of magma accumulating excess gas. This ratio decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupted first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and deeper seismicity strongly suggests that the excess gas phase originated from a basalt magma batch intruded at depth, and that this gas phase reached the surface approximately a year later.

  18. Finite-element time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, Kimball A.

    1995-01-01

    The finite-element approach to lattice field theory is both highly accurate (relative errors approximately 1/N(exp 2), where N is the number of lattice points) and exactly unitary (in the sense that canonical commutation relations are exactly preserved at the lattice sites). In this talk I construct matrix elements for dynamical variables and for the time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator, for which the continuum Hamiltonian is H = p(exp 2)/2 + lambda q(exp 4)/4. Construction of such matrix elements does not require solving the implicit equations of motion. Low order approximations turn out to be extremely accurate. For example, the matrix element of the time evolution operator in the harmonic oscillator ground state gives a results for the anharmonic oscillator ground state energy accurate to better than 1 percent, while a two-state approximation reduces the error to less than 0.1 percent.

  19. Timing of operation for blowout fractures with extraocular muscle entrapment.

    PubMed

    Sugamata, Akira; Yoshizawa, Naoki; Shimanaka, Kosuke

    2013-12-01

    Many authors have advocated early surgical intervention to avoid muscle degeneration in patients with blowout fractures with evidence of extraocular muscle entrapment imaged under computed tomography. However, there is still no golden standard with regard to the target timing of operations for releasing extraocular muscle. Between January 2002 and December 2011, the authors treated eight cases of blowout fracture with extraocular muscle entrapment. Notes from presumed cases of blowout fracture were retrospectively reviewed for information relating to surgical treatment and prognosis. In this series, a patient who was operated on 7 hours after injury showed the quickest recovery from diplopia. In contrast, a patient who was operated on 18 days after injury showed persistent diplopia for 2 years. Nevertheless, in patients who were operated on 3-11 days after injury, there was no obvious correlation between the outcome and the number of days between injury and the operation. It is concluded that, when emergency surgical intervention within several hours is not possible, it should be performed as soon after the injury as possible in order to prevent the increase of predictive fibrosis around the extraocular muscle. PMID:23848420

  20. Microsecond delays on non-real time operating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Angstadt, R.; Estrada, J.; Diehl, H.T.; Flaugher, B.; Johnson, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    We have developed microsecond timing and profiling software that runs on standard Windows and Linux based operating systems. This software is orders of magnitudes better than most of the standard native functions in wide use. Our software libraries calibrate RDTSC in microseconds or seconds to provide two different types of delays: a ''Guaranteed Minimum'' and a precision ''Long Delay'', which releases to the kernel. Both return profiling information of the actual delay.

  1. On Lambda and Time Operators: the Inverse Intertwining Problem Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Suchanecki, Z.; Villullas, S.

    2011-07-01

    An exact theory of irreversibility was proposed by Misra, Prigogine and Courbage, based on non-unitary similarity transformations Λ that intertwine reversible dynamics and irreversible ones. This would advocate the idea that irreversible behavior would originate at the microscopic level. Reversible evolution with an internal time operator have the intertwining property. Recently the inverse intertwining problem has been answered in the negative, that is, not every unitary evolution allowing such Λ-transformation has an internal time. This work contributes new results in this direction.

  2. First-passage time criteria for the operation of reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aiden J.; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Akande, Kunle

    2014-11-01

    A multi-objective optimisation for reservoir operation based on expected monetary value and expected first passage-time criterion is proposed. The computations are facilitated by the algorithms of matrix analytic methods. The formal structure, classifying states as levels and phases within levels, and associated algorithms of matrix analytic methods are introduced in the context of multi-reservoir systems. The algorithms underpin the feasibility of the computations for large systems and enable the calculation of the full distribution of first passage time. A new algorithm for computing results for a seasonal model, which reduces computing time by an order of magnitude for monthly time steps is presented. The methods are illustrated for a two reservoir system, with an option of pumping additional water from a transfer scheme, in the East of England. The Pareto front of Pareto optimal policies is shown.

  3. Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve.

  4. Real-Time Data Use for Operational Space Weather Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Nobis, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (AFSPC SYAG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command’s (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products were developed to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems in real/near-real time. This real-time attribute is the primary factor in allowing for actual operational product output, but it’s also responsible for a variety of detrimental effects that need to be considered, researched, mitigated, or otherwise eliminated in future/upgrade product applications. This presentation will provide brief overviews of the SEEFS products, along with information and recommendations concerned with their near/real-time data acquisition and use, to include: input data requirements, inputs/outputs ownership, observation cadence, transmission/receipt links and cadence, data latency, quality control, error propagation and associated confidence level applications, and ensemble model run potentials. Validation issues related to real-time data will also be addressed, along with recommendations for new real-time data archiving that should prove operationally beneficial.

  5. Evaluation of existence region and formation time of particle accumulation structure (PAS) in half-zone liquid bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, M.; Sano, T.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2015-03-01

    We focused on the particle accumulation structure (PAS) produced by the thermocapillary effect in a half-zone liquid bridge. Although models of the formation of the PAS have been previously proposed, they have not been experimentally verified. An assessment of the region in which the PAS exists is very subjective and often dependent on the observer, and this has necessitated the development of an objective and quantitative evaluation method. We therefore conducted a series of experiments to verify the physical model of the particle path lines in a rotating frame of reference using the fundamental frequency of the hydrothermal wave. We evaluated the intensity of the particle accumulation based on a modification of the "accumulation measure" proposed by Kuhlmann and Muldoon (Phys. Rev. E, 2012) to objectively and quantitatively determine the existence region of the SL-1 PAS. The results of the quantitative experiment revealed that the best aspect ratio (ratio of the height to radius) of the liquid bridge for the SL-1 PAS was about 0.64, and that the PAS formation time was nearly the same as the thermal diffusion time under the considered conditions (184 words, within 200 words).

  6. Operational real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Johanson, I. A.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Moment magnitudes for large earthquakes (Mw≥7.0) derived in real time from near-field seismic data can be underestimated due to instrument limitations, ground tilting, and saturation of frequency/amplitude-magnitude relationships. Real-time high-rate GPS resolves the buildup of static surface displacements with the S wave arrival (assuming nonsupershear rupture), thus enabling the estimation of slip on a finite fault and the event's geodetic moment. Recently, a range of high-rate GPS strategies have been demonstrated on off-line data. Here we present the first operational system for real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning as implemented at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and currently analyzing real-time data for Northern California. The BSL generates real-time position estimates operationally using data from 62 GPS stations in Northern California. A fully triangulated network defines 170+ station pairs processed with the software trackRT. The BSL uses G-larmS, the Geodetic Alarm System, to analyze these positioning time series and determine static offsets and preevent quality parameters. G-larmS derives and broadcasts finite fault and magnitude information through least-squares inversion of the static offsets for slip based on a priori fault orientation and location information. This system tightly integrates seismic alarm systems (CISN-ShakeAlert, ElarmS-2) as it uses their P wave detections to trigger its processing; quality control runs continuously. We use a synthetic Hayward Fault earthquake scenario on real-time streams to demonstrate recovery of slip and magnitude. Reanalysis of the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake tests the impact of dynamic motions on offset estimation. Using these test cases, we explore sensitivities to disturbances of a priori constraints (origin time, location, and fault strike/dip).

  7. Analytical Calculation of Errors in Time and Value Perception Due to a Subjective Time Accumulator: A Mechanistic Model and the Generation of Weber's Law.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Mihalas, Stefan; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G

    2016-01-01

    It has been previously shown (Namboodiri, Mihalas, Marton, & Hussain Shuler, 2014) that an evolutionary theory of decision making and time perception is capable of explaining numerous behavioral observations regarding how humans and animals decide between differently delayed rewards of differing magnitudes and how they perceive time. An implementation of this theory using a stochastic drift-diffusion accumulator model (Namboodiri, Mihalas, & Hussain Shuler, 2014a) showed that errors in time perception and decision making approximately obey Weber's law for a range of parameters. However, prior calculations did not have a clear mechanistic underpinning. Further, these calculations were only approximate, with the range of parameters being limited. In this letter, we provide a full analytical treatment of such an accumulator model, along with a mechanistic implementation, to calculate the expression of these errors for the entirety of the parameter space. In our mechanistic model, Weber's law results from synaptic facilitation and depression within the feedback synapses of the accumulator. Our theory also makes the prediction that the steepness of temporal discounting can be affected by requiring the precise timing of temporal intervals. Thus, by presenting exact quantitative calculations, this work provides falsifiable predictions for future experimental testing. PMID:26599714

  8. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  9. Acute subdural hematoma: morbidity, mortality, and operative timing.

    PubMed

    Wilberger, J E; Harris, M; Diamond, D L

    1991-02-01

    Traumatic acute subdural hematoma remains one of the most lethal of all head injuries. Since 1981, it has been strongly held that the critical factor in overall outcome from acute subdural hematoma is timing of operative intervention for clot removal; those operated on within 4 hours of injury may have mortality rates as low as 30% with functional survival rates as high as 65%. Data were reviewed for 1150 severely head-injured patients (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores 3 to 7) treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 1982 and 1987; 101 of these patients had acute subdural hematoma. Standard treatment protocol included aggressive prehospital resuscitation measures, rapid operative intervention, and aggressive postoperative control of intracranial pressure (ICP). The overall mortality rate was 66%, and 19% had functional recovery. The following variables statistically correlated (p less than 0.05) with outcome; motorcycle accident as a mechanism of injury, age over 65 years, admission GCS score of 3 or 4, and postoperative ICP greater than 45 mm Hg. The time from injury to operative evacuation of the acute subdural hematoma in regard to outcome morbidity and mortality was not statistically significant even when examined at hourly intervals although there were trends indicating that earlier surgery improved outcome. The findings of this study support the pathophysiological evidence that, in acute subdural hematoma, the extent of primary underlying brain injury is more important than the subdural clot itself in dictating outcome; therefore, the ability to control ICP is more critical to outcome than the absolute timing of subdural blood removal. PMID:1988590

  10. Intracellular accumulation and dissolution of silver nanoparticles in L-929 fibroblast cells using live cell time-lapse microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wildt, Bridget E; Celedon, Alfredo; Maurer, Elizabeth I; Casey, Brendan J; Nagy, Amber M; Hussain, Saber M; Goering, Peter L

    2016-08-01

    Cytotoxicity assessments of nanomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles, are challenging due to interferences with test reagents and indicators as well uncertainties in dosing as a result of the complex nature of nanoparticle intracellular accumulation. Furthermore, current theories suggest that silver nanoparticle cytotoxicity is a result of silver nanoparticle dissolution and subsequent ion release. This study introduces a novel technique, nanoparticle associated cytotoxicity microscopy analysis (NACMA), which combines fluorescence microscopy detection using ethidium homodimer-1, a cell permeability marker that binds to DNA after a cell membrane is compromised (a classical dead-cell indicator dye), with live cell time-lapse microscopy and image analysis to simultaneously investigate silver nanoparticle accumulation and cytotoxicity in L-929 fibroblast cells. Results of this method are consistent with traditional methods of assessing cytotoxicity and nanoparticle accumulation. Studies conducted on 10, 50, 100 and 200 nm silver nanoparticles reveal size dependent cytotoxicity with particularly high cytotoxicity from 10 nm particles. In addition, NACMA results, when combined with transmission electron microscopy imaging, reveal direct evidence of intracellular silver ion dissolution and possible nanoparticle reformation within cells for all silver nanoparticle sizes. PMID:26643278

  11. Remotely operated guideposts reduce drilling time and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, S.S.; Beato, C.L. ); Vetter, V.H. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports remotely operated guideposts used to establish, release, and re-establish guidelines for a template installation in 1,758 ft (536 m) of water in the Gulf of Mexico. The guideposts were used to reduce the drilling-template weight, to improve accessibility of the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) around the well slots, and to reposition the blowout preventer (BOP) stack on a new well without tripping the stack to the surface. Before field installation, procedures were developed and the guideposts and running tools were function tested. Wet tests verified the reliability of the ROV and guidepost interface. This testing contributed to the successful use of guideposts. Drilling-template costs dropped significantly. The approach helped save about 36 days of drilling time. The guideposts were also used to tie back the tendons and production risers for the tension-leg well platform (TLWP).

  12. Allocating operating room block time using historical caseload variability.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Narges; Taaffe, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Operating room (OR) allocation and planning is one of the most important strategic decisions that OR managers face. The number of ORs that a hospital opens depends on the number of blocks that are allocated to the surgical groups, services, or individual surgeons, combined with the amount of open posting time (i.e., first come, first serve posting) that the hospital wants to provide. By allocating too few ORs, a hospital may turn away surgery demand whereas opening too many ORs could prove to be a costly decision. The traditional method of determining block frequency and size considers the average historical surgery demand for each group. However, given that there are penalties to the system for having too much or too little OR time allocated to a group, demand variability should play a role in determining the real OR requirement. In this paper we present an algorithm that allocates block time based on this demand variability, specifically accounting for both over-utilized time (time used beyond the block) and under-utilized time (time unused within the block). This algorithm provides a solution to the situation in which total caseload demand can be accommodated by the total OR resource set, in other words not in a capacity-constrained situation. We have found this scenario to be common among several regional healthcare providers with large OR suites and excess capacity. This algorithm could be used to adjust existing blocks or to assign new blocks to surgeons that did not previously have a block. We also have studied the effect of turnover time on the number of ORs that needs to be allocated. Numerical experiments based on real data from a large health-care provider indicate the opportunity to achieve over 2,900 hours of OR time savings through improved block allocations. PMID:24590259

  13. Space time neural networks for tether operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992 will attempt to prove the feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit. due to the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether, the tethered system may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation referred to as the 'skiprope' phenomenon. Effective damping of skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of skiprope magnitude and phase. Because of non-linear dynamic coupling, the satellite attitude behavior has characteristic oscillations during the skiprope motion. Since the satellite attitude motion has many other perturbations, the relationship between the skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very involved and non-linear. We propose a Space-Time Neural Network implementation for filtering satellite rate gyro data to rapidly detect and predict skiprope magnitude and phase. Training and testing of the skiprope detection system will be performed using a validated Orbital Operations Simulator and Space-Time Neural Network software developed in the Software Technology Branch at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  14. Predicting analysis time in events-driven clinical trials using accumulating time-to-event surrogate information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianming; Ke, Chunlei; Yu, Zhinuan; Fu, Lei; Dornseif, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    For clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints, predicting the accrual of the events of interest with precision is critical in determining the timing of interim and final analyses. For example, overall survival (OS) is often chosen as the primary efficacy endpoint in oncology studies, with planned interim and final analyses at a pre-specified number of deaths. Often, correlated surrogate information, such as time-to-progression (TTP) and progression-free survival, are also collected as secondary efficacy endpoints. It would be appealing to borrow strength from the surrogate information to improve the precision of the analysis time prediction. Currently available methods in the literature for predicting analysis timings do not consider utilizing the surrogate information. In this article, using OS and TTP as an example, a general parametric model for OS and TTP is proposed, with the assumption that disease progression could change the course of the overall survival. Progression-free survival, related both to OS and TTP, will be handled separately, as it can be derived from OS and TTP. The authors seek to develop a prediction procedure using a Bayesian method and provide detailed implementation strategies under certain assumptions. Simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. An application to a real study is also provided. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26689725

  15. Reliable identification of mental tasks using time-embedded EEG and sequential evidence accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles; Forney, Elliott; Hains, Douglas; Natarajan, Annamalai

    2011-04-01

    Eleven channels of EEG were recorded from a subject performing four mental tasks. A time-embedded representation of the untransformed EEG samples was constructed. Classification of the time-embedded samples was performed by linear and quadratic discriminant analysis and by an artificial neural network. A classifier's output for consecutive samples is combined to increase reliability. A new performance measure is defined as the number of correct selections that would be made by a brain-computer interface (BCI) user of the system, accounting for the need for an incorrect selection to be followed by a correct one to 'delete' the previous selection. A best result of 0.32 correct selections s-1 (about 3 s per BCI decision) was obtained with a neural network using a time-embedding dimension of 50.

  16. Invariance in quantum walks with time-dependent coin operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Miquel

    2014-12-01

    This paper unveils some features of a discrete-time quantum walk on the line whose coin depends on the temporal variable. After considering the most general form of the unitary coin operator, it focuses on the role played by the two phase factors that one can incorporate there, and shows how both terms influence the evolution of the system. A closer analysis reveals that the probabilistic properties of the motion of the walker remain unaltered when the update rule of these phases is chosen adequately. This invariance is based on a symmetry with consequences not yet fully explored.

  17. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  18. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  19. Linear operation of PRIZ space-time light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryskin, L. I.; Korovin, L. I.; Petrov, M. P.

    1984-08-01

    A theory is presented for describing the dynamics of the field and charge distributions in a PRIZ space-time light modulator (STLM) using the internal transverse electrooptic effect. The PRIZ STLM consists of transparent electrodes deposited on the front and back sides of a photorefractive crystal wafer and operates at the writing (input) light wavelengths of 0.44 to 0.48 microns. The diffraction efficiency of the time-linear modulator is obtained for a case when the phase difference between the ordinary and the extraordinary rays is proportional to the exposure to the writing light. It is noted that a dielectric film placed between the sample and the metal electrode increases the diffraction efficiency at low frequencies, however requiring larger voltages to be applied. The efficiency is also analyzed with respect to the spatial modulation frequency of the writing light.

  20. Near Real Time Data for Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather operations presents unique challenges for data systems and providers. Space weather events evolve more quickly than terrestrial weather events. While terrestrial weather occurs on timescales of minutes to hours, space weather storms evolve on timescales of seconds to minutes. For example, the degradation of the High Frequency Radio communications between the ground and commercial airlines is nearly instantaneous when a solar flare occurs. Thus the customer is observing impacts at the same time that the operational forecast center is seeing the event unfold. The diversity and spatial scale of the space weather system is such that no single observation can capture the salient features. The vast space that encompasses space weather and the scarcity of observations further exacerbates the situation and make each observation even more valuable. The physics of interplanetary space, through which many major storms propagate, is very different from the physics of the ionosphere where most of the impacts are felt. And while some observations can be made from ground-based observatories, many of the most critical data comes from satellites, often in unique orbits far from Earth. In this presentation, I will describe some of the more important sources and types of data that feed into the operational alerts, watches, and warnings of space weather storms. Included will be a discussion of some of the new space weather forecast models and the data challenges that they bring forward.

  1. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  2. VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer for Real-time Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z. I.; Morimoto, T.; Akita, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Ushio, T.

    2008-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing a VHF lightning mapper, Broadband Digital Interferometer (BDITF), to investigate lightning initiation and progression since 1995. When LRG-OU started the project, a multichannel digital storage oscilloscope was deployed to record VHF waveforms emitted by lightning discharges. VHF broadband antenna and necessary electronics like an amplifier were redesigned. Original VHF BDITF was operated in a rocket-triggered lightning experiment during winter thunderstorm season in Hokuriku, Japan. The first observation by BDITF was a rocket-triggered lightning, which lowered the positive charge to the ground. That meant ascending negative breakdown propagation was recorded, and LRG-OU obtained the lightning channel image by upward triggered lightning. Since LRGOU could validate the function and capability of BDITF through several field campaigns, a project to design and manufacture a special analog to digital converter for BDITF was initiated in 1998. Moreover software for a real-time data processing was developed. The first system of new BDITF was operated during a filed campaign in 2003, and lightning channels in two dimensions (2D), which meant azimuth and elevation format, were able to be reconstructed in a several seconds after occurrence of lightning flash. The BDITF system was considered to be an operational system recently. For three dimensional (3D) imaging, two sites operation of BDITF and post data processing of the triangulation are required. LRG-OU learned the bi- directional leader progression, possible charge distribution related to the leader initiation, and the speed of the leader propagation by the 3D imaging. The achievement of BDITF technique by LRG-OU gives us the chance of deployment and operation of the system around the rocket launching site of JAXA on the Tanegashima island. This operation is expected to contribute the go/no-go judgment of rocket launching by JAXA because of the

  3. On the time evolution operator for time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, F. M.

    1989-07-01

    The Schr/umlt o/dinger equation with a time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian isinvestigated. The time-evolution operator is written as a product of exponentialoperators determined by the Heisenberg equations of motion. This productoperator is shown to be global in the occupation number representation when theHamiltonian is Hermitian. The success of some physical applications of theproduct-form representation is explained.

  4. Biomass Accumulation Rates of Amazonian Secondary Forest and Biomass of Old-Growth Forests from Landsat Time Series and GLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E.; Lefsky, M. A.; Roberts, D.

    2009-12-01

    We estimate the age of humid lowland tropical forests in Rondônia, Brazil, from a somewhat densely spaced time series of Landsat images (1975-2003) with an automated procedure, the Threshold Age Mapping Algorithm (TAMA), first described here. We then estimate a landscape-level rate of aboveground woody biomass accumulation of secondary forest by combining forest age mapping with biomass estimates from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Though highly variable, the estimated average biomass accumulation rate of 8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 agrees well with ground-based studies for young secondary forests in the region. In isolating the lowland forests, we map land cover and general types of old-growth forests with decision tree classification of Landsat imagery and elevation data. We then estimate aboveground live biomass for seven classes of old-growth forest. TAMA is simple, fast, and self-calibrating. By not using between-date band or index differences or trends, it requires neither image normalization nor atmospheric correction. In addition, it uses an approach to map forest cover for the self-calibrations that is novel to forest mapping with satellite imagery; it maps humid secondary forest that is difficult to distinguish from old-growth forest in single-date imagery; it does not assume that forest age equals time since disturbance; and it incorporates Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Variations on the work that we present here can be applied to other forested landscapes. Applications that use image time series will be helped by the free distribution of coregistered Landsat imagery, which began in December 2008, and of the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Vegetation Product, which simplifies the use of GLAS data. Finally, we demonstrate here for the first time how the optical imagery of fine spatial resolution that is viewable on Google Earth provides a new source of reference data for remote sensing applications related to land cover

  5. Time to Thrive, Not Just Survive: Accumulating Advantage for Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, Debra

    2005-04-01

    Our departments of science, technology, mathematics, and engineering (STEM) need more women as faculty, and not only to show their undergraduates that a career in academia is a viable path. Their absence warns us that an unhealthy environment exists: unhealthy to those scientists who want fulfilling lives beyond academe and unhealthy to those women, who once they demonstrate productivity, scholarship, and mentorship, still reap less respect, space, salary, funding, and awards than their male colleagues. The recalcitrance of too many of our research universities toward diversifying their faculty is a national disgrace in that these universities covet a diversified student body, but do not reflect that pool of talent onto their faculty. Similar difficulties are apparent among the staff of National and Federal laboratories. Self-reform is not getting it done, and is especially frustrating in light of the historic opportunity to change the demographics as scientists and engineers hired in the 1960s retire. Is it time to apply the logic of Title IX--the loss of Federal funds--for the entrenched inability to increase the number of women represented on STEM faculties? Such a threat may be the impetus necessary for university administrators to create departmental environments that women are willing to call home. The July 2004 release of the GAO report on Women's Participation in the Sciences (which also surveyed DOE facilities) reminded those Federal agencies that fund scientific research that Title IX is the law and that these agencies must begin Title IX assessments of compliance in the STEM departments and institutions they fund. It is past time that women thrive, not just survive in their career homes. Using the mechanistic philosophy of Title IX--denial of resources to recalacitrant departments and laboratories--may be the start of a truly inclusive scientific enterprise in the United States. We must accept this opportunity to redirect the nature of the research

  6. An assessment of the quality indicators of operative and non-operative times in a public university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Altair da Silva; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; de Novais, Maykon Anderson Pires; Zucchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the operative time indicators in a public university hospital. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using data from operating room database. The sample was obtained from January 2011 to January 2012. The operations performed in sequence in the same operating room, between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm, elective or emergency, were included. The procedures with incomplete data in the system were excluded, as well as the operations performed after 5:00 pm or on weekends or holidays. Results We measured the operative and non-operative time of 8,420 operations. The operative time (mean and standard deviation) of anesthesias and operations were 177.6±110 and 129.8±97.1 minutes, respectively. The total time of the patient in operative room (mean and standard deviation) was 196.8±113.2. The non-operative time, e.g., between the arrival of the patient and the onset of anesthesia was 14.3±17.3 minutes. The time to set the next patient in operating room was 119.8±79.6 minutes. Our total non-operative time was 155 minutes. Conclusion Delays frequently occurred in our operating room and had a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. The non-operative time was longer than the operative time. It is possible to increase the operating room capacity by management and training of the professionals involved. The indicators provided a tool to improve operating room efficiency. PMID:26761557

  7. Monitoring operating room turnaround time: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Michele; Apreda, Mariarosaria; Wienand, Ulrich; Valpiani, Giorgia

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Operating room (OR) turnaround time is a key process indicator for hospital business management: delays lead to a reduced surgical interventions per day with a consequent increase in costs and decrease in efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding by assessing the process' steady-state behaviour and identifying changes that indicate either improvement or deterioration in quality. Design/methodology/approach - With this purpose, the authors retrospectively applied Shewhart control charts and exponentially weighted moving average control charts to data extracted from an hospital information system. Findings - The results showed that statistical process control is able to identify steady-state behaviour process and to detect positive or negative changes in process performance. In particular the authors detected a deterioration in the process performance coinciding with the change in the operating room patient transfer staff. Practical implications - This study showed that statistical quality control is a valuable tool for monitoring performance indicators. Currently, hospital managers are designing an OR dashboard which also includes the control charts. Originality/value - The paper highlights the control chart application to organizational indicators allowing an objective OR system performance assessment. PMID:27120511

  8. Real-Time Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, Rick D.; Watson, Kristi

    2004-01-01

    This paper will focus on the challenges that Payload Operations have faced as Payload Utilization has evolved over the last three years of real-time experience. Specifically the paper will focus on the planning challenges and the constant battle over program allocation between core systems and payloads, the process of developing and implementing crew training in a centralized location that is being support by a payload development community spread out all over the US, the unique challenges associated with deployed pressurized payload payloads that are not located within an ISPR, and the importance of documenting specific requirements that the payload development community must implement to get through the crew reviews associated with training and procedures. The authors will focus on specific lessons learned and improvements that have been made in both the streamlining of the processes and the associated documentation.

  9. Alpha: A real-time decentralized operating system for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Alpha is a new kind of operating system that is unique in two highly significant ways. First, it is decentralized transparently providing reliable resource management across physically dispersed nodes, so that distributed applications programming can be done largely as though it were centralized. And second, it provides comprehensive, high technology support for real-time system integration and operation, an application area which consists predominately of aperiodic activities having critical time constraints such as deadlines. Alpha is extremely adaptable so that it can be easily optimized for a wide range of problem-specific functionality, performance, and cost. Alpha is the first systems effort of the Archons Project, and the prototype was created at Carnegie-Mellon University directly on modified Sun multiprocessor workstation hardware. It has been demonstrated with a real-time C(sup 2) application. Continuing research is leading to a series of enhanced follow-ons to Alpha; these are portable but initially hosted on Concurrent's MASSCOMP line of multiprocessor products.

  10. Real-Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie; Oliver, Brett; Brickner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the utilization of embedded clocks inside of operating network data links as an auxiliary clock source to satisfy local oscillator monitoring requirements. Modem network interfaces, typically serial network links, often contain embedded clocking information of very tight precision to recover data from the link. This embedded clocking data can be utilized by the receiving device to monitor the local oscillator for tolerance to required specifications, often important in high-integrity fault-tolerant applications. A device can utilize a received embedded clock to determine if the local or the remote device is out of tolerance by using a single link. The local device can determine if it is failing, assuming a single fault model, with two or more active links. Network fabric components, containing many operational links, can potentially determine faulty remote or local devices in the presence of multiple faults. Two methods of implementation are described. In one method, a recovered clock can be directly used to monitor the local clock as a direct replacement of an external local oscillator. This scheme is consistent with a general clock monitoring function whereby clock sources are clocking two counters and compared over a fixed interval of time. In another method, overflow/underflow conditions can be used to detect clock relationships for monitoring. These network interfaces often provide clock compensation circuitry to allow data to be transferred from the received (network) clock domain to the internal clock domain. This circuit could be modified to detect overflow/underflow conditions of the buffering required and report a fast or slow receive clock, respectively.

  11. Three explanations for biodiversity hotspots: small range size, geographical overlap and time for species accumulation. An Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lyn G; Hardy, Nate B; Crisp, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    To understand the generation and maintenance of biodiversity hotspots, we tested three major hypotheses: rates of diversification, ecological limits to diversity, and time for species accumulation. Using dated molecular phylogenies, measures of species' range size and geographical clade overlap, niche modelling, and lineages-through-time plots of Australian Fabaceae, we compared the southwest Australia Floristic Region (SWAFR; a global biodiversity hotspot) with a latitudinally equivalent non-hotspot, southeast Australia (SEA). Ranges of species (real and simulated) were smaller in the SWAFR than in SEA. Geographical overlap of clades was significantly greater for Daviesia in the SWAFR than in SEA, but the inverse for Bossiaea. Lineage diversification rates over the past 10 Myr did not differ between the SWAFR and SEA in either genus. Interaction of multiple factors probably explains the differences in measured diversity between the two regions. Steeper climatic gradients in the SWAFR probably explain the smaller geographical ranges of both genera there. Greater geographical overlap of clades in the SWAFR, combined with a longer time in the region, can explain why Daviesia is far more species-rich there than in SEA. Our results indicate that the time for speciation and ecological limits hypotheses, in concert, can explain the differences in biodiversity. PMID:25442328

  12. The accumulation pattern of ferruginol in the heartwood-forming Cryptomeria japonica xylem as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Hashida, Koh; Imai, Takanori; Kushi, Masayoshi; Saito, Kaori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heartwood formation is a unique phenomenon of tree species. Although the accumulation of heartwood substances is a well-known feature of the process, the accumulation mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation process of ferruginol, a predominant heartwood substance of Cryptomeria japonica, in heartwood-forming xylem. Methods The radial accumulation pattern of ferruginol was examined from sapwood and through the intermediate wood to the heartwood by direct mapping using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The data were compared with quantitative results obtained from a novel method of gas chromatography analysis using laser microdissection sampling and with water distribution obtained from cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ferruginol initially accumulated in the middle of the intermediate wood, in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary. It accumulated throughout the entire earlywood in the inner intermediate wood, and in both the earlywood and the latewood in the heartwood. The process of ferruginol accumulation continued for more than eight annual rings. Ferruginol concentration peaked at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, while the concentration was less in the latewood compared wiht the earlywood in each annual ring. Ferruginol tended to accumulate around the ray parenchyma cells. In addition, at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, the accumulation was higher in areas without water than in areas with water. Conclusions TOF-SIMS clearly revealed ferruginol distribution at the cellular level. Ferruginol accumulation begins in the middle of intermediate wood, initially in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary, then throughout the entire earlywood, and finally across to the whole annual ring in the heartwood. The heterogeneous timing of ferruginol accumulation could be related to the distribution of ray parenchyma cells

  13. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.513 Flight time limitations: Overseas and international...

  14. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.513 Flight time limitations: Overseas and international...

  15. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.513 Flight time limitations: Overseas and international...

  16. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  17. Effect of imprecise lag time and high-frequency attenuation on surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes determined with the relaxed eddy accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, A.; Trebs, I.; Foken, T.

    2013-09-01

    eddy accumulation (REA) systems that employ one single long inlet tube are prone to measurement uncertainties caused by (a) an imprecisely determined lag time between the change of sign in the vertical wind velocity and the switching of the splitter valves and (b) attenuation of high-frequency concentration fluctuations in the tube flow. However, there is currently no commonly applied procedure to address these uncertainties. In this study, we first evaluated the lag time error of the volume flow, mass flow, and cross-correlation method (online and offline) and experimentally determined the magnitude of high-frequency attenuation for a 21.5 m long inlet tube of an operating REA system. In a second step, we simulated the impact for different artificial lag time errors and low-pass filter strengths on the REA concentration differences and, thus, on the REA flux, using high-frequency time series of temperature, O3, CO2, and H2O. The reduction of scalar fluxes was mainly correlated with increasing switching frequencies and ranged for typical lag time errors of the investigated REA system between <5% and 50%, whereas the flux loss due to high-frequency attenuation was between <5% and 30%. The results were very similar for all scalar quantities. Based on our results, we derived empirical correction functions for both imprecise lag times and high-frequency attenuation, discuss their potential application to correct fluxes measured with other REA systems, and give a general procedure to address the uncertainties in future REA setups.

  18. Interseismic strain accumulation across the North Tabriz Fault (NW Iran) deduced from InSAR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimzadeh, Sadra; Cakir, Ziyadin; Osmanoğlu, Batuhan; Schmalzle, Gina; Miyajima, Masakatsu; Amiraslanzadeh, Reza; Djamour, Yahya

    2013-05-01

    We present the surface deformation along the North Tabriz Fault (NTF) deduced from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) technique. The NTF, a major right-lateral strike-slip fault within the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, is located 40-45 km southwest of the Mw 6.5 and Mw 6.3, August 11, 2012 earthquake sequence that caused heavy damage and more than 300 deaths in Ahar, NW Iran. InSAR time series analysis of 17 ENVISAT radar images acquired between 2004 and 2010 using combination of the permanent scatterers InSAR (PSI) and the small baseline InSAR (SBAS) approach reveals sub-centimeter interseismic strain accumulation across the NTF and rapid subsidence in the Tabriz basin. Elastic dislocation modeling of the mean line-of-sight velocity field estimated from SBAS time series yields an average slip rate of 8.7 ± 2.5 mm/year with a locking depth of 15.8 ± 10.8 km. This rate is consistent with previous geodetic estimates based on recent Global Positioning System measurements, and suggests a recurrence interval of 250-300 years for major earthquakes of Mw 7.0-7.3 on the NTF, much shorter than those estimated from paleoseismic investigations (821 ± 176 years). This in turn implies a high seismic potential on the NTF taking into account the occurrence of the two last earthquakes on the NTF in 1721 and 1780. SAR time series analysis also reveals three regions of rapid subsidence with a maximum rate of 20 mm/year near the Tabriz thermal power plant in the Tabriz basin. Piezometric data from groundwater wells suggest that accelerated subsidence over the last several years may result from fluctuations in the ground water table.

  19. Deriving Time Series of Ice-Sheet Accumulation Variations from Altimeter Measurements of Surface-Elevation Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Information on ice-sheet surface accumulation, A(t), is needed for studies of mass balance, polar climate variability, ice-sheet evolution, and dynamics. This paper describes a new method for deriving time series of A(t) variations, δA(t), on a monthly basis from continuous altimeter measurements. Changes in ice-sheet thickness and surface elevation are driven by a combination of δA(t), changes in the rates of firn compaction, and the rates of dynamic ice thickening or thinning (dHd/dt). Relevant time scales range from monthly fluctuations in δA(t) and surface temperature, Ts(t), to decadal to millennial scales of dynamic changes in ice flow. Our concept is based on the widely differing time-scales of principal processes, e.g. T> 5 years for dynamic changes and t = year/12 for δA(t) so that T >> t. An important aspect is our use of a baseline of ICESat-1 and ERS-1/ERS-2 altimeter measurements to obtain the multi-year (e.g. 5 to 17 years) dHd/dt of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. We calculate changes in surface elevations caused by variations in the rate of firn compaction driven by both δA(t) and Ts(t) to adjust the altimeter-observed height changes, dH/dt, in order to derive dHd/dt over time periods of ≥ 5 years. Although monthly values of both δA(t) and Ts(t) are used, the derived dHd/dt is dependent only on the average change in δA(t) over the period and not on the higher-frequency monthly δA(t). On a monthly basis, the total accumulation-driven height change, dHaCA/dt, is a sum of the direct-height change, dHa/dt, and the change in firn compaction, dCA/dt, both caused by δA(t). dHa/dt is equal to δA(t)/ρs, where ρs is relative density of surface snow (typically 0.3) and δA(t) is w.e. Model simulations of dHaCA/dt driven by monthly δA(t) from ERA-interim re-analyses show that altimeter-observable dHaCA/dt and the desired dHa/dt = δA(t)/ρs are closely related. The relationship is better at colder locations such as the South Pole (Tm

  20. Environmental Protection Department Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division Contingency Plan for Site 300 Waste Accumulation Area(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R

    2005-07-14

    This Contingency Plan identifies personnel responsibilities, emergency equipment, and required actions necessary to mitigate potential incidents at the Waste Accumulation Area(s) (WAA)(s) located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site 300 (Site 300) as shown in Figure 1. This Plan is designed to prepare personnel to minimize hazards to human health and the environment from fires, explosions, or any sudden or nonsudden release of hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste constituents to the air, ground surface, or water from waste stored in the WAA(s). The LLNL Site 300 currently has one WAA. The location of the WAA is shown in Figure 2 and identified in Table 1. As programmatic needs change, it may become necessary to establish additional WAAs at Site 300. The WAA is a small, regularly monitored storage area where waste can be accumulated and stored temporarily. Hazardous and mixed waste can be stored or accumulated in a WAA for up to 90 days, after which it must be transferred to a Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) authorized onsite treatment or storage facility or an authorized offsite treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSDF). The onsite TSDFs authorized by DTSC are managed by the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division and by the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate (CMS) at Site 300. Hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste is referred to as ''waste'' in this document. Radioactive waste has been included in this Plan as a ''Best Management Practice'' to aid in response, where appropriate. However, radioactive waste is not regulated by DTSC under this Plan. This Contingency Plan is divided into two parts: (1) The first part, referred to as the ''General Plan'', is general information that is applicable to the existing and any subsequent WAAs. The General Plan includes Sections 1-7 and Appendices A-C. (2) The second part, referred to as the ''Site-Specific Plan'', contains site

  1. Real-time support for high performance aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time processing schemes using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is investigated. A rationale for digital neural nets is presented and a general processor architecture for control applications is illustrated. Research results on ANN structures for real-time applications are given. Research results on ANN algorithms for real-time control are also shown.

  2. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge's acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors. PMID:27281169

  3. RadMonitor: radiology operations data mining in real time.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Channin, David S

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the web-based visualization interface of RadMonitor, a platform-independent web application designed to help manage the complexity of information flow within a health care enterprise. The system eavesdrops on Health Layer 7 traffic and parses statistical operational information into a database. The information is then presented to the user as a treemap--a graphical visualization scheme that simplifies the display of hierarchical information. While RadMonitor has been implemented for the purpose of analyzing radiology operations, its XML backend allows it to be reused for virtually any other hierarchical data set. PMID:17534683

  4. Inspiration, Perspiration, and Time: Operations and Achievement in Edison Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Lockwood, J. R.; Marsh, Julie A.; Zimmer, Ron W.; Hill, Deanna; Pribesh, Shana

    2005-01-01

    New forms of governing and managing public schools have proliferated in recent years, spawning the establishment and growth of companies that operate public schools under contract. Among these education management organizations, or EMOs, the largest and most visible is Edison Schools, Inc., with a nationwide network in 2004-2005 of 103 managed…

  5. Operation Smile "Changing Lives, One Smile at a Time."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Although many young people are concerned about acne and dieting, there are some children who retreat from social contact because of facial deformities that can be changed only through surgery. Operation Smile is an organization dedicated to giving young people suffering from physical disfigurement an opportunity to come out of hiding and become…

  6. Observation of Accumulated Metal Cation Distribution in Fish by Novel Stigmatic Imaging Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Jun; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of radioactive substances in biological organisms is a matter of great concern since the incident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. We have developed a novel technique for observing the distribution of accumulated metal cations in fish that employs a new imaging mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG2. Distributions of 133Cs and 88Sr in a sliced section of medaka (Oryzias latipes) are obtained with spatial resolution of µm-scale.

  7. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  8. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  9. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  10. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  11. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  12. Predicting Operator Execution Times Using CogTool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Latorella, Kara A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and developers of NextGen systems can use predictive human performance modeling tools as an initial approach to obtain skilled user performance times analytically, before system testing with users. This paper describes the CogTool models for a two pilot crew executing two different types of a datalink clearance acceptance tasks, and on two different simulation platforms. The CogTool time estimates for accepting and executing Required Time of Arrival and Interval Management clearances were compared to empirical data observed in video tapes and registered in simulation files. Results indicate no statistically significant difference between empirical data and the CogTool predictions. A population comparison test found no significant differences between the CogTool estimates and the empirical execution times for any of the four test conditions. We discuss modeling caveats and considerations for applying CogTool to crew performance modeling in advanced cockpit environments.

  13. Real-time operating system for selected Intel processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for system development is given along with reasons for not using vendor supplied operating systems. Although many system design and performance goals were dictated by problems with vendor supplied systems, other goals surfaced as a result of a design for a custom system able to span multiple projects. System development and management problems and areas that required redesign or major code changes for system implementation are examined as well as the relative successes of the initial projects. A generic description of the actual project is provided and the ongoing support requirements and future plans are discussed.

  14. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  15. Recrystallization of bulk and plasma-coated tungsten with accumulated thermal energy relevant to Type-I ELM in ITER H-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Su; Lim, Sun-Taek; Jin, Younggil; Lee, Jin Young; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The recrystallization of bulk tungsten is investigated under various thermal loads that are relevant to the accumulation energy during Type-I ELM in ITER H-mode operation. A thermal plasma torch is used to examine only the thermal load effect on the material; therefore, the charge and atomic effects are ignored. In this condition, recrystallization is observed in bulk W with a surface temperature above 1700 °C. The effect becomes severe with a finite recrystallization thickness near the surface, which introduces vertical cracking along grain boundaries with increasing thermal load. However, plasma-sprayed tungsten (PS-W) is not crystallized because neighboring lamellas merge, destroying their interlayer and producing no vertical cracks. This is attributed to an annealing effect in PS-W. Therefore, these results suggest that a multilayer W structure is advantageous in the fabrication of W, especially for long pulse operation in a future fusion reactor.

  16. Onboard Run-Time Goal Selection for Autonomous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm for use onboard spacecraft and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  17. Racial Disparities in Operative Procedure Time: The Influence of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Silber, Jeffrey H.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.; Ross, Richard N.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Kelz, Rachel R.; Neuman, Mark D.; Reinke, Caroline E.; Ludwig, Justin M.; Kyle, Fabienne A.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Fleisher, Lee A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Using Pennsylvania Medicare claims from 1995 and 1996 we previously reported that anesthesia procedure length appears longer in blacks than whites. In a new study using a different and larger data set, we now ask whether body mass index (BMI), not available in Medicare claims, explains this difference; we also examine the relative contributions of surgical and anesthesia times. Methods The Obesity and Surgical Outcomes Study of 47 hospitals throughout Illinois, New York, and Texas abstracted chart information including BMI on elderly Medicare patients (779 blacks and 14,596 whites) undergoing hip and knee replacement and repair, colectomy, and thoracotomy between 2002–2006. We matched all black Medicare patients to comparable whites and compared procedure lengths. Results Mean BMI in the black and white populations was 30.24 kg/m2 and 28.96 kg/m2, respectively (P < 0.0001). After matching on age, sex, procedure, comorbidities, hospital, and BMI, mean white BMI in the comparison group was 30.1 kg/m2 (P = 0.94). The typical matched pair difference (black-white) in anesthesia (induction to recovery room) procedure time was 7.0 min (P = 0.0019), of which 6 minutes reflected the surgical (cut-to-close) time difference (P = 0.0032). Inside matched pairs where difference in procedure times was > 30 min between patients, blacks more commonly had longer procedure times (Odds = 1.39, P = 0.0008). Conclusions Controlling for patient characteristics, BMI, and hospital, elderly black Medicare patients experienced slightly but significantly longer procedure length than their closely matched white controls. Procedure length difference was almost completely due to surgery, not anesthesia. PMID:23719571

  18. The Older of Two Trees: Young Children's Development of Operational Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; Russell, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Piaget (1971) made a distinction between intuitive (preoperational) time and operational (logico-mathematical) time. According to Piaget, operational time develops around 7-8 years of age and is characterized by children's ability to deduce, for example, that if A was born before B, A will always be older than B. When time is still intuitive,…

  19. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  20. Work Involvement and Timing of Motherhood in the Accumulation of Problems in Social Functioning in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronka, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea

    1998-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the relationship between earlier risk factors and later problems in young Finnish women's social functioning. Found that low work involvement mediated between risk factors and accumulation of problems in social functioning in young adulthood. Risk factors increased the likelihood of early motherhood, but early motherhood…

  1. Time course of myocardial sodium accumulation after burn trauma: a (31)P- and (23)Na-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Sikes, P J; Zhao, P; Maass, D L; Horton, J W

    2001-12-01

    In this study, (23)Na- and (31)P- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were examined in perfused rat hearts harvested 1, 2, 4, and 24 h after 40% total body surface area burn trauma and lactated Ringer resuscitation, 4 ml. kg(-1). %(-1) burn. (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy monitored myocardial intracellular Na+ using the paramagnetic shift reagent thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetra(methylenephosphonic acid). Left ventricular function, cardiac high-energy phosphates (ATP/PCr), and myocyte intracellular pH were studied by using (31)P NMR spectroscopy to examine the hypothesis that burn-mediated acidification of cardiomyocytes contributes to subsequent Na+ accumulation by this cell population. Intracellular Na+ accumulation was confirmed by sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate loading and fluorescence spectroscopy in cardiomyocytes isolated 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h postburn. This myocyte Na+ accumulation as early as 2 h postburn occurred despite no changes in cardiac ATP/PCr and intracellular pH. Left ventricular function progressively decreased after burn trauma. Cardiomyocyte Na+ accumulation paralleled cardiac contractile dysfunction, suggesting that myocardial Na+ overload contributes, in part, to the progressive postburn decrease in ventricular performance. PMID:11717236

  2. The Effects of the Mountain Pine Beetle on Snow Accumulation and Melt Timing in the Headwaters of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, E. T.; Small, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    The high-elevation forests that are a primary source for Colorado’s domestic and agricultural water needs are changing rapidly due to an infestation by the mountain pine beetle (MPB). MPB are native to Colorado’s high elevation forests. However, the frequency of MPB infestation and resulting tree death has increased dramatically over the past 15 years. In Colorado, over 8,000 km2 of Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) and Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest have been infested by MPB since 1996. It is predicted that the current epidemic will kill most of the pines in these areas; MPB are very destructive to forest canopies, often killing all of the overhead trees within lodgepole pine stands. Current widespread MPB outbreaks are not limited to Colorado; they are also impacting forests in much of the Western US and British Columbia, Canada. This study is focused on quantifying the impacts of widespread tree death on Colorado’s mountain snowpack. The data were collected one to three years after beetle infestation, at various stages of tree mortality. During the winters of 2009 and 2010, snowpack and meteorological properties were measured at eight pairs of dead and living lodgepole pine stands. All stands are located at an elevation of 2720 ± 32m, in a subalpine region along the headwaters of the Colorado River. Trees in living stands were generally smaller in diameter and more densely populated than trees in dead stands. In the red phase of tree death, snowpack accumulated equally beneath living and dead tree stands. Additionally, snow under all tree stands became isothermal on the same date regardless of mortality. However, the snow was depleted as much as one week earlier beneath red phase dead stands. Canopy transmission of solar radiation was not consistently different between living and red phase dead stands. We noted more ground litter in red phase dead stands which would decrease snowpack albedo and lead to the snowmelt differences observed. We also

  3. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  4. Managing Science Operations during Planetary Surface Operations at Long Light Delay-Time Targets: The 2011 Desert RATS Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. Conducted since 1997, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where multi-day tests are achievable. Desert RATS 2011 Science Operations Test simulated the management of crewed science operations at targets that were beyond the light delay time experienced during Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) and lunar surface missions, such as a mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) or the martian surface. Operations at targets at these distances are likely to be the norm as humans move out of the Earth-Moon system. Operating at these distances places significant challenges on mission operations, as the imposed light-delay time makes normal, two-way conversations extremely inefficient. Consequently, the operations approach for space missions that has been exercised during the first half-century of human space operations is no longer viable, and new approaches must be devised.

  5. Operating a real time high accuracy positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Hanley, J.; Russell, D.; Vooght, A.

    2003-04-01

    The paper shall review the history and development of real time DGPS services prior to then describing the design of a high accuracy GPS commercial augmentation system and service currently delivering over a wide area to users of precise positioning products. The infrastructure and system shall be explained in relation to the need for high accuracy and high integrity of positioning for users. A comparison of the different techniques for the delivery of data shall be provided to outline the technical approach taken. Examples of the performance of the real time system shall be shown in various regions and modes to outline the current achievable accuracies. Having described and established the current GPS based situation, a review of the potential of the Galileo system shall be presented. Following brief contextual information relating to the Galileo project, core system and services, the paper will identify possible key applications and the main user communities for sub decimetre level precise positioning. The paper will address the Galileo and modernised GPS signals in space that are relevant to commercial precise positioning for the future and will discuss the implications for precise positioning performance. An outline of the proposed architecture shall be described and associated with pointers towards a successful implementation. Central to this discussion will be an assessment of the likely evolution of system infrastructure and user equipment implementation, prospects for new applications and their effect upon the business case for precise positioning services.

  6. A computer-graphic display for real-time operator feedback during interventional x-ray procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Kevin; Dinu, Petru; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Wobschall, Darold; Rudin, Stephen; Hoffmann, Kenneth; Peterson, Ron; Zeng, Ming

    2004-05-01

    The harmful effects of ionizing radiation, as employed in a variety of medical imaging procedures, have been well studied and documented. To minimize risk to patients, operators must continually assess the dose rate and cumulative dose to the patient at each area of exposure. We have developed a computer graphic dose management display system which provides this operator feedback. The system is comprised of a signal processing module which reads the state of a fluoroscopy machine, a transmission ionization chamber for exposure measurement, and a visualization of the patient that displays the current level of radiation intensity and accumulated dose at every location on the body. The system shows the beam projection and orientation of the machine and color-coded dose metrics on the patient graphic model in real time. Additionally, a database system has been incorporated to allow for recording and playback of the entire procedure.

  7. 14 CFR Table A to Part 117 - Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table A Table A to Part 117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 117—Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table Time of...

  8. Quantification of reaction time and time perception during Space Shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratino, D. A.; Repperger, D. W.; Goodyear, C.; Potor, G.; Rodriguez, L. E.

    1988-01-01

    A microprocessor-based test battery containing simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and time perception tasks was flown aboard a 1985 Space Shuttle flight. Data were obtained from four crew members. Individual subject means indicate a correlation between change in reaction time during the flight and the presence of space motion sickness symptoms. The time perception task results indicate that the shortest duration task time (2 s) is progressively overestimated as the mission proceeds and is statistically significant when comparing preflight and postflight baselines. The tasks that required longer periods of time to estimate (8, 12, and 16 s) are less affected.

  9. Observations on dietary aluminum level, time duration exposure to dietary aluminum, and the influence of specific dietary blocking agents on tissue aluminum accumulation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kettleson, K.C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to observe the association of dietary aluminum (Al) with tissue Al accumulation. Other objectives included: to determine if alginic acid (AA) and pectin (P) in the diet could inhibit Al accumulation in tissues, and to relate time of exposure of dietary Al to Al tissue accumulation. The first experiment was conducted with a test diet feeding period of 35 days in a factorial arrangement of treatments with 24 rats, six rats per treatment. The dietary treatments were: groups 0 and 1, no added dietary Al (Al < 20 ppm) with or without 5% AA; groups 2 and 3, 400 ppm additional dietary Al with or without 5% AA. Kidney tissue analyzed by neutron activation showed no significant Al accumulation, or influence of the blocking agent. The second experiment was conducted over two time intervals (phase I with 24 rats for 28 days, and phase II with 26 rats for 56 days) and was done with 7 different diets. The diets included a control (basal with no added Al or blocking agent), the basal with 425 or 640 ppm Al added, with 5% AA or 5% P added to each Al test level. The Al source for both experiments was aluminum dibasic acetate. Tissues collected and pooled for analyses by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy included bone, brain, and kidney. The addition of 425 ppm Al to the diets stimulated body weight gain by about 10% relative to the controls. The blocking agents suppressed Al-induced weight gain, although AA stimulated feed intake (P < 0.05). Trends in Al accumulation appeared to occur in bone and brain tissues associated with dietary Al; but independent of blocking agents and independent of time exposure to the dietary Al.

  10. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  11. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  12. The expanded role of computers in Space Station Freedom real-time operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. Paul; Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1990-01-01

    The challenges that NASA and its international partners face in their real-time operation of the Space Station Freedom necessitate an increased role on the part of computers. In building the operational concepts concerning the role of the computer, the Space Station program is using lessons learned experience from past programs, knowledge of the needs of future space programs, and technical advances in the computer industry. The computer is expected to contribute most significantly in real-time operations by forming a versatile operating architecture, a responsive operations tool set, and an environment that promotes effective and efficient utilization of Space Station Freedom resources.

  13. Application of generalized operator representation in the time evolution of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Liu, Xiangyuan; Song, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically explored the application of generalized operator representation including P-, W-, and Husimi representation in the time evolution of quantum systems. In particular, by using the method of differentiation within an ordered product of operators, we give the normally and antinormally ordered forms of the integral kernels of Husimi operator representations and its corresponding formulations. By making use of the generalized operator representation, we transform exponentially complex operator equations into tractable phase-space equations. As a simple application, the time evolution equation of Husimi function in the amplitude dissipative channel is clearly obtained.

  14. On a Time-Space Operator (and other Non-Self-Adjoint Operators) for Observables in QM and QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Licata, Ignazio

    The aim of this paper is to show the possible significance, and usefulness, of various non-self-adjoint operators for suitable Observables in non-relativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics (QM), and in quantum electrodynamics. More specifically, this work deals with: (i) the Hermitian (but not self-adjoint) Time operator in non-relativistic QM and in quantum electrodynamics; (ii) idem, the introduction of Time and Space operators; and (iii) the problem of the four-position and four-momentum operators, each one with its Hermitian and anti-Hermitian parts, for relativistic spin-zero particles. Afterwards, other physical applications of non-self-adjoint (and even non-Hermitian) operators are briefly discussed. We mention how non-Hermitian operators can indeed be used in physics [as it was done, elsewhere, for describing Unstable States]; and some considerations are added on the cases of the nuclear optical potential, of quantum dissipation, and in particular of an approach to the measurement problem in QM in terms of a chronon. This paper is largely based on work developed, along the years, in collaboration with V.S. Olkhovsky, and, in smaller parts, with P. Smrz, with R.H.A. Farias, and with S.P. Maydanyuk.

  15. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  16. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acid concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.

  17. A discounted-cost continuous-time flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model solved by deconvexification over time

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C.; Rothblum, U.G.

    1990-08-01

    A discounted-cost, continuous-time, infinite-horizon version of a flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model is solved. The solution procedure is to convexify the discrete operator-assignment constraints to obtain a linear program, and then to regain the discreteness and obtain an approximate manufacturing schedule by deconvexification of the solution of the linear program over time. The strong features of the model are the accommodation of linear inequality relations among the manufacturing activities and the discrete manufacturing scheduling, whereas the weak features are intra-period relaxation of inventory availability constraints, and the absence of inventory costs, setup times, and setup charges.

  18. Dynamic Quantum Allocation and Swap-Time Variability in Time-Sharing Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, U. Narayan; Nance, Richard E.

    The effects of dynamic quantum allocation and swap-time variability on central processing unit (CPU) behavior are investigated using a model that allows both quantum length and swap-time to be state-dependent random variables. Effective CPU utilization is defined to be the proportion of a CPU busy period that is devoted to program processing, i.e.…

  19. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  20. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  1. Effect of intraoperative navigation on operative time in 1-level lumbar fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Arjun R; Yanamadala, Vijay; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2016-10-01

    The use of intraoperative image guided navigation (NAV) in spine surgery is increasing. NAV is purported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement but has been criticized for potentially increasing surgical cost, a component of which may be prolongation of total operative time due to time required for setup and intra-operative imaging and registration. In this study, we examine the effect of the introduction of O-Arm conical CT spinal navigation on surgical duration. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive freehand (FH) (n=63) and NAV (n=70) 1-level lumbar transpedicular instrumentation cases at a single institution by a single surgeon. We recorded setup and procedure time for each case. NAV was associated with significantly shorter total operative time for 1-level lumbar fusions compared to FH (4:30+/-0:42 hours vs. 4:53+/-0:39hours, p=0.0013). This shortening of total operative time was realized despite a trend toward slightly longer setup times with NAV. We also found a significant decrease in operative length over time in NAV but not FH cases, indicative of a "learning curve" associated with NAV. The use of NAV in 1-level lumbar transpedicular instrumentation surgery is associated with significantly shorter total operative time compared to the FH technique, and its efficiency improves over time. These data should factor into cost-effectiveness analyses of the use of NAV for these cases. PMID:27364319

  2. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing. PMID:25455208

  3. Sustained Accumulation of Microtubule-Binding Chemotherapy Drugs in the Peripheral Nervous System: Correlations with Time Course and Neurotoxic Severity.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Krystyna M; Vornov, James J; Wu, Ying; Nomoto, Kenichi; Littlefield, Bruce A; DesJardins, Christopher; Yu, Yanke; Lai, George; Reyderman, Larisa; Wong, Nancy; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many antineoplastic agents, but the mechanisms underlying the toxicities are unclear. At their MTDs, the microtubule-binding drugs paclitaxel and ixabepilone induce more severe neuropathy in mice relative to eribulin mesylate, paralleling their toxicity profiles in clinic. We hypothesized that the severity of their neurotoxic effects might be explained by the levels at which they accumulate in the peripheral nervous system. To test this hypothesis, we compared their pharmacokinetics and distribution in peripheral nerve tissue. After administration of a single intravenous dose, each drug was rapidly cleared from plasma but all persisted in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve (SN) for up to 72 hours. Focusing on paclitaxel and eribulin, we performed a 2-week MTD-dosing regimen, followed by a determination of drug pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and multiple functional measures of peripheral nerve toxicity for 4 weeks. Consistent with the acute dosing study, both drugs persisted in peripheral nervous tissues for weeks, in contrast to their rapid clearance from plasma. Notably, although eribulin exhibited greater DRG and SN penetration than paclitaxel, the neurotoxicity observed functionally was consistently more severe with paclitaxel. Overall, our results argue that sustained exposure of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents in peripheral nerve tissues cannot by itself account for their associated neurotoxicity. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3332-9. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197173

  4. An assembly to provide a time reference for the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Lopez, J. G.; Kelley, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is described which provides the value of date coordinated universal time (date UTC) to the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real Time (NOCC-RT) facility. The NOCC-RT is the real time portion of the NOCC upgrade task. The time scale is generated in the NOCC-RT clock processor; however, there is a continuous reference to UTC, as realized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and transmitted by Earth orbiting satellites. An important functional design requirement is the 99.9 pct. availability.

  5. Viroid RNA turnover: characterization of the subgenomic RNAs of potato spindle tuber viroid accumulating in infected tissues provides insights into decay pathways operating in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Minoia, Sofia; Navarro, Beatriz; Delgado, Sonia; Serio, Francesco Di; Flores, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    While biogenesis of viroid RNAs is well-known, how they decay is restricted to data involving host RNA silencing. Here we report an alternative degradation pathway operating on potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), the type species of nuclear-replicating viroids (family Pospiviroidae). Northern-blot hybridizations with full- and partial-length probes revealed a set of PSTVd (+) subgenomic (sg)RNAs in early-infected eggplant, some partially overlapping and reaching levels comparable to those of the genomic circular and linear forms. Part of the PSTVd (+) sgRNAs were also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana (specifically in the nuclei) and tomato, wherein they have been overlooked due to their low accumulation. Primer extensions of representative (+) sgRNAs failed to detect a common 5′ terminus, excluding that they could result from aborted transcription initiated at one specific site. Supporting this view, 5′- and 3′-RACE indicated that the (+) sgRNAs have 5′-OH and 3′-P termini most likely generated by RNase-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage of longer precursors. These approaches also unveiled PSTVd (−) sgRNAs with features similar to their (+) counterparts. Our results provide a mechanistic insight on how viroid decay may proceed in vivo during replication, and suggest that synthesis and decay of PSTVd strands might be coupled as in mRNA. PMID:25662219

  6. Viroid RNA turnover: characterization of the subgenomic RNAs of potato spindle tuber viroid accumulating in infected tissues provides insights into decay pathways operating in vivo.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Sofia; Navarro, Beatriz; Delgado, Sonia; Di Serio, Francesco; Flores, Ricardo

    2015-02-27

    While biogenesis of viroid RNAs is well-known, how they decay is restricted to data involving host RNA silencing. Here we report an alternative degradation pathway operating on potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), the type species of nuclear-replicating viroids (family Pospiviroidae). Northern-blot hybridizations with full- and partial-length probes revealed a set of PSTVd (+) subgenomic (sg)RNAs in early-infected eggplant, some partially overlapping and reaching levels comparable to those of the genomic circular and linear forms. Part of the PSTVd (+) sgRNAs were also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana (specifically in the nuclei) and tomato, wherein they have been overlooked due to their low accumulation. Primer extensions of representative (+) sgRNAs failed to detect a common 5' terminus, excluding that they could result from aborted transcription initiated at one specific site. Supporting this view, 5'- and 3'-RACE indicated that the (+) sgRNAs have 5'-OH and 3'-P termini most likely generated by RNase-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage of longer precursors. These approaches also unveiled PSTVd (-) sgRNAs with features similar to their (+) counterparts. Our results provide a mechanistic insight on how viroid decay may proceed in vivo during replication, and suggest that synthesis and decay of PSTVd strands might be coupled as in mRNA. PMID:25662219

  7. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  8. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  9. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  10. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  11. 14 CFR Table A to Part 117 - Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented... FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) Pt. 117, Table A Table A to Part 117—Maximum Flight Time Limits for Unaugmented Operations Table Time of...

  12. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  13. A Concurrent Implementation of the Cascade-Correlation Algorithm, Using the Time Warp Operating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the method in which the Cascade-Correlation algorithm was parallelized in such a way that it could be run using the Time Warp Operating System (TWOS). TWOS is a special purpose operating system designed to run parellel discrete event simulations with maximum efficiency on parallel or distributed computers.

  14. Effect of Streamflow Forecast Uncertainty on Real-Time Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

    2010-12-01

    Various hydrological forecast products have been applied to real-time reservoir operation, including deterministic streamflow forecast (DSF), DSF-based probabilistic streamflow forecast (DPSF), and ensemble streamflow forecast (ESF), which represent forecast uncertainty in the form of deterministic forecast error, deterministic forecast error-based uncertainty distribution, and ensemble forecast errors, respectively. Compared to previous studies that treat these forecast products as ad hoc inputs for reservoir operation models, this paper attempts to model the uncertainties involved in the various forecast products and explores their effect on real-time reservoir operation decisions. In hydrology, there are various indices reflecting the magnitude of streamflow forecast uncertainty; meanwhile, few models illustrate the forecast uncertainty evolution process. This research introduces Martingale Model of Forecast Evolution (MMFE) from supply chain management and justifies its assumptions for quantifying the evolution of uncertainty in streamflow forecast as time progresses. Based on MMFE, this research simulates the evolution of forecast uncertainty in DSF, DPSF, and ESF, and applies the reservoir operation models (dynamic programming, DP; stochastic dynamic programming, SDP; and standard operation policy, SOP) to assess the effect of different forms of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation. Through a hypothetical single-objective real-time reservoir operation model, the results illustrate that forecast uncertainty exerts significant effects. Reservoir operation efficiency, as measured by a utility function, decreases as the forecast uncertainty increases. Meanwhile, these effects also depend on the type of forecast product being used. In general, the utility of reservoir operation with ESF is nearly as high as the utility obtained with a perfect forecast; the utilities of DSF and DPSF are similar to each other but not as efficient as ESF. Moreover

  15. Fostering Positive Peer Relations in the Primary Classroom through Circle Time and Co-Operative Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary, Latisha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of co-operative games and circle time activities in fostering positive peer relations in two French Primary classrooms (N = 40). It presents French teachers' and pupils' perceptions of a set of co-operative games and circle time activities implemented within a year long study on personal,…

  16. Real-time solar magnetograph operation system software design and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Real Time Solar Magnetograph (RTSM) Operation system software design on PDP11/23+ is presented along with the User's Guide. The RTSM operation software is for real time instrumentation control, data collection and data management. The data is used for vector analysis, plotting or graphics display. The processed data is then easily compared with solar data from other sources, such as the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM).

  17. Multireservoir real-time operations for flood control using balanced water level index method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents a real-time simulation-optimization operation procedure for determining the reservoir releases at each time step during a flood. The proposed procedure involves two models, i.e., a hydrological forecasting model and a reservoir operation model. In the reservoir operation model, this paper compares two flood-control operation strategies for a multipurpose multireservoir system. While Strategy 1 is the real-time joint reservoir operations without using the balanced water level index (BWLI) method, Strategy 2 involves real-time joint reservoir operations using the BWLI method. The two strategies presented are formulated as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems. The idea of using the BWLI method is derived from the HEC-5 program developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The proposed procedure has been applied to the Tanshui River Basin system in Taiwan using the 6h ahead forecast data of six typhoons. A comparison of the results obtained from the two strategies reveals that Strategy 2 performs much better than Strategy 1 in determining the reservoir real-time releases throughout the system during flood emergencies in order to minimize flooding, while maintaining all reservoirs in the system in balance if possible. Consequently, the proposed model using the BWLI method demonstrates its effectiveness in estimating real-time releases. PMID:17923249

  18. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Neves, Carlos F. H.

    2010-06-01

    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.

  19. Supervisory Feed-Forward Control for Real-Time Topping Cycle CHP Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Chamra, Louay M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents an energy dispatch algorithm for real-time topping cycle Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) operation for buildings with the objective of minimizing the operational cost, primary energy consumption (PEC), or carbon dioxide emission (CDE). The algorithm features a supervisory feed-forward control for real-time CHP operation using short-term weather forecasting. The advantages of the proposed control scheme for CHP operation are (a) relatively simple and efficient implementation allowing realistic real-time operation , (b) optimized CHP operation with respect to operational cost, PEC, or CDE, and (c) increased site-energy consumption (SEC) resulting in less dependence on the electric grid. In the feed-forward portion of the control scheme, short-term electric, cooling, and heating loads are predicted using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) benchmark small office building model. The results are encouraging regarding the potential saving of operational cost, PEC, and CDE from using the control system for a CHP system with electric and thermal energy storages.

  20. Teaching surgery takes time: the impact of surgical education on time in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M.; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Results Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p < 0.001). In regression analysis, procedures performed in teaching hospitals were associated with an overall 22% (95% confidence interval 20%–24%) increase in surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Conclusion Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies. PMID:27007088

  1. Design and operation of a Loran-C time reference station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the practical questions that arise when one decides to use Loran-C in a time reference system are explored. An extensive effort is made to provide basic, practical information on establishing and operating a reference station. Four areas were covered: (1) the design, configuration and operational concepts which should be considered prior to establishing and operating a reference station using Loran-C, (2) the options and tradeoffs available regarding capabilities, cost, size, versatility, ease of operation, etc., that are available to the designer, (3) what measurements are made, how they are made and what they mean, and (4) the experience the U.S. Naval Observatory Time Service Division has had in the design and operation of such stations.

  2. Multi-objective teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for reducing carbon emissions and operation time in turning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenwen; Yu, D. Y.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Chaoyong; Zhang, Sanqiang; Tian, Huiyu; Luo, Min; Liu, Shengqiang

    2015-07-01

    In addition to energy consumption, the use of cutting fluids, deposition of worn tools and certain other manufacturing activities can have environmental impacts. All these activities cause carbon emission directly or indirectly; therefore, carbon emission can be used as an environmental criterion for machining systems. In this article, a direct method is proposed to quantify the carbon emissions in turning operations. To determine the coefficients in the quantitative method, real experimental data were obtained and analysed in MATLAB. Moreover, a multi-objective teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed, and two objectives to minimize carbon emissions and operation time are considered simultaneously. Cutting parameters were optimized by the proposed algorithm. Finally, the analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the optimal solution, which was found to be more environmentally friendly than the cutting parameters determined by the design of experiments method.

  3. Evidence of self organization in great Sumatra earthquake recurrence times: Implications for coupling of tidal forcing and tectonic stress accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Puli, K.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed inter- event time series of earthquake activities (M≥ 5) of Sumatra region spanning over 1973 to 2009 using techniques of nonlinear dynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the USGS catalogue centered on latitude 3.240N and longitude 95.825E. As a first step, in our analyses we computed the rank order statistics which revealed mixed response of earthquake dynamics indicating distinct breaks in slope of the rank order. This suggests that earthquake dynamics in this region is partly unstable and partly "self-organized" with a random tail. Comparison of return maps of the earthquakes inter- event time series with those representing random, stochastic and chaotic processes shows a quasi-deterministic behavior of earthquake genesis in the region. We further assessed the dimensionality of earthquake-generating mechanisms using a nonlinear predictor technique on two dimensional phase portrait constructed by recurrence time series. The nonlinear forecasting analysis suggests that the earthquake processes in the Sumatra region evolve on a non-random low-dimensional chaotic plane. Further, "K2" Entropy revealed a coherent structure indicating the deterministic dynamical pattern. This analysis is consistent with "self-organized" processes which could be explained invoking earth's internal dynamics, where, impulsively derived interdependencies cascades through the stress generated by tectonic plate movement. Our results, however, do not preclude the role of coupling of the above self-organized system with tidal forcing. Evidence for such a coupling in this region exists as 'triggering force". Keywords: Sumatra Earthquakes, Quasi-deterministic, Stochastic, Chaotic, Self-organized, K2 entropy, Phase portrait.

  4. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  5. Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System: Phase I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, A. H.; And Others

    The first phase of an ongoing library automation project at Stanford University is described. Project BALLOTS (Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System) seeks to automate the acquisition and cataloging functions of a large library using an on-line time-sharing computer. The main objectives are to control…

  6. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  7. Rise Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    The rise time test (along with the settleometer procedure) is used to monitor sludge behavior in the secondary clarifier of an activated sludge system. The test monitors the effect of the nitrification/denitrification process and aids the operator in determining optimum clarifier sludge detention time and, to some extent, optimum degree of…

  8. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate...

  9. Sediment accumulation, stratigraphic order, and the extent of time-averaging in lagoonal sediments: a comparison of 210Pb and 14C/amino acid racemization chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosnik, Matthew A.; Hua, Quan; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-14 calibrated amino acid racemization (14C/AAR) data and lead-210 (210Pb) data are used to examine sediment accumulation rates, stratigraphic order, and the extent of time-averaging in sediments collected from the One Tree Reef lagoon (southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia). The top meter of lagoonal sediment preserves a stratigraphically ordered deposit spanning the last 600 yrs. Despite different assumptions, the 210Pb and 14C/AAR chronologies are remarkably similar indicating consistency in sedimentary processes across sediment grain sizes spanning more than three orders of magnitude (0.1-10 mm). Estimates of long-term sediment accumulation rates range from 2.2 to 1.2 mm yr-1. Molluscan time-averaging in the taphonomically active zone is 19 yrs, whereas below the depth of final burial (~15 cm), it is ~110 yrs/5 cm layer. While not a high-resolution paleontological record, this reef lagoon sediment is suitable for paleoecological studies spanning the period of Western colonization and development. This sedimentary deposit, and others like it, should be useful, albeit not ideal, for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on coral reef systems.

  10. Operating Room Time Savings with the Use of Splint Packs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Tyler A.; Bluman, Eric M.; Palms, David; Smith, Jeremy T.; Chiodo, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR) is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP) contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS) splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB) prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p<0.001) in the SP group compared with the BS group. There was no significant difference in application time between the SP group and BS group. Conclusion: The use of SP made the process of splinting more lean. This has resulted in an average of 2 minutes 52 seconds saved in total splinting time compared to BS, making it an effective cost-cutting and time saving technique. For high volume ORs, use of splint packs may contribute to substantial time and cost savings without impacting patient safety. PMID:26894212

  11. Intelligent real-time operation of a pumping station for an urban drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2013-05-01

    SummaryIn this study, we apply artificial intelligence techniques to the development of two real-time pumping station operation models, namely, a historical and an optimized adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-His and ANFIS-Opt, respectively). The functions of these two models are the determination of the real-time operation criteria of various pumping machines for controlling flood in an urban drainage system during periods when the drainage gate is closed. The ANFIS-His is constructed from an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using historical operation records. The ANFIS-Opt is constructed from an ANFIS using the best operation series, which are optimized by a tabu search of historical flood events. We use the Chung-Kong drainage basin, New Taipei City, Taiwan, as the study area. The operational comparison variables are the highest water level (WL) and the absolute difference between the final WL and target WL of a pumping front-pool. The results show that the ANFIS-Opt is better than the ANFIS-His and historical operation models, based on the operation simulations of two flood events using the two operation models.

  12. Community Coordinated Modeling Center Support of Operations: Real-Time Simulations and V & V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Maddox, M.; Macneice, P.; Chulaki, A.; Berrios, D.

    2007-01-01

    In support of Operations Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) performing validation and verification of space weather models. To identify suitable metrics the CCMC focus on parameters most useful to operations that CCMC resident models can provide. The real time simulations carried out at CCMC are an essential tool to test model performance and stability by using input conditions that may occur in nature at any time. Since 2001, the magnetospheric MHD model BATSRUS has been run in real time using ACE real time data. CCMC staff developed an experimental real-time system that controls uploading of the real-time ACE data, monitors continuous model execution, initiates automatic recovery procedure in case of data gaps or hardware failures, synchronizes BATSRUS and FRC runs, and periodically runs IDL based visualization software.

  13. Turnover and accumulation of genetic diversity across large time-scale cycles of isolation and connection of populations

    PubMed Central

    Alcala, Nicolas; Vuilleumier, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Major climatic and geological events but also population history (secondary contacts) have generated cycles of population isolation and connection of long and short periods. Recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that fast evolutionary processes might be triggered by such events, as commonly illustrated in ecology by the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes (isolation and reconnection of lakes and watersheds) and in epidemiology by the fast adaptation of the influenza virus (isolation and reconnection in hosts). We test whether cyclic population isolation and connection provide the raw material (standing genetic variation) for species evolution and diversification. Our analytical results demonstrate that population isolation and connection can provide, to populations, a high excess of genetic diversity compared with what is expected at equilibrium. This excess is either cyclic (high allele turnover) or cumulates with time depending on the duration of the isolation and the connection periods and the mutation rate. We show that diversification rates of animal clades are associated with specific periods of climatic cycles in the Quaternary. We finally discuss the importance of our results for macroevolutionary patterns and for the inference of population history from genomic data. PMID:25253456

  14. Associations of sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eline H; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Bours, Martijn J L; Lynch, Brigid M; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Kant, Ijmert; Beets, Geerard L; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Healy, Genevieve N; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake) is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2-10 years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 145) diagnosed (2002-2010) at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands, wore the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor 24 h/day for seven consecutive days. HRQoL outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, WHODAS II, Checklist Individual Strength, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate associations with HRQoL outcomes of MOX-derived total and prolonged sedentary time (in prolonged sedentary bouts ≥ 30 min), and usual sedentary bout duration, corrected for waking wear time. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.6), and 4.5 h/day in prolonged sedentary time (2.3). Mean usual sedentary bout duration was 27.3 min (SD, 16.8). Greater total and prolonged sedentary time, and longer usual sedentary bout duration were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower physical functioning, and higher disability and fatigue scores. Greater prolonged sedentary time and longer usual sedentary bout duration also showed significant associations with lower global quality of life and role functioning. Associations with distress and social functioning were non-significant. Sedentary time was cross-sectionally associated with poorer HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are needed to investigate whether sedentary time reduction is a potential target for lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the HRQoL of CRC survivors. PMID:27419042

  15. Biomass accumulation rates of Amazonian secondary forest and biomass of old-growth forests from Landsat time series and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, Eileen H.; Lefsky, Michael A.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the age of humid lowland tropical forests in Rondônia, Brazil, from a somewhat densely spaced time series of Landsat images (1975-2003) with an automated procedure, the Threshold Age Mapping Algorithm (TAMA), first described here. We then estimate a landscape-level rate of aboveground woody biomass accumulation of secondary forest by combining forest age mapping with biomass estimates from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Though highly variable, the estimated average biomass accumulation rate of 8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 agrees well with ground-based studies for young secondary forests in the region. In isolating the lowland forests, we map land cover and general types of old-growth forests with decision tree classification of Landsat imagery and elevation data. We then estimate aboveground live biomass for seven classes of old-growth forest. TAMA is simple, fast, and self-calibrating. By not using between-date band or index differences or trends, it requires neither image normalization nor atmospheric correction. In addition, it uses an approach to map forest cover for the self-calibrations that is novel to forest mapping with satellite imagery; it maps humid secondary forest that is difficult to distinguish from old-growth forest in single-date imagery; it does not assume that forest age equals time since disturbance; and it incorporates Landsat Multispectral Scanner imagery. Variations on the work that we present here can be applied to other forested landscapes. Applications that use image time series will be helped by the free distribution of coregistered Landsat imagery, which began in December 2008, and of the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite Vegetation Product, which simplifies the use of GLAS data. Finally, we demonstrate here for the first time how the optical imagery of fine spatial resolution that is viewable on Google Earth provides a new source of reference data for remote sensing applications related to land cover.

  16. Time and frequency domain analysis of sampled data controllers via mixed operation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1981-01-01

    Specification of the mathematical equations required to define the dynamic response of a linear continuous plant, subject to sampled data control, is complicated by the fact that the digital components of the control system cannot be modeled via linear ordinary differential equations. This complication can be overcome by introducing two new mathematical operations; namely, the operation of zero order hold and digial delay. It is shown that by direct utilization of these operations, a set of linear mixed operation equations can be written and used to define the dynamic response characteristics of the controlled system. It also is shown how these linear mixed operation equations lead, in an automatable manner, directly to a set of finite difference equations which are in a format compatible with follow on time and frequency domain analysis methods.

  17. Bouts and breaks in children's sedentary time: currently used operational definitions and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2015-08-01

    Increasing attention is paid to the potential health effects of children's sedentary bouts and breaks, rather than total sedentary time. This paper discusses currently used operational definitions of sedentary bouts and breaks in studies among children. Remarkably, these studies applied different operational definitions, complicating comparison between studies. To advance the field of sedentary behaviour epidemiology, we need a clear and 'evidence-based' operationalization for such sedentary bouts and breaks. PMID:25937587

  18. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The success of the Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) in the development and evaluation of experimental hardware and software systems for real time interactive simulation of air breathing propulsion systems was evaluated. The Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) provides the user with a versatile, interactive means for loading, running, debugging and obtaining results from a multiprocessor based simulator. A front end processor (FEP) serves as the simulator controller and interface between the user and the simulator. These functions are facilitated by the RTMPOS which resides on the FEP. The RTMPOS acts in conjunction with the FEP's manufacturer supplied disk operating system that provides typical utilities like an assembler, linkage editor, text editor, file handling services, etc. Once a simulation is formulated, the RTMPOS provides for engineering level, run time operations such as loading, modifying and specifying computation flow of programs, simulator mode control, data handling and run time monitoring. Run time monitoring is a powerful feature of RTMPOS that allows the user to record all actions taken during a simulation session and to receive advisories from the simulator via the FEP. The RTMPOS is programmed mainly in PASCAL along with some assembly language routines. The RTMPOS software is easily modified to be applicable to hardware from different manufacturers.

  19. Approximate local magnetic-to-electric surface operators for time-harmonic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    El Bouajaji, M.

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose new local and accurate approximate magnetic-to-electric surface boundary operators for the three-dimensional time-harmonic Maxwell's equations. After their construction where their accuracy is improved through a regularization process, a localization of these operators and a full finite element approximation is introduced. Next, their numerical efficiency and accuracy is investigated in detail for different scatterers when these operators are used in the extreme situation of On-Surface Radiation Conditions methods.

  20. Bubble Pulse Cancelation in the Time-Frequency Domain Using Warping Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hai-Qiang; Zhang, Ren-He; Li, Zheng-Lin; Guo, Yong-Gang; He, Li

    2013-08-01

    The received shock waves produced by explosive charges are often polluted by bubble pulses in underwater acoustic experiments. A method based on warping operators is proposed to cancel the bubble pulses in the time-frequency domain. This is applied to the explosive data collected during the Yellow Sea experiment in November 2000. The original received signal is first transformed into a warped signal by warping operators. Then, the warped signal is analyzed in the time-frequency domain. Due to the different features between the shock waves and the bubble pulses in the time-frequency domain for the warped signal, the bubble pulses can be easily filtered out. Furthermore, the shock waves in the original time domain can be retrieved by the inverse warping transformation. The autocorrelation functions and the time-frequency representation show that the bubble pulses can be canceled effectively.

  1. Operating manual for the R100 digital vibration-time totalizer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordes, Edwin H.; Shi, Minghua

    1988-01-01

    A vibration sensor that monitors the running time of pumps to determine water withdrawal by various public-supply, agricultural, and industrial groups has been developed in response to a need demonstrated by data gathering activities of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Use Information Program. This sensor, the R100 digital vibration-time totalizer, attaches to monitored equipment such as a pump, motor, or pipe facility and senses vibration to determine running time. Battery-powered and packaged for field environment, the R100 can be left unattended for up to 1 year. Time is recorded to the nearest 0.01 hour, or 36 seconds. This operating manual for the R100 digital vibration-time totalizer describes the R100 's principal of operation and gives installation guidelines and instructions for battery replacements. (USGS)

  2. Development and operation of a real-time simulation at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Christopher; Sheppard, Shirin; Chetelat, Monique

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) facility at the NASA Ames Research Center combines the largest vertical motion capability in the world with a flexible real-time operating system allowing research to be conducted quickly and effectively. Due to the diverse nature of the aircraft simulated and the large number of simulations conducted annually, the challenge for the simulation engineer is to develop an accurate real-time simulation in a timely, efficient manner. The SimLab facility and the software tools necessary for an operating simulation will be discussed. Subsequent sections will describe the development process through operation of the simulation; this includes acceptance of the model, validation, integration and production phases.

  3. InSAR time-series constraints on inter-seismic strain accumulation and creep distribution along North Anatolian and Chaman Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazli, E.; Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.

    2013-12-01

    In many aspects, the San Andreas and the North Anatolian fault zones show many similarities. They are similarly right-lateral, strike-slip faults, at the same time, are transforms. However, they vary in the maximum amount of lateral displacement and show different topographic features. The maximum offset is nearly 300 km along the San Andreas Fault whereas it is approximately 85-90 km along the North Anatolian Fault. In recent years, interseismic crustal velocities and strains have been determined for North Anatolian Fault Zone through repeated measurements using the Global Positioning System and satellite radar interferometry. The Chaman Fault in Pakistan and Afghanistan is the only major fault along the western India-Eurasia plate boundary zone and probably accommodates the entire relative plate motion of 30-35 mm/yr. Recent GPS and InSAR studies on the Chaman fault yield slip rates of 18 × 1 mm/yr. The inconsistency in geologic, geodetic and seismic slip rates along the Chaman Fault need investigations to better understand the geodynamic responses of the Indo-Asia collision along its western boundary. We use InSAR time-series analysis using archived and new SAR imagery to constrain strain accumulation across the North Anatolian Fault and Chaman Faults. We expect a relative accuracy of InSAR measurements better than 1 mm/yr over 100 km, made possible by recent advances in flattening residual, orbital error and atmospheric correction strategies [Fattahi & Amelung, 2013]. After validation of the technique in Southern San Andreas Fault, using GPS observations, we apply the same InSAR time-series approach to constrain strain accumulation across the North Anatolian and Chaman Faults. We will use the InSAR data to establish the first-order fault properties of the Chaman and North Anatolian Faults (creep distribution, locking depth) using analytical two-dimensional elastic strain accumulation models along different transects across the faults. Our preliminary results

  4. Mini acceleration and deceleration driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Fakeruddin, Shafarul Hafidi; Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Hanafi, Mohd Hafidzal Mohd

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module. The flywheel hybrid module contains low cost mechanical parts which installed on the small motorcycle. Based on normal driving cycles characteristics, the Mini-AD driving strategy is develop. It is involved a series of short or mini acceleration cycle and short deceleration cycle on top of the normal driving cycles. The new strategy is simulated for flywheel hybrid module, aimed for acceleration phase only. Simulations show that the new driving strategy can increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module up to 62.5%.

  5. Real-time science operations to support a lunar polar volatiles rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2015-05-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the ∼ 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  6. [Effect of preserving left colic artery during radical operation of rectal cancer on anastomotic leakage and operation time].

    PubMed

    Zang, Lu; Ma, Junjun; Zheng, Minhua

    2016-04-01

    Surgical treatment for rectal cancer has changed radically in recent years since the introduction of the principle of total mesorectal excision (TME) and technique of laparoscopic approach. The emphasis of management for vessels in laparoscopic TME surgery for rectal cancer is mainly focused on the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and its branches. Two alternatives of the level to execute the IMA are high ligation(without preservation of left colic artery, LCA) and low ligation (with preservation of LCA). In this article, we review the latest literature from China and foreign countries concerning this issue, and combine with our own experience to investigate the effect of LCA preserving on anastomotic leakage and operation time, which may provide a reference for proper choice of the management of IMA in rectal cancer surgery. PMID:27112468

  7. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-07-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier.

  8. Standards in Operation Notes--Is It Time to Re-Emphasise Their Importance?

    PubMed

    Cahill, K C; Burchette, D; Kerin, M J; Kelly, J L

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines exist for operation notes from the Royal College of Surgeons of England but compliance has been shown to be variable. The authors performed a closed loop audit of compliance with RCS standards in an Irish Plastic Surgery department. Thirty random operation notes were selected from a conserved pool of authors--before and after an educational intervention to increase awareness of the RCS guidelines. Following education, improvements were noted but also deteriorations--time increased from 12 (40%) to 16 (53%), emergency/elective status from none (0%) to 11 (36%), and operative diagnosis from seven (23%) to 21 (70%). However notably among the findings, surgeon's name decreased from 30 (100%) to 26 (86%), findings from 27 (90%) to 21 (53%) and tissue altered from 27 (90%) to 20 (66%). As some specialities are developing operation note standards specific to individual procedures, the findings are compared with previous similar published work. PMID:26904788

  9. Real-Time Assessment of Robot Performance During Remote Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Fong, Terrence; Milam, Tod; Pacis, Estrellina; Utz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    To ensure that robots are used effectively for exploration missions, it is important to assess their performance during operations. We are investigating the definition and computation of performance metrics for assessing remote robotic operations in real-time. Our approach is to monitor data streams from robots, compute performance metrics, and provide Web-based displays of these metrics for assessing robot performance during operations. We evaluated our approach for measuring robot performance with the K10 rovers from NASA Ames Research Center during a field test at Moses Lake Sand Dunes (WA) in June 2008. In this paper we present the results of evaluating our software for robot performance and discuss our conclusions from this evaluation for future robot operations.

  10. Real-time automated failure analysis for on-orbit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Sarah; Lauritsen, Janet; Pack, Ginger; Ha, Anhhoang; Jowers, Steven; Mcnenny, Robert; Truong, The; Dell, James

    1993-01-01

    A system which is to provide real-time failure analysis support to controllers at the NASA Johnson Space Center Control Center Complex (CCC) for both Space Station and Space Shuttle on-orbit operations is described. The system employs monitored systems' models of failure behavior and model evaluation algorithms which are domain-independent. These failure models are viewed as a stepping stone to more robust algorithms operating over models of intended function. The described system is designed to meet two sets of requirements. It must provide a useful failure analysis capability enhancement to the mission controller. It must satisfy CCC operational environment constraints such as cost, computer resource requirements, verification, and validation. The underlying technology and how it may be used to support operations is also discussed.

  11. Modeling of human operator dynamics in simple manual control utilizing time series analysis. [tracking (position)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, G. C.; Osafo-Charles, F.; Oneill, W. D.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Time series analysis is applied to model human operator dynamics in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. The normalized residual criterion is used as a one-step analytical tool to encompass the processes of identification, estimation, and diagnostic checking. A parameter constraining technique is introduced to develop more reliable models of human operator dynamics. The human operator is adequately modeled by a second order dynamic system both in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. In comparing the data sampling rates, 100 msec between samples is adequate and is shown to provide better results than 200 msec sampling. The residual power spectrum and eigenvalue analysis show that the human operator is not a generator of periodic characteristics.

  12. Tactical increases in operating room block time for capacity planning should not be based on utilization.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2008-01-01

    When a decision has been made to expand operating room (OR) capacity, the choice of surgical subspecialties to receive additional block time and fill the additional OR capacity is a tactical decision. Such decisions are made approximately once a year. Afterwards, typically a few months before the day of surgery, a second stage occurs in which operational decisions allocate OR time and determine the hours of staffing for each specialty based on its expected workload. In practice, cases are not scheduled into block time that has been planned tactically, but instead are scheduled during the second stage into the staffed time that is allocated operationally. This article reviews the literature on tactical decision-making for expansion of OR capacity. When additional OR capacity is available, it should be planned for those subspecialties that have the greatest contribution margin per OR hour, that have the potential for growth, and that have minimal need for limited resources such as intensive care unit beds. Numerous reasons are presented to explain why tactical planning of additional block time should not be based on current or past utilization of block time. PMID:18165581

  13. Evolving from Planning and Scheduling to Real-Time Operations Support: Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ludowise, Melissa; McCurdy, Michael; Li, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Versions of Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration (SPIFe) have supported a variety of mission operations across NASA. This software tool has evolved and matured over several years, assisting planners who develop intricate schedules. While initially conceived for surface Mars missions, SPIFe has been deployed in other domains, where people rather than robotic explorers, execute plans. As a result, a diverse set of end-users has compelled growth in a new direction: supporting real-time operations. This paper describes the new needs and challenges that accompany this development. Among the key features that have been built for SPIFe are current time indicators integrated into the interface and timeline, as well as other plan attributes that enable execution of scheduled activities. Field tests include mission support for the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) campaigns.

  14. Effect of Operating Frequency and Fill Time on PDE-Ejector Thrust Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, K.; Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh; Shehadeh, R.; Bouvet, N.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thrust measurements for a pulse detonation engine (PDE)-ejector system were determined for a range of operating frequencies. Various length tubular ejectors were utilized. The results were compared to the measurements of the thrust output of the PDE alone to determine the enhancement provided by each ejector configuration at the specified frequencies. Ethylene was chosen as the fuel, with an equi-molar mixture of nitrogen and oxygen acting as the oxidizer. The propellant was kept at an equivalence ratio of one during all the experiments. The system was operated for frequencies between 20 and 50 Hz. The parameter space of the study included PDE operation frequency, ejector length, overlap percentage, the radius of curvature for the ejector inlets, and duration of the time allowed between cycles. The results of the experiments showed a maximum thrust augmentation of 120% for a PDE-ejector configuration at a frequency of 40Hz with a fill time of 10 ms.

  15. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  16. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  17. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  18. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  19. Analysis of the time reversal operator for a scatterer undergoing small displacements.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Franck D; Prada, Claire; Fink, Mathias; Garnier, Josselin; de Rosny, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The method of the time reversal operator decomposition is usually employed to detect and characterize static targets using the invariants of the time reversal operator. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the impact of small displacements of the target on these invariants. To find these invariants, the time reversal operator is built from the multistatic response matrix and then diagonalized. Two methods of recording the multistatic response matrix while the target is moving are studied: Acquisition either element by element or column by column. It is demonstrated that the target displacement generates new significant eigenvalues. Using a perturbation theory, the analytical expressions of the eigenvalues of the time-reversal operator for both acquisition methods are derived. We show that the distribution of the new eigenvalues strongly depends on these two methods. It is also found that for the column by column acquisition, the second eigenvector is simply linked to the scatterer displacements. At last, the implications on the Maximum Likelihood and Multiple Signal Classification detection are also discussed. The theoretical results are in good agreement with numerical and 3.4 MHz ultrasonic experiments. PMID:23297886

  20. All-fiber terahertz time-domain spectrometer operating at 1.5 microm telecom wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, B; Roehle, H; Künzel, H; Böttcher, J; Schlak, M; Stanze, D; Venghaus, H; Schell, M

    2008-06-23

    The worldwide first all-fiber THz time-domain spectrometer for operation at 1.5 microm is presented. Applications up to 3 THz are demonstrated. Key devices are photoconductive antennas based on novel LT InGaAs/InAlAs multi-layer structures. PMID:18575523

  1. Preoperative computed tomography angiography for planning DIEP flap breast reconstruction reduces operative time and overall complications

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Chowdhry, Muhammad; Band, Bassam; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.; Griffiths, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background The approach and operative techniques associated with breast reconstruction have steadily been refined since its inception, with abdominal perforator-based flaps becoming the gold standard reconstructive option for women undergoing breast cancer surgery. The current study comprises a cohort of 632 patients, in whom specific operative times are recorded by a blinded observer, and aims to address the potential benefits seen with the use of computer tomography (CT) scanning preoperatively on operative outcomes, complications and surgical times. Methods A prospectively recorded, retrospective review was undertaken of patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap at the St Andrews Centre over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) scanning of patients began in September 2012 and thus 2 time periods were compared: 2 years prior to the use of CTA scans and 2 years afterwards. For all patients, key variables were collected including patient demographics, operative times, flap harvest time, pedicle length, surgeon experience and complications. Results In group 1, comprising patients within the period prior to CTA scans, 265 patients underwent 312 flaps; whilst in group 2, the immediately following 2 years, 275 patients had 320 flaps. The use of preoperative CTA scans demonstrated a significant reduction in flap harvest time of 13 minutes (P<0.013). This significant time saving was seen in all flap modifications: unilateral, bilateral and bipedicled DIEP flaps. The greatest time saving was seen in bipedicle flaps, with a 35-minute time saving. The return to theatre rate significantly dropped from 11.2% to 6.9% following the use of CTA scans, but there was no difference in the total failure rate. Conclusions The study has demonstrated both a benefit to flap harvest time as well as overall operative times when using preoperative CTA. The use of CTA was associated with a significant reduction in complications

  2. Stability improvement of an operational two-way satellite time and frequency transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Jiun; Fujieda, Miho; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tseng, Wen-Hung; Tsao, Hen-Wai

    2016-04-01

    To keep national time accurately coherent with coordinated universal time, many national metrology institutes (NMIs) use two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) to continuously measure the time difference with other NMIs over an international baseline. Some NMIs have ultra-stable clocks with stability better than 10-16. However, current operational TWSTFT can only provide frequency uncertainty of 10-15 and time uncertainty of 1 ns, which is inadequate. The uncertainty is dominated by the short-term stability and the diurnals, i.e. the measurement variation with a period of one day. The aim of this work is to improve the stability of operational TWSTFT systems without additional transmission, bandwidth or increase in signal power. A software-defined receiver (SDR) comprising a high-resolution correlator and successive interference cancellation associated with open-loop configuration as the TWSTFT receiver reduces the time deviation from 140 ps to 73 ps at averaging time of 1 h, and occasionally suppresses diurnals. To study the source of the diurnals, TWSTFT is performed using a 2  ×  2 earth station (ES) array. Consequently, some ESs sensitive to temperature variation are identified, and the diurnals are significantly reduced by employing insensitive ESs. Hence, the operational TWSTFT using the proposed SDR with insensitive ESs achieves time deviation to 41 ps at 1 h, and 80 ps for averaging times from 1 h to 20 h.

  3. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week). PMID:20683609

  4. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  5. Near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system: from design to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Walter; King, Thomas; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Zhou, Lihang; Barnet, Chris D.

    2004-10-01

    A near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system is fully operational at NOAA/NESDIS/ORA. The AIRS system went though three separate production phases: design and development, implementation, and operations. The design and development phase consisted of two years of preparation for the near real-time AIRS data. The approach was to fully emulate the AIRS measurement stream. This was accomplished by using a forecast model to represent the geophysical state and computation of simulated AIRS measurements using the characteristics of the AIRS channels. The preparation included file format development and the creation of a program to subset the radiance and product data. The implementation phase lasted over a year and involved utilizing AIRS/AMSU/HSB simulated data quasi-operationally. This simulated data was placed into deliverable files and distributed to the customers for their pre-launch preparations. The operational phase consisted of switching the simulation system to real data and is the current system status. Details of what went right and wrong at each production phase will be presented. This methodology eased the transition to operations and will be applied to other advanced sounders such as IASI and CrIS.

  6. Development of a subway operation incident delay model using accelerated failure time approaches.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Xuedong; Meng, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to develop a subway operational incident delay model using the parametric accelerated time failure (AFT) approach. Six parametric AFT models including the log-logistic, lognormal and Weibull models, with fixed and random parameters are built based on the Hong Kong subway operation incident data from 2005 to 2012, respectively. In addition, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity is also considered to compare the model performance. The goodness-of-fit test results show that the log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is most suitable for estimating the subway incident delay. First, the results show that a longer subway operation incident delay is highly correlated with the following factors: power cable failure, signal cable failure, turnout communication disruption and crashes involving a casualty. Vehicle failure makes the least impact on the increment of subway operation incident delay. According to these results, several possible measures, such as the use of short-distance and wireless communication technology (e.g., Wifi and Zigbee) are suggested to shorten the delay caused by subway operation incidents. Finally, the temporal transferability test results show that the developed log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is stable over time. PMID:25171521

  7. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such, it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.

  8. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such,more » it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.« less

  9. Real-Time Wastewater System Operational Strategy Adaptation for Rainfall Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schmidt, A.; Ostfeld, A.; Treinish, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    prevent the selection of solutions that may lead to transients, allowing more efficient management approaches while still preventing flow instabilities. Modifications to the Genetic Algorithm (GA) such as decreased search space, memory enhancement, and a diversity-enhancing micro-GA allow rapid convergence to good solutions that help define the rules. This paper also discusses how the work will be extended to include rainfall forecast verification strategies. Forecasted peak rainfall intensities, spatial areas of similar intensity, and other storm characteristics may differ from gauge and radar observations. The possible errors in prediction can be quantified as verification scores with the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) software. The verification scores should be considered while optimizing system operations; selected verification scores will be accumulated to acquire score uncertainty for distinct storm types. The uncertainties in forecasts may be incorporated into, and may change, the optimized system rules for a deterministic forecast.

  10. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  11. Time-dependent effects of pyramidotomy in the operantly conditioned rats.

    PubMed

    Fanardjian, V V; Gevorkyan, O V; Mallina, R K; Melik-Moussian, A B; Meliksetyan, I B

    2001-08-01

    The effect of unilateral transection of bulbar pyramid on operantly conditioning in rats, have been shown to be in direct relationship with the time of its execution. Stable instrumental reflexes reappeared on average 3.9 days after the transection of the bulbar pyramid. However, preliminary transection of the pyramid led to the prolongation of stabilization of operant conditioning after an average of 16.5 days. These findings are considered to be in view of the mechanisms of switching of descending influences of corticospinal and cortico--rubrospinal systems. PMID:11334644

  12. Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Prasertkulsak, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Itonaga, T; Yamamoto, K

    2016-05-01

    Pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h for the treatment of hospital wastewater. The removals of eleven pharmaceutical compounds in MBR operated at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level were investigated during which nitrification degree was differed. The results experiments revealed the importance of immediate adsorption onto the colloidal particles in supernatant of MBR sludge and subsequently removed by membrane filtration for the recalcitrant pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, the removals through biodegradation during short HRT were also found significant for some compounds. DGGE profile revealed the development of pharmaceutical degrading microorganisms in MBR. PMID:26852096

  13. Common interface real-time multiprocessor operating system for embedded systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rottman, M.S.

    1991-03-04

    Large real time applications such as aerospace avionics systems, battle management, and factory automation place many demands and constraints on the computing system not found in other applications. Software development is hindered by software dependence on the computer architecture and the lack of portability between systems. This thesis specifies and designs a real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMOS) that implements a consistent programming model, enabling the development of real time parallel software independent of the target architecture. The RTMOS defines the core functionality required to demonstrate the programming model. The RTMOS functional requirements are specified using Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT). A hybrid of the Design Approach for Real-Time Software (DARTS) is used to perform the preliminary and detailed designs. The preliminary design is architecture-independent; the detailed design phase maps the design to a specific parallel system, the Intel iPSC/2 hypercube. The modular RTMOS design partitions operating system operations and data structures from hardware-dependent functions for portability.

  14. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  15. How Predictable Is the Operative Time of Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Endometrioma?

    PubMed Central

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Campo, Vincenzo; Campo, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a tricky albeit common disease whose management largely relies on laparoscopy. We have studied the operative times of laparoscopic endometrioma surgery in order to assess their predictability and possible predictors. One hundred forty-eight laparoscopies were included, with a median operative time of 70 minutes (mean 75.14; 95% CI: 70.03–80.24). Half of the cases had a duration within 15–20 minutes above or below the median (IQR: 55–93.75), but the whole dataset ranged from 20 to 180 minutes, and the standard deviation was relatively large (31.4). Surgical times were significantly related to technical (number and size of the cysts) and nontechnical factors (age, parity, dysmenorrhea, and family history). At multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for number and size of the cysts, surgical times below the first quartile were associated with older age (>30 years old: aOR: 3.590; 95% CI: 1.417–9.091) and parity (≥1 delivery: aOR: 3.409; 95% CI: 1.343–8.651). Longer times, above the third quartile, were instead predicted by a familial anamnesis of endometriosis (aOR: 3.639; 95% CI: 1.246–10.627). Our findings indicate highly variable surgical times, which are predicted by unexpected nontechnical factors. This is consistent with the complexity of endometriosis and its treatment. Productivity and efficiency in endometriosis surgery should focus on the quality of healthcare outcomes rather than on the time spent in the operating theatres. PMID:26417455

  16. Validation of an operational product to determine L1 to Earth propagation time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, M. D.; Witters Hicks, S.; Biesecker, D. A.; Reinard, A. A.; Koning, C. A.; Weimer, D. R.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development and validation of an operational space weather tool to forecast propagation delay times between L1 and Earth using the Weimer and King (2008) tilted phase front technique. A simple flat plane convection delay method is currently used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) to propagate the solar wind from a monitoring satellite located at L1 to a point upstream of the magnetosphere. This technique assumes that all observed solar wind discontinuities, such as interplanetary shocks and interplanetary coronal mass ejection boundaries, are in a flat plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line traveling in the GSE X direction at the observed solar wind velocity. In reality, these phase plane fronts can have significantly tilted orientations, and by relying on a ballistic propagation method, delay time errors of ±15 min are common. In principle, the propagation time delay product presented here should more accurately predict L1 to Earth transit times by taking these tilted phase plane fronts into account. This algorithm, which is based on the work of Weimer and King (2008), is currently running in real time in test mode at SWPC as part of the SWPC test bed. We discuss the current algorithm performance, and via our detailed validation study, show that there is no significant difference between the two propagation methods when run in a real-time operational environment.

  17. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites. PMID:24908516

  18. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III ); Buczek, J.A. ); Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.

  19. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Buczek, J.A.; Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.

  20. Streamflow forecast uncertainty evolution and its effect on real-time reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Singh, Vijay P.; Lu, Weiwei; Zhang, Junhong; Zhou, Jianzhong; Guo, Shenglian

    2016-09-01

    When employing streamflow forecasting in practical applications, such as reservoir operation, one important issue is to deal with the uncertainty involved in forecasting. Traditional studies dealing with the uncertainty in streamflow forecasting have been limited in describing the evolution of forecast uncertainty. This paper proposes a copula-based uncertainty evolution (CUE) model to describe the evolution of streamflow forecast uncertainty. The generated forecast uncertainty series fits the observed series well in terms of observed mean, standard deviation and skewness. Daily flow with forecast uncertainty are simulated and used to determine the effect of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. Results show that using the forecast inflow coupled with the pre-release module for reservoir operation of TGR in flood season cannot increase the flood risk.

  1. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  2. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  3. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  4. A Systematic Approach for Real-Time Operator Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean; Li, Jiang; Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    A task overload condition often leads to high stress for an operator, causing performance degradation and possibly disastrous consequences. Just as dangerous, with automated flight systems, an operator may experience a task underload condition (during the en-route flight phase, for example), becoming easily bored and finding it difficult to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, the disengaged operator may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss an approach for Operator Functional State (OFS) monitoring in a typical aviation environment. A systematic ground truth finding procedure has been designed based on subjective evaluations, performance measures, and strong physiological indicators. The derived OFS ground truth is continuous in time compared to a very sparse estimation of OFS based on an expert review or subjective evaluations. It can capture the variations of OFS during a mission to better guide through the training process of the OFS assessment model. Furthermore, an OFS assessment model framework based on advanced machine learning techniques was designed and the systematic approach was then verified and validated with experimental data collected in a high fidelity Boeing 737 simulator. Preliminary results show highly accurate engagement/disengagement detection making it suitable for real-time applications to assess pilot engagement.

  5. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  6. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  7. Analysis of the operating regimes of microsecond-conduction-time plasma opening switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassany, B.; Grua, P.

    1995-07-01

    A theoretical model for the microsecond-conduction-time plasma opening switch (POS) based on magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The operating processes are associated with the magnetic field transport in the switch. The concept of the freezing-in of magnetic field in fluids is used to analyse the dynamics of this field in the plasma. One-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical simulations lead to the identification of two operating regimes, related to the Hall and the snowplow effects. The transition between these two regimes is determined by the plasma density. Scaling relations are developed from this model. In particular the electrical charge Q, conducted by the POS during the conduction time, provides a useful tool for comparisons between theory and experiments; it is shown to be the essential parameter for the switch design.

  8. Force-reflection and shared compliant control in operating telemanipulators with time delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Hannaford, Blake; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of an advanced telemanipulation system in the presence of a wide range of time delays between a master control station and a slave robot is quantified. The contemplated applications include multiple satellite links to LEO, geosynchronous operation, spacecraft local area networks, and general-purpose computer-based short-distance designs. The results of high-precision peg-in-hole tasks performed by six test operators indicate that task performance decreased linearly with introduced time delays for both kinesthetic force feedback (KFF) and shared compliant control (SCC). The rate of this decrease was substantially improved with SCC compared to KFF. Task performance at delays above 1 s was not possible using KFF. SCC enabled task performance for such delays, which are realistic values for ground-controlled remote manipulation of telerobots in space.

  9. Application of space-time neural networks to detect tether skiprope phenomenon in space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit will be studied during a space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992. Tethered systems may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation or skiprope phenomenon due to interaction between the earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether. Effective damping of this skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of its magnitude and phase. Satellite attitude motion has characteristic oscillations as well as many other perturbations and therefore the relationship between skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very complex and nonlinear. A space-time neural network (STNN) for filtering satellite rate gyro data is proposed for rapid detection and prediction of skiprope magnitude and phase. A validated orbital operations simulator and STNN software will be used for training and testing of this skiprope detection system. The advantages of STNNs are discussed and STNN configurations and preliminary results are presented.

  10. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  11. Time-domain theory of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers operating at grazing incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Zheleznov, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    Time-domain theory of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) operating at grazing incidence has been developed. The theory is based on a description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental results of the observation of subnanosecond pulse amplification in a gyro-TWT consisting of three gain sections separated by severs. The theory developed can also be used successfully for a description of amplification of monochromatic signals.

  12. Significant improvements in the area of stroke timing of motor-operated valves for nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wohld, P.R. ); Newsome, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on valve stroke timing test equipment developed and tested for use in a nuclear power plant main control room that can provide significant advantages to the user for valve surveillance testing required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The equipment is particularly suitable for Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) because of its accuracy and repeatability that is necessary to detect the effects of small changes in actuator motor RPM.

  13. Time-domain theory of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers operating at grazing incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Zheleznov, I. V.

    2015-01-15

    Time-domain theory of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) operating at grazing incidence has been developed. The theory is based on a description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental results of the observation of subnanosecond pulse amplification in a gyro-TWT consisting of three gain sections separated by severs. The theory developed can also be used successfully for a description of amplification of monochromatic signals.

  14. Time series and MinTS analysis of strain accumulation along the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) over the 2003-2010 period, from ENVISAT InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Lin, N.; Simons, M.; Doin, M.; Hetland, E. A.; Muse, P.; Peltzer, G.; Jianbao, S.; Dailu, R.

    2010-12-01

    We use SAR interferometry to measure the strain accumulation along the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (hereafter HFS), that marks the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a thrust fault system. There has been no known large earthquake on the central section of the HFS, the “Tianzhu seismic gap”, in the last ~1000 years. We first analyze the complete ENVISAT SAR data archive along three descending and two ascending tracks for the 2003-2009 period and construct an InSAR-based mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity map around the HFS from the eastern end of the Qilian Shan (102° E), to the west, to the Liupan Shan (106° E), to the east. We empirically correct our interferograms for propagation delays associated with changes on the stratified atmospheric structure. We then estimate the mean LOS velocity for each track using a time series analysis which reveals the existence of a 40 km long creeping segment located at the western end of the 1920 rupture. Extending from the Jingtai pull-apart basin, which shows a 2-3 mm/yr subsidence rate, to the Mao Mao Shan, the creep rate is estimated to reach 8 mm/yr locally and is higher than the long term loading rate of the Haiyuan fault, estimated geodetically at 5±1 mm/yr. The surface extension of the creeping segment is colocated with strong micro- and moderate seismic activity. We also explore the possibility of transient creep during the 2003-2010 time period, using a SBAS style, smoothed, time series analysis and the Multiscale Interferometric Time Series method (MinTS, CalTech, see Hetland et al. 2010 AGU abstract). While classic time series methods are based on a pixel-by-pixel approach and do not consider spatial data covariances, due to residual atmospheric noise, the wavelet decomposition of each interferograms and the time inversion in the

  15. A near-real-time full-parallax holographic display for remote operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Huff, Lloyd; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1991-01-01

    A near real-time, full parallax holographic display system was developed that has the potential to provide a 3-D display for remote handling operations in hazardous environments. The major components of the system consist of a stack of three spatial light modulators which serves as the object source of the hologram; a near real-time holographic recording material (such as thermoplastic and photopolymer); and an optical system for relaying SLM images to the holographic recording material and to the observer for viewing.

  16. Classical-like behavior in quantum walks with inhomogeneous, time-dependent coin operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Miquel

    2016-06-01

    Although quantum walks exhibit peculiar properties that distinguish them from random walks, classical behavior can be recovered in the asymptotic limit by destroying the coherence of the pure state associated to the quantum system. Here I show that this is not the only way: I introduce a quantum walk driven by an inhomogeneous, time-dependent coin operator, which mimics the statistical properties of a random walk at all time scales. The quantum particle undergoes unitary evolution and, in fact, the high correlation evidenced by the components of the wave function can be used to revert the outcome of an accidental measurement of its chirality.

  17. Dynamic range extension of SiPM detectors with the time-gated operation.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Eva; Diéguez, Angel

    2014-05-19

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a novel detector technology that has undergone a fast development in the last few years, owing to its single-photon resolution and ultra-fast response time. However, the typical high dark count rates of the sensor may prevent the detection of low intensity radiation fluxes. In this article, the time-gated operation with short active periods in the nanosecond range is proposed as a solution to reduce the number of cells fired due to noise and thus increase the dynamic range. The technique is aimed at application fields that function under a trigger command, such as gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. PMID:24921320

  18. Efficient implementation of real-time programs under the VAX/VMS operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for writing efficient real-time programs under the VAX/VMS oprating system are presented. Basic operations are presented for executing at real-time priority and for avoiding needlless processing delays. A highly efficient technique for accessing physical devices by mapping to the input/output space and accessing the device registrs directly is described. To illustrate the application of the technique, examples are included of different uses of the technique on three devices in the Langley Avionics Integration Research Lab (AIRLAB): the KW11-K dual programmable real-time clock, the Parallel Communications Link (PCL11-B) communication system, and the Datacom Synchronization Network. Timing data are included to demonstrate the performance improvements realized with these applications of the technique.

  19. Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs ≈ 0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. PMID:25463928

  20. Homogenizing surface pressure time-series from operational numerical weather prediction models for geodetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobslaw, H.

    2016-07-01

    Global surface pressure grids from 14.5 years of 6-hourly analyses out of both the operational ECMWF weather prediction model and ERA-Interim are mapped to a common reference orography by means of ECMWF's mean sea-level pressure diagnostic. The approach reduces both relative biases and residual variability by about one order of magnitude and thereby achieves a consistency among both data sets at the level of about 1 hPa. Remaining differences rather reflect temperature biases and also resolution limitations of the reanalysis data set, but are not anymore related to the local roughness in orography or to changes in the spatial resolution of the operational model. The presented reduction method therefore allows to obtain surface pressure time series with the long-time consistency of a reanalysis from an operational numerical weather model with much higher resolution and much shorter latency, making the results suitable for geodetic near realtime applications requiring continuously updated time series that are homogeneous over many years.

  1. Quantifying groundwater travel time near managed recharge operations using 35S as an intrinsic tracer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2016-04-23

    By identifying groundwater retention times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for managing water quality, especially for operations that incorporate recycled wastewater. In order to protect public health, California guidelines for Groundwater Replenishment Reuse Projects require a minimum 2–6 month subsurface retention time for recycled water depending on the level of disinfection, which highlights the importance of quantifying groundwater travel times on short time scales. This study developed and evaluated a new intrinsic tracer method using the naturally occurring radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S). The 87.5 day half-life of 35S is ideal for investigating groundwater travel times onmore » the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. Natural concentrations of 35S found in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) were measured in source waters and groundwater at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, CA, and Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County, CA. 35SO4 travel times are comparable to travel times determined by well-established deliberate tracer studies. The study also revealed that 35SO4 in MAR source water can vary seasonally and therefore careful characterization of 35SO4 is needed to accurately quantify groundwater travel time. But, more data is needed to fully assess whether or not this tracer could become a valuable tool for managers.« less

  2. Factors determining the smooth flow and the non-operative time in a one-induction room to one-operating room setting

    PubMed Central

    Mulier, Jan P; De Boeck, Liesje; Meulders, Michel; Beliën, Jeroen; Colpaert, Jan; Sels, Annabel

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives What factors determine the use of an anaesthesia preparation room and shorten non-operative time? Methods A logistic regression is applied to 18 751 surgery records from AZ Sint-Jan Brugge AV, Belgium, where each operating room has its own anaesthesia preparation room. Surgeries, in which the patient's induction has already started when the preceding patient's surgery has ended, belong to a first group where the preparation room is used as an induction room. Surgeries not fulfilling this property belong to a second group. A logistic regression model tries to predict the probability that a surgery will be classified into a specific group. Non-operative time is calculated as the time between end of the previous surgery and incision of the next surgery. A log-linear regression of this non-operative time is performed. Results It was found that switches in surgeons, being a non-elective surgery as well as the previous surgery being non-elective, increase the probability of being classified into the second group. Only a few surgery types, anaesthesiologists and operating rooms can be found exclusively in one of the two groups. Analysis of variance demonstrates that the first group has significantly lower non-operative times. Switches in surgeons, anaesthesiologists and longer scheduled durations of the previous surgery increases the non-operative time. A switch in both surgeon and anaesthesiologist strengthens this negative effect. Only a few operating rooms and surgery types influence the non-operative time. Conclusion The use of the anaesthesia preparation room shortens the non-operative time and is determined by several human and structural factors. PMID:25496600

  3. Pre-operative risk factors associated with need for vasoepididymostomy at the time of vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M E; Anderson, R E; Ostrowski, K A; Brant, W O; Fuchs, E F

    2016-01-01

    The absence of sperm in the ejaculate after vasectomy reversal is commonly caused by failure to recognize and subsequently bypass epididymal or proximal vasal obstruction at the time of vasectomy reversal. If intra-operative proximal obstruction is suspected, vasoepididymostomy (VE) is recommended rather than vasovasostomy (VV). We sought to calculate the associated risk of needing VE, rather than VV with time from original vasectomy (obstructive interval) using a large cohort of vasectomy reversal patients. We reviewed the electronic and paper vasectomy reversal database by a single surgeon from 1978 through 2012. We performed univariate analysis to identify variables that predicted the need for VE rather than VV, and then combined only significant univariates into our multi-variable analysis. 2697 total men underwent vasectomy reversal, and 239 were repeat procedures. Of the 5296 individual testes operated on, 1029 were VE. Significant variables that predicted the need for VE on univariate analysis included: age, obstructive time interval, vasectomy reversal after previous VV (repeat vasectomy reversal), and year the procedure was performed. On multi-variable analysis significant risk factors for VE were age above 50 (OR 1.36), repeat vasectomy reversal (OR 5.78), and greater obstructive time interval (OR 1.56). For every 3 years since original vasectomy, the risk of needing VE increases by 56%. There is a linear relationship between obstructive interval and need for VE. Men undergoing repeat vasectomy reversal have five times greater risk of requiring VE and men greater than 50 years of age are also at higher risk. Using these pre-operative predictors is helpful in identifying patients who will benefit from referral to an experienced surgeon who can perform VE. PMID:26663812

  4. A hybrid empirical-mechanistic modeling approach for extrapolating biota-sediment accumulation factors and bioaccumulation factors across species, time, and/or ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

    2006-07-01

    An approach is presented for extrapolating field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) across species, time, and/or ecosystems. This approach, called the hybrid bioaccumulation modeling approach, uses mechanistic bioaccumulation models to extrapolate field-measured bioaccumulation data (i.e., BSAFs and BAFs) to new sets of ecological conditions. The hybrid approach predicts relative differences in bioaccumulation using food web models with two sets of ecological conditions and parameters: One set for the ecosystem where the BSAFs and/or BAFs were measured, and the other set for the ecological conditions and parameters for which the extrapolated BSAFs and/or BAFs are desired. The field-measured BSAF (or BAF) is extrapolated by adjusting the measured BSAF (or BAF) by the predicted relative difference, which is derived from two separate solutions of the food web model. Extrapolations of polychlorinated biphenyl BSAFs and BAFs for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan to Green Bay of Lake Michigan (Green Bay, WI, USA) walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), as well as Hudson River largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), resulted in generally better agreement between measured and predicted BSAFs and BAFs with the hybrid approach. PMID:16833159

  5. Risk factors for prolonged operative time in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Seong Uk; Choi, In Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed 3-channel single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in earlier period of this study and modified our method to 4-channel SILC using a snake retractor for better operative field in later period. This study has been designed to evaluate the risk factors for prolonged operative time in SILC. Methods From April 2010 to August 2014, 323 cases of 3-channel SILC (Konyang standard method [KSM] group) and 399 cases of 4-channel SILC (modified KSM [mKSM] group) using a snake retractor were performed. Results The clinical characteristics were not significantly different between KSM and mKSM group except preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) treatment (9.6% vs. 16.5%, P < 0.007). The mean operation time was longer in mKSM group than KSM group (55.8 ± 19.7 minutes vs. 51.7 ± 20.1 minutes, P = 0.006). The estimated blood loss of KSM group was more than mKSM group (24.6 ± 54.1 mL vs. 16.9 ± 27.0 mL, P = 0.013). According to the histopathologic findings, acute cholecystitis or empyema were confirmed more in mKSM group as compared with KSM group (28% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.025). In multivariate analysis, the risk factors for prolonged operation time were drainage insertion, histopathologic findings (acute cholecystitis or empyema), surgeons' technical expertise, body mass index > 30 kg/m2 as well as the 4-channel SILC. Conclusion Among patients with these risk factors, conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy could be considered as well although SILC might be safe and feasible modality for benign gallbladder disease. PMID:26576404

  6. The Time-Convolutionless Projection Operator Technique in the Quantum Theory of Dissipation and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Kappler, Bernd; Petruccione, Francesco

    2001-07-01

    The time-convolutionless projection operator method is used to investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems. On the basis of this method a systematic perturbation expansion for the reduced density matrix equation is obtained involving a time-dependent generator which is local in time. This formalism is generalized to enable the treatment of system-environment correlations in the initial state, which arise in the computation of equilibrium correlation functions or from the preparation of the system by a quantum measurement. The general method is illustrated by means of the damped harmonic oscillator and of the spin-boson model. The perturbation expansion of the equation of motion is applied to a study of relaxation and dephasing processes and to the determination of the stationary state and of equilibrium correlation functions. Special emphasis is laid on the construction of general, computable error estimates which allow the explicit validation of the obtained results. In particular, the parameter regime for which an expansion of the equation of motion to fourth order yields reliable results is determined. The results clearly reveal that a large range of physically relevant parameters, in particular those that might be interesting for experiments on macroscopic quantum coherence phenomena, can already be treated using the expansion to fourth order. It is thus demonstrated that the time-convolutionless projection operator technique provides a transparent and technically feasible method to go beyond the Markovian approximation in the study of open quantum systems.

  7. Inflow forecasting model construction with stochastic time series for coordinated dam operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Jung, Y.; Kim, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dam inflow forecasting is one of the most important tasks in dam operation for an effective water resources management and control. In general, dam inflow forecasting with stochastic time series model is possible to apply when the data is stationary because most of stochastic process based on stationarity. However, recent hydrological data cannot be satisfied the stationarity anymore because of climate change. Therefore a stochastic time series model, which can consider seasonality and trend in the data series, named SARIMAX(Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Average with eXternal variable) model were constructed in this study. This SARIMAX model could increase the performance of stochastic time series model by considering the nonstationarity components and external variable such as precipitation. For application, the models were constructed for four coordinated dams on Han river in South Korea with monthly time series data. As a result, the models of each dam have similar performance and it would be possible to use the model for coordinated dam operation.Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures by using 3D BIM Technique' [NEMA-NH-12-57] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  8. Fast-Time Evaluations of Airborne Merging and Spacing in Terminal Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Barmore, Bryan; Bussink, Frank; Weitz, Lesley; Dahlene, Laura

    2005-01-01

    NASA researchers are developing new airborne technologies and procedures to increase runway throughput at capacity-constrained airports by improving the precision of inter-arrival spacing at the runway threshold. In this new operational concept, pilots of equipped aircraft are cleared to adjust aircraft speed to achieve a designated spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to a designated lead aircraft. A new airborne toolset, prototypes of which are being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, assists pilots in achieving this objective. The current prototype allows precision spacing operations to commence even when the aircraft and its lead are not yet in-trail, but are on merging arrival routes to the runway. A series of fast-time evaluations of the new toolset were conducted at the Langley Research Center during the summer of 2004. The study assessed toolset performance in a mixed fleet of aircraft on three merging arrival streams under a range of operating conditions. The results of the study indicate that the prototype possesses a high degree of robustness to moderate variations in operating conditions.

  9. Real-time bio-sensors for enhanced C2ISR operator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James C.

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of two Air Force Small Business research topics were to develop a real-time, unobtrusive, biological sensing and monitoring technology for evaluating cognitive readiness in command and control environments (i.e., console operators). We sought an individualized status monitoring system for command and control operators and teams. The system was to consist of a collection of bio-sensing technologies and processing and feedback algorithms that could eventually guide the effective incorporation of fatigue-adaptive workload interventions into weapon systems to mitigate episodes of cognitive overload and lapses in operator attention that often result in missed signals and catastrophic failures. Contractors set about determining what electro-physiological and other indicators of compromised operator states are most amenable for unobtrusive monitoring of psychophysiological and warfighter performance data. They proposed multi-sensor platforms of bio-sensing technologies for development. The sensors will be continuously-wearable or off-body and will not require complicated or uncomfortable preparation. A general overview of the proposed approaches and of progress toward the objective is presented.

  10. Real-time combined heat and power operational strategy using a hierarchical optimization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, K.; Cho, H.; Luck, R.; Mago, P. J.

    2011-06-01

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This article considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short-term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm (i.e. a hierarchical controller that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step). In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying (i.e. measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ‘measured’ values as initial conditions). The simulation environment presented in this article features non-linear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. Finally, the results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions has the potential to yield significant savings when compared with conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  11. Human-in-the-Loop Operations over Time Delay: NASA Analog Missions Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, Steven N.; Reagan, Marcum L.; Janoiko, Barbara; Johnson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Teams at NASA have conducted studies of time-delayed communications as it effects human exploration. In October 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Analog Missions project conducted a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the primary stakeholders to share information and experiences of studying time delay, to build a coherent picture of how studies are covering the problem domain, and to determine possible forward plans (including how to best communicate study results and lessons learned, how to inform future studies and mission plans, and how to drive potential development efforts). This initial meeting s participants included personnel from multiple NASA centers (HQ, JSC, KSC, ARC, and JPL), academia, and ESA. It included all of the known studies, analog missions, and tests of time delayed communications dating back to the Apollo missions including NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS/RATS), International Space Station Test-bed for Analog Research (ISTAR), Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), Mars 520, JPL Mars Orbiters/Rovers, Advanced Mission Operations (AMO), Devon Island analog missions, and Apollo experiences. Additionally, the meeting attempted to capture all of the various functional perspectives via presentations by disciplines including mission operations (flight director and mission planning), communications, crew, Capcom, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Medical/Surgeon, Science, Education and Public Outreach (EPO), and data management. The paper summarizes the descriptions and results from each of the activities discussed at the TIM and includes several recommendations captured in the meeting for dealing with time delay in human exploration along with recommendations for future development and studies to address this issue.

  12. Real-time monitoring of superoxide accumulation and antioxidant activity in a brain slice model using an electrochemical cytochrome c biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The overproduction of reactive oxygen species and resulting damage are central to the pathology of many diseases. The study of the temporal and spatial accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been limited due to the lack of specific probes and techniques capable of continuous measurement. We demonstrate the use of a miniaturized electrochemical cytochrome C (Cyt C) biosensor for real-time measurements and quantitative assessment of superoxide production and inactivation by natural and engineered antioxidants in acutely prepared brain slices from mice. During control conditions, superoxide radicals produced from the hippocampal region of the brain in 400 μm thick sections were well within the range of detection of the electrode. Exposure of the slices to ischemic conditions increased the superoxide production two fold and measurements from the slices were stable over a 3–4 hour period. The stilbene derivative and anion channel inhibitor, 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-disulfonic stilbene (DIDS), markedly reduced the extracellular superoxide signal under control conditions suggesting that a transmembrane flux of superoxide into the extracellular space may occur as part of normal redox signaling. The specificity of the electrode for superoxide released by cells in the hippocampus was verified by the exogenous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which decreased the superoxide signal in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were seen with the addition of the SOD-mimetic, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) where the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of nanoceria with an average diameter of 15 nm was equivalent to 527 U of SOD for each 1 μg/ml of nanoceria added. This study demonstrates the potential of electrochemical biosensors for studying real-time dynamics of reactive oxygen species in a biological model and the utility of these measurements in defining the relative contribution of superoxide to oxidative injury. PMID:23085519

  13. Time estimation as a secondary task to measure workload. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Variation in the length of time productions and verbal estimates of duration was investigated to determine the influence of concurrent activity on operator time perception. The length of 10-, 20-, and 30-sec intervals produced while performing six different compensatory tracking tasks was significantly longer, 23% on the average, than those produced while performing no other task. Verbal estimates of session duration, taken at the end of each of 27 experimental sessions, reflected a parallel increase in subjective underestimation of the passage of time as the difficulty of the task performed increased. These data suggest that estimates of duration made while performing a manual control task provide stable and sensitive measures of the workload imposed by the primary task, with minimal interference.

  14. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  15. Use of real-time tools to support field operations of NSF's Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.; Johnson, E.; Martin, C.; Webster, C.; Dixon, M.; Maclean, G.

    2012-12-01

    NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) operates Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities (LAOF) for the scientific community, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. In order to obtain the highest quality dataset during field campaigns, real-time decision-making critically depends on the availability of timely data and reliable communications between field operations staff and instrument operators. EOL incorporates the latest technologies to monitor the health of instrumentation, facilitate remote operations of instrumentation and keep project participants abreast of changing conditions in the field. As the availability of bandwidth on mobile communication networks and the capabilities of their associated devices (smart phone, tablets, etc.) improved, so has the ability of researchers to respond to rapidly changing conditions and coordinate ever more detailed measurements from multiple remote fixed, portable and airborne platforms. This presentation will describe several new tools that EOL is making available to project investigators and how these tools are being used in a mobile computing environment to support enhanced data collection during field campaigns. LAOF platforms such as radars, aircraft, sondes, balloons and surface stations all rely on displays of real-time data for their operations. Data from sondes are ingested into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for assimilation into regional forecasting models that help guide project operations. Since many of EOL's projects occur around the globe and at the same time instrument complexity has increased, automated monitoring of instrumentation platforms and systems has become essential. Tools are being developed to allow remote instrument control of our suite of observing systems where feasible. The Computing, Data and Software (CDS) Facility of EOL develops and supports a Field Catalog used in field campaigns for nearly two decades. Today, the Field Catalog serves as a hub for the

  16. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  17. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  18. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  19. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  20. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  1. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions-operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation.

    PubMed

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries. PMID:27357605

  2. Time Series Modeling of Human Operator Dynamics in Manual Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A time-series technique is presented for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the human operator in manual control tasks from relatively short records of experimental data. Control of system excitation signals used in the identification is not required. The approach is a multi-channel identification technique for modeling multi-input/multi-output situations. The method presented includes statistical tests for validity, is designed for digital computation, and yields estimates for the frequency response of the human operator. A comprehensive relative power analysis may also be performed for validated models. This method is applied to several sets of experimental data; the results are discussed and shown to compare favorably with previous research findings. New results are also presented for a multi-input task that was previously modeled to demonstrate the strengths of the method.

  3. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions—operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation

    PubMed Central

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries. PMID:27357605

  4. Generating Real-Time Tsunami Forecast Animations for Tsunami Warning Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.; Weinstein, S.

    2012-12-01

    The complex calculations inherent in tsunami forecast models once required supercomputers to solve and could only be deployed in an operational setting as a database of precomputed best-guess solutions for likely future tsunamis. More recently scientists at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) developed a tsunami forecast model, RIFT, that takes an earthquake's centroid moment tensor solution—either from nearby historic events or rapidly determined by W-phase analysis—and solves the linear shallow water equations in real time with commercial off-the-shelf computer servers and open-source software tools (Wang et al., 2009). RIFT not only rapidly calculates tsunami forecasts in real time, but also generates and archives data grids easily ingested by other software packages to generate maps and animations in a variety of image, video, and geobrowser file formats (e.g., KML). These graphical products aid both operational and outreach efforts as they help PTWC scientists to rapidly ingest and comprehend large, complex data sets, to share these data with emergency managers, and to educate the general public about the behavior of tsunamis. Prior to developing animation capability PTWC used tsunami travel time contour maps to show expected arrival times of the first tsunami waves. Though useful to expert users, such maps can mislead a nonexpert as they do not show amplitude information and give the impression that tsunami waves have constant amplitudes throughout an ocean basin. A tsunami forecast "energy map" improves tsunami hazard communication by showing the variability in maximum wave heights, but does not show the timing of the maximum wave arrivals. A tsunami forecast animation, however, shows both how fast the tsunami will move and the distribution of its amplitudes over time, thus communicating key concepts about tsunami behavior such as reflection and refraction of waves, that the first arriving wave is not necessarily the largest wave, and that tsunami

  5. Non-identical smoothing operators for estimating time-frequency interdependence in electrophysiological recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrkanoon, Saeid; Breakspear, Michael; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Boonstra, Tjeerd W.

    2013-12-01

    Synchronization of neural activity from distant parts of the brain is crucial for the coordination of cognitive activities. Because neural synchronization varies both in time and frequency, time-frequency (T-F) coherence is commonly employed to assess interdependences in electrophysiological recordings. T-F coherence entails smoothing the cross and power spectra to ensure statistical consistency of the estimate, which reduces its T-F resolution. This trade-off has been described in detail when the cross and power spectra are smoothed using identical smoothing operators, which may yield spurious coherent frequencies. In this article, we examine the use of non-identical smoothing operators for the estimation of T-F interdependence, i.e., phase synchronization is characterized by phase locking between signals captured by the cross spectrum and we may hence improve the trade-off by selectively smoothing the auto spectra. We first show that the frequency marginal density of the present estimate is bound within [0,1] when using non-identical smoothing operators. An analytic calculation of the bias and variance of present estimators is performed and compared with the bias and variance of standard T-F coherence using Monte Carlo simulations. We then test the use of non-identical smoothing operators on simulated data, whose T-F properties are known through construction. Finally, we analyze empirical data from eyes-closed surface electroencephalography recorded in human subjects to investigate alpha-band synchronization. These analyses show that selectively smoothing the auto spectra reduces the bias of the estimator and may improve the detection of T-F interdependence in electrophysiological data at high temporal resolution.

  6. Weaving time into system architecture: satellite cost per operational day and optimal design lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Hastings, Daniel E.; Newman, Dava J.

    2004-03-01

    An augmented perspective on system architecture is proposed (diachronic) that complements the traditional views on system architecture (synchronic). This paper proposes to view in a system architecture the flow of service (or utility) that the system will provide over its design lifetime. It suggests that the design lifetime is a fundamental component of system architecture although one cannot see it or touch it. Consequently, cost, utility, and value per unit time metrics are introduced. A framework is then developed that identifies optimal design lifetimes for complex systems in general, and space systems in particular, based on this augmented perspective of system architecture and on these metrics. It is found that an optimal design lifetime for a satellite exists, even in the case of constant expected revenues per day over the system's lifetime, and that it changes substantially with the expected Time to Obsolescence of the system and the volatility of the market the system is serving in the case of a commercial venture. The analysis thus proves that it is essential for a system architect to match the design lifetime with the dynamical characteristics of the environment the system is/will be operating in. It is also shown that as the uncertainty in the dynamical characteristics of the environment the system is operating in increases, the value of having the option to upgrade, modify, or extend the lifetime of a system at a later point in time increases depending on how events unfold.

  7. Operational Data Quality Assessment of the Combined PBO, TLALOCNet and COCONet Real-Time GNSS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Fox, O.; Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Phillips, D.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    The GAGE facility, managed by UNAVCO, currently operates a network of ~460, real-time, high-rate GNSS stations (RT-GNSS). The majority of these RT stations are part of the Earthscope PBO network, which spans the western US Pacific North-American plate boundary. Approximately 50 are distributed throughout the Mexico and Caribbean region funded by the TLALOCNet and COCONet projects. The entire network is processed in real-time at UNAVCO using Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The real-time streams are freely available to all and user demand has grown almost exponentially since 2010. Data usage is multidisciplinary, including tectonic and volcanic deformation studies, meteorological applications, atmospheric science research in addition to use by national, state and commercial entities. 21 RT-GNSS sites in California now include 200-sps accelerometers for the development of Earthquake Early Warning systems. All categories of users of real-time streams have similar requirements, reliable, low-latency, high-rate, and complete data sets. To meet these requirements, UNAVCO tracks the latency and completeness of the incoming raw observations and also is developing tools to monitor the quality of the processed data streams. UNAVCO is currently assessing the precision, accuracy and latency of solutions from various PPP software packages. Also under review are the data formats UNAVCO distributes; for example, the PPP solutions are currently distributed in NMEA format, but other formats such as SEED or GeoJSON may be preferred by different user groups to achieve specific mission objectives. In this presentation we will share our experiences of the challenges involved in the data operations of a continental-scale, multi-project, real-time GNSS network, summarize the network's performance in terms of latency and completeness, and present the comparisons of PPP solutions using different PPP processing techniques.

  8. An operational real-time flood forecasting system in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; Coccia, Gabriele; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system has been operating since year 2012 as a non-structural measure for mitigating the flood risk in Campania Region (Southern Italy), within the Sele river basin (3.240 km2). The Sele Flood Forecasting System (SFFS) has been built within the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by Deltares and it assimilates the numerical weather predictions of the COSMO LAM family: the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I2, the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I7 and the ensemble numerical weather predictions COSMO-LEPS (16 members). Sele FFS is composed by a cascade of three main models. The first model is a fully continuous physically based distributed hydrological model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended (Idrologia&Ambiente s.r.l., Naples, Italy), simulating the dominant processes controlling the soil water dynamics, runoff generation and discharge with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The second module is a set of Neural-Networks (ANN) built for forecasting the river stages at a set of monitored cross-sections. The third component is a Model Conditional Processor (MCP), which provides the predictive uncertainty (i.e., the probability of occurrence of a future flood event) within the framework of a multi-temporal forecast, according to the most recent advancements on this topic (Coccia and Todini, HESS, 2011). The MCP provides information about the probability of exceedance of a maximum river stage within the forecast lead time, by means of a discrete time function representing the variation of cumulative probability of exceeding a river stage during the forecast lead time and the distribution of the time occurrence of the flood peak, starting from one or more model forecasts. This work shows the Sele FFS performance after two years of operation, evidencing the added-values that can provide to a flood early warning and emergency management system.

  9. Real-time operating system for a multi-laser/multi-detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, G.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-one hazard detector system, used on the Rensselaer Mars rover, is reviewed briefly with respect to the hardware subsystems, the operation, and the results obtained. A multidetector scanning system was designed to improve on the original system. Interactive support software was designed and programmed to implement real time control of the rover or platform with the elevation scanning mast. The formats of both the raw data and the post-run data files were selected. In addition, the interface requirements were selected and some initial hardware-software testing was completed.

  10. Operation redwing: Report to the scientific director. Timing and firing (sanitized version)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-29

    Task Unit 5 (YU-5) was organized to accomplish the following tasks during Operation Redwing (May - June 1956): (1) To supply timing signals and voice count-down to meet the principal requirements of the experimental programs; (2) To supply the arming and firing pulses to the devices tested; (3) To furnish personnel as members of the arming and firing parties; (4) To provide and maintain the Task Group 7.1 (TG 7.1) short-range commercial radio communications at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls; and (5) To perform such scientific measurements and photography as provided for under existing contractual agreements.

  11. Parity-time symmetry-broken Bragg grating operating with long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshmarzi, Elham Karami; Tait, R. Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A parity-time symmetry-broken Bragg grating concept, comprising step-in-width IR-140 doped PMMA stripes covering step-in-width Au stripes on a fused silica substrate and operating with long-range surface plasmon polaritons, is reported. The design methodology is outlined, structures are modelled using a combination of modal analysis and the transfer matrix method, and reflectance and transmittance responses are computed. The design robustness with respect to deviations in the dimensions due to fabrication error is also investigated. The structure is capable of producing a reflectance contrast ratio of 1 over optical bandwidths of 879.96-880.04 nm.

  12. Imaging in the presence of grain noise using the decomposition of the time reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbrat, E.; Prada, C.; Cassereau, D.; Fink, M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we are interested in detecting and imaging defects in samples of cylindrical geometry with large speckle noise due to the microstructure. The time reversal process is an appropriate technique for detecting flaws in such heterogeneous media as titanium billets. Furthermore, time reversal can be iterated to select the defect with the strongest reflectivity and to reduce the contribution of speckle noise. The DORT (the French acronym for Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) method derives from the mathematical analysis of the time reversal process. This detection technique allows the determination of a set of signals to be applied to the transducers in order to focus on each defect separately. In this paper, we compare three immersion techniques on a titanium sample, standard transmit/receive focusing, the time reversal mirror (TRM), and the DORT method. We compare the sensitivity of these three techniques, especially the sensitivity to a poor alignment of the array with the front face of the sample. Then we show how images of the sample can be obtained with the TRM and the DORT method using backpropagation algorithm.

  13. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-11-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format.

  14. Striatal lesions produce distinctive impairments in reaction time performance in two different operant chambers.

    PubMed

    Brasted, P J; Döbrössy, M D; Robbins, T W; Dunnett, S B

    1998-08-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in mediating voluntary movement. Excitotoxic striatal lesions in rats have previously been shown to impair the initiation but not the execution of movement in a choice reaction time task in an automated lateralised nose-poke apparatus (the "nine-hole box"). Conversely, when a conceptually similar reaction time task has been applied in a conventional operant chamber (or "Skinner box"), striatal lesions have been seen to impair the execution rather than the initiation of the lateralised movement. The present study was undertaken to compare directly these two results by training the same group of rats to perform a choice reaction time task in the two chambers and then comparing the effects of a unilateral excitotoxic striatal lesion in both chambers in parallel. Particular attention was paid to adopting similar parameters and contingencies in the control of the task in the two test chambers. After striatal lesions, the rats showed predominantly contralateral impairments in both tasks. However, they showed a deficit in reaction time in the nine-hole box but an apparent deficit in response execution in the Skinner box. This finding confirms the previous studies and indicates that differences in outcome are not simply attributable to procedural differences in the lesions, training conditions or tasks parameters. Rather, the pattern of reaction time deficit after striatal lesions depends critically on the apparatus used and the precise response requirements for each task. PMID:9744285

  15. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Verma, P K; Islam, M N; Grisham, M P; Jain, R; Sharma, A; Roopendra, K; Singh, K; Singh, P; Verma, I; Solomon, S

    2015-05-01

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell wall (CWI) invertases are important. Expression of these enzymes was compared in an early (CoJ64) and late (BO91) maturing sugarcane variety using end-point and qRT-PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR at four crop stages revealed high CWI expression in upper internodes of CoJ64, which declined significantly in both top and bottom internodes with maturity. In BO91, CWI expression was high in top and bottom internodes and declined significantly only in top internodes as the crop matured. Overall, CWI expression was higher in CoJ64 than in BO91. During crop growth, there was no significant change in SPS expression in bottom internodes in CoJ64, whereas in BO91 it decreased significantly. Apart from a significant decrease in expression of SuSy in mature bottom internodes of BO91, there was no significant change. Similar SAI expression was observed with both end-point and RT-PCR, except for significantly increased expression in top internodes of CoJ64 with maturity. SAI, being a major sucrose hydrolysing enzyme, was also monitored with end-point PCR expression in internode tissues of CoJ64 and BO91, with higher expression of SAI in BO91 at early crop stages. Enzyme inhibitors, e.g. manganese chloride (Mn(++) ), significantly suppressed expression of SAI in both early- and late-maturing varieties. Present findings enhance understanding of critical sucrose metabolic gene expression in sugarcane varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage. Thus, through employing these genes, improvement of sugarcane sucrose content is possible. PMID:25311688

  16. Split-operator spectral method for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in spherical coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, M.R.; Fleck J.A. Jr.

    1988-12-15

    A spectral method previously developed for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in Cartesian coordinates is generalized to spherical polar coordinates. The solution is implemented by repeated application of a unitary evolution operator in symmetrically split form. The wave function is expanded as a Fourier series in the radial coordinate and in terms of Legendre functions in the polar angle. The use of appropriate quadrature sets makes the expansion exact for band-limited functions. The method is appropriate for solving explicitly time-dependent problems, or for determining stationary states by a spectral method. The accuracy of the method is established by computing the Stark shift and lifetime of the 1s state in hydrogen, the low-lying energy levels for hydrogen in a uniform magnetic field, and the 2p-nd dipole transition spectrum for hydrogen.

  17. Research on rapid agile metrology for manufacturing based on real-time multitask operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jihong; Song, Zhen; Yang, Daoshan; Zhou, Ji; Buckley, Shawn

    1996-10-01

    Rapid agile metrology for manufacturing (RAMM) using multiple non-contact sensors is likely to remain a growing trend in manufacturing. High speed inspecting systems for manufacturing is characterized by multitasks implemented in parallel and real-time events which occur simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a real-time operating system into RAMM research. A general task model of a class-based object- oriented technology is proposed. A general multitask frame of a typical RAMM system using OPNet is discussed. Finally, an application example of a machine which inspects parts held on a carrier strip is described. With RTOS and OPNet, this machine can measure two dimensions of the contacts at 300 parts/second.

  18. Metamorphoses of ONAV console operations: From prototype to real time application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Malise; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System is being developed as a real time console assistant to the ONAV flight controller for use in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Currently the entry and rendezvous systems are in verification, and the ascent is being prototyped. To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, what is verification, and availability, stability, and the size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware stability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  19. High-Performance Computing for Real-Time Grid Analysis and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-10-31

    Power grids worldwide are undergoing an unprecedented transition as a result of grid evolution meeting information revolution. The grid evolution is largely driven by the desire for green energy. Emerging grid technologies such as renewable generation, smart loads, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and distributed generation provide opportunities to generate energy from green sources and to manage energy use for better system efficiency. With utility companies actively deploying these technologies, a high level of penetration of these new technologies is expected in the next 5-10 years, bringing in a level of intermittency, uncertainties, and complexity that the grid did not see nor design for. On the other hand, the information infrastructure in the power grid is being revolutionized with large-scale deployment of sensors and meters in both the transmission and distribution networks. The future grid will have two-way flows of both electrons and information. The challenge is how to take advantage of the information revolution: pull the large amount of data in, process it in real time, and put information out to manage grid evolution. Without addressing this challenge, the opportunities in grid evolution will remain unfulfilled. This transition poses grand challenges in grid modeling, simulation, and information presentation. The computational complexity of underlying power grid modeling and simulation will significantly increase in the next decade due to an increased model size and a decreased time window allowed to compute model solutions. High-performance computing is essential to enable this transition. The essential technical barrier is to vastly increase the computational speed so operation response time can be reduced from minutes to seconds and sub-seconds. The speed at which key functions such as state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (typically every 3-5 minutes) needs to be dramatically increased so that the analysis of contingencies is both

  20. Supporting Real-Time Operations and Execution through Timeline and Scheduling Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Pyrzak, Guy; Hashemi, Sam; Ahmed, Samia; McMillin, Kevin Edward; Medwid, Joseph Daniel; Chen, Diana; Hurtle, Esten

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, the NASA Ames Research Center has been actively involved in researching and advancing the state-of-the-art of planning and scheduling tools for NASA mission operations. Our planning toolkit SPIFe (Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration) has supported a variety of missions and field tests, scheduling activities for Mars rovers as well as crew on-board International Space Station and NASA earth analogs. The scheduled plan is the integration of all the activities for the day/s. In turn, the agents (rovers, landers, spaceships, crew) execute from this schedule while the mission support team members (e.g., flight controllers) follow the schedule during execution. Over the last couple of years, our team has begun to research and validate methods that will better support users during realtime operations and execution of scheduled activities. Our team utilizes human-computer interaction principles to research user needs, identify workflow processes, prototype software aids, and user test these. This paper discusses three specific prototypes developed and user tested to support real-time operations: Score Mobile, Playbook, and Mobile Assistant for Task Execution (MATE).

  1. Transfer of Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model; Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S. F.; Hwang, J.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, G. J.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Friedel, R. H.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (rtDREAM) was developed by LANL for nowcast of energetic electrons' flux at the radiation belt to quantify potential risks from radiation damage at the satellites. Assimilated data are from multiple sources including LANL assets (GEO, GPS). For transfer from research to operation of the rtDREAM code, LANL/KSWC/NOAA makes a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) on the collaboration between three parts. By this MOU, KWSC/RRA provides all the support for transitioning the research version of DREAM to operations. KASI is primarily responsible for providing all the interfaces between the current scientific output formats of the code and useful space weather products that can be used and accessed through the web. In the second phase, KASI will be responsible in performing the work needed to transform the Van Allen Probes beacon data into "DREAM ready" inputs. KASI will also provide the "operational" code framework and additional data preparation, model output, display and web page codes back to LANL and SWPC. KASI is already a NASA partnering ground station for the Van Allen Probes' space weather beacon data and can here show use and utility of these data for comparison between rtDREAM and observations by web. NOAA has offered to take on some of the data processing tasks specific to the GOES data.

  2. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra's high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  3. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  4. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (less than 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE

  5. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  6. Traumatic First Time Shoulder Dislocation: Surgery vs Non-Operative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Polyzois, Ioannis; Dattani, Rupen; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A Ali

    2016-01-01

    Management of first shoulder dislocation following reduction remains controversial. The two main options are immobilisation and arthroscopic stabilisation. The aim of this article is to highlight some of the issues that influence decision making when discussing management options with these patients, including natural history of the first time dislocation, outcomes of surgery and non-operative management particularly on the risk of future osteoarthritis (OA), the effects of delaying surgery and the optimal method of immobilisation. Extensive literature review was performed looking for previous publication addressing 4 points. i) Natural history of primary shoulder dislocation ii) Effect of surgical intervention on natural history iii) Risk of long term osteoarthritis with and without surgical intervention iv) Immobilisation techniques post reduction. Individuals younger than 25 years old are likely to re-dislocate with non-operative management. Surgery reduces risk of recurrent instability. Patients with recurrent instability appear to be at a higher risk of OA. Those who have surgical stabilisation do not appear to be at a higher risk than those who dislocate just once, but are less likely to develop OA than those with recurrent instability. Delaying surgery makes the stabilisation more demanding due to elongation of capsule, progressive labro-ligamentous injury, prevalence and severity of glenoid bone loss. Recent studies have failed to match the preliminary outcomes associated with external rotation braces. Defining the best timing and type of treatment remains a challenge and should be tailored to each individual’s age, occupation and degree of physical activity. PMID:27200385

  7. PLIO: a generic tool for real-time operational predictive optimal control of water networks.

    PubMed

    Cembrano, G; Quevedo, J; Puig, V; Pérez, R; Figueras, J; Verdejo, J M; Escaler, I; Ramón, G; Barnet, G; Rodríguez, P; Casas, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a generic tool, named PLIO, that allows to implement the real-time operational control of water networks. Control strategies are generated using predictive optimal control techniques. This tool allows the flow management in a large water supply and distribution system including reservoirs, open-flow channels for water transport, water treatment plants, pressurized water pipe networks, tanks, flow/pressure control elements and a telemetry/telecontrol system. Predictive optimal control is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands with appropriate pressure levels, optimizing operational goals such as network safety volumes and flow control stability. PLIO allows to build the network model graphically and then to automatically generate the model equations used by the predictive optimal controller. Additionally, PLIO can work off-line (in simulation) and on-line (in real-time mode). The case study of Santiago-Chile is presented to exemplify the control results obtained using PLIO off-line (in simulation). PMID:22097020

  8. An operational approach for classifying storms in real-time radar rainfall estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumchean, Siriluk; Seed, Alan; Sharma, Ashish

    2008-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents an operational approach to integrate a storm classification method into a real-time radar rainfall estimation. A minor modification of a texturing classification algorithm proposed by Steiner et al. [Steiner, M., Houze Jr., R.A., Yuter, S.E., 1995. Climatological characterisation of three-dimensional storm structure from operational radar and rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1978-2007] that can classify each pixel in the radar image as stratiform or convective is used to classify the instantaneous reflectivity field into convective and stratiform components. A method to derive the climatological Z-R relations for convective and stratiform rainfall is proposed. Vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs) are used to verify the accuracy of the storm classification. An alternative method for verification of a storm classification scheme based on differences between probability distribution functions of rain gauge rainfall of the two rainfall categories is also presented. A 6-month record of radar and rain gauge rainfall for Sydney, Australia for November 2000-April 2001 is used for training and rainfall events during February 2007-March 2007 are used to evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed operational approach for classifying storms in real-time radar rainfall estimates reduces RMSE between radar and rain gauge rainfall from 4.63 to 4.30 mm h -1 and from 5.31 to 5.01 mm h -1 for the training and verification periods compared to the case where the rainfall is assumed to have a single Z-R relationship.

  9. Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.

  10. Definition of an auxiliary processor dedicated to real-time operating system kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halang, Wolfgang A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of process control data processing, it is necessary to enhance the productivity of real time high level languages and to automate the task administration, because presently 60 percent or more of the applications are still programmed in assembly languages. This may be achieved by migrating apt functions for the support of process control oriented languages into the hardware, i.e., by new architectures. Whereas numerous high level languages have already been defined or realized, there are no investigations yet on hardware assisted implementation of real time features. The requirements to be fulfilled by languages and operating systems in hard real time environment are summarized. A comparison of the most prominent languages, viz. Ada, HAL/S, LTR, Pearl, as well as the real time extensions of FORTRAN and PL/1, reveals how existing languages meet these demands and which features still need to be incorporated to enable the development of reliable software with predictable program behavior, thus making it possible to carry out a technical safety approval. Accordingly, Pearl proved to be the closest match to the mentioned requirements.

  11. Heavy metal and waste metabolite accumulation and their affect on rainbow trout performance in a replicated water reuse system operated at low or high system flushing rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A six-month trial was conducted to compare the effects of high and low make-up water flushing rates on rainbow trout performance and water quality in replicated water reuse aquaculture systems (WRAS). Six identical 9.5 m3 WRAS, containing a single 5.3 m3 tank and operated at a total recirculating fl...

  12. Real-time planning/replanning of ongoing operations in a crisis situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, David A.; Smith, Gregory M.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to examine the planned position and movement of police vehicles, personnel, weapons, and status of police assets is an implied requirement in the conduct of police activities. Displays showing the time police vehicles leave on assignment, stops along their route, time of return to station, quantity of vehicles, types of weapons, radio frequencies, and other pertinent information could help in crisis situations. It would be especially helpful if it were easily accessible and simple to understand. Rome Laboratory developed a system for monitoring interrelated planned events and for changing these events to correct for deviations in the plan. The system is called force level execution (FLEX), and it displays information on timing charts, tables, and a geographic map background. The FLEX graphics enhance the military commander's ability to grasp the tactical situation which typically includes 2000 to 3000 air sorties per day. A sortie is a single flight of a single aircraft. Because the 'fog of war' causes unexpected events, status reports are needed, replanning options are generated, and new plans are issued to correct for these unexpected events. The authors believe there are law enforcement and other crisis situations that are analogous to some military scenarios. These may include state police operating over large geographical areas, coordination with county police operating over somewhat smaller areas, coordination with the county sheriff's office and city police, not only for criminal apprehension, but for disaster relief. Other participants in a crisis situation may include fire departments, ambulances, emergency medical vehicles, hospitals, rescue operations, etc. The position of police vehicles, foot patrolman, helicopters and emergency vehicles can all be superimposed upon a map background, with appropriate cultural features such as roads, rivers, bridges, state and country boundaries, etc. When police vehicles incorporate the global positioning

  13. Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Huang, P.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Knight, W.; Medbery, A.; Nyland, D.; Preller, C.; Turner, B.; Urban, G.

    2007-12-01

    The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts as back-up for the PTWC, requiring the center to constantly monitor global tsunami activities by rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential. The Centers' goals are to issue initial messages as quickly as possible to alert those near the source to potential danger (assuming there is any), and to follow that with a reasonable forecast of impact level. With these goals in mind, a Watchstander's initial action is based entirely on estimates of tsunami potential from the earthquake's source parameters. The course of action for the first message is determined primarily by the earthquake's magnitude, location, tsunami history, tsunami travel time, estimated threat based on pre-computed models, and pre-set criteria. Supplemental messages, if necessary, are based on wave observations and forecasts generated from hydrodynamic models (which are calibrated with near real-time observations). In April 2006, the WCATWC increased staff level so that the Center can be staffed 24/7 with two watchstanders. Since then, the Center's response time for events within the primary area-of-responsibility has decreased to less than 5 minutes. In order to illustrate the WCATWC's real time tsunami warning operational environment, tsunami warning operation timelines for several tsunamigenic earthquakes - including the September 12 southern Sumatra 8.4 and the January 13 Kuril Island 8.1 earthquakes - are provided. The timelines highlight the key parameters and observations that guide tsunami warning operations chronicling the event through: 1) initial alarm, 2

  14. Evaluation of Operational Procedures for Using a Time-Based Airborne Inter-arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Abbott, Terence S.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed based on the concept of an aircraft maintaining a time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft state data to compute a speed command for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain a required time interval behind another aircraft. The tool and candidate operational procedures were tested in a high-fidelity, full mission simulator with active airline subject pilots flying an arrival scenario using three different modes for speed control. The objectives of this study were to validate the results of a prior Monte Carlo analysis of the ATAAS algorithm and to evaluate the concept from the standpoint of pilot acceptability and workload. Results showed that the aircraft was able to consistently achieve the target spacing interval within one second (the equivalent of approximately 220 ft at a final approach speed of 130 kt) when the ATAAS speed guidance was autothrottle-coupled, and a slightly greater (4-5 seconds), but consistent interval with the pilot-controlled speed modes. The subject pilots generally rated the workload level with the ATAAS procedure as similar to that with standard procedures, and also rated most aspects of the procedure high in terms of acceptability. Although pilots indicated that the head-down time was higher with ATAAS, the acceptability of head-down time was rated high. Oculometer data indicated slight changes in instrument scan patterns, but no significant change in the amount of time spent looking out the window between the ATAAS procedure versus standard procedures.

  15. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  16. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  17. Adaptive instant record signals applied to detection with time reversal operator decomposition.

    PubMed

    Folegot, Thomas; de Rosny, Julien; Prada, Claire; Fink, Mathias

    2005-06-01

    Time reversal arrays are becoming common tools whether for detection or tomography. These applications require the measurement of the response from the array to one or several receivers. The most natural way to record the impulse responses for several sources is to generate pulses successively from each emitting point and record simultaneously the signals from the receivers. However, this method is very time consuming or inefficient in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome this limitation quasi-orthogonal pseudonoise signals like Kasami sequences can be used. For guided wave propagation, a very high degree of orthogonality between the signal is necessary to allow an accurate measure of the whole multipath structure of the transfer function. Hence, in this work, we propose a new family of pseudo-orthogonal signals that is adapted to the environment and more specifically, to highly dispersive media. These adaptive instant records signals are used experimentally to detect targets using the time reversal operator decomposition method. The accuracy of the 15 x 15 transfer functions acquired simultaneously, and therefore the detection capability, are demonstrated in an experimental ultrasonic waveguide as a small-scale model of shallow water propagation including bottom absorption and reverberation. PMID:16018479

  18. Real-time manned simulation of advanced terminal area guidance concepts for short-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Obrien, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    A real-time simulation was conducted of three-dimensional area navigation and four-dimensional area navigation equipped (STOL) aircraft operating in a high-density terminal area traffic environment. The objectives were to examine the effects of 3D RNAV and 4D RNAV equipped aircraft on the terminal area traffic efficiency, and to examine the performance of an air traffic control system concept and associated controller display proposed for use with advanced RNAV systems. Three types of STOL aircraft were simulated each with different performance capabilities. System performance was measured in both the 4D mode and in a 3D mode; the 3D mode, used as a baseline, was simply the 4D mode less any time specification. The results show that communications workload in the 4D mode was reduced by about 35 percent compared to the 3D, while 35 percent more traffic was handled with the 4D. Aircraft holding time in the 4D mode was only 30 percent of that required in the 3D mode. In addition, the orderliness of traffic was improved significantly in the 4D mode.

  19. Automatic determination of the number of targets present when using the time reversal operator.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Angela; Barbot, Jean-Pierre; Larzabal, Pascal

    2006-04-01

    Acoustical time reversal mirrors have been shown to provide a highly accurate means of studying and focusing on acoustical sources. The DORT method is a derivation of the time reversal process, which allows for focusing on multiple targets. An important step in this process is the determination of the number of targets or sources present. This is achieved by examining the eigenvalues of the time reversal operator (TRO). The number of significant eigenvalues is then chosen as the number of sources present. However, as mentioned in [N. Mordant, C. Prada, and M. Fink, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2634-2642 (1999) and C. Prada, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium, 1997, pp. 679-683], factors such as low signal to noise ratio (SNR), small data sample, array configuration and the target location may result in the eigenvalues corresponding to the targets no longer being distinguishable from the background noise eigenvalues. This paper proposes a robust method of automatically determining the number of targets even in the presence of a small number of snapshots. For white Gaussian noise, the profile of the ordered eigenvalues is seen to fit an exponential law. The observed eigenvalues are then compared to this model and a mismatch is detected between the observed profile and the noise-only model. The index of the mismatch gives the number of scatterers present. PMID:16642836

  20. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging. PMID:23032767

  1. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell-wall invertase (CWI) are importan...

  2. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Zhang, Li; Mahmoud, Anas M.; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Wen, Yi

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  3. Neoplasms treatment by diode laser with and without real time temperature control on operation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Sosenkova, Svetlana A.; Lazareva, Anastasia A.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2016-04-01

    Results of nevus, papilloma, dermatofibroma, and basal cell skin cancer in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and automatic power control (APC) mode are presented. The collateral damage width and width of graze wound area around the collateral damage area were demonstrated. The total damage area width was calculated as sum of collateral damage width and graze wound area width. The mean width of total damage area reached 1.538+/-0.254 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in CW mode, papilloma - 0.586+/-0.453 mm, dermatofibroma - 1.568+/-0.437 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 1.603+/-0.613 mm. The mean width of total damage area reached 1.201+/-0.292 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in APC mode, papilloma - 0.413+/-0.418 mm, dermatofibroma - 1.240+/-0.546 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 1.204+/-0.517 mm. It was found that using APC mode decreases the total damage area width at removing of these nosological neoplasms of human skin, and decreases the width of graze wound area at removing of nevus and basal cell skin cancer. At the first time, the dynamic of output laser power and thermal signal during laser removal of nevus in CW and APC mode is presented. It was determined that output laser power during nevus removal for APC mode was 1.6+/-0.05 W and for CW mode - 14.0+/-0.1 W. This difference can explain the decrease of the total damage area width and width of graze wound area for APC mode in comparison with CW mode.

  4. Real-time operation of the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astiz, L.; Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R. L.; Cox, T. A.; Mulder, T. L.; Busby, R. W.

    2007-05-01

    The Transportable Array (TA) component of USArray uses real-time telemetry to send data to the Array Network Facility (ANF) through a variety of satellite, mobile phone, wireless and wired communication links. The ANF is responsible for the timely delivery of metadata and waveform data to the IRIS DMC from the growing number of Transportable Array stations. The IRIS DMC makes these data available to the research community. The network has increased in size to 327 stations with 259 out of the 400 new TA sites installed (as of 28 February 2007). Starting in Fall 2007, equipment will start to roll from current stations to new locations to the east of the current footprint. Use of the Antelope software package has allowed the ANF to maintain and operate this extremely dynamic network configuration, facilitating the collection and transfer of data, the generation and merging of the metadata as well as the real-time monitoring of state of health of TA station data-loggers and their command and control. Four regional networks (ANZA, BDSN, SCSN, and UNR) as well as the USNSN contribute data to the Transportable Array in real-time. Although the real-time data flow to the IRIS DMC has been 93.4% over the last year, the ANF and the TA field teams have extended every effort and have managed to recover an additional 4.8% by recovering data from the local data storage device (Baler 14) at each station. Once the missing data is recovered, we then generate station-channel-day volume seed files, which are resent to the DMC to bring the total data recovery rate to 98.4%. The total network uptime is above 99%. Analyst review of automatic locations for the USArray network is being done at the ANF as part of the data quality monitoring strategy. All events are associated with the USGS and regional network bulletins. As of February 2007, around 13,000 weekly picks are being fully reviewed by analysts at the ANF and over 19,000 events have been recorded. We find a small percentage (about

  5. Operational optimization and real-time control of fuel-cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasikos, J.; Sarimveis, H.; Zervas, P. L.; Markatos, N. C.

    Fuel cells is a rapidly evolving technology with applications in many industries including transportation, and both portable and stationary power generation. The viability, efficiency and robustness of fuel-cell systems depend strongly on optimization and control of their operation. This paper presents the development of an integrated optimization and control tool for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cell (PEMFC) systems. Using a detailed simulation model, a database is generated first, which contains steady-state values of the manipulated and controlled variables over the full operational range of the fuel-cell system. In a second step, the database is utilized for producing Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network "meta-models". In the third step, a Non-Linear Programming Problem (NLP) is formulated, that takes into account the constraints and limitations of the system and minimizes the consumption of hydrogen, for a given value of power demand. Based on the formulation and solution of the NLP problem, a look-up table is developed, containing the optimal values of the system variables for any possible value of power demand. In the last step, a Model Predictive Control (MPC) methodology is designed, for the optimal control of the system response to successive sep-point changes of power demand. The efficiency of the produced MPC system is illustrated through a number of simulations, which show that a successful dynamic closed-loop behaviour can be achieved, while at the same time the consumption of hydrogen is minimized.

  6. Time- and power-dependent operation of a parametric spin-wave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Pirro, P.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B.

    2014-12-08

    We present the experimental observation of the localized amplification of externally excited, propagating spin waves in a transversely in-plane magnetized Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} magnonic waveguide by means of parallel pumping. By employing microfocussed Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we analyze the dependency of the amplification on the applied pumping power and on the delay between the input spin-wave packet and the pumping pulse. We show that there are two different operation regimes: At large pumping powers, the spin-wave packet needs to enter the amplifier before the pumping is switched on in order to be amplified while at low powers the spin-wave packet can arrive at any time during the pumping pulse.

  7. Operator description for thermal quantum field theories on an arbitrary path in the real time formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashok; Kalauni, Pushpa

    2016-06-01

    We develop an operator description, much like thermofield dynamics, for quantum field theories on a real time path with an arbitrary parameter σ (0 ≤σ ≤β ) . We point out new features which arise when σ ≠β/2 in that the Hilbert space develops a natural, modified inner product different from the standard Dirac inner product. We construct the Bogoliubov transformation which connects the doubled vacuum state at zero temperature to the thermal vacuum in this case. We obtain the thermal Green's function (propagator) for the real massive Klein-Gordon theory as an expectation value in this thermal vacuum (with a modified inner product). The factorization of the thermal Green's function follows from this analysis. We also discuss, in the main text as well as in two appendices, various other interesting features which arise in such a description.

  8. Time-energy trade-off in unambiguous-state-discrimination positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdin, Raam; Gat, Omri

    2013-11-01

    Unambiguous-nonorthogonal-state discrimination has a fundamental importance in quantum information. Moreover, it can be used for entanglement distillation and secure communication. The discrimination is carried out by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM) generalized measurement, which is typically implemented by coupling the system to an ancilla. We find a trade-off between the needed energy resources and the evolution time needed to implement the POVM and express it in terms of an actionlike cost inequality. We find the realization that minimizes this actionlike cost and show that, in this case, the cost is determined by the maximal population transfer from the system to the ancilla. We demonstrate our findings in an example of a three-level system coupled to a laser.

  9. Real-time contrast medium detection in x-ray images by mathematical morphology operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Dieu Sang; Beucher, Serge; Bilodeau, Michel

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a solution to contrast agent (CA) detection in angiograms by considering x-ray images as intensity images and applying mathematical morphology operators. We present two detection approaches, one based on the intensity infimum and the other based on the dual reconstruction. The evaluation using several data sets shows that both techniques are able to detect the presence of the contrast medium volume. Moreover, the dual reconstruction-based method is proven to be faster in processing time and more effective than the intensity infimum-based method in distinguishing the intensity change at the same location from the displacement of the same region. In addition, we show how to track the CA passage through a region of interest by observing the intensity evolution in successive submasks.

  10. Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

  11. The detection of flaws in austenitic welds using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Laura J.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Gachagan, Anthony; Harvey, Gerry; Bird, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The non-destructive testing of austenitic welds using ultrasound plays an important role in the assessment of the structural integrity of safety critical structures. The internal microstructure of these welds is highly scattering and can lead to the obscuration of defects when investigated by traditional imaging algorithms. This paper proposes an alternative objective method for the detection of flaws embedded in austenitic welds based on the singular value decomposition of the time-frequency domain response matrices. The distribution of the singular values is examined in the cases where a flaw exists and where there is no flaw present. A lower threshold on the singular values, specific to austenitic welds, is derived which, when exceeded, indicates the presence of a flaw. The detection criterion is successfully implemented on both synthetic and experimental data. The datasets arising from welds containing a flaw are further interrogated using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT) method and the total focusing method (TFM), and it is shown that images constructed via the DORT algorithm typically exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio than those constructed by the TFM algorithm. PMID:27274683

  12. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war.

    PubMed

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind. PMID:22737729

  13. One-Year Real-Time Operational Prediction Intervals for Direct Normal Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Carreira Pedro, H. T.; Coimbra, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes an algorithm to generate intra-hour prediction intervals (PIs) for the highly-variable direct normal irradiance, which is the energy source for the concentrated solar power technologies. The prediction intervals are generated using a Multi-layer Stochastic-Learning Model (MSLM), which is developed based on methods such as: sky imaging techniques, support vector machine and artificial neural network. The MSLM is trained using one year of co-located, high-quality irradiance and sky image recording in Folsom, California. In addition to being validated with historical data, the algorithm has been generating operational PI forecasts in real-time for that observatory since July 1st 2014. In the real-time scenario, without re-training or significant maintenance, the hybrid model consistently provides valid PI (PICP > 92%) and outperforms the reference persistence model (PICP ~ 85%) regardless of weather condition. This work has great impact in the field of solar energy to potentially facilitate the level of solar penetration in the grid with significantly reduced integration costs.

  14. Evaluation issues on real-time operating system in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Koh, J. S.

    2006-07-01

    In the recent few years, using the hard real-time operating system (RTOS) of safety-critical applications has gained increased acceptance in the nuclear safety system. Failure of this software could cause catastrophic consequences for human life. The digital I and C systems of nuclear power plants also have used hard RTOSs which are executing a required mission completely within its deadline. Because the nuclear power plants have to maintain a very high level of safety, the hard RTOS software should be reliable and safe. The RTOS used in safety-critical I and C systems is the base software used for the purpose of satisfying the real-time constraints, So, careful evaluation of its safety and functionality is very important, So far, the nuclear power plants of Korea have adopted commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) RTOS software. But, these days the RTOS embedded in safety grade PLC has been developed by KNICS project controlled by Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy of Korea. Whether COTS RTOS or newly developed RTOS, it must be evaluated its safety and reliability. (authors)

  15. Steps Towards an Operational Service Using Near Real-Time Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, E. R.

    2006-07-01

    Thanks largely to modern computing power, numerical forecasts of w inds and waves over the oceans ar e ev er improving, offering greater accuracy and finer resolution in time and sp ace. Howev er, it is recognized that met-ocean models still have difficulty in accurately forecasting sever e w eather conditions, conditions that cause the most damag e and difficulty in mar itime operations. Ther efore a key requir emen t is to provid e improved information on sever e conditions. No individual measur emen t or prediction system is perfect. Offshore buoys provide a continuous long-ter m record of wind and wave conditions, but only at a limited numb er of sites. Satellite data offer all-weath er global cov erage, but with relatively infrequen t samp ling. Forecasts rely on imperf ect numerical schemes and the ab ility to manage a vast quantity of input data. Therefore the best system is one that integr ates information from all available sources, taking advantage of the benef its that each can offer. We report on an initiative supported by the European Space Agen cy (ESA) which investig ated how satellite data could be used to enhan ce systems to provide Near Real Time mon itor ing of met-ocean conditions.

  16. Real-time terrain storage generation from multiple sensors towards mobile robot operation interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots. PMID:25101321

  17. Real-Time Terrain Storage Generation from Multiple Sensors towards Mobile Robot Operation Interface

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots. PMID:25101321

  18. Assessing clogging processes caused by biofilm growth and organic particle accumulation in constructed wetlands using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Himi; Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Rivero, Lluís; Font, Xavier; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Constructed wetlands for removing pollutants from wastewater in small communities are growing rapidly in many regions of the world. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems, where land availability is not a limiting factor, are low energy requirements, easy operation and maintenance, low sludge production and cost-effectivity. Nevertheless, with time the cleaning process can result in gradual clogging of the porous layer by suspended solids, bacterial film, chemical precipitates and compaction. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. As the investment involved in reversing clogging can represent a substantial fraction of the cost of a new system it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. Since there is a lack of experiences for monitoring the functionality of constructed wetlands time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography studies have been conducted at horizontal sub-surface flow municipal wastewater treatment wetlands of Catalonia (Spain). The results of this research show that electrical resistivity tomography can be a very useful technique for assessing the extent of silting up processes that clog the subsurface flow constructed wetlands through the gravel layer. In the unsaturated zone, the electrical resistivity is greater at the end of the filter, since the pores contains air which is dielectric, while at the beginning of the filter the resistivity is lower because the electrical conduction of organic matter around the mineral grains. Conversely, in the saturated zone, the electrical resistivity is lower at the end of the filter, since pores contain a higher proportion of high ionic conductivity wastewater, while at the beginning of the filter the electrical resistivity is higher because of the lower porosity due to the clogging process.

  19. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  20. Estimation of left ventricular operating stiffness from Doppler early filling deceleration time in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Prior, D.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Shortened early transmitral deceleration times (E(DT)) have been qualitatively associated with increased filling pressure and reduced survival in patients with cardiac disease and increased left ventricular operating stiffness (K(LV)). An equation relating K(LV) quantitatively to E(DT) has previously been described in a canine model but not in humans. During several varying hemodynamic conditions, we studied 18 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Transesophageal echocardiographic two-dimensional volumes and Doppler flows were combined with high-fidelity left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures to determine K(LV). From digitized Doppler recordings, E(DT) was measured and compared against changes in LV and LA diastolic volumes and pressures. E(DT) (180 +/- 39 ms) was inversely associated with LV end-diastolic pressures (r = -0.56, P = 0.004) and net atrioventricular stiffness (r = -0.55, P = 0.006) but had its strongest association with K(LV) (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). K(LV) was predicted assuming a nonrestrictive orifice (K(nonrest)) from E(DT) as K(nonrest) = (0.07/E(DT))(2) with K(LV) = 1.01 K(nonrest) - 0.02; r = 0.86, P < 0.001, DeltaK (K(nonrest) - K(LV)) = 0.02 +/- 0.06 mm Hg/ml. In adults with cardiac disease, E(DT) provides an accurate estimate of LV operating stiffness and supports its application as a practical noninvasive index in the evaluation of diastolic function.

  1. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed embedded operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, R. B.; Grass, J.; Johnston, G.; Kenny, K.; Russo, V.

    1986-01-01

    The EOS project is investigating the design and construction of a family of real-time distributed embedded operating systems for reliable, distributed aerospace applications. Using the real-time programming techniques developed in co-operation with NASA in earlier research, the project staff is building a kernel for a multiple processor networked system. The first six months of the grant included a study of scheduling in an object-oriented system, the design philosophy of the kernel, and the architectural overview of the operating system. In this report, the operating system and kernel concepts are described. An environment for the experiments has been built and several of the key concepts of the system have been prototyped. The kernel and operating system is intended to support future experimental studies in multiprocessing, load-balancing, routing, software fault-tolerance, distributed data base design, and real-time processing.

  2. Time and frequency domain characteristics of detrending-operation-based scaling analysis: Exact DFA and DMA frequency responses.

    PubMed

    Kiyono, Ken; Tsujimoto, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    We develop a general framework to study the time and frequency domain characteristics of detrending-operation-based scaling analysis methods, such as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrending moving average (DMA) analysis. In this framework, using either the time or frequency domain approach, the frequency responses of detrending operations are calculated analytically. Although the frequency domain approach based on conventional linear analysis techniques is only applicable to linear detrending operations, the time domain approach presented here is applicable to both linear and nonlinear detrending operations. Furthermore, using the relationship between the time and frequency domain representations of the frequency responses, the frequency domain characteristics of nonlinear detrending operations can be obtained. Based on the calculated frequency responses, it is possible to establish a direct connection between the root-mean-square deviation of the detrending-operation-based scaling analysis and the power spectrum for linear stochastic processes. Here, by applying our methods to DFA and DMA, including higher-order cases, exact frequency responses are calculated. In addition, we analytically investigate the cutoff frequencies of DFA and DMA detrending operations and show that these frequencies are not optimally adjusted to coincide with the corresponding time scale. PMID:27575081

  3. Time and frequency domain characteristics of detrending-operation-based scaling analysis: Exact DFA and DMA frequency responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Tsujimoto, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    We develop a general framework to study the time and frequency domain characteristics of detrending-operation-based scaling analysis methods, such as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrending moving average (DMA) analysis. In this framework, using either the time or frequency domain approach, the frequency responses of detrending operations are calculated analytically. Although the frequency domain approach based on conventional linear analysis techniques is only applicable to linear detrending operations, the time domain approach presented here is applicable to both linear and nonlinear detrending operations. Furthermore, using the relationship between the time and frequency domain representations of the frequency responses, the frequency domain characteristics of nonlinear detrending operations can be obtained. Based on the calculated frequency responses, it is possible to establish a direct connection between the root-mean-square deviation of the detrending-operation-based scaling analysis and the power spectrum for linear stochastic processes. Here, by applying our methods to DFA and DMA, including higher-order cases, exact frequency responses are calculated. In addition, we analytically investigate the cutoff frequencies of DFA and DMA detrending operations and show that these frequencies are not optimally adjusted to coincide with the corresponding time scale.

  4. Assessing Contaminant Susceptibility Near Artificial Recharge Operations by Imaging Flowpaths and Transport Times With Geochemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.; Hudson, G. B.; Davisson, M. L.; Woodside, G.; Herndon, R.

    2002-12-01

    Critical for assessing the potential impacts of artificial recharge operations on water quality is detailed knowledge of groundwater dynamics near spreading areas. Geochemical tracer techniques including tritium/helium-3 (T/3He) dating and the addition of trace gases in controlled experiments are ideally suited for these investigations. A series of experiments were conducted using these tracers near the artificial recharge facilities in Northern Orange County, CA. Here, approximately 2.5 x 108 m3 of surface water are recharged annually to the groundwater basin. T/3He ages show that most of the relatively shallow groundwater within 3 km of the recharge facilities have ages less than 4 years; further down gradient ages increase, reaching >20 years at distances more than about 6 km. Far from the spreading area in the confined portions of the aquifer there is little evidence for young groundwater (<50 years). Gas tracer experiments using sulfur hexafluoride and xenon isotopes were conducted from two spreading basins and the Santa Ana River. These tracers were followed in the groundwater for up to 4.5 years, allowing subsurface flow patterns and flow times to selected wells to be quantified. Results demonstrate that the mean horizontal flow velocity range between 0.4 and 2.9 km yr-1. It is likely that the gas tracers were moving primarily through the most conductive layers and thus these velocities do not represent bulk flow within all layers. The leading edge of the tracer plume moved at velocities about twice as fast as the center of mass. The latter velocities are important when considering the potential transport of microbes and other "time sensitive" contaminants because they reflect the fastest paths in the aquifer. These velocities can not be easily determined with other methods showing the importance of geochemical methods for artificial recharge site evaluation.

  5. A Modern Operating System for Near-real-time Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Vernon, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The NSF Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) provided an opportunity for expanding the capabilities for managing open, near-real-time (latencies of seconds) data from ocean observatories. The sensors deployed in this system largely return data from seafloor, cabled fiber optic cables as well as satellite telemetry. Bandwidth demands range from high-definition movies to the transmission of data via Iridium satellite. The extended Internet also provides an opportunity to not only return data, but to also control the sensors and platforms that comprise the observatory. The data themselves are openly available to any users. In order to provide heightened network security and overall reliability, the connections to and from the sensors/platforms are managed without Layer 3 of the Internet, but instead rely upon message passing using an open protocol termed Advanced Queuing Messaging Protocol (AMQP). The highest bandwidths in the system are in the Regional Scale Network (RSN) off Oregon and Washington and on the continent with highly reliable network connections between observatory components at 10 Gbps. The maintenance of metadata and life cycle histories of sensors and platforms is critical for providing data provenance over the years. The integrated cyberinfrastructure is best thought of as an operating system for the observatory - like the data, the software is also open and can be readily applied to new observatories, for example, in the rapidly evolving Arctic.

  6. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  7. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  8. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers-Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  9. Time-Motion Analysis of Clinical Nursing Documentation During Implementation of an Electronic Operating Room Management System for Ophthalmic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Read-Brown, Sarah; Sanders, David S.; Brown, Anna S.; Yackel, Thomas R.; Choi, Dongseok; Tu, Daniel C.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency and quality of documentation are critical in surgical settings because operating rooms are a major source of revenue, and because adverse events may have enormous consequences. Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to impact surgical volume, quality, and documentation time. Ophthalmology is an ideal domain to examine these issues because procedures are high-throughput and demand efficient documentation. This time-motion study examines nursing documentation during implementation of an EHR operating room management system in an ophthalmology department. Key findings are: (1) EHR nursing documentation time was significantly worse during early implementation, but improved to a level near but slightly worse than paper baseline, (2) Mean documentation time varied significantly among nurses during early implementation, and (3) There was no decrease in operating room turnover time or surgical volume after implementation. These findings have important implications for ambulatory surgery departments planning EHR implementation, and for research in system design. PMID:24551402

  10. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  11. A relativistic one-particle Time of Arrival operator for a free spin- 1 / 2 particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    As a follow-up to a recent study in the spin-0 case (Bunao and Galapon, 2015), we construct a one-particle Time of Arrival (TOA) operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian describing a free relativistic spin- 1 / 2 particle in one spatial dimension. Upon transformation in a representation where the Hamiltonian is diagonal, it turns out that the constructed operator consists of an operator term T ˆ whose action is the same as in the spin-0 case, and another operator term Tˆ0 which commutes with the Hamiltonian but breaks invariance under parity inversion. If we must impose this symmetry on our TOA operator, then we can throw away Tˆ0 so that the TOA operator is just T ˆ .

  12. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shen-Song; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Yi; Jiang, Du-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial. Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction. We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years. Methods: Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography. The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured. Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal. Results: The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P < 0.05). From 5 to 10 years of age, eighth rib growth was not linear. In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients, the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear; satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients. In 18 (14.9%) patients, the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix, helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent, and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved. Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing. In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length, the operation was delayed. In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length, which left no cartilage for helix splicing, the result was unsatisfactory. Conclusions: Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable. Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia. PMID:26265615

  13. Operating envelope of a short contact time fuel reformer for propane catalytic partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Michael G.; Walluk, Mark R.; Trabold, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cell technology has yet to realize widespread deployment, in part because of the hydrogen fuel infrastructure required for proton exchange membrane systems. One option to overcome this barrier is to produce hydrogen by reforming propane, which has existing widespread infrastructure, is widely used by the general public, easily transported, and has a high energy density. The present work combines thermodynamic modeling of propane catalytic partial oxidation (cPOx) and experimental performance of a Precision Combustion Inc. (PCI) Microlith® reactor with real-time soot measurement. Much of the reforming research using Microlith-based reactors has focused on fuels such as natural gas, JP-8, diesel, and gasoline, but little research on propane reforming with Microlith-based catalysts can be found in literature. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operating parameters for the reformer that maximizes efficiency and minimizes solid carbon formation. The primary parameters evaluated were reformate composition, carbon concentration in the effluent, and reforming efficiency as a function of catalyst temperature and O2/C ratio. Including the lower heating values for product hydrogen and carbon monoxide, efficiency of 84% was achieved at an O2/C ratio of 0.53 and a catalyst temperature of 940 °C, resulting in near equilibrium performance. Significant solid carbon formation was observed at much lower catalyst temperatures, and carbon concentration in the effluent was determined to have a negative linear relationship at T < 750 °C. The Microlith reactor displayed good stability during more than 80 experiments with temperature cycling from 360 to 1050 °C.

  14. Real-time reservoir operation considering non-stationary inflow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Xu, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Stationarity of inflow has been a basic assumption for reservoir operation rule design, which is now facing challenges due to climate change and human interferences. This paper proposes a modeling framework to incorporate non-stationary inflow prediction for optimizing the hedging operation rule of large reservoirs with multiple-year flow regulation capacity. A multi-stage optimization model is formulated and a solution algorithm based on the optimality conditions is developed to incorporate non-stationary annual inflow prediction through a rolling, dynamic framework that updates the prediction from period to period and adopt the updated prediction in reservoir operation decision. The prediction model is ARIMA(4,1,0), in which parameter 4 stands for the order of autoregressive, 1 represents a linear trend, and 0 is the order of moving average. The modeling framework and solution algorithm is applied to the Miyun reservoir in China, determining a yearly operating schedule during the period from 1996 to 2009, during which there was a significant declining trend of reservoir inflow. Different operation policy scenarios are modeled, including standard operation policy (SOP, matching the current demand as much as possible), hedging rule (i.e., leaving a certain amount of water for future to avoid large risk of water deficit) with forecast from ARIMA (HR-1), hedging (HR) with perfect forecast (HR-2 ). Compared to the results of these scenarios to that of the actual reservoir operation (AO), the utility of the reservoir operation under HR-1 is 3.0% lower than HR-2, but 3.7% higher than the AO and 14.4% higher than SOP. Note that the utility under AO is 10.3% higher than that under SOP, which shows that a certain level of hedging under some inflow prediction or forecast was used in the real-world operation. Moreover, the impacts of discount rate and forecast uncertainty level on the operation will be discussed.

  15. Towards real-time decentralized operating systems for ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tilborg, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    To satisfy the data processing needs of future ballistic missile defense systems, the US Army's ballistic missile defense advanced technology center is sponsoring extensive research on the subject of parallel computers. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled machines consisting of numerous microcomputer processing elements are being evaluated for use in endoatmospheric, exoatmospheric, and space-based BMD systems. For various reasons, it is important that these parallel computers operate under the control of decentralized operating systems. This paper reports on the current status of research to develop decentralized operating systems for parallel computers used in ballistic missile defense. 24 references.

  16. An evaluation of factors influencing the assessment time in a nurse practitioner-led anaesthetic pre-operative assessment clinic.

    PubMed

    Hawes, R H; Andrzejowski, J C; Goodhart, I M; Berthoud, M C; Wiles, M D

    2016-03-01

    Elective patients undergoing anaesthetic pre-operative assessment are usually allocated the same period of time with a nurse practitioner, leading to potential inefficiencies in patient flow through the clinic. We prospectively collected data on 8519 patients attending a pre-operative assessment clinic. The data set were split into derivation and validation cohorts. Standard multiple regressions were used to construct a model in the derivation cohort, which was then tested in the validation cohort. Due to missing data, 2457 patients were not studied, leaving 5892 for analysis (3870 in the derivation cohort and 2022 in the validation cohort). The mean (SD) pre-operative assessment time was 46 (12) min. Age, ASA physical status, nurse practitioner and surgical specialty all influenced the time spent in pre-operative assessment. The predictive equations calculated using the derivation cohort, based on age and ASA physical status, correctly estimated duration of consultation to within 20% of the maximum predicted time in 74.2% of the validation cohort. We conclude that if age and ASA physical status are known before the pre-operative assessment consultation, it could allow appointment times to be allocated more accurately. PMID:26684961

  17. Estimating and comparing time-dependent areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for censored event times with competing risks.

    PubMed

    Blanche, Paul; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2013-12-30

    The area under the time-dependent ROC curve (AUC) may be used to quantify the ability of a marker to predict the onset of a clinical outcome in the future. For survival analysis with competing risks, two alternative definitions of the specificity may be proposed depending of the way to deal with subjects who undergo the competing events. In this work, we propose nonparametric inverse probability of censoring weighting estimators of the AUC corresponding to these two definitions, and we study their asymptotic properties. We derive confidence intervals and test statistics for the equality of the AUCs obtained with two markers measured on the same subjects. A simulation study is performed to investigate the finite sample behaviour of the test and the confidence intervals. The method is applied to the French cohort PAQUID to compare the abilities of two psychometric tests to predict dementia onset in the elderly accounting for death without dementia competing risk. The 'timeROC' R package is provided to make the methodology easily usable. PMID:24027076

  18. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  19. A high-order time-parallel scheme for solving wave propagation problems via the direct construction of an approximate time-evolution operator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Haut, T. S.; Babb, T.; Martinsson, P. G.; Wingate, B. A.

    2015-06-16

    Our manuscript demonstrates a technique for efficiently solving the classical wave equation, the shallow water equations, and, more generally, equations of the form ∂u/∂t=Lu∂u/∂t=Lu, where LL is a skew-Hermitian differential operator. The idea is to explicitly construct an approximation to the time-evolution operator exp(τL)exp(τL) for a relatively large time-step ττ. Recently developed techniques for approximating oscillatory scalar functions by rational functions, and accelerated algorithms for computing functions of discretized differential operators are exploited. Principal advantages of the proposed method include: stability even for large time-steps, the possibility to parallelize in time over many characteristic wavelengths and large speed-ups over existingmore » methods in situations where simulation over long times are required. Numerical examples involving the 2D rotating shallow water equations and the 2D wave equation in an inhomogenous medium are presented, and the method is compared to the 4th order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method and to the use of Chebyshev polynomials. The new method achieved high accuracy over long-time intervals, and with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than both RK4 and the use of Chebyshev polynomials.« less

  20. A high-order time-parallel scheme for solving wave propagation problems via the direct construction of an approximate time-evolution operator

    SciTech Connect

    Haut, T. S.; Babb, T.; Martinsson, P. G.; Wingate, B. A.

    2015-06-16

    Our manuscript demonstrates a technique for efficiently solving the classical wave equation, the shallow water equations, and, more generally, equations of the form ∂u/∂t=Lu∂u/∂t=Lu, where LL is a skew-Hermitian differential operator. The idea is to explicitly construct an approximation to the time-evolution operator exp(τL)exp(τL) for a relatively large time-step ττ. Recently developed techniques for approximating oscillatory scalar functions by rational functions, and accelerated algorithms for computing functions of discretized differential operators are exploited. Principal advantages of the proposed method include: stability even for large time-steps, the possibility to parallelize in time over many characteristic wavelengths and large speed-ups over existing methods in situations where simulation over long times are required. Numerical examples involving the 2D rotating shallow water equations and the 2D wave equation in an inhomogenous medium are presented, and the method is compared to the 4th order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method and to the use of Chebyshev polynomials. The new method achieved high accuracy over long-time intervals, and with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than both RK4 and the use of Chebyshev polynomials.

  1. SNS TIMING SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,J.R.; OERTER,B.; SHEA,T.; SIBLEY,C.

    2001-11-27

    A modern physics facility must synchronize the operation of equipment over a wide area. The primary purpose of the site wide SNS synchronization and timing system is to synchronize the operation of the LINAC, accumulator ring and neutron choppers and to distribute appropriate timing signals to accelerator systems, including the Injector, LINAC, Accumulator Ring and Experimental Facilities. Signals to be distributed include the ring RF clock, real-time timing triggers, machine mode and other informational events. Timing triggers and clocks from the SNS synchronization and timing system are used to synchronize hardware operations including the MEBT beam chopper, RF turn on, synchronous equipment state changes, as well as data acquisition for power supplies and beam diagnostics equipment. This paper will describe the timing equipment being designed for the SNS facility and discuss the tradeoffs between conflicting demands of the accelerator and neutron chopper performance due to AC power grid frequency fluctuations.

  2. A knowledge based system to help building operators respond to real time electricity rates: Customer profitability and response to pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K.; Englander, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    Building operators are increasingly faced with complex pricing information from electric utilities. Operators of commercial and industrial facilities have the opportunity to respond to price signals in whatever ways are feasible and can in principle evaluate in a rational manner the trade-offs between costs and possible reduction or shifts in end-use services fueled by electricity (lights, heating, cooling, process loads). The flexibility associated with real-time rates come at the expense of a demand for increased vigilance, knowledge, and computational skells on the part of the building operator. Periods of high rates will create high electricity bills if there is no appropriate response. This paper describes work to develop a knowledge base and software system to aid building operators in minimizing energy costs under real-time pricing electricity rates by assessing possible control strategies and performing necessary numerical computations.

  3. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  4. Relation of technetium-99m pyrophosphate accumulation to time interval after onset of acute myocardial infarction as assessed by a tomographic acquisition technique.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Kasper, W; Zeiher, A; Schuemichen, C; Moser, E

    1991-12-15

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 110 clinically stable patients with acute or healed acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Tomography was performed 12 hours to 7 days (group A), 7 to 30 days (Group B), 1 to 6 months (Group C) and after greater than 6 months (group D) after AMI. All 40 patients in group A, 9 of 31 in group B, 1 of 22 in group C, and no patient (0 of 17) in group D had a pathologic Tc-99m PYP tomogram. Relative Tc-99m PYP accumulation within the area of infarction was measured as infarct zone to blood pool ratio, which decreased significantly (p less than 0.001) from group A (1.54 +/- 0.39) to group B (0.89 +/- 0.24), group C (0.8 +/- 0.19) and group D (0.76 +/- 0.13). These data were confirmed by sequential scintigraphy in 17 patients. It is concluded that a persisting Tc-99m PYP uptake is rarely found greater than 1 month after AMI using tomographic imaging techniques in clinically stable patients with coronary artery disease. Positive results on Tc-99m PYP tomography are a reliable indicator of AMI. Thus, Tc-99m PYP tomography is not only a sensitive but also a specific imaging technique for AMI, which might be especially useful for diagnosis of reinfarction. PMID:1836101

  5. Pneumatic shutoff and time-delay valve operates at controlled rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, J. L.; Tomlinson, L. E.

    1966-01-01

    Shutoff and time delay valve, which incorporates a metering spool that moves at constant velocity under pneumatic pressure and spring compression, increases fluid-flow area at a uniform rate. Diaphragm areas, control cavity volume, and bleed-orifice size may be varied to give any desired combination of time delay and spool travel time.

  6. Demonstration knowledge base to aid building operators in responding to real-time-pricing electricity rates

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K. |; Englander, S.L.; Wiseley, B.J.

    1998-10-01

    The objective of ASHRAE Research Project 833, the results of which are summarized in this paper, was to develop a knowledge base, tested in demonstration software, that would assist building operators in assessing the benefits of controlling electrical equipment in response to electricity rates that vary hourly. The software combines a knowledge base with computations, both of which are controlled by the user via a graphical interface. Major electrical end uses of commercial buildings are considered. The knowledge base is used to assess the trade-off of service and cost that is implicit in establishing a threshold price, above which lighting is reduced or space temperatures are allowed to deviate from setpoint. The software also evaluates thermal storage systems and on-site generation, in which occupant comfort is not affected and the systems are operated to minimize operating costs. The thermal storage and generator control algorithms have proved to be optimal under limiting cases by comparison with mixed-integer programming.

  7. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  8. IFR Operations at Non-Towered, Non-Radar Airports: Can we do Better Than One-at-a-Time?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, K.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept for operations in non-radar terminal airspace around small, nontowered airports. Currently, air traffic operations in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) at airfields without control towers and radar service are severely constrained by what is known as the one-in/one-out paradigm. Under these conditions only one operation (either arrival or departure) is allowed to occur at a time. Since these operations can take over 15 minutes to complete, capacity at these airports is severely restricted in IMC. The proposed concept is an attempt to break this current paradigm by applying emerging airborne and ground-based technologies to enable simultaneous operations by multiple aircraft in nonradar terminal airspace around small non-towered airports in IMC. The general philosophy underlying this concept of operations is the establishment of a newly defined area surrounding these airports called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Aircraft operating within the SCA are required to have a specified minimum level of equipage. Within the SCA, pilots are responsible for separating themselves from other similarly equipped aircraft through the use of new onboard systems and procedures. This concept also takes advantage of newly developed automation at the airport, which provides appropriate sequencing information to the pilots for safe and improved operations. Such operations would enhance the opportunity for point-to-point air taxi or charter operations into smaller airfields that are closer to a traveler s origin and destination. A description of this concept of operations and a simulation environment used for evaluation is provided in this paper.

  9. Hawaii PTTI test bed. [characteristics and operation on time measurement facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and installation of a test bed for a Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI). A prime goal in the effort is to develop a repertoire of techniques and equipment that will permit communications facilities to be served most effectively by their ties to a common time reference. The test bed provides guidance for the implementation of precise time and frequency discipline at other facilities. One product of the test-bed problem is an assessment of the accuracy of the time-discipline chain from the observatory to each level of use.

  10. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  11. Operational flood control of a low-lying delta system using large time step Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Negenborn, Rudy R.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The safety of low-lying deltas is threatened not only by riverine flooding but by storm-induced coastal flooding as well. For the purpose of flood control, these deltas are mostly protected in a man-made environment, where dikes, dams and other adjustable infrastructures, such as gates, barriers and pumps are widely constructed. Instead of always reinforcing and heightening these structures, it is worth considering making the most of the existing infrastructure to reduce the damage and manage the delta in an operational and overall way. In this study, an advanced real-time control approach, Model Predictive Control, is proposed to operate these structures in the Dutch delta system (the Rhine-Meuse delta). The application covers non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and the structures. To deal with the non-linearity, a linearization scheme is applied which directly uses the gate height instead of the structure flow as the control variable. Given the fact that MPC needs to compute control actions in real-time, we address issues regarding computational time. A new large time step scheme is proposed in order to save computation time, in which different control variables can have different control time steps. Simulation experiments demonstrate that Model Predictive Control with the large time step setting is able to control a delta system better and much more efficiently than the conventional operational schemes.

  12. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  13. Real time diagnostic for operation at a CW low voltage FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Balfour, C.; Shaw, A.; Mayhew, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    At Liverpool University, a system for single user control of an FEL has been designed to satisfy the low voltage FEL (ie 200kV) operational requirements. This system incorporates many aspects of computer automation for beam diagnostics, radiation detection and vacuum system management. In this paper the results of the development of safety critical control systems critical control systems are reported.

  14. PLL/PID Motor Control System by Using Time-Domain Differential Operation of PWM Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    In PLL motor speed control systems, PID-type loop filter can improve disturbance sensitivity. In this short-paper, we show that, an existing PI-type PLL/PWM motor speed controller can be supplemented with addition a difference operation including the I-counter, together with FPGA experimental result.

  15. Real-time Affective Indices of Potential CRM Breakdown: Qualitative Testing of an Operational Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation begins by showing several cases where poor crew resource management (CRM) resulted in aircraft accidents. The presenter reviews the emotional states that are present in a situation that frequently leads to an accident. The operational answer suggested is given as an acronym: PACE, which stand for Probe, Alert, Challenge, Emergency Action.

  16. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purposes of this section, a base station is not considered to be placed in operation unless at least one... and transmit the location either back to the mobile or to a subscriber's fixed site. (f) For purposes of this section, a station licensed to provide commercial mobile radio service is not considered...

  17. Application of queueing models to multiprogrammed computer systems operating in a time-critical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A model of a central processor (CPU) which services background applications in the presence of time critical activity is presented. The CPU is viewed as an M/M/1 queueing system subject to periodic interrupts by deterministic, time critical process. The Laplace transform of the distribution of service times for the background applications is developed. The use of state of the art queueing models for studying the background processing capability of time critical computer systems is discussed and the results of a model validation study which support this application of queueing models are presented.

  18. A shorter time step for eco-friendly reservoir operation does not always produce better water availability and ecosystem benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chunxue; Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The time step used in the operation of eco-friendly reservoirs has decreased from monthly to daily, and even sub-daily. The shorter time step is considered a better choice for satisfying downstream environmental requirements because it more closely resembles the natural flow regime. However, little consideration has been given to the influence of different time steps on the ability to simultaneously meet human and environmental flow requirements. To analyze this influence, we used an optimization model to explore the relationships among the time step, environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, and human water needs for a wide range of time steps and e-flow scenarios. We used the degree of hydrologic alteration to evaluate the regime's ability to satisfy the e-flow requirements of riverine ecosystems, and used water supply reliability to evaluate the ability to satisfy human needs. We then applied the model to a case study of China's Tanghe Reservoir. We found four efficient time steps (2, 3, 4, and 5 days), with a remarkably high water supply reliability (around 80%) and a low alteration of the flow regime (<35%). Our analysis of the hydrologic alteration revealed the smallest alteration at time steps ranging from 1 to 7 days. However, longer time steps led to higher water supply reliability to meet human needs under several e-flow scenarios. Our results show that adjusting the time step is a simple way to improve reservoir operation performance to balance human and e-flow needs.

  19. Response to Dr. Pashby: Time operators and POVM observables in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Gordon N.

    2015-11-01

    I argue against a general time observable in quantum mechanics except for quantum gravity theory. Then I argue in support of case specific arrival, dwell and relative time observables with a cautionary note concerning the broad approach to POVM observables because of the wild proliferation available.

  20. A Memetic Algorithm for the Location-Based Continuously Operating Reference Stations Placement Problem in Network Real-Time Kinematic.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maolin

    2015-10-01

    Network real-time kinematic (NRTK) is a technology that can provide centimeter-level accuracy positioning services in real-time, and it is enabled by a network of continuously operating reference stations (CORS). The location-oriented CORS placement problem is an important problem in the design of a NRTK as it will directly affect not only the installation and operational cost of the NRTK, but also the quality of positioning services provided by the NRTK. This paper presents a memetic algorithm (MA) for the location-oriented CORS placement problem, which hybridizes the powerful explorative search capacity of a genetic algorithm and the efficient and effective exploitative search capacity of a local optimization. Experimental results have shown that the MA has better performance than existing approaches. In this paper, we also conduct an empirical study about the scalability of the MA, effectiveness of the hybridization technique and selection of crossover operator in the MA. PMID:25415999

  1. The influence of target torque and torque build-up time on physical stress in right angle nutrunner operation.

    PubMed

    Oh, S A; Radwin, R G

    1998-02-01

    This study used a computer-controlled electric right angle nutrunner to investigate the relative effects of different power hand tool and process parameters on operator muscular exertions, handle stability and subjective ratings of perceived exertion. Target torque (25, 40 and 55 Nm), torque build-up time (35, 150, 300, 500 and 900 ms), and workstation orientation (horizontal and vertical) were studied. Dependent variables included EMG activity of the finger flexors, biceps, and triceps, handle velocity and displacement, work done on the tool-hand system and power involved in doing work, subjective ratings of perceived exertion, and task acceptance. Six inexperienced subjects (three females and three males) participated. Ten replications were performed for each combination of experimental conditions. The consequences of increasing the torque reaction force were greater handle instability and perceived exertion. The effect of torque build-up time on handle kinematics, muscular activity and perceived exertion was not monotonic. Among five build-up times tested, the hand was most unstable (greater peak handle velocity and power against the operator) for a 150 ms build-up time. Greater peak handle displacement, total work against the operator and average EMG were observed for 150 and 300 ms build-up times than for other build-up time conditions. Integrated EMG and EMG latency significantly increased as build-up time increased. Average EMG latency between the onset of EMG burst and the onset of torque build-up was 40 ms for a 35 ms build-up time and 330 ms for a 900 ms build-up time. Subjective ratings of perceived exertion were the least when torque build-up time was 35 ms, however greater peak torque variance was associated with this condition. PMID:9494431

  2. Computer vision for real-time orbital operations. Center directors discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, F. L.; Brewster, L. L.; Thomas, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Machine vision research is examined as it relates to the NASA Space Station program and its associated Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Initial operation of OMV for orbital assembly, docking, and servicing are manually controlled from the ground by means of an on board TV camera. These orbital operations may be accomplished autonomously by machine vision techniques which use the TV camera as a sensing device. Classical machine vision techniques are described. An alternate method is developed and described which employs a syntactic pattern recognition scheme. It has the potential for substantial reduction of computing and data storage requirements in comparison to the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) image analysis. The method embodies powerful heuristic pattern recognition capability by identifying image shapes such as elongation, symmetry, number of appendages, and the relative length of appendages.

  3. Survey of timing/synchronization of operating wideband digital communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to benefit from experience gained from the synchronization of operational wideband digital networks, a survey was made of three such systems: Data Transmission Company, Western Union Telegraph Company, and the Computer Communications Group of the Trans-Canada Telephone System. The focus of the survey was on deployment and operational experience from a practical (as opposed to theoretical) viewpoint. The objective was to provide a report on the results of deployment how the systems performed, and wherein the performance differed from that predicted or intended in the design. It also attempted to determine how the various system designers would use the benefit of hindsight if they could design those same systems today.

  4. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Čaja, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  5. The Effects of Predictive Solutions on Training Time and Post-Training Performance for Control Systems with Human Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Lee

    The effect of predictive solutions on training time (speed) and subsequent performance in a complex manual control system was investigated. A control system with a slow and complex response to the input signals was formulated. Fifty control operators, 25 with the aid of predictive solutions and 25 without, were tested; the mean performances of the…

  6. Biohydrogen production from kitchen based vegetable waste: effect of pyrolysis temperature and time on catalysed and non-catalysed operation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Mohan, S Venkata

    2013-02-01

    Pyrolysis of kitchen based vegetable waste (KVW) was studied in a designed packed bed reactor. The effect of process parameters like temperature, time and catalyst on bio-gas yield and its composition was studied. The total bio-gas yield was found to be maximum with non-catalysed operation (260ml/g) at 1073K (180min). Higher hydrogen (H(2)) yield with non-catalysed operation (32.68%) was observed at 1073K (180min) while with catalysed operation the requisite temperature (873K) and time (120min) reduced with both silica gel (33.34%) and sand (41.82%) thus, saving energy input. Methane (CH(4)) yield was found to be highest (4.44times than non-catalysed and 1.42 with silica gel) in presence of sand (71.485ml/g) at medium temperature (873K) and time (60min). The catalyst operation reduced the carbondioxide (CO(2)) share from 47.29% to 41.30% (silica gel catalysed) and 21.91% (sand catalysed) at 873K. PMID:23313698

  7. BIOREACTOR ECONOMICS, SIZE AND TIME OF OPERATION (BEST) COMPUTER SIMULATOR FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is an Excel™ spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with the public domain geochemical modeling software, PHREEQCI. The BEST model is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreacto...

  8. A novel real-time resource efficient implementation of Sobel operator-based edge detection on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Saini, Anil K.; Saini, Ravi; Mandal, A. S.; Shekhar, Chandra; Vohra, Anil

    2014-12-01

    A new resource efficient FPGA-based hardware architecture for real-time edge detection using Sobel operator for video surveillance applications has been proposed. The choice of Sobel operator is due to its property to counteract the noise sensitivity of the simple gradient operator. FPGA is chosen for this implementation due to its flexibility to provide the possibility to perform algorithmic changes in later stage of the system development and its capability to provide real-time performance, hard to achieve with general purpose processor or digital signal processor, while limiting the extensive design work, time and cost required for application specific integrated circuit. The proposed architecture uses single processing element for both horizontal and vertical gradient computation for Sobel operator and utilised approximately 38% less FPGA resources as compared to standard Sobel edge detection architecture while maintaining real-time frame rates for high definition videos (1920 × 1080 image sizes). The complete system is implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T) FPGA board.

  9. Operational Precipitation prediction in Support of Real-Time Flash Flood Prediction and Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    The presentation will outline the implementation and performance evaluation of a number of national and international projects pertaining to operational precipitation estimation and prediction in the context of hydrologic warning systems and reservoir management support. In all cases, uncertainty measures of the estimates and predictions are an integral part of the precipitation models. Outstanding research issues whose resolution is likely to lead to improvements in the operational environment are presented. The presentation draws from the experience of the Hydrologic Research Center (http://www.hrc-lab.org) prototype implementation projects at the Panama Canal, Central America, Northern California, and South-Central US. References: Carpenter, T.M, and K.P. Georgakakos, "Discretization Scale Dependencies of the Ensemble Flow Range versus Catchment Area Relationship in Distributed Hydrologic Modeling," Journal of Hydrology, 2006, in press. Carpenter, T.M., and K.P. Georgakakos, "Impacts of Parametric and Radar Rainfall Uncertainty on the Ensemble Streamflow Simulations of a Distributed Hydrologic Model," Journal of Hydrology, 298, 202-221, 2004. Georgakakos, K.P., Graham, N.E., Carpenter, T.M., Georgakakos, A.P., and H. Yao, "Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-Objective Reservoir Management in Northern California," EOS, 86(12), 122,127, 2005. Georgakakos, K.P., and J.A. Sperfslage, "Operational Rainfall and Flow Forecasting for the Panama Canal Watershed," in The Rio Chagres: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed, R.S. Harmon, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, 323-334, 2005. Georgakakos, K. P., "Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance," Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.05.009, 2005.

  10. Path ordered operator formalism of gauge theories in two-dimensional space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, K.

    1980-05-01

    Two-dimensional gauge theories, both abelian and non-belian, are formulated in terms of gauge invariant path ordered operators (POO). The generators of the Poincaré group are constructed with POO's. An exact equation of motion for POO's is derived and is shown to reduce to the 't Hooft eigenvalue equation in QCD in the large N limit. Nowhere appear infrared problems.

  11. Sea level controls carbon accumulation in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    How much carbon is stored in the organic soils of tropical wetlands is becoming an important question as erosion, agriculture, and global climate change slowly set into motion a series of processes that could potentially release carbon locked up in these wetlands. In a recent study, Glaser et al. reconstructed a complete, carbon-14 dated 4000-year history of both organic and inorganic matter accumulation in the Everglades of south Florida. The authors found that despite the fact that erosion, fires, and similar processes may have removed as much as 2 meters of soil from the Everglades, there is a remarkable consistency in the accumulation rates of both organic and inorganic matter in the Everglades over the past 4000 years. They speculate that processes such as sea level rise that operate on time scales of centuries or even millennia may be ultimately controlling the rates of formation and accumulation of organic matter in the Everglades.

  12. Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi

    2012-03-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power, η(m), of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures T(h) and T(c), respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), η(m) becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency η(m) at maximum power output is bounded from above by η(C)/(2-η(C)) and from below by η(C)/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η(CA)=1-√(T(c)/T(h)) is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation. PMID:22587076

  13. Mismatch between fishway operation and timing of fish movements: a risk for cascading effects in partial migration systems.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Casper H A; Museth, Jon; Sandlund, Odd T; Qvenild, Tore; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a growing problem worldwide. Particularly in river systems, numerous dams and weirs hamper the movement of a wide variety of species. With the aim to preserve connectivity for fish, many barriers in river systems are equipped with fishways (also called fish passages or fish ladders). However, few fishways provide full connectivity. Here we hypothesized that restricted seasonal opening times of fishways can importantly reduce their effectiveness by interfering with the timing of fish migration, for both spring- and autumn-spawning species. We empirically tested our hypothesis, and discuss the possible eco-evolutionary consequences of affected migration timing. We analyzed movements of two salmonid fishes, spring-spawning European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and autumn-spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta), in Norway's two largest river systems. We compared their timing of upstream passage through four fishways collected over 28 years with the timing of fish movements in unfragmented river sections as monitored by radiotelemetry. Confirming our hypothesis, late opening of fishways delayed the migration of European grayling in spring, and early closure of fishways blocked migration for brown trout on their way to spawning locations during late autumn. We show in a theoretical framework how restricted opening times of fishways can induce shifts from migratory to resident behavior in potamodromous partial migration systems, and propose that this can induce density-dependent effects among fish accumulating in lower regions of rivers. Hence, fragmentation may not only directly affect the migratory individuals in the population, but may also have effects that cascade downstream and alter circumstances for resident fish. Fishway functionality is inadequate if there is a mismatch between natural fish movements and fishway opening times in the same river system, with ecological and possibly evolutionary consequences for fish populations. PMID

  14. The geometric β-function in curved space-time under operator regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, Susama

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, I compare the generators of the renormalization group flow, or the geometric β-functions, for dimensional regularization and operator regularization. I then extend the analysis to show that the geometric β-function for a scalar field theory on a closed compact Riemannian manifold is defined on the entire manifold. I then extend the analysis to find the generator of the renormalization group flow to conformally coupled scalar-field theories on the same manifolds. The geometric β-function in this case is not defined.

  15. Diclofenac prevents temporal increase of intraocular pressure after uneventful cataract surgery with longer operation time

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Masahiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Yasuda, Kanako; Shiono, Takashi; Nishida, Kohji

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares the effect of topical diclofenac with that of betamethasone against postoperative increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) after cataract surgery in normal patients, and also investigated the risk factors for postoperative increase of IOP in each group. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients without systemic disease who have bilateral and symmetrical cataracts underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in both eyes (100 eyes in total). Postoperatively, topical diclofenac was applied 4 times daily to one eye, and topical betamethasone to the other eye in each patient. IOP and best corrected logMAR visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye were measured up to 8 weeks. Total surgery time and effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) for each case was recorded. Results: BCVA in both diclofenac- and betamethasone-treated eyes significantly improved after the cataract surgery; however, no statistical difference in VA was noted between the diclofenac- and betamethasone-treated eyes throughout the observation period. IOP in the diclofenac-treated eyes decreased with time, in contrast to the IOP in the betamethasone-treated eyes, which showed a slight increase. At 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, there was significant difference between these two eye groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed that postoperative increase in IOP at 8 weeks in the betamethasone-treated eyes was closely correlated with total surgery time and EPT, but the IOP in the diclofenac-treated eyes showed no correlation with any surgical or clinical parameters. Conclusions: Postoperative increase in IOP after cataract surgery was affected by total surgery time and EPT in the betamethasone-treated eye. The time for surgery and EPT is longer in complicated cases including patients with a hard nucleus or small pupils, and also longer for beginning surgeons and in older patients. In these cases, diclofenac in place of betamethasone as a postoperative topical antiinflammatory drug is recommended

  16. [Rocuronium or vecuronium for intubation for short operations in the preschool age? Effects on time in the operating room and postoperative phase].

    PubMed

    Pestel, G; Uhlig, T; Unrein, H; Rothhammer, A

    2001-01-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the effects of rocuronium (R) and vecuronium (V) on the early postoperative period in infants. Forty-eight infants between the ages of three and six, scheduled for elective ENT procedures, were studied after prior approval of local ethics committee and informed parental consent. All children were premedicated with chlorprotixene and belladonna. Anaesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg thiopentone and 1 vol.-% halothane. Subsequently, 0.4 mg/kg rocuronium or 0.075 mg/kg vecuronium were administered, respectively. Anaesthesia and post-operative care were conducted by independent anaesthetists, who were unaware of the drug used and of the relaxometric data obtained. All children were monitored in the recovery room by pulse oximetry until they reached a Steward Score of 6. Demographic data did not differ between the groups. No differences were recorded between the non-depolarizing relaxants regarding intubation time (R: 24.1 +/- 4.2 min, V: 25.8 +/- 6.8 min) and the time interval from end extubation to leaving the operating theatre (R: 2.3 +/- 0.8 min, V: 2.6 +/- 1.2 min), respectively. Similarly, no differences in SaO2 were noted during the recovery period in the recovery room. Significant differences between the non-depolarizing relaxants were found in the TOF-ratios at extubation (R: 0.73 +/- 0.31 min, V: 0.48 +/- 0.34 min) and arrival in the recovery room (R: 0.88 +/- 0.21 min, V: 0.69 +/- 0.26 min). 0.4 mg/kg Rocuronium and 0.075 mg/kg vecuronium can be used for intubation during short operations on pre-school children. Rocuronium may be the better alternative, due to its faster neuromuscular recovery properties. PMID:11455866

  17. Operational Use of Near Real Time Remote sensing Data at the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. Government agency that brings together the Department of Defense - Navy, Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Homeland Security - U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to support coastal and marine sea ice operations and research in the Polar Regions. The NIC provides specialized strategic and tactical ice analyses to meet the operational needs of the U.S. government and is the only operational ice service in the world that monitors sea ice in both the Arctic, Antarctic regions as well as in other ice infested waters. NIC utilizes multiple sources of near real time satellite and in-situ observations as well as NWP and ocean-sea ice model output to produce sea ice analyses. Key users of NIC products in the Arctic include the Navy submarine force, National Weather Service, USCG and Canadian Coast Guard icebreakers, Military Sealift Command on re-supply missions to Antarctica and Greenland, and NOAA research vessels operating near sea ice cover in both hemispheres as well. Time series of NIC weekly or bi-weekly ice analysis charts, daily marginal ice zone and ice edge routine products, as well as tactical support annotated imagery are generated by expert analysts with wide access to near real time satellite imagery from VIS/IR to passive and active microwave sensors. The status of these satellite data streams and the expected availability of new capabilities in the near future will be discussed.

  18. Time causal operational estimation of electric fields induced in the Earth's lithosphere during magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Swidinsky, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    In support of projects for monitoring geomagnetic hazards for electric power grids, we develop a simple mathematical formalism, consistent with the time causality of deterministic physics, for estimating electric fields that are induced in the Earth's lithosphere during magnetic storms. For an idealized model of the lithosphere, an infinite half-space having uniform electrical conductivity properties described by a galvanic tensor, we work in the Laplace-transformed frequency domain to obtain a transfer function which, when convolved with measured magnetic field time series, gives an estimated electric field time series. Using data collected at the Kakioka, Japan observatory, we optimize lithospheric conductivity parameters by minimizing the discrepancy between model-estimated electric field variation and that actually measured. With our simple model, we can estimate 87% of the variance in storm time Kakioka electric field data; a more complicated model of lithospheric conductivity would be required to estimate the remaining 13% of the variance. We discuss how our estimation formalism might be implemented for geographically coordinated real-time monitoring of geoelectric fields.

  19. The activated coagulation time of whole blood as a routine pre-operative sceening test.

    PubMed

    Hattersley, P G

    1971-05-01

    Patients with disorders of hemostasis who undergo surgical procedures are in danger of hemorrhage. While the careful medical history remains the most sensitive test of a bleeding tendency, some such patients can give no suggestive history. In three patients with coagulopathy-one with mild classical hemophilia, one with Christmas disease, and one with warfarin toxicity-the abnormality was missed by routine preoperative history but promptly detected by the routine preoperative use of the activated coagulation time (act). Either this test or the activated partial thromboplastin time should be included in the routine preoperative work-up, along with appropriate additional tests of the hemostatic mechanism. PMID:5087876

  20. The Activated Coagulation Time of Whole Blood as a Routine Pre-Operative Screening Test

    PubMed Central

    Hattersley, Paul G.

    1971-01-01

    Patients with disorders of hemostasis who undergo surgical procedures are in danger of hemorrhage. While the careful medical history remains the most sensitive test of a bleeding tendency, some such patients can give no suggestive history. In three patients with coagulopathy—one with mild classical hemophilia, one with Christmas disease, and one with warfarin toxicity—the abnormality was missed by routine preoperative history but promptly detected by the routine preoperative use of the activated coagulation time (act). Either this test or the activated partial thromboplastin time should be included in the routine preoperative work-up, along with appropriate additional tests of the hemostatic mechanism. PMID:5087876

  1. Online Operation Guidance of Computer System Used in Real-Time Distance Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    Computer system is useful for improving real time and interactive distance education activities. Especially in the case that a large number of students participate in one distance lecture together and every student uses their own computer to share teaching materials or control discussions over the virtual classrooms. The problem is that within…

  2. Implementation, Operation, and Management of a Non-Time Based School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, L. Everett; Fox, Henry C.

    The Florida Department of Education has adopted state-wide goals and performance objectives which can ultimately serve as the basis of a non-time based school. In such a system, student performance will be the measure of an individual's success, as opposed to merely the number of years spent in the classroom; additional characteristics will…

  3. High-fidelity gate operations for quantum computing beyond dephasing time limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Alexandre M.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Suter, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of quantum gates with fidelities that exceed the threshold for reliable quantum computing requires robust gates whose performance is not limited by the precision of the available control fields. The performance of these gates also should not be affected by the noisy environment of the quantum register. Here we use randomized benchmarking of quantum gate operations to compare the performance of different families of gates that compensate errors in the control field amplitudes and decouple the system from the environmental noise. We obtain average fidelities of up to 99.8%, which exceeds the threshold value for some quantum error correction schemes as well as the expected limit from the dephasing induced by the environment.

  4. OOD/OOP experience in the Science Operations Center part of the ground system for X ray Timing Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Abdur Rahim

    1994-01-01

    The Science Operations Center (SOC) for the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) mission is an important component of the XTE ground system. Its mandate includes: (1) command and telemetry for the three XTE instruments, using CCSDS standards; (2) monitoring of the real-time science operations, reconfiguration of the experiment and the instruments, and real-time commanding to address the targets of opportunity (TOO) and alternate observations; and (3) analysis, processing, and archival of the XTE telemetry, and the timely delivery of the data products to the principal investigator (PI) teams and the guest observers (GO). The SOC has two major components: the science operations facility (SOF) that addresses the first two objectives stated above and the guest observer facility (GOF) that addresses the third. The SOF has subscribed to the object oriented design and implementation; while the GOF uses the traditional approach in order to take advantage of the existing software developed in support of previous missions. This paper details the SOF development using the object oriented design (OOD), and its implementation using the object oriented programming (OOP) in C++ under Unix environment on client-server architecture using Sun workstations. It also illustrates how the object oriented (OO) and the traditional approaches coexist in SOF and GOF, the lessons learned, and how the OOD facilitated the distributed software development collaboratively by four different teams. Details are presented for the SOF system, its major subsystems, its interfaces with the rest of the XTE ground data system, and its design and implementation approaches.

  5. Delivery times for caesarean section at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi: is a 30-minute 'informed to start of operative delivery time' achievable?

    PubMed

    O'Regan, M

    2003-08-01

    A timesheet questionnaire was used to assess the time it took from informing the anaesthetist about a case to the start of operative delivery in 78 consecutive patients undergoing caesarean section. Median (IQR [range]) times for grade-1 cases (immediate threat to the life of the mother or fetus) and grade-2 cases (fetal or maternal compromise without immediate threat to life) were 20 (17-35 [6-75]) min and 41 (27-60 [17-136]) min, respectively. Delays occurred in all the component time intervals examined. The primary avoidable delay was the patient's late arrival in theatre. Many significant delays were apparently not perceived by the anaesthetist. In nine (69%) grade-1 cases, the 30-min target decreed by the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association was achieved. PMID:12859467

  6. NASA-Langley Web-Based Operational Real-time Cloud Retrieval Products from Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palikonda, Rabindra; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Nguyen, Louis; Yi, Yuhong; Chan, P. K.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Smith, William L, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), radiances from multiple satellites are analyzed in near real-time to produce cloud products over many regions on the globe. These data are valuable for many applications such as diagnosing aircraft icing conditions and model validation and assimilation. This paper presents an overview of the multiple products available, summarizes the content of the online database, and details web-based satellite browsers and tools to access satellite imagery and products.

  7. Recent operating experience with Flexicracking commercial developments in short contact time catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, P.K.; Bienstock, M.G.; Citarella, V.A.; Draemel, D.C. )

    1994-01-01

    Short contact time (SCT) catalytic cracking applications have been receiving high attention in recent years, with a large number of revamps of existing FCCU's as well as construction of new facilities. This paper will recap some of these developments and discuss the benefits demonstrated by the application of state-of-the-art riser termination, stripping, and feed injection technologies. Commercial projects demonstrating fast-track project execution, and confirming the outstanding improvements in yields and yield selectivities possible, will also be discussed.

  8. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; McCurdy, Dave; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  9. The use of the AOA TTR-4P GPS receiver in operation at the BIPM for real-time restitution of GPS time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System is an outstanding tool for the dissemination of time. Using mono-channel C/A-code GPS time receivers, the restitution of GPS time through the satellite constellation presents a peak-to-peak discrepancy of several tens of nanoseconds without SA but may be as high as several hundreds of nanoseconds with SA. As a consequence, civil users are more and more interested in implementing hardware and software methods for efficient restitution of GPS time, especially in the framework of the project of a real-time prediction of UTC (UTCp) which could be available in the form of time differences (UTCp - GPS time). Previous work, for improving the real-time restitution of GPS time with SA, to the level obtained without SA, focused on the implementation of a Kalman filter based on past data and updated at each new observation. An alternative solution relies upon the statistical features of the noise brought about by SA; it has already been shown that the SA noise is efficiently reduced by averaging data from numerous satellites observed simultaneously over a sufficiently long time. This method was successfully applied to data from a GPS time receiver, model AOA TTR-4P, connected to the cesium clock kept at the BIPM. This device, a multi-channel, dual frequency, P-code GPS time receiver, is one of the first TTR-4P units in operation in a civil laboratory. Preliminary comparative studies of this new equipment with conventional GPS time receivers are described in this paper. The results of an experimental restitution of GPS time, obtained in June 1993, are also detailed: 3 to 6 satellites were observed simultaneously with a sample interval of 15 s, an efficient smoothing of SA noise was realized by averaging data on all observed satellites over more than 1 hour. When the GPS system is complete in 1994, 8 satellites will be observable continuously from anywhere in the world and the same level of uncertainty will be obtained using a shorter averaging

  10. Real-time operative earthquake forecasting: the case of L'Aquila sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Lombardi, A.

    2009-12-01

    A reliable earthquake forecast is one of the fundamental components required for reducing seismic risk. Despite very recent efforts devoted to test the validity of available models, the present skill at forecasting the evolution of seismicity is still largely unknown. The recent Mw 6.3 earthquake - that struck near the city of L'Aquila, Italy on April 6, 2009, causing hundreds of deaths and vast damages - offered to scientists a unique opportunity to test for the first time the forecasting capability in a real-time application. Here, we describe the results of this first prospective experiment. Immediately following the large event, we began producing daily one-day earthquake forecasts for the region, and we provided these forecasts to Civil Protection - the agency responsible for managing the emergency. The forecasts are based on a stochastic model that combines the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of earthquake magnitudes and power-law decay in space and time of triggered earthquakes. The results from the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake exhibit a good fit between forecasts and observations, indicating that accurate earthquake forecasting is now a realistic goal. Our experience with this experiment demonstrates an urgent need for a connection between probabilistic forecasts and decision-making in order to establish - before crises - quantitative and transparent protocols for decision support.

  11. Triadic social interactions operate across time: a field experiment with wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Social animals cooperate with bonding partners to outcompete others. Predicting a competitor's supporter is likely to be beneficial, regardless of whether the supporting relationship is stable or transient, or whether the support happens immediately or later. Although humans make such predictions frequently, it is unclear to what extent animals have the cognitive abilities to recognize others’ transient bond partners and to predict others' coalitions that extend beyond the immediate present. We conducted playback experiments with wild chimpanzees to test this. About 2 h after fighting, subjects heard recordings of aggressive barks of a bystander, who was or was not a bond partner of the former opponent. Subjects looked longer and moved away more often from barks of the former opponents’ bond partners than non-bond partners. In an additional experiment, subjects moved away more from barks than socially benign calls of the same bond partner. These effects were present despite differences in genetic relatedness and considerable time delays between the two events. Chimpanzees, it appears, integrate memories of social interactions from different sources to make inferences about current interactions. This ability is crucial for connecting triadic social interactions across time, a requirement for predicting aggressive support even after a time delay. PMID:24500174

  12. Sub-Millisecond Response Time in a Photorefractive Composite Operating under CW Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Jin, Sung-Ho; Oh, Jin-Woo; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based on molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm−1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. It is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials. PMID:27478156

  13. Sub-Millisecond Response Time in a Photorefractive Composite Operating under CW Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Stevens, Tyler E; Monson, Todd C; Huber, Dale L; Jin, Sung-Ho; Oh, Jin-Woo; Winiarz, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based on molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm(-1) being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. It is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials. PMID:27478156

  14. Sub-Millisecond Response Time in a Photorefractive Composite Operating under CW Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Jin, Sung-Ho; Oh, Jin-Woo; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2016-08-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based on molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm‑1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. It is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials.

  15. Sub-millisecond response time in a photorefractive composite operating under CW conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moon, Jong -Sik; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Jin, Sung -Ho; Oh, Jin -Woo; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2016-08-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based onmore » molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm–1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. As a result, it is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials.« less

  16. Model Predictive Control application for real time operation of controlled structures for the Water Authority Noorderzijlvest, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Gooijer, Jan; Knot, Floris; Talsma, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands, flood protection has always been a key issue to protect settlements against storm surges and riverine floods. Whereas flood protection traditionally focused on structural measures, nowadays the availability of meteorological and hydrological forecasts enable the application of more advanced real-time control techniques for operating the existing hydraulic infrastructure in an anticipatory and more efficient way. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a powerful technique to derive optimal control variables with the help of model based predictions evaluated against a control objective. In a project for the regional water authority Noorderzijlvest in the north of the Netherlands, it has been shown that MPC can increase the safety level of the system during flood events by an anticipatory pre-release of water. Furthermore, energy costs of pumps can be reduced by making tactical use of the water storage and shifting pump activities during normal operating conditions to off-peak hours. In this way cheap energy is used in combination of gravity flow through gates during low tide periods. MPC has now been implemented for daily operational use of the whole water system of the water authority Noorderzijlvest. The system developed to a real time decision support system which not only supports the daily operation but is able to directly implement the optimal control settings at the structures. We explain how we set-up and calibrated a prediction model (RTC-Tools) that is accurate and fast enough for optimization purposes, and how we integrated it in the operational flood early warning system (Delft-FEWS). Beside the prediction model, the weights and the factors of the objective function are an important element of MPC, since they shape the control objective. We developed special features in Delft-FEWS to allow the operators to adjust the objective function in order to meet changing requirements and to evaluate different control strategies.

  17. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  18. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  19. Real-time processing of dual band HD video for maintaining operational effectiveness in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Steve C. J.; Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.

    2015-05-01

    Effective reconnaissance, surveillance and situational awareness, using dual band sensor systems, require the extraction, enhancement and fusion of salient features, with the processed video being presented to the user in an ergonomic and interpretable manner. HALO™ is designed to meet these requirements and provides an affordable, real-time, and low-latency image fusion solution on a low size, weight and power (SWAP) platform. The system has been progressively refined through field trials to increase its operating envelope and robustness. The result is a video processor that improves detection, recognition and identification (DRI) performance, whilst lowering operator fatigue and reaction times in complex and highly dynamic situations. This paper compares the performance of HALO™, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with conventional blended fusion for operation in degraded visual environments (DVEs), such as those experienced during ground and air-based operations. Although image blending provides a simple fusion solution, which explains its common adoption, the results presented demonstrate that its performance is poor compared to the HALO™ fusion scheme in DVE scenarios.

  20. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  1. Effects of geographic area, feedstock, temperature, and operating time on microbial communities of six full-scale biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Alessandra; Patrone, Vania; Puglisi, Edoardo; Morelli, Lorenzo; Bassi, Daniela; Garuti, Mirco; Rossi, Lorella; Cappa, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different animal feedings operated in two distinct PDO (protected designation of origin) cheese production areas (Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano) on the microbiome of six full-scale biogas plants, by means of Illumina sequencing and qPCR techniques. The effects of feedstock (cattle slurry manure, energy crops, agro-industrial by-products), temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic), and operating time were also examined, as were the relationships between the predominant bacterial and archaeal taxa and process parameters. The different feedstocks and temperatures strongly affected the microbiomes. A more biodiverse archaeal population was highlighted in Parmigiano Reggiano area plants, suggesting an influence of the different animal feedings. Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta showed an opposite distribution among anaerobic plants, with the former found to be related to ammonium concentration. The Methanoculleus genus was more abundant in the thermophilic digester whereas representation of the Thermotogales order correlated with hydraulic retention time. PMID:27450128

  2. Time accuracy of a radio frequency identification patient tracking system for recording operating room timestamps.

    PubMed

    Marjamaa, Riitta A; Torkki, Paulus M; Torkki, Markus I; Kirvelä, Olli A

    2006-04-01

    A patient tracking system is a promising tool for managing patient flow and improving efficiency in the operating room. Wireless location systems, using infrared or radio frequency transmitters, can automatically timestamp key events, thereby decreasing the need for manual data input. In this study, we measured the accuracy and precision of automatically documented timestamps compared with manual recording. Each patient scheduled for urgent surgery was given an active radio frequency/infrared transmitter. The prototype software tracked the patient throughout the perioperative process, automatically documenting the timestamps. Both automatic and traditional data entry were compared with the reference data. The absolute value of median error was 64% smaller (P < 0.01), and the average quartile deviation of error was 69% smaller in automatic documentation. The average delay between an activity and the documentation was 80 seconds in automatic documentation and 735 seconds in manual documentation. Both the accuracy and the precision were better in automatic documentation and the data were immediately available. Automatic documentation with the Indoor Positioning System can help in managing patient flow and in increasing transparency with faster availability and better accuracy of data. PMID:16551921

  3. Monitoring and simulating real-time electric power system operation with phasor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, A.G.; Thorp, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this research project, two important results have been achieved. The concept of generator axis load flow has been developed more fully, and has been tested through simulations on the 39-bus system (with 10 generators). Generator axis load flow is a load flow calculation which views the entire network from a few retained buses such as the internal nodes of the generators. As these nodes can be indirectly monitored in real time through phasor measurements of generator terminal quantities, it becomes possible to track and predict the behavior of the entire network from these few observation points. This is extremely valuable in the task of predicting network instability in real time. The task of instability prediction of a multi-machine power system is one of the most difficult analytical exercises. We investigated two of the most promising approaches: the extended equal area method, and the transient energy function method. Although both of these methods work well in many instances, we have shown that in other cases, the predictions made by the two methods are incorrect. The failure of the methods can be traced to their inability to deal with the behavior of the system after the first turning point of the motor swing curves. Instead of using these methods, we propose the direct integration of the machine swing equations following the start of a disturbance. Coupled with the generator aids load flow developed above, and using the high speed computers available now, we show that for systems of significant size (39 bus system), accurate predictions through direct computation are possible. The report also includes results on computational efficiency of the method of faster-than-real-time integration using machine equations and the generator aids load flow. It is anticipated that this technique will be useful in most practical applications in power system control centers of the future.

  4. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  5. Time-domain simulation for coupled motions of three barges moored side-by-side in floatover operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Yang, Jian-min; Li, Xin; Xu, Liang-yu

    2015-04-01

    Simulating the coupled motions of multiple bodies in the time domain is a complex problem because of the strong hydrodynamic interactions and coupled effect of various mechanical connectors. In this study, we investigate the hydrodynamic responses of three barges moored side-by-side in a floatover operation in the frequency and time domains. In the frequency domain, the damping lid method is adopted to improve the overestimated hydrodynamic coefficients calculated from conventional potential flow theory. A time-domain computing program based on potential flow theory and impulse theory is compiled for analyses that consider multibody hydrodynamic interactions and mechanical effects from lines and fenders. Correspondingly, an experiment is carried out for comparison with the numerical results. All statistics, time series, and power density spectra from decay and irregular wave tests are in a fairly good agreement.

  6. Analysis of the time-reversal operator for planar dipole arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2004-01-16

    The problem of imaging of targets in random media or cluttered environments is found in a wide variety of different applications, including ocean acoustics, medical ultrasound, geophysics, and radar. The solution often requires separating targets of interest from other scatterers, and compensating for wave speed variations in the medium. The problem is not usually the lack of data, but too much data, specifically the lack of a useful organizing principle for the data. The difficult part is separating the meaningful data from the remainder. It would therefore be most helpful if there were some means for skipping over those parts of the data that we do not really want to image very much, and looking at those parts (targets) that do interest us. This sounds challenging (maybe even impossible), but recent developments in acoustics make it clear that certain very limited imaging goals are achievable with much smaller data sets than are traditionally needed in, for example, seismic array processing. Early versions of this new method have been given the names of ''time-reversal acoustics'' or ''time-reversal mirrors,'' and have been developed most extensively by the French ultrasonics group led by Fink.

  7. VALIDATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE TIME TO FAILURE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICALLY SUPPORTED MAINTENANCE INTERVALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-02-18

    The Savannah River Site operates a Relief Valve Repair Shop certified by the National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors to NB-23, The National Board Inspection Code. Local maintenance forces perform inspection, testing, and repair of approximately 1200 spring-operated relief valves (SORV) each year as the valves are cycled in from the field. The Site now has over 7000 certified test records in the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS); a summary of that data is presented in this paper. In previous papers, several statistical techniques were used to investigate failure on demand and failure rates including a quantal response method for predicting the failure probability as a function of time in service. The non-conservative failure mode for SORV is commonly termed 'stuck shut'; industry defined as the valve opening at greater than or equal to 1.5 times the cold set pressure. Actual time to failure is typically not known, only that failure occurred some time since the last proof test (censored data). This paper attempts to validate the assumptions underlying the statistical lifetime prediction results using Monte Carlo simulation. It employs an aging model for lift pressure as a function of set pressure, valve manufacturer, and a time-related aging effect. This paper attempts to answer two questions: (1) what is the predicted failure rate over the chosen maintenance/ inspection interval; and do we understand aging sufficient enough to estimate risk when basing proof test intervals on proof test results?

  8. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  9. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  10. Real time simulation of computer-assisted sequencing of terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dear, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A simulation was developed to investigate the utilization of computer assisted decision making for the task of sequencing and scheduling aircraft in a high density terminal area. The simulation incorporates a decision methodology termed Constrained Position Shifting. This methodology accounts for aircraft velocity profiles, routes, and weight classes in dynamically sequencing and scheduling arriving aircraft. A sample demonstration of Constrained Position Shifting is presented where six aircraft types (including both light and heavy aircraft) are sequenced to land at Denver's Stapleton International Airport. A graphical display is utilized and Constrained Position Shifting with a maximum shift of four positions (rearward or forward) is compared to first come, first serve with respect to arrival at the runway. The implementation of computer assisted sequencing and scheduling methodologies is investigated. A time based control concept will be required and design considerations for such a system are discussed.

  11. A Time History of Control Operation of a C-54 Airplane in Blind Landing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talmage, Donald B.

    1947-01-01

    Tests were made with a C-54 airplane in which airline pilots made several blind approaches to determine whether any special flying techniques were used in blind landings and whether any special handling-qualities requirements would have to be formulated because of such special techniques. It was found that the airplane was flown at all times in the normal manner; that is, all turns were banked turns that were nearly coordinated by use of the rudder so that the sideslip was held close to zero. The pilot expended considerable physical work in continually moving the controls but this wake was due in part to the large friction in the three control systems. The actual control deflections used were small compared to the maximum deflections available.

  12. Noise exposure level while operating electronic arcade games as a leisure time activity.

    PubMed

    Mirbod, S M; Inaba, R; Yoshida, H; Nagata, C; Komura, Y; Iwata, H

    1992-01-01

    In order to study noise levels associated with electronic arcade games, noise measurements were made in 3 selected game centers and 192 samples were taken in each location. The background noise was recorded at a level of 61 dB(A) and 64 dB(C). When the electronic games were performed these levels of noise reached to 88 approximately 90 dB(A). The 1/3 octave bands analyzing sound pressure levels showed that more intense noise levels arose in a frequency range between 0.5 and 2.0 kHz. The computed values for noise pollution levels (LNP) and L90 (fast response A-weighted sound level exceeded 90% of the measurement time) ranged from 93.3 to 96.6 and from 85.1 to 87.3 dB(A), respectively. Concerning our results and according to Melnic (1979), it was estimated that these levels of noise might cause 4-8 dB temporary threshold shift (TTS) at 4.0 kHz in an individual with less than one hour of exposure to such a level of noise. As for the employees of the 3 game centers, the 8-hr equivalent continuous sound levels (Leq,8) were in the range of 80.3 approximately 87.5 dB(A), although their exposure time could not be exactly determined. It was suggested that: 1) The maximum levels should be limited to a reasonable level, either by the manufacturers or by the game center owners; 2) Education programs in industry should inform the employees about other factors outside the work that may affect their hearing; and 3) For policy-making on hearing conservation, recreational warning and standards should be established. PMID:1490870

  13. Comparison of Operating Time between Stand-alone Cage and a Standard Method for a Single Level Cervical Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Hyoun; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Objective Autologous bone graft with anterior plating had been a standard method for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Drawbacks of a standard method were donor site problem and problem associated with anterior plate. The stand-alone cage was introduced to reduce such problems. However, problems associated with subsidence and local kyphosis at the index level (segmental kyphosis) still persist with stand-alone cage and a standard method would be required in some cases. It seems that harvest of autologous bone and anterior plating procedure is time consuming, but this has not been verified. The aim of this study was to compare the operating time between patients operated on with stand-alone cage versus a standard method for single-level cervical disc disease. Methods Consecutive 29 patients (M:F=18:11; mean age, 58.4±12.4 years), who had undergone ACDF for single-level disc disease by a single surgeon from incision to closure during 2009-2011, were selected for this retrospective study. Seventeen patients were operated with stand-alone cage (Group I), and twelve patients were with a standard method (Group II). Operating time (from incision to closure), estimated blood loss, clinical and radiological outcomes were compared. Follow-up period was 11.4±6.3 months. Results Operating time was not different between groups longer; Group I (96.1±28.7 minutes) and Group II (112.4±31.7 minutes) (p=0.13). There was no surgery related complication. Excellent or good outcome was achieved in 11 and 10 patients of group I and II, respectively. Bony fusion was achieved in 15 and 10 patients of group I and II respectively, while one subsidence occurred in each group. Postoperative segmental angle at the index level and cervical curvature was not different between groups. No patient complained donor site pain at the last follow-up. Conclusions ACDF with a standard method for single-level cervical disc disease was not a time-consuming procedure comparing stand

  14. Real-time dynamics and control strategies for space operations of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alvin, K. F.; Alexander, S.

    1993-01-01

    This project (NAG9-574) was meant to be a three-year research project. However, due to NASA's reorganizations during 1992, the project was funded only for one year. Accordingly, every effort was made to make the present final report as if the project was meant to be for one-year duration. Originally, during the first year we were planning to accomplish the following: we were to start with a three dimensional flexible manipulator beam with articulated joints and with a linear control-based controller applied at the joints; using this simple example, we were to design the software systems requirements for real-time processing, introduce the streamlining of various computational algorithms, perform the necessary reorganization of the partitioned simulation procedures, and assess the potential speed-up realization of the solution process by parallel computations. The three reports included as part of the final report address: the streamlining of various computational algorithms; the necessary reorganization of the partitioned simulation procedures, in particular the observer models; and an initial attempt of reconfiguring the flexible space structures.

  15. Near-Real Time Cloud Retrievals from Operational and Research Meteorological Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Palilonda, Rabindra; Heck, Patrick W.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Doelling, David R.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Smith, William L., Jr.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Avey, Lance A.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Yost, Chris R.; Chee, Thad L.; Sun-Mack, Szedung

    2008-01-01

    A set of cloud retrieval algorithms developed for CERES and applied to MODIS data have been adapted to analyze other satellite imager data in near-real time. The cloud products, including single-layer cloud amount, top and base height, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid and ice water paths, are being retrieved from GOES- 10/11/12, MTSAT-1R, FY-2C, and Meteosat imager data as well as from MODIS. A comprehensive system to normalize the calibrations to MODIS has been implemented to maximize consistency in the products across platforms. Estimates of surface and top-of-atmosphere broadband radiative fluxes are also provided. Multilayered cloud properties are retrieved from GOES-12, Meteosat, and MODIS data. Native pixel resolution analyses are performed over selected domains, while reduced sampling is used for full-disk retrievals. Tools have been developed for matching the pixel-level results with instrumented surface sites and active sensor satellites. The calibrations, methods, examples of the products, and comparisons with the ICESat GLAS lidar are discussed. These products are currently being used for aircraft icing diagnoses, numerical weather modeling assimilation, and atmospheric radiation research and have potential for use in many other applications.

  16. Detiding DART® Buoy Data for Real-Time Extraction of Source Coefficients for Operational Tsunami Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, Donald B.; Denbo, Donald W.; Eblé, Marie C.; Gica, Edison; Huang, Paul Y.; Mofjeld, Harold O.; Spillane, Michael C.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tolkova, Elena I.

    2015-06-01

    US Tsunami Warning Centers use real-time bottom pressure (BP) data transmitted from a network of buoys deployed in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans to tune source coefficients of tsunami forecast models. For accurate coefficients and therefore forecasts, tides and background noise at the buoys must be accounted for through detiding. In this study, five methods for coefficient estimation are compared, each of which handles detiding differently. The first three subtract off a tidal prediction based on (1) a localized harmonic analysis involving 29 days of data immediately preceding the tsunami event, (2) 68 preexisting harmonic constituents specific to each buoy, and (3) an empirical orthogonal function fit to the previous 25 h of data. Method (4) is a Kalman smoother that uses method (1) as its input. These four methods estimate source coefficients after detiding. Method (5) estimates the coefficients simultaneously with a two-component harmonic model that accounts for the tides. The five methods are evaluated using archived data from 11 DART® buoys, to which selected artificial tsunami signals are superimposed. These buoys represent a full range of observed tidal conditions and background BP noise in the Pacific and Atlantic, and the artificial signals have a variety of patterns and induce varying signal-to-noise ratios. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of least squares estimates of source coefficients using varying amounts of data are used to compare the five detiding methods. The RMSE varies over two orders of magnitude among detiding methods, generally decreasing in the order listed, with method (5) yielding the most accurate estimate of the source coefficient. The RMSE is substantially reduced by waiting for the first full wave of the tsunami signal to arrive. As a case study, the five methods are compared using data recorded from the devastating 2011 Japan tsunami.

  17. Modeling Real-Time Coordination of Distributed Expertise and Event Response in NASA Mission Control Center Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Jeffrey

    This dissertation introduces a multidisciplinary framework for the enabling of future research and analysis of alternatives for control centers for real-time operations of safety-critical systems. The multidisciplinary framework integrates functional and computational models that describe the dynamics in fundamental concepts of previously disparate engineering and psychology research disciplines, such as group performance and processes, supervisory control, situation awareness, events and delays, and expertise. The application in this dissertation is the real-time operations within the NASA Mission Control Center in Houston, TX. This dissertation operationalizes the framework into a model and simulation, which simulates the functional and computational models in the framework according to user-configured scenarios for a NASA human-spaceflight mission. The model and simulation generates data according to the effectiveness of the mission-control team in supporting the completion of mission objectives and detecting, isolating, and recovering from anomalies. Accompanying the multidisciplinary framework is a proof of concept, which demonstrates the feasibility of such a framework. The proof of concept demonstrates that variability occurs where expected based on the models. The proof of concept also demonstrates that the data generated from the model and simulation is useful for analyzing and comparing MCC configuration alternatives because an investigator can give a diverse set of scenarios to the simulation and the output compared in detail to inform decisions about the effect of MCC configurations on mission operations performance.

  18. Computation by symmetry operations in a structured model of the brain: Recognition of rotational invariance and time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrann, John V.; Shaw, Gordon L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Leng, Xiaodan; Mathews, Robert B.

    1994-06-01

    Symmetries have long been recognized as a vital component of physical and biological systems. What we propose here is that symmetry operations are an important feature of higher brain function and result from the spatial and temporal modularity of the cortex. These symmetry operations arise naturally in the trion model of the cortex. The trion model is a highly structured mathematical realization of the Mountcastle organizational principle [Mountcastle, in The Mindful Brain (MIT, Cambridge, 1978)] in which the cortical column is the basic neural network of the cortex and is comprised of subunit minicolumns, which are idealized as trions with three levels of firing. A columnar network of a small number of trions has a large repertoire of quasistable, periodic spatial-temporal firing magic patterns (MP's), which can be excited. The MP's are related by specific symmetries: Spatial rotation, parity, ``spin'' reversal, and time reversal as well as other ``global'' symmetry operations in this abstract internal language of the brain. These MP's can be readily enhanced (as well as inherent categories of MP's) by only a small change in connection strengths via a Hebb learning rule. Learning introduces small breaking of the symmetries in the connectivities which enables a symmetry in the patterns to be recognized in the Monte Carlo evolution of the MP's. Examples of the recognition of rotational invariance and of a time-reversed pattern are presented. We propose the possibility of building a logic device from the hardware implementation of a higher level architecture of trion cortical columns.

  19. A one-particle time of arrival operator for a free relativistic spin- 0 charged particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-02-01

    We construct a one-particle TOA operator T ˆ canonically conjugate with the Hamiltonian describing a free, charged, spin- 0, relativistic particle in one spatial dimension and show that it is maximally symmetric. We solve for its eigenfunctions and show that they form a complete and non-orthogonal set. Plotting the time evolution of their corresponding probability densities, it implies that the eigenfunctions become more localized at the origin at the time equal to their eigenvalues. That is, a particle being described by an eigenfunction of T ˆ is in a state of definite arrival time at the origin and at the corresponding eigenvalue. We also calculate the TOA probability distribution of a particle in some initial state.

  20. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Samik; Tellez, Berenice G; Rao, Hari Ananda; Lamendella, Regina; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media. PMID:25326778

  1. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. R.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, K. M.; Kim, D. W.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Kim, S. H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  2. A highly reliable, high performance open avionics architecture for real time Nap-of-the-Earth operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Elks, Carl

    1995-01-01

    An Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) has been developed to meet real-time fault tolerant processing requirements of future Army applications. AFTA is the enabling technology that will allow the Army to configure existing processors and other hardware to provide high throughput and ultrahigh reliability necessary for TF/TA/NOE flight control and other advanced Army applications. A comprehensive conceptual study of AFTA has been completed that addresses a wide range of issues including requirements, architecture, hardware, software, testability, producibility, analytical models, validation and verification, common mode faults, VHDL, and a fault tolerant data bus. A Brassboard AFTA for demonstration and validation has been fabricated, and two operating systems and a flight-critical Army application have been ported to it. Detailed performance measurements have been made of fault tolerance and operating system overheads while AFTA was executing the flight application in the presence of faults.

  3. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of subparts I, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265; and/or (ii) In tanks and the generator complies with the applicable requirements of subparts J, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265 except §§ 265.197(c) and 265.200; and/or (iii) On drip pads and the generator complies with subpart W of 40 CFR part...

  4. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of subparts I, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265; and/or (ii) In tanks and the generator complies with the applicable requirements of subparts J, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265 except §§ 265.197(c) and 265.200; and/or (iii) On drip pads and the generator complies with subpart W of 40 CFR part...

  5. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of subparts I, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265; and/or (ii) In tanks and the generator complies with the applicable requirements of subparts J, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265 except §§ 265.197(c) and 265.200; and/or (iii) On drip pads and the generator complies with subpart W of 40 CFR part...

  6. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of subparts I, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265; and/or (ii) In tanks and the generator complies with the applicable requirements of subparts J, AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 265 except §§ 265.197(c) and 265.200; and/or (iii) On drip pads and the generator complies with subpart W of 40 CFR part...

  7. Real-Time Ocean Forecasting System in support of U.S. Coast Guard's Search and Rescue Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, C.; Chao, Y.; Howlett, E.; Allen, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    This talk will describe a real-time ocean forecasting system off the U.S. west coast developed to enhance U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) decision support tools for search and rescue operations. The forecasting model is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with multi-domain nested configurations. A multi-scale 3-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation scheme is used to assimilate both in situ (e.g., gliders) and remotely sensed data from both satellite and land-based platforms (e.g., high-frequency (HF) radars). The performance of this real-time ocean forecasting system was evaluated during a two-week field experiment during July-August 2009 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The 72-hour ocean forecast fields in Alaska's Prince William Sound and California coastal ocean are now produced in real-time and accessible by the USCG's decision support tool during search and rescue operations. Recent test results using the independent data collected by the USCG will be discussed.

  8. In-SITU, Time-resolved Raman Spectro-micro-topography of an Operating Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Yu; Cai, Wen-Bin; Xing, Xue-Kun; Scherson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    A Raman microscope has been coupled to a computer-controlled, two-dimensional linear translator attached to a custom-designed, sealed optical chamber to allow in situ acquisition of space-, and time-resolved spectra of an operating thin graphite/LiCoO2 Li-ion battery. This unique arrangement made it possible to collect continuously series of Raman spectra from a sharply defined edge of the battery exposing the anode (A), separator (S), and cathode (C), during charge and discharge, while the device was moved back and forth under the fixed focused laser beam along an axis normal to the layered A/S/C plane. Clear spectral evidence was obtained for changes in the amount of Li(+) within particles of graphite in the anode, and, to a lesser extent, of LiCoO2 in the cathode, during battery discharge both as a function of position and time. Analysis of time-resolved Raman spectro-micro-topography (SMT) measurements of the type described in this work are expected to open new prospects for assessing the validity of theoretical models aimed at simulating the flow of Li(+) within Li-ion batteries under operating conditions.

  9. Time-History Data of Maneuvers Performed by an F-86A Airplane During Squadron Operational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Campbell; Thornton, James; Mayo, Alton

    1952-01-01

    Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program are presented in the form of plots of load factor.and angular acceleration against indicated airspeed and of time histories of several measured quantities. The results were obtained from 197 maneuvers performed by an F-86A jet-fighter airplane during normal squadron operational training. Most of the tactical maneuver8 of which the F-86A is capable were performed at pressure altitudes ranging from 0 to 32,000 feet and at indicated airspeeds ranging from 95 to 650 miles per hour.

  10. Time-History Data of Maneuvers Performed by a Republic F84G Airplane During Squadron Operational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, Harold A.; Mayo, Alton P.

    1953-01-01

    Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program involving several jet fighter-type airplanes are presented in time-history form and are summarized as maximum measured quantities plotted against indicated airspeed. The results pertain to approximately 1,000 maneuvers performed by a Republic F-84G jet-fighter airplane during squadron operational training. The data include most tactical maneuvers of which the F-84G airplane is capable. Maneuvers were performed at pressure altitudes of 0 to 30,000 feet with indicated airspeeds ranging from the stalling speed to approximately 515 knots.

  11. Vortex information display system program description manual. [data acquisition from laser Doppler velocimeters and real time operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, R.; Matuck, G. N.; Roe, J. M.; Taylor, J.; Turner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A vortex information display system is described which provides flexible control through system-user interaction for collecting wing-tip-trailing vortex data, processing this data in real time, displaying the processed data, storing raw data on magnetic tape, and post processing raw data. The data is received from two asynchronous laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV's) and includes position, velocity, and intensity information. The raw data is written onto magnetic tape for permanent storage and is also processed in real time to locate vortices and plot their positions as a function of time. The interactive capability enables the user to make real time adjustments in processing data and provides a better definition of vortex behavior. Displaying the vortex information in real time produces a feedback capability to the LDV system operator allowing adjustments to be made in the collection of raw data. Both raw data and processing can be continually upgraded during flyby testing to improve vortex behavior studies. The post-analysis capability permits the analyst to perform in-depth studies of test data and to modify vortex behavior models to improve transport predictions.

  12. OceanNOMADS: Real-time and retrospective access to operational U.S. ocean prediction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J. M.; Cross, S. L.; Bub, F.; Ji, M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) provides both real-time and archived atmospheric model output from servers at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) respectively (http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/txt_descriptions/marRutledge-1.pdf). The NOAA National Ocean Data Center (NODC) with NCEP is developing a complementary capability called OceanNOMADS for operational ocean prediction models. An NCEP ftp server currently provides real-time ocean forecast output (http://www.opc.ncep.noaa.gov/newNCOM/NCOM_currents.shtml) with retrospective access through NODC. A joint effort between the Northern Gulf Institute (NGI; a NOAA Cooperative Institute) and the NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC; a division of NODC) created the developmental version of the retrospective OceanNOMADS capability (http://www.northerngulfinstitute.org/edac/ocean_nomads.php) under the NGI Ecosystem Data Assembly Center (EDAC) project (http://www.northerngulfinstitute.org/edac/). Complementary funding support for the developmental OceanNOMADS from U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) through the Southeastern University Research Association (SURA) Model Testbed (http://testbed.sura.org/) this past year provided NODC the analogue that facilitated the creation of an NCDDC production version of OceanNOMADS (http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/ocean-nomads/). Access tool development and storage of initial archival data sets occur on the NGI/NCDDC developmental servers with transition to NODC/NCCDC production servers as the model archives mature and operational space and distribution capability grow. Navy operational global ocean forecast subsets for U.S waters comprise the initial ocean prediction fields resident on the NCDDC production server. The NGI/NCDDC developmental server currently includes the Naval Research Laboratory Inter-America Seas

  13. Real-time pressure monitoring for dynamic control during paper mill operation using fiber optic pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Boyd, Clark; Palmer, Matthew; Eriksen, Oddbjørn

    2006-03-01

    Fiber optic pressure sensors were integrated into the grinding plates of an operational paper pulp mill for real-time monitoring of the pulp grinding process. On-line system monitoring will allow smart, active control of the grinding plates thereby improving the quality and consistency of the pulp produced. Sensors were constructed and calibrated for use in the harsh environment of an operating paper pulp grinder. The sensors were 1.65mm in diameter including titanium housing, and were installed directly into the grooves of the grinding plates. The sensing elements were flush-mounted with the wall and exposed to the wood pulp slurry. Nine sensors were calibrated up to 1000psi. During operation, pressure was sampled at 1.0MHz, and pressure spikes up to 175psi were observed. Pressure pulses measured are due to the relative motion between the grooves and channels on two pulp grinding plates. The consistency, size distribution, and quality of paper pulp exiting from the grinder are directly related to the distance between the channels on the two rotating elements. The pressure pulses produced are also proportional to the distance between channels. Therefore, by monitoring pressure fluctuations, grinding elements can be dynamically controlled thereby producing a "smart mill."

  14. Use of Mapping and Spatial and Space-Time Modeling Approaches in Operational Control of Aedes aegypti and Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Lars; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this review paper are to 1) provide an overview of how mapping and spatial and space-time modeling approaches have been used to date to visualize and analyze mosquito vector and epidemiologic data for dengue; and 2) discuss the potential for these approaches to be included as routine activities in operational vector and dengue control programs. Geographical information system (GIS) software are becoming more user-friendly and now are complemented by free mapping software that provide access to satellite imagery and basic feature-making tools and have the capacity to generate static maps as well as dynamic time-series maps. Our challenge is now to move beyond the research arena by transferring mapping and GIS technologies and spatial statistical analysis techniques in user-friendly packages to operational vector and dengue control programs. This will enable control programs to, for example, generate risk maps for exposure to dengue virus, develop Priority Area Classifications for vector control, and explore socioeconomic associations with dengue risk. PMID:19399163

  15. Rotation operator propagators for time-varying radiofrequency pulses in NMR spectroscopy: Applications to shaped pulses and pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Rance, Mark; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2014-11-01

    The propagator for trains of radiofrequency pulses can be directly integrated numerically or approximated by average Hamiltonian approaches. The former provides high accuracy and the latter, in favorable cases, convenient analytical formula. The Euler-angle rotation operator factorization of the propagator provides insights into performance that are not as easily discerned from either of these conventional techniques. This approach is useful in determining whether a shaped pulse can be represented over some bandwidth by a sequence τ1-Rϕ(β)-τ2, in which Rϕ(β) is a rotation by an angle β around an axis with phase ϕ in the transverse plane and τ1 and τ2 are time delays, allowing phase evolution during the pulse to be compensated by adjusting time periods prior or subsequent to the pulse. Perturbation theory establishes explicit formulas for τ1 and τ2 as proportional to the average transverse magnetization generated during the shaped pulse. The Euler-angle representation of the propagator also is useful in iterative reduction of pulse-interrupted-free precession schemes. Application to Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences identifies an eight-pulse phase alternating scheme that generates a propagator nearly equal to the identity operator.

  16. Ocean Model Analysis and Prediction System (Ocean Maps): Operational Ocean Forecasting Base on Near Real-Time Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassington, G. B.

    2006-07-01

    BLU Elink> is a join t Australian governmen t initiative to develop Austr alia's f irst operational ocean forecasting system called O cean MAPS. The project has transitioned to th e implemen tation and trial phase using the infrastructure of the Bureau of Meteorology. OceanMAPS has a g lobal grid with 1/10° by 1/10° resolution in the Australian region (90E-180E, 70S- 16N) and uses the Modular Ocean Model version 4 optimised for the NEC SX6. The analysis uses an ensemb le based multi-variate optimal interpolation scheme wh ere model error cov ariances ar e der ived from a 72-member ensemble of in tra-seasonal anomalies based on a 12-year ocean only model integration. The scheme has been formulated to assimilate near real- time sea level heigh t anomalies processed from Jason-1, ENVISAT and Geosat Follow-On and profile observations including Argo, X BT and the TAO array. The operation al configuration including the data manag emen t of the near real- time observ ations is review ed.

  17. Use of mapping and spatial and space-time modeling approaches in operational control of Aedes aegypti and dengue.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this review paper are to 1) provide an overview of how mapping and spatial and space-time modeling approaches have been used to date to visualize and analyze mosquito vector and epidemiologic data for dengue; and 2) discuss the potential for these approaches to be included as routine activities in operational vector and dengue control programs. Geographical information system (GIS) software are becoming more user-friendly and now are complemented by free mapping software that provide access to satellite imagery and basic feature-making tools and have the capacity to generate static maps as well as dynamic time-series maps. Our challenge is now to move beyond the research arena by transferring mapping and GIS technologies and spatial statistical analysis techniques in user-friendly packages to operational vector and dengue control programs. This will enable control programs to, for example, generate risk maps for exposure to dengue virus, develop Priority Area Classifications for vector control, and explore socioeconomic associations with dengue risk. PMID:19399163

  18. The SAFT-UT (synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing) real-time inspection system: Operational principles and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T. E.; Reid, L. D.; Doctor, S. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document provides a technical description of the real-time imaging system developed for rapid flaw detection and characterization utilizing the synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing (SAFT-UT). The complete fieldable system has been designed to perform inservice inspection of light-water reactor components. Software was written on a DEC LSI 11/23 computer system to control data collection. The unprocessed data is transferred to a VAX 11/730 host computer to perform data processing and image display tasks. A parallel architecture peripheral to the host computer, referred to as the Real-Time SAFT Processor, rapidly performs the SAFT processing function. From the host's point of view, this device operates on the SAFT data in such a way that one may consider it to be a specialized or SAFT array processor. A guide to SAFT-UT theory and conventions is included, along with a detailed description of the operation of the software, how to install the software, and a detailed hardware description.

  19. Entering "A NEW REALM" of KIBO Payload Operations - Continuous efforts for microgravity experiment environment and lessons learned from real time experiment operations in KIBO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, K.; Goto, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.

    2011-12-01

    On January 22nd, 2011(JST), KOUNOTORI2 (H-II Transfer Vehicle: HTV2) was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center toward the International Space Station (ISS) and two new JAXA payload racks, Kobairo rack and MSPR (Multi-purpose Small Payload Rack) were transferred to ISS/KIBO (Japanese Experiment Module: JEM). In addition to Saibo rack and Ryutai rack which are already in operation in KIBO, in total 4 Japanese experiment payload racks start operations in KIBO. Then KIBO payload operations embark on a new realm, full utilization phase. While the number and variety of microgravity experiments become increasing, simultaneous operation constraints should be considered to achieve multitask payload operations in ISS/KIBO and ever more complicated cooperative operations between crewmember and flight control team/science team are required. Especially for g-jitter improvement in ISS/KIBO, we have greatly advanced cooperative operations with crewmember in the recent increment based on the microgravity data analysis results. In this paper, newly operating Japanese experiment payloads characteristics and some methods to improve g-jitter environment are introduced from the front line of KIBO payload operations.

  20. Electricity generation and bivalent copper reduction as a function of operation time and cathode electrode material in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dan; Huang, Liping; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The performance of carbon rod (CR), titanium sheet (TS), stainless steel woven mesh (SSM) and copper sheet (CS) cathode materials are investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for simultaneous electricity generation and Cu(II) reduction, in multiple batch cycle operations. After 12 cycles, the MFC with CR exhibits 55% reduction in the maximum power density and 76% increase in Cu(II) removal. In contrast, the TS and SSM cathodes at cycle 12 show maximum power densities of 1.7 (TS) and 3.4 (SSM) times, and Cu(II) removal of 1.2 (TS) and 1.3 (SSM) times higher than those observed during the first cycle. Diffusional resistance in the TS and SSM cathodes is found to appreciably decrease over time due to the copper deposition. In contrast to CR, TS and SSM, the cathode made with CS is heavily corroded in the first cycle, exhibiting significant reduction in both the maximum power density and Cu(II) removal at cycle 2, after which the performance stabilizes. These results demonstrate that the initial deposition of copper on the cathodes of MFCs is crucial for efficient and continuous Cu(II) reduction and electricity generation over prolonged time. This effect is closely associated with the nature of the cathode material. Among the materials examined, the SSM is the most effective and inexpensive cathode for practical use in MFCs.

  1. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  2. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  3. Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-03-15

    Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ∼ 16% and ∼ 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

  4. eMODIS Expedited: Overview of a Near Real Time MODIS Production System for Operational Vegetation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Werpy, J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

    2010-12-01

    The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS production system derives near-real time Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance provided by the Land and Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE). There are currently three regions covered by this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) capability, including the continental U.S., Africa, and the Central America/Caribbean regions. Each of the eMODIS production streams is configured to output its data in map projections, compositing intervals, spatial resolutions, and file formats specific to its region and user community. The challenges of processing 1,000-meter, 500-m, and especially 250-m products by midnight on the last day of a product interval have been met with increasingly effective software and system architecture. An anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS) allows users direct access to eMODIS NDVI products for operational (near-real time) monitoring of vegetation conditions like drought, crop failure, insect infestation, and other threats, thus supporting subsequent early warning of famine and the targeting of vulnerable populations for insecure food situations.

  5. MIROS: A Hybrid Real-Time Energy-Efficient Operating System for the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Kun Mean; de Vaulx, Christophe; Shi, Hongling; Gholami, Khalid El

    2014-01-01

    Operating system (OS) technology is significant for the proliferation of the wireless sensor network (WSN). With an outstanding OS; the constrained WSN resources (processor; memory and energy) can be utilized efficiently. Moreover; the user application development can be served soundly. In this article; a new hybrid; real-time; memory-efficient; energy-efficient; user-friendly and fault-tolerant WSN OS MIROS is designed and implemented. MIROS implements the hybrid scheduler and the dynamic memory allocator. Real-time scheduling can thus be achieved with low memory consumption. In addition; it implements a mid-layer software EMIDE (Efficient Mid-layer Software for User-Friendly Application Development Environment) to decouple the WSN application from the low-level system. The application programming process can consequently be simplified and the application reprogramming performance improved. Moreover; it combines both the software and the multi-core hardware techniques to conserve the energy resources; improve the node reliability; as well as achieve a new debugging method. To evaluate the performance of MIROS; it is compared with the other WSN OSes (TinyOS; Contiki; SOS; openWSN and mantisOS) from different OS concerns. The final evaluation results prove that MIROS is suitable to be used even on the tight resource-constrained WSN nodes. It can support the real-time WSN applications. Furthermore; it is energy efficient; user friendly and fault tolerant. PMID:25248069

  6. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  8. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  9. Enhanced multi-hop operation using hybrid optoelectronic router with time-to-live-based selective forward error correction.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Tatsushi; Suzaki, Yasumasa; Urata, Ryohei; Segawa, Toru; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2011-12-12

    Multi-hop operation is demonstrated with a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router for optical packet switched networks. The router is realized by combining key optical/optoelectronic device/sub-system technologies and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics. Using the hop count monitored via the time-to-live field in the packet label, the optoelectronic buffer of the router performs buffering with forward error correction selectively for packets degraded due to multiple hopping every N hops. Experimental results for 10-Gb/s optical packets confirm that the scheme can expand the number of hops while keeping the bit error rate low without the need for optical 3R regenerators at each node. PMID:22274034

  10. Predictive Methods for Real-Time Control of Flood Operation of a Multireservoir System: Methodology and Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Karbowski, Andrzej

    1996-04-01

    Predictive methods for real-time flood operation of water systems consisting of reservoirs located in parallel on tributaries to the main river are presented and discussed. The aspect of conflicting individual goals of the local decision units and other objectives important from an overall point of view is taken into account. The particular attention is focused on hierarchical control structure which provides framework for organization of an on-line reservoir management problem. The important factor involved in flood control the uncertainty with respect to future inflows is taken into consideration. A case study of the upper Vistula river basin system in the southern part of Poland is presented. Simulation results based on 11 historical floods are briefly described and discussed.

  11. Using the thermal Gaussian approximation approximation for theBoltzmann Operator in Semiclassical Initial Value Time CorrelationFunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.

    2006-09-06

    The thermal Gaussian approximation (TGA) recently developed by Mandelshtam et al has been demonstrated to be a practical way for approximating the Boltzmann operator exp(-{beta}H) for multidimensional systems. In this paper the TGA is combined with semiclassical (SC) initial value representations (IVRs) for thermal time correlation functions. Specifically, it is used with the linearized SC-IVR (LSC-IVR, equivalent to the classical Wigner model), and the 'forward-backward semiclassical dynamics' (FBSD) approximation developed by Makri et al. Use of the TGA with both of these approximate SC-IVRs allows the oscillatory part of the IVR to be integrated out explicitly, providing an extremely simple result that is readily applicable to large molecular systems. Calculation of the force-force autocorrelation for a strongly anharmonic oscillator demonstrates its accuracy, and of the velocity autocorrelation function (and thus the diffusion coefficient) of liquid neon demonstrates its applicability.

  12. Anomalous diffusion with under- and overshooting subordination: a competition between the very large jumps in physical and operational times.

    PubMed

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to anomalous diffusion based on subordination of stochastic processes. Application of such a methodology to analysis of the diffusion processes helps better understanding of physical mechanisms underlying the nonexponential relaxation phenomena. In the subordination framework we analyze a coupling between the very large jumps in physical and two different operational times, modeled by under- and overshooting subordinators, respectively. We show that the resulting diffusion processes display features by means of which all experimentally observed two-power-law dielectric relaxation patterns can be explained. We also derive the corresponding fractional equations governing the spatiotemporal evolution of the diffusion front of an excitation mode undergoing diffusion in the system under consideration. The commonly known type of subdiffusion, corresponding to the Mittag-Leffler (or Cole-Cole) relaxation, appears as a special case of the studied anomalous diffusion processes. PMID:21230450

  13. SNS Accumulator Ring design and space charge considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-11-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {mu}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1{times}10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time variable rainfall thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2014-10-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b), makes use of LAMI rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain-gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult and it provides different outputs. Switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a very straightforward view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain-gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the high spatial variability of the physical features, which affects the relationship between rainfall and landslides, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of 332 rain gauges, it allows monitoring each alert zone separately and warnings can be issued independently from an alert zone to another. An important feature of the warning system is the use of thresholds that may vary in time adapting at the conditions of the rainfall path recorded by the rain-gauges. Depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set, the comparison with the threshold may produce different outcomes. Therefore, a recursive algorithm was developed to check and compare with the thresholds all possible starting times, highlighting the worst scenario and showing in the WebGIS interface at what time and how much the rainfall path has exceeded or will exceed the most critical threshold. Besides forecasting and monitoring the hazard scenario

  15. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time-variable rainfall thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2015-04-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b) and makes use of LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult, and it provides different outputs. When switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a basic data view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the variability of the geomorphological and meteorological settings encountered in Tuscany, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of more than 300 rain gauges, it allows for the monitoring of each alert zone separately so that warnings can be issued independently. An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the WebGIS interface may vary in time depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set. The starting time of the rainfall event is considered as a variable by the early warning system: whenever new rainfall data are available, a recursive algorithm identifies the starting time for which the rainfall path is closest to or overcomes the threshold. This is considered the most hazardous condition, and it is displayed by the WebGIS interface. The early warning system is used to forecast and monitor the landslide hazard in the whole region

  16. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies July 2001 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the on-orbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  17. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies from July 2011 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the onorbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  18. The prolate spheroidal wave functions as invariants of the time reversal operator for an extended scatterer in the Fraunhofer approximation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jean-Luc; Fink, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of the time reversal operator, known by the French acronym DORT, is widely used to detect, locate, and focus on scatterers in various domains such as underwater acoustics, medical ultrasound, and nondestructive evaluation. In the case of point-scatterers, the theory is well understood: The number of nonzero eigenvalues is equal to the number of scatterers, and the eigenvectors correspond to the scatterers Green's function. In the case of extended objects, however, the formalism is not as simple. It is shown here that, in the Fraunhofer approximation, analytical solutions can be found and that the solutions are functions called prolate spheroidal wave-functions. These functions have been studied in information theory as a basis of band-limited and time-limited signals. They also arise in optics. The theoretical solutions are compared to simulation results. Most importantly, the intuition that for an extended objects, the number of nonzero eigenvalues is proportional to the number of resolution cell in the object is justified. The case of three-dimensional objects imaged by a two-dimensional array is also dealt with. Comparison with previous solutions is made, and an application to super-resolution of scatterers is presented. PMID:19173409

  19. To lag or not to lag? How to compare indices of stock markets that operate on different times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Leonidas

    2014-06-01

    Financial markets worldwide do not have the same working hours. As a consequence, the study of correlation or causality between financial market indices becomes dependent on whether we should use all indices on the same day or lagged indices in computations of correlation matrices. The answer this article proposes is that we should consider both, by representing original and lagged indices in the same network. We then obtain a better understanding of how indices that operate on different hours relate to each other. We use a diverse range of 79 stock market indices from around the world and study their correlation structure, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of their correlations under different time periods and volatility, as well as the differences between the working hours of the stock exchanges in order to analyze the possible time zone effects and suggest ways to remove them. We also analyze the enlarged correlation matrix obtained from original and lagged indices and examine a network structure derived from it, thus showing connections between lagged and original indices that could not be well represented before.

  20. Puget Sound Operational Forecast System - A Real-time Predictive Tool for Marine Resource Management and Emergency Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Chase, Jared M.; Wang, Taiping

    2009-12-01

    To support marine ecological resource management and emergency response and to enhance scientific understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in Puget Sound, a real-time Puget Sound Operational Forecast System (PS-OFS) was developed by the Coastal Ocean Dynamics & Ecosystem Modeling group (CODEM) of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PS-OFS employs the state-of-the-art three-dimensional coastal ocean model and closely follows the standards and procedures established by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). PS-OFS consists of four key components supporting the Puget Sound Circulation and Transport Model (PS-CTM): data acquisition, model execution and product archive, model skill assessment, and model results dissemination. This paper provides an overview of PS-OFS and its ability to provide vital real-time oceanographic information to the Puget Sound community. PS-OFS supports pacific northwest region’s growing need for a predictive tool to assist water quality management, fish stock recovery efforts, maritime emergency response, nearshore land-use planning, and the challenge of climate change and sea level rise impacts. The structure of PS-OFS and examples of the system inputs and outputs, forecast results are presented in details.