Science.gov

Sample records for accumulated operating time

  1. A GIS-based method to calculate flow accumulation by considering dams and their specific operation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäuble, Holger; Marinoni, Oswald; Hinderer, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to calculate flow accumulation with geographic information systems (GIS). It is based on the well-known D8 single-flow algorithm that is extended to consider the trap-efficiencies of dams and their specific operation time. This allows realistic calculations of flow accumulation for any time period. The new approach is not restricted to surface water runoff but can be applied to all kinds of mass fluxes like suspended or dissolved sediment load (weighted flow accumulation). To facilitate its use, two GIS extensions for ArcView and ArcGIS have been developed. This paper presents the principles of the new approach, the functionality of the extensions and gives some applications in the fields of hydrology and sedimentology.

  2. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  3. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  4. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  5. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  6. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  7. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  8. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation.

  9. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  10. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  11. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  12. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  13. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  14. Timelines and Quantum Time Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Curt A.

    2015-04-01

    The failure of conventional quantum theory to recognize time as an observable and to admit time operators is addressed. Instead of focusing on the existence of a time operator for a given Hamiltonian, we emphasize the role of the Hamiltonian as the generator of translations in time to construct time states. Taken together, these states constitute what we call a timeline. Such timelines are adequate for the representation of any physical state, and appear to exist even for the semi-bounded and discrete Hamiltonian systems ruled out by Pauli's theorem. However, the step from a timeline to a valid time operator requires additional assumptions that are not always met. Still, this approach illuminates the issues surrounding the construction of time operators, and establishes timelines as legitimate alternatives to the familiar coordinate and momentum bases of standard quantum theory.

  15. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  16. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  17. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation, TWOS is complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism - distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation.

  18. EFFECT OF VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR OPERATION ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACTIVITY. (R826168)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess biomass accumulation and activity loss in vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) can lead to unreliable long-term operation. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in biomass accumulation, distribution and activity in VPBs treating toluene-contaminated air were monitored o...

  19. Prospects for the Simultaneous Operation of the Tevatron Collider and pp Experiments in the Antiproton Source Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Steven J.; /Fermilab

    2001-06-07

    This document is a slightly expanded version of a portion of the Proton Driver design report. The Proton Driver group gets the credit for the original idea of running an Accumulator experiment in the BTeV era. The work presented here is a study of the feasibility of this idea. The addition of the Recycler Ring to the Fermilab accelerator complex provides an opportunity to continue the program of {bar p}p physics in the Antiproton Source Accumulator that was started by Fermilab experiments E760 and E835. The operational scenario presented here utilizes the Recycler Ring as an antiproton bank from which the colliders makes 'withdrawals' as needed to maintain the required luminosity in the Tevatron. The Accumulator is only needed to re-supply the bank in between withdrawals. When the {anti p} stacking rate is sufficiently high, and the luminosity requirements of the Collider experiments are sufficiently low, there will be time between Collider fills and subsequent refilling of the recycler to deliver beam to an experiment in the Accumulator. In the scenario envisioned here, the impact of the Accumulator experiment on the luminosity delivered to the Collider experiments is very small. If the Run II antiproton stacking rate goals are met, the operational conditions required for running Accumulator based experiments will be met during the BTeV era. A simple model of the operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex for BTeV and an experiment in the Accumulator has been developed. The model makes predictions of the rate at which luminosity is delivered to BTeV and an Accumulator experiment. This model was used to examine the impact of the proton driver on this experimental program.

  20. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  1. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  2. Operational quantum theory without predefined time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    The standard formulation of quantum theory assumes a predefined notion of time. This is a major obstacle in the search for a quantum theory of gravity, where the causal structure of space-time is expected to be dynamical and fundamentally probabilistic in character. Here, we propose a generalized formulation of quantum theory without predefined time or causal structure, building upon a recently introduced operationally time-symmetric approach to quantum theory. The key idea is a novel isomorphism between transformations and states which depends on the symmetry transformation of time reversal. This allows us to express the time-symmetric formulation in a time-neutral form with a clear physical interpretation, and ultimately drop the assumption of time. In the resultant generalized formulation, operations are associated with regions that can be connected in networks with no directionality assumed for the connections, generalizing the standard circuit framework and the process matrix framework for operations without global causal order. The possible events in a given region are described by positive semidefinite operators on a Hilbert space at the boundary, while the connections between regions are described by entangled states that encode a nontrivial symmetry and could be tested in principle. We discuss how the causal structure of space-time could be understood as emergent from properties of the operators on the boundaries of compact space-time regions. The framework is compatible with indefinite causal order, timelike loops, and other acausal structures.

  3. Matrix representation of the time operator

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna

    2012-06-15

    In quantum mechanics the time operator {Theta} satisfies the commutation relation [{Theta}, H]=i, and thus it may be thought of as being formally canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian H. The time operator associated with a given Hamiltonian H is not unique because one can replace {Theta} by {Theta}+{Theta}{sub hom}, where {Theta}{sub hom} satisfies the homogeneous condition [{Theta}{sub hom}, H]= 0. To study this nonuniqueness the matrix elements of {Theta} for the harmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian are calculated in the eigenstate basis. This calculation requires the summation of divergent series, and the summation is accomplished by using zeta-summation techniques. It is shown that by including appropriate homogeneous contributions, the matrix elements of {Theta} simplify dramatically. However, it is still not clear whether there is an optimally simple representation of the time operator.

  4. Modeling Information Accumulation in Psychological Tests Using Item Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a latent trait model is proposed for the response times in psychological tests. The latent trait model is based on the linear transformation model and subsumes popular models from survival analysis, like the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model. Core of the model is the assumption that an unspecified monotone…

  5. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  6. Schrödinger Operator with Non-Zero Accumulation Points of Complex Eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögli, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    We study Schrödinger operators {H=-Δ + V} in {L2(Ω)} where {Ω} is {R^d} or the half-space {{R+d}} , subject to (real) Robin boundary conditions in the latter case. For {p > d} we construct a non-real potential {V in Lp(Ω) \\cap L^{∞}(Ω)} that decays at infinity so that H has infinitely many non-real eigenvalues accumulating at every point of the essential spectrum {σ_ess(H)=[0,∞)} . This demonstrates that the Lieb-Thirring inequalities for selfadjoint Schrödinger operators are no longer true in the non-selfadjoint case.

  7. Hypersonic Flight: Time To Go Operational

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HYPERSONIC FLIGHT: TIME TO GO OPERATIONAL by Robert A. Dietrick, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report...threats are increasing and could jeopardize the ability of the US Air Force to effectively conduct global strike by 2032. Scramjet powered hypersonic ...flight could be a key capability by reducing time to strike and increasing survivability. Historically, the key challenges preventing hypersonic

  8. Physical interpretation of mean local accumulation time of morphogen gradient formation

    PubMed Central

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with a reaction-diffusion problem that arises in developmental biology when describing the formation of the concentration profiles of signaling molecules, called morphogens, which control gene expression and, hence, cell differentiation. The mean local accumulation time, which is the mean time required to reach the steady state at a fixed point of a patterned tissue, is an important characteristic of the formation process. We show that this time is a sum of two times, the conditional mean first-passage time from the source to the observation point and the mean local accumulation time in the situation when the source is localized at the observation point. PMID:22029305

  9. Operating time meter for tape recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzburg, M.; Dyuffel, O.

    1985-03-01

    As an alternative to standard tape counters for popular tape recorders, a photo-electric device for measuring operating time so as to give a precise reading of expended and available operating time. The device consists of two optical components in a slotted cylinder attached to the rubberized free-wheeling tension wheel. The first, third and fourth discharge circuits have a calculation coefficient of 10, the second, of 6. Technical features are diagrammed and described. The three components include the mechanical tension wheel and the plate on which the light- and photodiodes are mounted, the basic meter plate and light diode indicators and related components. If quality parts are properly mounted, no calibration is required. Features of mechanical tape regulation permitting smooth monitoring of tape movement may make the photoelectric device described unnecessary.

  10. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  11. Multidecadal time series of satellite-detected accumulations of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scums. The area of these accumulations can reach ~ 200 000 km2. We describe the compilation of a 35-year-long time series (1979-2013) of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud-free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July-August). The total accumulated area affected was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the second half of the time series (13.8%, 1997-2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979-1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11-17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) during 1985-1990; they increased again starting in 1991 and particularly in 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25

  12. Effect of charge accumulation on the stability of PEDOT:PSS during device operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teguh, Jefri S.; Sum, Tze Chien; Yeow, Edwin K. L.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of charge imbalance and accumulation on the stability of the hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS in devices is studied during device operation. The principal Raman peak of PEDOT at around 1420-1430 cm-1 is weakened and undergoes band broadening cum shift due to oxidation by holes injected from the ITO anode (doping). Upon suspending the applied potential, the oxidized PEDOT converts back to its as-prepared state. The oxidation of PEDOT is found to be reversible as long as the applied potential is kept relatively low as higher potential would induce PEDOT decomposition.

  13. Age, Innovations and Time Operator of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gialampoukidis, Ilias; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2015-08-01

    We extend the Time Operator and Age to Network Evolution models. Internal Age formulas and the distribution of innovations are computed for Erdős-Rényi Random Networks, for Markov Networks and Barabási-Albert preferential Attachment Networks. The innovation probabilities are found to be proportional to the quadratic entropy (which coincides with the Tsallis entropy for entropic index q = 2) in all Markov networks, as well as in the linear growth mechanism. The distribution of innovations in the Barabási-Albert model is a new probability distribution of the logarithmic type.

  14. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  15. Satellite detection of multi-decadal time series of cyanobacteria accumulations in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.

    2014-02-01

    Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scum. We describe the compilation of a 35 year (1979-2013) long time series of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on increased remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. FCA was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July-August). TA was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. FCA and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the 2nd half of the time series (13.8%, 1997-2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979-1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11-17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) from 1985 to 1990; they increased again from 1991 and particularly from 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25%) and TA (~ 210 000 km2) in 2005 and 2008. After 2008 FCA declined to more moderate levels (6-17%). The timing of the accumulations has become earlier in the season, at a

  16. Unitary expansion of the time evolution operator

    SciTech Connect

    Zagury, N.; Aragao, A.; Casanova, J.; Solano, E.

    2010-10-15

    We propose an expansion of the unitary evolution operator, associated with a given Schroedinger equation, in terms of a finite product of explicit unitary operators. In this manner, this unitary expansion can be truncated at the desired level of approximation, as shown in the given examples.

  17. Development of accumulated heat stress index based on time-weighted function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Heat stress accumulates in the human body when a person is exposed to a thermal condition for a long time. Considering this fact, we have defined the accumulated heat stress (AH) and have developed the accumulated heat stress index (AHI) to quantify the strength of heat stress. AH represents the heat stress accumulated in a 72-h period calculated by the use of a time-weighted function, and the AHI is a standardized index developed by the use of an equiprobability transformation (from a fitted Weibull distribution to the standard normal distribution). To verify the advantage offered by the AHI, it was compared with four thermal indices the humidex, the heat index, the wet-bulb globe temperature, and the perceived temperature used by national governments. AH and the AHI were found to provide better detection of thermal danger and were more useful than other indices. In particular, AH and the AHI detect deaths that were caused not only by extremely hot and humid weather, but also by the persistence of moderately hot and humid weather (for example, consecutive daily maximum temperatures of 28-32 °C), which the other indices fail to detect.

  18. Manufacturing time operators: Covariance, selection criteria, and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G. C.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.

    2010-07-15

    We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.

  19. Effects of sludge retention time, carbon and initial biomass concentrations on selection process: From activated sludge to polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulating cultures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, Long; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Huichao; Guo, Zirui

    2017-02-01

    Four sequence batch reactors (SBRs) fed by fermented sugar cane wastewater were continuously operated under the aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) mode with different configurations of sludge retention time (SRT), carbon and initial biomass concentrations to enrich polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) from municipal activated sludge. The stability of SBRs was investigated besides the enrichment performance. The microbial community structures of the enriched MMCs were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The optimum operating conditions for the enrichment process were: SRT of 5days, carbon concentration of 2.52g COD/L and initial biomass concentration of 3.65g/L. The best enrichment performance in terms of both operating stability and PHA storage ability of enriched cultures (with the maximum PHA content and PHA storage yield (YPHA/S) of 61.26% and 0.68mg COD/mg COD, respectively) was achieved under this condition. Effects of the SRT, carbon concentration and initial biomass concentration on the PHA accumulating MMCs selection process were discussed respectively. A new model including the segmentation of the enrichment process and the effects of SRT on each phase was proposed.

  20. Information Accumulation over Time in Monkey Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons Explains Pattern Recognition Reaction Time under Visual Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kuboki, Ryosuke; Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Richmond, Barry J.; Shidara, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    We recognize objects even when they are partially degraded by visual noise. We studied the relation between the amount of visual noise (5, 10, 15, 20, or 25%) degrading 8 black-and-white stimuli and stimulus identification in 2 monkeys performing a sequential delayed match-to-sample task. We measured the accuracy and speed with which matching stimuli were identified. The performance decreased slightly (errors increased) as the amount of visual noise increased for both monkeys. The performance remained above 80% correct, even with 25% noise. However, the reaction times markedly increased as the noise increased, indicating that the monkeys took progressively longer to decide what the correct response would be as the amount of visual noise increased, showing that the monkeys trade time to maintain accuracy. Thus, as time unfolds the monkeys act as if they are accumulating the information and/or testing hypotheses about whether the test stimulus is likely to be a match for the sample being held in short-term memory. We recorded responses from 13 single neurons in area TE of the 2 monkeys. We found that stimulus-selective information in the neuronal responses began accumulating when the match stimulus appeared. We found that the greater the amount of noise obscuring the test stimulus, the more slowly stimulus-related information by the 13 neurons accumulated. The noise induced slowing was about the same for both behavior and information. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that area TE neuron population carries information about stimulus identity that accumulates over time in such a manner that it progressively overcomes the signal degradation imposed by adding visual noise. PMID:28127279

  1. Information Accumulation over Time in Monkey Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons Explains Pattern Recognition Reaction Time under Visual Noise.

    PubMed

    Kuboki, Ryosuke; Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Richmond, Barry J; Shidara, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    We recognize objects even when they are partially degraded by visual noise. We studied the relation between the amount of visual noise (5, 10, 15, 20, or 25%) degrading 8 black-and-white stimuli and stimulus identification in 2 monkeys performing a sequential delayed match-to-sample task. We measured the accuracy and speed with which matching stimuli were identified. The performance decreased slightly (errors increased) as the amount of visual noise increased for both monkeys. The performance remained above 80% correct, even with 25% noise. However, the reaction times markedly increased as the noise increased, indicating that the monkeys took progressively longer to decide what the correct response would be as the amount of visual noise increased, showing that the monkeys trade time to maintain accuracy. Thus, as time unfolds the monkeys act as if they are accumulating the information and/or testing hypotheses about whether the test stimulus is likely to be a match for the sample being held in short-term memory. We recorded responses from 13 single neurons in area TE of the 2 monkeys. We found that stimulus-selective information in the neuronal responses began accumulating when the match stimulus appeared. We found that the greater the amount of noise obscuring the test stimulus, the more slowly stimulus-related information by the 13 neurons accumulated. The noise induced slowing was about the same for both behavior and information. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that area TE neuron population carries information about stimulus identity that accumulates over time in such a manner that it progressively overcomes the signal degradation imposed by adding visual noise.

  2. Timing of Operative Debridement in Open Fractures.

    PubMed

    Rozell, Joshua C; Connolly, Keith P; Mehta, Samir

    2017-01-01

    The optimal treatment of open fractures continues to be an area of debate in the orthopedic literature. Recent research has challenged the dictum that open fractures should be debrided within 6 hours of injury. However, the expedient administration of intravenous antibiotics remains of paramount importance in infection prevention. Multiple factors, including fracture severity, thoroughness of debridement, time to initial treatment, and antibiotic administration, among other variables, contribute to the incidence of infection and complicate identifying an optimal time to debridement.

  3. 47 CFR 78.55 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time of operation. 78.55 Section 78.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.55 Time of operation. A CARS station is not expected to...

  4. 47 CFR 78.55 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time of operation. 78.55 Section 78.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.55 Time of operation. A CARS station is not expected to...

  5. 47 CFR 78.55 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time of operation. 78.55 Section 78.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.55 Time of operation. A CARS station is not expected to...

  6. 47 CFR 78.55 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time of operation. 78.55 Section 78.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.55 Time of operation. A CARS station is not expected to...

  7. 47 CFR 78.55 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time of operation. 78.55 Section 78.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.55 Time of operation. A CARS station is not expected to...

  8. Time Sensitive Control of Aerospace Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Length X = d, where X = [sX, eX], d E 91’ The stamp function assigns a number to a system point, e.g., Stamp pl = t , t C 91 Proposition 3.1.1 The PIL...eX and sY < eY x y 1. X<Y pX < sY Y 2. XsY pX = sY 3. XdY sY<pX<eY YH Y x 4. XfY pX = eY - t y x 5. Y<X eY < pX -- Quantitative Relations X, Y are...account of the PG representation and the graph operations applied to it. Definition 3.2.1: Point Graph A Point Graph, PG (V, EA, D, T ) is a directed graph

  9. Physical limits of semiconductor laser operation: A time-resolved analysis of catastrophic optical damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Mathias; Hempel, Martin; Tomm, Jens W.; Elsaesser, Thomas; Larsen, Henning E.; Andersen, Peter E.; Clausen, Soennik; Elliott, Stella N.

    2010-07-12

    The early stages of catastrophic optical damage (COD) in 808 nm emitting diode lasers are mapped by simultaneously monitoring the optical emission with a 1 ns time resolution and deriving the device temperature from thermal images. COD occurs in highly localized damage regions on a 30 to 400 ns time scale which is determined by the accumulation of excess energy absorbed from the optical output. We identify regimes in which COD is avoided by the proper choice of operation parameters.

  10. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  11. Force time-history affects fatigue accumulation during repetitive handgrip tasks.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael W; Hodder, Joanne N; Wells, Ryan; Potvin, Jim R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with a higher risk of workplace injury, in particular during repetitive tasks. This study aimed to identify the effect of a complex force-time history (a task with multiple different submaximal effort levels) on fatigue accumulation and recovery during a handgrip task. We measured surface electromyography of the brachioradialis (BRD) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) of ten right hand dominant females with no history of upper limb injury while they performed a complex submaximal visually targeted gripping task. The task consisted of 15%, 30%, 45%, 30%, and 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) plateaus. Each plateau was held for 15s, followed by a 3s MVC and 3s of rest. The "pyramid" was repeated until fatigue criteria were met. Grip force, average EMG and mean power frequency (MnPF) for first cycle and fatigued last cycle, were compared. Post-plateau peak grip force was on average 20.5% MVC lower during the last cycle (p<0.01). Post-plateau grip forces decreased on average by 5.1% MVC after the first 15% MVC plateau (from baseline), by 5.3% MVC after the 30% MVC plateau and 6.8% MVC after the 45% MVC plateau. Further accumulation of fatigue after the second 30% MVC plateau however was minimal, only decreasing by 1.6% MVC. Recovery appeared to occur during the last 15% MVC plateau with an increase in post plateau grip force of 1.6% MVC. Interestingly, MnPF parameters confirmed significant fatigue accumulation during the back end of a force pyramid. We conclude that in a pattern of contractions with ascending, then descending force intensity, voluntary force recovery was present when the preceding force was of a lower intensity. These findings indicate preceding demands play a role in fatigue accumulation during complex tasks.

  12. Time-Series Analyses of Transcriptomes and Proteomes Reveal Molecular Networks Underlying Oil Accumulation in Canola

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Huafang; Cui, Yixin; Ding, Yijuan; Mei, Jiaqin; Dong, Hongli; Zhang, Wenxin; Wu, Shiqi; Liang, Ying; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Jiana; Xiong, Qing; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of lipid metabolism is vital for genetic engineering of canola (Brassica napus L.) to increase oil yield or modify oil composition. We conducted time-series analyses of transcriptomes and proteomes to uncover the molecular networks associated with oil accumulation and dynamic changes in these networks in canola. The expression levels of genes and proteins were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after pollination (WAP). Our results show that the biosynthesis of fatty acids is a dominant cellular process from 2 to 6 WAP, while the degradation mainly happens after 6 WAP. We found that genes in almost every node of fatty acid synthesis pathway were significantly up-regulated during oil accumulation. Moreover, significant expression changes of two genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and acyl-ACP desaturase, were detected on both transcriptomic and proteomic levels. We confirmed the temporal expression patterns revealed by the transcriptomic analyses using quantitative real-time PCR experiments. The gene set association analysis show that the biosynthesis of fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are the most significant biological processes from 2-4 WAP and 4-6 WAP, respectively, which is consistent with the results of time-series analyses. These results not only provide insight into the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism, but also reveal novel candidate genes that are worth further investigation for their values in the genetic engineering of canola. PMID:28119706

  13. Preconditioning the pressure operator for the time dependent Stokes problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In implicit time stepping procedures for the linearized Navier Stokes equations, a linear perturbed Stokes problem must be solved at each time step. Many methods for doing this require a good preconditioner for the resulting pressure operator (Schur complement). In contrast to the time independent Stokes equations where the pressure operator is well conditioned, the pressure operator for the perturbed system becomes more illconditioned as the time step is reduced (and/or the Reynolds number is increased). The authors describe the method for solving the coupled velocity/pressure systems and, in particular, show how to construct good preconditioners for the poorly conditioned pressure operator.

  14. Accumulation of trauma over time and risk for depression in a twin sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, V. V.; Heath, A. C.; Nelson, E. C.; Bucholz, K. K.; Madden, P. A. F.; Martin, N. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Few genetically informative studies have examined the effects of different types of trauma on risk for depression over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the relative contributions over time of assaultive trauma, non-assaultive trauma, and familial effects to risk for depression. Method Histories of depression and trauma were obtained during structured diagnostic interviews with 5266 (mean age 29.9 years, S.D. =2.4) members of a volunteer Australian twin panel from the general population. Age at first onset of a DSM-IV major depressive episode was the dependent variable. Associations of depression with traumatic events were examined while accounting for the temporal sequence of trauma and depression and familial effects. Results Assaultive traumatic events that occurred during childhood had the strongest association with immediate and long-term risk for depression, and outweighed familial effects on childhood-onset depression for most twins. Although men and women endorsed equal rates of assaultive trauma, women reported a greater accumulation of assaultive events at earlier ages than men, whereas men reported a greater accumulation of non-assaultive events at all ages. Conclusions Early exposure to assaultive trauma can influence risk for depression into adulthood. Concordance for early trauma is a significant contributor to the familiality of early-onset depression. PMID:18533058

  15. High spatial resolution shortwave infrared imaging technology based on time delay and digital accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology attracts more and more attention by its fascinating ability of penetrating haze and smoke. For application of spaceborne remote sensing, spatial resolution of SWIR is lower compared with that of visible light (VIS) wavelength. It is difficult to balance between the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Some conventional methods, such as enlarging aperture of telescope, image motion compensation, and analog time delay and integration (TDI) technology are used to gain SNR. These techniques bring in higher cost of satellite, complexity of system or other negative factors. In this paper, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) method is proposed to achieve higher spatial resolution. The method can enhance the SNR and non-uniformity of system theoretically. A prototype of SWIR imager consists of opto-mechanical, 1024 × 128 InGaAs detector, and electronics is designed and integrated to prove TDDA method. Both of measurements and experimental results indicate TDDA method can promote SNR of system approximated of the square root of accumulative stage. The results exhibit that non-uniformity of system is also improved by this approach to some extent. The experiment results are corresponded with the theoretical analysis. Based on the experiments results, it is proved firstly that the goal of 1 m ground sample distance (GSD) in orbit of 500 km is feasible with the TDDA stage of 30 for SWIR waveband (0.9-1.7 μm).

  16. Time course and progression of wild type α-Synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) protein in different brain regions is a hallmark of synucleinopathic diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. α-Syn transgenic mouse models have been developed to investigate the effects of α-Syn accumulation on behavioral deficits and neuropathology. However, the onset and progression of pathology in α-Syn transgenic mice have not been fully characterized. For this purpose we investigated the time course of behavioral deficits and neuropathology in PDGF-β human wild type α-Syn transgenic mice (D-Line) between 3 and 12 months of age. Results These mice showed progressive impairment of motor coordination of the limbs that resulted in significant differences compared to non-transgenic littermates at 9 and 12 months of age. Biochemical and immunohistological analyses revealed constantly increasing levels of human α-Syn in different brain areas. Human α-Syn was expressed particularly in somata and neurites of a subset of neocortical and limbic system neurons. Most of these neurons showed immunoreactivity for phosphorylated human α-Syn confined to nuclei and perinuclear cytoplasm. Analyses of the phenotype of α-Syn expressing cells revealed strong expression in dopaminergic olfactory bulb neurons, subsets of GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic principal cells throughout the telencephalon. We also found human α-Syn expression in immature neurons of both the ventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream, but not in the dentate gyrus. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that the PDGF-β α-Syn transgenic mouse model presents with early and progressive accumulation of human α-Syn that is accompanied by motor deficits. This information is essential for the design of therapeutical studies of synucleinopathies. PMID:23302418

  17. Understanding dry matter and nitrogen accumulation with time-course for high-yielding wheat production in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingfeng; Yue, Shanchao; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Ye, Youliang; Ma, Wenqi; Tong, Yanan; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the time-course of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) accumulation in terms of yield-trait relationships is essential to simultaneously increase grain yield and synchronize N demand and N supply. We collected 413 data points from 11 field experiments to address patterns of DM and N accumulation with time in relation to grain yield and management of winter wheat in China. Detailed growth analysis was conducted at the Zadok growth stages (GS) 25 (regreening), GS30 (stem elongation), GS60 (anthesis), and GS100 (maturity) in all experiments, including DM and N accumulation. Grain yield averaged 7.3 Mg ha(-1), ranging from 2.1 to 11.2 Mg ha(-1). The percent N accumulation was consistent prior to DM accumulation, while both DM and N accumulation increased continuously with growing time. Both the highest and fastest DM and N accumulations were observed from stem elongation to the anthesis stage. Significant correlations between grain yield and DM and N accumulation were found at each of the four growth stages, although no positive relationship was observed between grain yield and harvest index or N harvest index. The yield increase from 7-9 Mg ha(-1) to >9 Mg ha(-1) was mainly attributed to increased DM and N accumulation from stem elongation to anthesis. Although applying more N fertilizer increased N accumulation during this stage, DM accumulation was not improved, indicating that N fertilizer management and related agronomic management should be intensified synchronously across the wheat growing season to simultaneously achieve high yields and match N demand and N supply.

  18. Simulation of the effects of time and size at stocking on PCB accumulation in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    Manipulations of size at stocking and timing of stocking have already been used to improve survival of stocked salmonines in the Great Lakes. It should be possible to stock salmonines into the Great Lakes in a way that reduces the rate of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in these fishes. An individual-based model (IBM) was used to investigate the effects of size at stocking and timing of stocking on PCB accumulation by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan. The individual-based feature of the model allowed lake trout individuals to encounter prey fish individuals and then consume sufficiently small prey fish. The IBM accurately accounted for the variation in PCB concentrations observed within the Lake Michigan lake trout population. Results of the IBM simulations revealed that increasing the average size at stocking from 110 to 160 mm total length led to an increase in the average PCB concentration in the stocked cohort at age 5, after the fish had spent 4 years in the lake, from 2.33 to 2.65 mg/kg; the percentage of lake trout in the cohort at the end of the simulated time period with PCB concentration of 2 mg/kg or more increased from 62% to 79%. Thus, PCB contamination was reduced when the simulated size at stocking was smallest. An overall stocking strategy for lake trout into Lake Michigan should weigh this advantage regarding PCB contamination against the poor survival of lake trout that may occur if the trout are stocked at too small a size.

  19. Operator's manual on the visual-accumulation tube method for sedimentation analysis of sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, V.C.; Witzgman, F.W.

    1958-01-01

    The personnel who will be operating these units may have little or no previous knowledge of either the principles involved or the details of opera.ting procedure. This manual is intended as an aid to them in setting up the apparatus, learning the analytical procedure, interpreting the results, and understanding the primary principles encountered.

  20. Scale-up of osmotic membrane bioreactors by modeling salt accumulation and draw solution dilution using hollow-fiber membrane characteristics and operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhan

    2014-08-01

    A full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) model was developed to simulate salt accumulation, draw solution (DS) dilution, and water flux over the hollow-fiber membrane length. The model uses the OMBR design parameters, DS properties, and forward osmosis (FO) membrane characteristics obtained from lab-scale tests. The modeling results revealed a tremendous water flux decline (10→0.82LMH) and short solids retention time (SRT: 5days) due to salt accumulation and DS dilution when OMBR is scaled up using commercially available DS and FO membrane. Simulated water flux is a result of interplay among reverse salt flux, internal and external concentration polarization (ICP and ECP). ECP adversely impacts water flux considerably in full-scale OMBR although it is often ignored in previous works. The OMBR model makes it possible to select better DS properties (higher flow rate and salt concentration) and FO membranes with higher water flux propensity in full-scale operation.

  1. Time Warp Operating System, Version 2.5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, Steven F.; Gieselman, John S.; Hawley, Lawrence R.; Peterson, Judy; Presley, Matthew T.; Reiher, Peter L.; Springer, Paul L.; Tupman, John R.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Wieland, Frederick P.; Younger, Herbert C.

    1993-01-01

    Time Warp Operating System, TWOS, is special purpose computer program designed to support parallel simulation of discrete events. Complete implementation of Time Warp software mechanism, which implements distributed protocol for virtual synchronization based on rollback of processes and annihilation of messages. Supports simulations and other computations in which both virtual time and dynamic load balancing used. Program utilizes underlying resources of operating system. Written in C programming language.

  2. Operative timing and patient survival following distal splenorenal shunt.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, R A; Eckhauser, F E; Knol, J A; Guirre, K; Raper, S E; Turcotte, J G

    1989-06-01

    The importance of "operative timing" in cirrhotic patients with variceal hemorrhage is often underemphasized. To evaluate the effects of immediate versus delayed selective portasystemic decompression on hepatic function, operative mortality, and long-term patient survival, we reviewed the records of 77 patients who underwent distal splenorenal shunts (DSRS) over a 14-year period. A hepatic risk status score was calculated at the time of the index bleed (HRS1) or presentation and again just prior to operation (HRS2). Variables analyzed included age, sex, prior bleeding episodes, time from index bleed to operation, transfusion requirements, and etiology of cirrhosis. Operative mortality rates for immediate versus delayed DSRS were 46.2 per cent and 17 per cent, respectively. HRS improved significantly in elective DSRS patients from 1.46 to 1.30. Predictors of HRS2 included HRS1 and time in days from the index bleed to operation. The most important predictor of early survival for all patients after elective DSRS was the HRS2; however, for patients who underwent elective DSRS and survived, HRS1 was a better predictor of length of survival than HRS2. No other variable analyzed accurately predicted survival. We conclude that HRS can be expected to improve with supportive inhospital therapy; improved HRS at the time of operation is associated with decreased operative mortality; and the extent of liver disease as determined by HRS1 appears to be the chief determinant of long-term patient survival.

  3. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by corn: application of the expanded growth model.

    PubMed

    Overman, Allen R; Scholtz, Richard V

    2011-01-01

    The expanded growth model is developed to describe accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1)) and mineral elements (kg ha(-1)) in with calendar time (wk). Accumulation of plant biomass with calendar time occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. In this analysis, the expanded growth model is tested against high quality, published data on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Data from a field study in South Carolina was used to evaluate the application of the model, where the planting time of April 2 in the field study maximized the capture of solar energy for biomass production. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation.

  4. Accumulation of Biomass and Mineral Elements with Calendar Time by Corn: Application of the Expanded Growth Model

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Allen R.; Scholtz, Richard V.

    2011-01-01

    The expanded growth model is developed to describe accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha−1) and mineral elements (kg ha−1) in with calendar time (wk). Accumulation of plant biomass with calendar time occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. In this analysis, the expanded growth model is tested against high quality, published data on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Data from a field study in South Carolina was used to evaluate the application of the model, where the planting time of April 2 in the field study maximized the capture of solar energy for biomass production. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation. PMID:22194842

  5. Visuospatial asymmetries arise from differences in the onset time of perceptual evidence accumulation.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel P; Loughnane, Gerard M; Kelly, Simon P; O'Connell, Redmond G; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2017-02-27

    Healthy subjects tend to exhibit a bias of visual attention whereby left hemifield stimuli are processed more quickly and accurately than stimuli appearing in the right hemifield. It has long been held that this phenomenon arises from the dominant role of the right cerebral hemisphere in regulating attention, however, methods that would allow for a more precise understanding of the mechanisms underpinning visuospatial bias have remained elusive. We sought to finely trace the temporal evolution of spatial biases by leveraging a novel bilateral dot motion detection paradigm. In combination with electroencephalography (EEG), this paradigm enables isolation of discrete neural signals reflecting the key neural processes needed for making these detection decisions; including spatial attention, early target selection, evidence accumulation and motor preparation. Using this method we established that three key neural markers accounted for unique between-subject variation in visuospatial bias: hemispheric asymmetry in posterior alpha power measured prior to target onset which is related to the distribution of preparatory attention across the visual field; asymmetry in the peak latency of the early N2c target selection signal and, finally, asymmetry in the onset time of the subsequent neural evidence accumulation process with earlier onsets for left hemifield targets. Our development of a single paradigm to dissociate distinct processing components that track the temporal evolution of spatial biases not only advances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underpinning normal visuospatial attention bias, but may also in the future aid differential diagnoses in disorders of spatial attention.Significance StatementThe significance of this research is twofold. First, it shows that individual differences in how humans direct their attention between left and right space reflects physiological differences in how early the brain starts to accumulate evidence for the existence of

  6. Timing of foliar Zn application plays a vital role in minimizing Cd accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Saifullah; Javed, Hina; Naeem, Asif; Rengel, Zed; Dahlawi, Saad

    2016-08-01

    Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), application of Zn may minimize Cd uptake by plants and ameliorate its toxicity. However, there is poor understanding of the comparative effectiveness of the foliar Zn application at different growth stages on Cd toxicity and accumulation in wheat. The present study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of foliarly applied Zn at different stages of plant growth to minimize Cd accumulation in wheat grains. Wheat (cv AARI-2011) was grown at three levels of soil Cd (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg kg(-1)). Foliar application of Zn was carried out at either tillering, jointing, booting, heading, or grain filling stage using 0.05 % w/v aqueous solution of ZnSO4 · 7H2O. Increasing soil Cd had a negative effect on growth and yield attributes, including tiller production, root length and dry weight, plant height, 100-grain weight and grain and straw yield. Zinc foliar spray increased grain yield by increasing tiller production; importantly, an application at booting was more effective than at other stages. Foliarly applied Zn decreased Cd concentration in the roots, straw, and grain. Similar to grain yield, the largest decrease (74 %) in Cd concentration was associated with Zn foliar spray at booting. Grain yield was negatively related to grain Cd concentration which in turn showed a negative relationship with Zn concentration in leaves and grains. It is concluded that the booting stage is the suitable time for foliar application of Zn to (i) effectively minimize a Cd-induced loss in grain yield and (ii) decrease grain Cd concentration.

  7. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is... the control of the low power TV or TV translator station licensee make it impossible to continue... necessary. (c) Failure of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station to operate for a period of...

  8. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is... the control of the low power TV or TV translator station licensee make it impossible to continue... necessary. (c) Failure of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station to operate for a period of...

  9. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is... the control of the low power TV or TV translator station licensee make it impossible to continue... necessary. (c) Failure of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station to operate for a period of...

  10. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is... the control of the low power TV or TV translator station licensee make it impossible to continue... necessary. (c) Failure of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station to operate for a period of...

  11. 47 CFR 74.763 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.763 Time of operation. (a) A low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station is... the control of the low power TV or TV translator station licensee make it impossible to continue... necessary. (c) Failure of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station to operate for a period of...

  12. 47 CFR 73.762 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.762 Time of operation. (a) All international broadcasting stations shall... discontinuance of operation, it shall notify the FCC in Washington, DC. The license of a broadcasting...

  13. Pedagogical Aspects of Time-Dependent Rotation Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the reformulation of a classical magnetic moment interacting with various magnetic field configurations in terms of coordinate-free, time-dependent rotation operators. This approach provides useful exercises for the manipulation of three-dimensional rotation operators and provides examples for a number of quantum-mechanics related…

  14. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  15. 47 CFR 73.561 - Operating schedule; time sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.561 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.561 Operating schedule; time sharing. (a) All noncommercial educational FM stations will be licensed for unlimited...

  16. 47 CFR 73.561 - Operating schedule; time sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 73.561 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.561 Operating schedule; time sharing. (a) All noncommercial educational FM stations will be licensed for unlimited...

  17. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by cotton: application of the expanded growth model.

    PubMed

    Overman, Allen R; Scholtz, Richard V

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1)) with calendar time (wk) occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements (kg ha(-1)) such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. Field data from literature for the warm-season annual cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are used in this analysis. The expanded growth model is used to describe accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation. The expanded growth model describes field data from California and Alabama rather well. Furthermore, all model parameters were common for the two sites with the exception of the yield factor A which accounts for differences in soil types, environmental conditions, fertilizer levels, and plant population.

  18. Time Warp Operating System Version 2.7 Internals Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    AD-A271 489 Technology and Applications Programs Time Warp Operating System Version 2.7 Internals Manual OST 2 7 1993 AU I February 1992 Prepared for... Technology and Applications Programs Time Warp Operating System Version 2.7 i Internals Manual U I February 1992 ....-...- Prepared for U.S. Army Model...Administration by JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory * ICalifornia Institute of Technology I- Pasadena, California *93-25933, 1 93 1. - ’.- JPL D-9516

  19. Dynamical instability in surface permeability characteristics of building sandstones in response to salt accumulation over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, S.; McKinley, J. M.; Gomez-Heras, M.; Smith, B. J.

    2011-07-01

    This paper explores how the surface permeability of sandstone blocks changes over time in response to repeated salt weathering cycles. Surface permeability controls the amount of moisture and dissolved salt that can penetrate in and facilitate decay. Connected pores permit the movement of moisture (and hence soluble salts) into the stone interior, and where areas are more or less permeable soluble salts may migrate along preferred pathways at differential rates. Previous research has shown that salts can accumulate in the near-surface zone and lead to partial pore blocking which influences subsequent moisture ingress and causes rapid salt accumulation in the near-surface zone. Two parallel salt weathering simulations were carried out on blocks of Peakmoor Sandstone of different volumes. Blocks were removed from simulations after 2, 5, 10, 20 and 60 cycles. Permeability measurements were taken for these blocks at a resolution of 20 mm, providing a grid of 100 permeability values for each surface. The geostatistical technique of ordinary kriging was applied to the data to produce a smoothed interpolation of permeability for these surfaces, and hence improve understanding of the evolution of permeability over time in response to repeated salt weathering cycles. Results illustrate the different responses of the sandstone blocks of different volumes to repeated salt weathering cycles. In both cases, after an initial subtle decline in the permeability (reflecting pore blocking), the permeability starts to increase — reflected in a rise in mean, maximum and minimum values. However, between 10 and 20 cycles, there is a jump in the mean and range permeability of the group A block surfaces coinciding with the onset of meaningful debris release. After 60 cycles, the range of permeability in the group A block surface had increased markedly, suggesting the development of a secondary permeability. The concept of dynamic instability and divergent behaviour is applied at the

  20. Assessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisán, Samuel T.; Earle, Michael E.; Luís Collado, José; Kochendorfer, John; Alastrué, Javier; Wolff, Mareile; Smith, Craig D.; López-Moreno, Juan I.

    2017-03-01

    Within the framework of the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE), the Thies tipping bucket precipitation gauge was assessed against the SPICE reference configuration at the Formigal-Sarrios test site located in the Pyrenees mountain range of Spain. The Thies gauge is the most widely used precipitation gauge by the Spanish Meteorological State Agency (AEMET) for the measurement of all precipitation types including snow. It is therefore critical that its performance is characterized. The first objective of this study is to derive transfer functions based on the relationships between catch ratio and wind speed and temperature. Multiple linear regression was applied to 1 and 3 h accumulation periods, confirming that wind is the most dominant environmental variable affecting the gauge catch efficiency, especially during snowfall events. At wind speeds of 1.5 m s-1 the tipping bucket recorded only 70 % of the reference precipitation. At 3 m s-1, the amount of measured precipitation decreased to 50 % of the reference, was even lower for temperatures colder than -2 °C and decreased to 20 % or less for higher wind speeds.The implications of precipitation underestimation for areas in northern Spain are discussed within the context of the present analysis, by applying the transfer function developed at the Formigal-Sarrios and using results from previous studies.

  1. Effective Time Management in Battalion Task Force Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    at the National Training Center is used to isolate areas that are symptomatic of time management deficiencies and to establish that a problem of...managing exists within task force operations. This study establishes that time management is a problem and that current doctrinal references offer...incomplete time management guidance. This study then suggests a variety of techniques and procedures to improve the problem. This study concludes time can be

  2. Applying Just-In-Time to Army Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    expeditious manner. The Just - in - Time management philosophy is one of the possible methods to accomplish this requirement. The foundation for analyzing the...application of Just - in - Time to Army operations includes a look at the history of Supply Chain Management and the history and development of Just - in - Time as...an element of Supply Chain Management. The examination of Just - in - Time and its critical elements includes an analysis of commercial applications

  3. Ki67 antigen contributes to the timely accumulation of protein phosphatase 1γ on anaphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masatoshi; Nishiyama, Yuko; Taguchi, Atsuko; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-08-15

    Ki67 is a protein widely used as cell-proliferation marker, with its cellular functions being hardly unveiled. In this paper, we present the direct interaction between Ki67 and PP1γ, a protein phosphatase showing characteristic accumulation on anaphase chromosomes via the canonical PP1-binding motif within Ki67. In cells depleted of Ki67, PP1γ is targeted to anaphase chromosomes less efficiently. Additionally, overexpression of Ki67, but not a mutant form without the ability to bind PP1γ, induced ectopic localization of PP1γ οn metaphase chromosomes. These observations demonstrate that Ki67 is one factor that defines the cellular behavior of PP1γ in anaphase. To explore the specific roles of the subset of PP1γ recruited on chromosome via its interaction with Ki67 (PP1γ-Ki67), endogenous Ki67 was replaced with a Ki67 mutant deficient in its ability to interact with PP1γ. Although no obvious defects in the progression of mitosis were observed, the timing of dephosphorylation of the mutant Ki67 in anaphase was delayed, indicating that Ki67 itself is one of the substrates of PP1γ-Ki67.

  4. TIME FOR COFFEE controls root meristem size by changes in auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Li-Wei; Yan, Da-Wei; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Guo; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Roots play important roles in plant survival and productivity as they not only anchor the plants in the soil but are also the primary organ for the uptake of nutrients from the outside. The growth and development of roots depend on the specification and maintenance of the root meristem. Here, we report a previously unknown role of TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) in controlling root meristem size in Arabidopsis. The results showed that loss of function of TIC reduced root meristem length and cell number by decreasing the competence of meristematic cells to divide. This was due to the repressed expression of PIN genes for decreased acropetal auxin transport in tic-2, leading to low auxin accumulation in the roots responsible for reduced root meristem, which was verified by exogenous application of indole-3-acetic acid. Downregulated expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, key transcription factors in mediating the patterning of the root stem cell niche, was also assayed in tic-2. Similar results were obtained with tic-2 and wild-type plants at either dawn or dusk. We also suggested that the MYC2-mediated jasmonic acid signalling pathway may not be involved in the regulation of TIC in controlling the root meristem. Taken together, these results suggest that TIC functions in an auxin-PLTs loop for maintenance of post-embryonic root meristem.

  5. Virtual time and time warp on the JPL hypercube. [operating system implementation for distributed simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David; Beckman, Brian

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of virtual time and its implementation in the Time Warp Operating System at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Virtual time is a distributed synchronization paradigm that is appropriate for distributed simulation, database concurrency control, real time systems, and coordination of replicated processes. The Time Warp Operating System is targeted toward the distributed simulation application and runs on a 32-node JPL Mark II Hypercube.

  6. Zero-dead-time operation of interleaved atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, G W; Takase, K; Wu, X; Deslauriers, L; Roy, S; Kasevich, M A

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate a zero-dead-time operation of atomic clocks. This clock reduces sensitivity to local oscillator noise, integrating as nearly 1/τ whereas a clock with dead time integrates as 1/τ(1/2) under identical conditions. We contend that a similar scheme may be applied to improve the stability of optical clocks.

  7. Operator entanglement entropy of the time evolution operator in chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianci; Luitz, David J.

    2017-03-01

    We study the growth of the operator entanglement entropy (EE) of the time evolution operator in chaotic, many-body localized (MBL) and Floquet systems. In the random-field Heisenberg model we find a universal power-law growth of the operator EE at weak disorder, a logarithmic growth at strong disorder, and extensive saturation values in both cases. In a Floquet spin model, the saturation value after an initial linear growth is identical to the value of a random unitary operator (the Page value). We understand these properties by mapping the operator EE to a global quench problem evolved with a similar parent Hamiltonian in an enlarged Hilbert space with the same chaotic, MBL, and Floquet properties as the original Hamiltonian. The scaling and saturation properties reflect the spreading of the state EE of the corresponding time evolution. We conclude that the EE of the evolution operator should characterize the propagation of information in these systems.

  8. Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

  9. NOVEL THYROIDECTOMY DIFFICULTY SCALE CORRELATES WITH OPERATIVE TIMES

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David F.; Mazeh, Haggi; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate a new thyroidectomy difficulty scale (TDS) for its inter-rater agreement, correspondence with operative times, and correlation with complications. Methods We developed a four item, 20-point TDS. Following cases where two board-certified surgeons participated, each surgeon completed a TDS, blinded to the other’s responses. Paired sets of TDS scores were compared. The relationship between operative time and TDS scores was analyzed with linear regression. Multiple regression evaluated the association of TDS scores and other clinical data with operative times. Results A total of 119 patients were scored using TDS. In this cohort, 22.7% suffered from hyperthyroidism, 37.8% experienced compressive symptoms, and 58.8% had cancer. The median total TDS score was 8, and both surgeons’ total scores exhibited a high degree of correlation. 87.4% of both raters’ total scores were within one point of each other. Patients with hyperthyroidism received higher median scores compared to euthyroid patients (10 vs. 8, p<0.01). Similarly, patients who suffered a complication had higher scores compared to those patients without complications (10 vs. 8, p= 0.04). TDS scores demonstrated a linear relationship with operative times (R2 = 0.36, p<0.01, Figure 1). Cases with a score of 14 or greater took 41.0% longer compared to cases with scores of five or less (p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, TDS scores independently predicted operative time (p<0.01). Conclusion The TDS is an accurate tool, and scores correlate with more difficult thyroidectomies as measured by complications and operative times. PMID:24615607

  10. Time parallelization of advanced operation scenario simulations of ITER plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samaddar, D.; Casper, T. A.; Kim, S. H.; Berry, Lee A; Elwasif, Wael R; Batchelor, Donald B; Houlberg, Wayne A

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates that simulations of advanced burning plasma operation scenarios can be successfully parallelized in time using the parareal algorithm. CORSICA - an advanced operation scenario code for tokamak plasmas is used as a test case. This is a unique application since the parareal algorithm has so far been applied to relatively much simpler systems except for the case of turbulence. In the present application, a computational gain of an order of magnitude has been achieved which is extremely promising. A successful implementation of the Parareal algorithm to codes like CORSICA ushers in the possibility of time efficient simulations of ITER plasmas.

  11. Synchronized growth and neutral lipid accumulation in Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG under continuous mode of operation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikram; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Das, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Synchronized growth and neutral lipid accumulation with high lipid productivity under mixotrophic growth of the strain Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG was achieved via manipulation of substrates feeding mode and supplementation of lipid elicitors in the growth medium. Screening and optimization of lipid elicitors resulted in lipid productivity of 110.59mgL(-1)day(-1) under the combined effect of lipid inducers sodium acetate and sodium chloride. Fed-batch cultivation of the strain in bioreactor with intermittent feeding of limiting nutrients and lipid inducer resulted in maximum biomass and lipid productivity of 2.08 and 0.97gL(-1)day(-1) respectively. Further, continuous production of biomass with concomitant lipid accumulation was demonstrated via continuous feeding of BG11 media supplemented with lipid inducers sodium acetate and sodium chloride. The improved biomass and lipid productivity in chemostat was found to be 2.81 and 1.27gL(-1)day(-1) respectively operated at a dilution rate of 0.54day(-1).

  12. Time operator of Markov chains and mixing times. Applications to financial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gialampoukidis, I.; Gustafson, K.; Antoniou, I.

    2014-12-01

    We extend the notion of Time Operator from Kolmogorov Dynamical Systems and Bernoulli processes to Markov processes. The general methodology is presented and illustrated in the simple case of binary processes. We present a method to compute the eigenfunctions of the Time Operator. Internal Ages are related to other characteristic times of Markov chains, namely the Kemeny time, the convergence rate and Goodman’s intrinsic time. We clarified the concept of mixing time by providing analytic formulas for two-state Markov chains. Explicit formulas for mixing times are presented for any two-state regular Markov chain. The mixing time of a Markov chain is determined also by the Time Operator of the Markov chain, within its Age computation. We illustrate these results in terms of two realistic examples: A Markov chain from US GNP data and a Markov chain from Dow Jones closing prices. We propose moreover a representation for the Kemeny constant, in terms of internal Ages.

  13. Surgery in Pediatric Crohn's Disease: Indications, Timing and Post-Operative Management

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric onset Crohn's disease (CD) tends to have complicated behavior (stricture or penetration) than elderly onset CD at diagnosis. Considering the longer duration of the disease in pediatric patients, the accumulative chance of surgical treatment is higher than in adult onset CD patients. Possible operative indications include perianal CD, intestinal stricture or obstruction, abdominal abscess or fistula, intestinal hemorrhage, neoplastic changes and medically untreatable inflammation. Growth retardation is an operative indication only for pediatric patients. Surgery can affect a patient's clinical course, especially for pediatric CD patient who are growing physically and mentally, so the decision should be made by careful consideration of several factors. The complex and diverse clinical conditions hinder development of a systemized treatment algorithm. Therefore, timing of surgery in pediatric CD patients should be determined with individualized approach by an experienced and well organized multidisciplinary inflammatory bowel disease team. Best long-term outcomes will require proactive post-operative monitoring and therapeutic modifications according to the conditions.

  14. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    PubMed Central

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  15. Simultaneous measurements of ice sheet elevation change, accumulation, and firn compaction using Operation IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, Brooke; Ligtenberg, Stefan; van den Broeke, Michiel; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Nowicki, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Altimetric methods for determination of ice sheet mass balance are extremely valuable as they typically measure large regions of the ice sheet, from basin- to continental-scale. The measured volume change is converted to mass change if the density of the lost material is known. The complication lies in the fact that the observed elevation change consists of two components of differing densities: firn and ice. Annual fluctuations in snow accumulation and firn compaction cause the firn column to vary in thickness, which is often a large component of the total elevation change in the interior since the density of firn is less than that of ice. Further complication arises from the fact that fluctuations in the firn compaction rate do not result in mass change. Therefore, to properly determine mass change, the observed elevation change must be partitioned into accumulation, firn compaction, and ice components. Because altimetry studies are often large in scale, models are used to account for the firn processes, which are coarse in resolution (~10s kilometers) relative to the observed elevation changes (sub-kilometer). Here, we take advantage of a unique opportunity to simultaneously measure surface elevation change, snow accumulation, and firn compaction over the Thwaites catchment in West Antarctica using two Operation IceBridge (OIB) sensors. The firn processes are observed using the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) snow radar, and elevation changes are measured using the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Coincident observations such as the aforementioned allow us to not only accurately evaluate mass change over short distances, but also determine the importance of accounting for small-scale variations in firn processes in large-scale (basin-wide to continental) assessments of mass balance. Our results indicate that accumulation rates vary by more than 10% and compaction rates vary by more than 10 cm/yr over distances as little as 5 km in this region. Thus

  16. 47 CFR 74.1263 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1263 Time of operation. (a) The licensee of an FM translator...

  17. 47 CFR 74.1263 - Time of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1263 Time of operation. (a) The licensee of an FM translator...

  18. Time warp operating system version 2.7 internals manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is an implementation of the Time Warp synchronization method proposed by David Jefferson. In addition, it serves as an actual platform for running discrete event simulations. The code comprising TWOS can be divided into several different sections. TWOS typically relies on an existing operating system to furnish some very basic services. This existing operating system is referred to as the Base OS. The existing operating system varies depending on the hardware TWOS is running on. It is Unix on the Sun workstations, Chrysalis or Mach on the Butterfly, and Mercury on the Mark 3 Hypercube. The base OS could be an entirely new operating system, written to meet the special needs of TWOS, but, to this point, existing systems have been used instead. The base OS's used for TWOS on various platforms are not discussed in detail in this manual, as they are well covered in their own manuals. Appendix G discusses the interface between one such OS, Mach, and TWOS.

  19. Time courses for phytochrome-induced enzyme levels in phenylpropanoid metabolism (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, naringenin-chalcone synthase) compared with time courses for phytochrome-mediated end-product accumulation (anthocyanin, quercetin).

    PubMed

    Brödenfeldt, R; Mohr, H

    1988-12-01

    Time course for changes in the levels of enzymes characteristic of general phenylpropanoid metabolism (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) and of the flavonoid-glycoside branch pathway (naringenin-chalcone synthase, CHS; EC 2.3.1.74) were measured in the cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings and compared with the rates of accumulation of related end products (anthocyanin and quercetin). Induction of enzyme levels and of end-product accumulation was carried out with red and far-red (FR) light, operating via phytochrome. The data are compatible with the concept that the phytochrome-mediated appearance of enzymes such as PAL and CHS is indeed a prerequisite for the appearance of anthocyanins and flavonols. However, there is no close correlation between enzyme levels and the rates of synthesis of end products which could justify the identification of specific rate-limiting enzymes. Rather, the data indicate that there is a second phytochrome-dependent step, beyond enzyme induction, where the actual rate of flavonoid accumulation is determined. Anthocyanin and quercetin accumulation respond differently to light. However, the relative action of continuous FR, red light pulses and 'stored phytochrome signal' is the same in both cases. This indicates that the mode of operation of phytochrome is the same in both cases. The two syntheses differ only in the degree of responsiveness towards phytochrome. The time course for changes in CHS levels in continuous FR, i.e. under conditions of phytochrome photosteady state, is similar to the time course for PAL levels whereas the time courses in darkness, following transfer from FR to darkness, are totally different. In the case of CHS, a transient rise is observed whereas, with PAL, an instantaneous drop in enzyme level occurs after transfer from FR to darkness. It is concluded that the 'stored phytochrome signal' operates in darkness in the case of CHS but not in the case of PAL.

  20. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  1. Drain Current Model for Double Gate (DG) p-n-i-n TFET: Accumulation to Inversion Region of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upasana; Narang, Rakhi; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, drain current model has been formulated for Double Gate (DG) p-n-i-n Tunnel FET (TFET) using Lambert-W function. The model includes the impact of mobile charges, gate dielectric thickness (tox) and channel thickness (tsi) on quasi fermi level, gate threshold voltage (VTG), onset voltage (VGonset) and Tunneling Barrier Width (TBW) over the entire operating range i.e. accumulation to inversion state. Important electrostatic and electrical parameters such as the effective potential (φeffective) at the center of the channel, 2-D channel potential, electric field, energy band profile and Tunneling Barrier Width (TBW) dependent drain current have been modeled. Moreover, gate and drain bias controllability in different operating regimes has also been investigated by varying oxide thickness (tox), channel thickness (tsi), intrinsic channel length (Lint) and at different temperatures. Important FOMs required for analog circuit performance such as transconductance (gm), drain conductance (gd), output resistance (Rout), early voltage (VEA) have also been evaluated and verified using ATLAS device simulation software.

  2. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    DOE PAGES

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; ...

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acidmore » concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.« less

  3. Extending the maximum operation time of the MNSR reactor.

    PubMed

    Dawahra, S; Khattab, K; Saba, G

    2016-09-01

    An effective modification to extend the maximum operation time of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to enhance the utilization of the reactor has been tested using the MCNP4C code. This modification consisted of inserting manually in each of the reactor inner irradiation tube a chain of three polyethylene-connected containers filled of water. The total height of the chain was 11.5cm. The replacement of the actual cadmium absorber with B(10) absorber was needed as well. The rest of the core structure materials and dimensions remained unchanged. A 3-D neutronic model with the new modifications was developed to compare the neutronic parameters of the old and modified cores. The results of the old and modified core excess reactivities (ρex) were: 3.954, 6.241 mk respectively. The maximum reactor operation times were: 428, 1025min and the safety reactivity factors were: 1.654 and 1.595 respectively. Therefore, a 139% increase in the maximum reactor operation time was noticed for the modified core. This increase enhanced the utilization of the MNSR reactor to conduct a long time irradiation of the unknown samples using the NAA technique and increase the amount of radioisotope production in the reactor.

  4. Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Berliner, Teri; Graves, Alan

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—Dynamic pricing schemes have been implemented in commercial and industrial application settings, and recently they are getting attention for application to residential customers. Time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing rates are in place in various regions and are being piloted in many more. These programs are proving themselves useful for balancing energy during peak periods; however, real-time (5 minute) pricing signals combined with automation in end-use systems have the potential to deliver even more benefits to operators and consumers. Besides system peak shaving, a real-time pricing system can contribute demand response based on the locational marginal price of electricity, reduce load in response to a generator outage, and respond to local distribution system capacity limiting situations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is teaming with a mid-west electricity service provider to run a distribution feeder-based retail electricity market that negotiates with residential automation equipment and clears every 5 minutes, thus providing a signal for lowering or raising electric consumption based on operational objectives of economic efficiency and reliability. This paper outlines the capability of the real-time pricing system and the operational scenarios being tested as the system is rolled-out starting in the first half of 2012.

  5. The Partition Intervalometer: A Programmable Underwater Timer for Marking Accumulated Sediment Profiles Collected in Anderson Sediment Traps: Development, Operation, Testing Procedures, and Field Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendigs, Richard R.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Xu, Jingping; Davis, Raymond E.; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2009-01-01

    This manual illustrates the development of a programmable instrument designed to deploy a series of wafer-shaped discs (partitions) into the collection tube of a sediment trap in various aquatic environments. These hydrodynamically shaped discs are deployed at discrete time intervals from the Intervalometer and provide markers that delineate time intervals within the sediments that accumulate in the collection tube. The timer and mechanical system are lodged in an air-filled, water-tight pressure housing that is vertically hung within the confines of a cone-shaped sediment trap. The instrumentation has been operationally pressure tested to an equivalent water depth of approximately 1 km. Flaws discovered during extensive laboratory and pressure testing resulted in the implementation of several mechanical modifications (such as a redesign of the rotor and the discs) that improved the operation of the rotor assembly as well as the release of discs through the end cap. These results also identified a preferred azimuth placement of the rotor disc relative to the drop hole of the end cap. In the initial field trial, five sediment traps and coupled Intervalometers were attached to moored arrays and deployed at two sites off the coast of Southern California for approximately 8 months. Each of the instruments released 18 discs at the programmed 10 day intervals, except one unit, which experienced a malfunction after approximately 4 months. Most of the discs oriented in a near-horizontal position upon the surface of the sediment in the collection tubes. Sampling of the sediments for geochemical analyses was improved by these clearly defined markers, which indicated the changes in the flux and nature of sediments accumulated during the deployment period of each sediment trap.

  6. Finite-element time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, Kimball A.

    1995-01-01

    The finite-element approach to lattice field theory is both highly accurate (relative errors approximately 1/N(exp 2), where N is the number of lattice points) and exactly unitary (in the sense that canonical commutation relations are exactly preserved at the lattice sites). In this talk I construct matrix elements for dynamical variables and for the time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator, for which the continuum Hamiltonian is H = p(exp 2)/2 + lambda q(exp 4)/4. Construction of such matrix elements does not require solving the implicit equations of motion. Low order approximations turn out to be extremely accurate. For example, the matrix element of the time evolution operator in the harmonic oscillator ground state gives a results for the anharmonic oscillator ground state energy accurate to better than 1 percent, while a two-state approximation reduces the error to less than 0.1 percent.

  7. Microsecond delays on non-real time operating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Angstadt, R.; Estrada, J.; Diehl, H.T.; Flaugher, B.; Johnson, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    We have developed microsecond timing and profiling software that runs on standard Windows and Linux based operating systems. This software is orders of magnitudes better than most of the standard native functions in wide use. Our software libraries calibrate RDTSC in microseconds or seconds to provide two different types of delays: a ''Guaranteed Minimum'' and a precision ''Long Delay'', which releases to the kernel. Both return profiling information of the actual delay.

  8. Proteomics of Medicago truncatula seed development establishes the time frame of diverse metabolic processes related to reserve accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Karine; Le Signor, Christine; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Thompson, Richard D; Burstin, Judith

    2003-10-01

    We utilized a proteomic approach to investigate seed development in Medicago truncatula, cv Jemalong, line J5 at specific stages of seed filling corresponding to the acquisition of germination capacity and protein deposition. One hundred twenty proteins differing in kinetics of appearance were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. These analyses provided peptide mass fingerprint data that identified 84 of them. Some of these proteins had previously been shown to accumulate during seed development in legumes (e.g. legumins, vicilins, convicilins, and lipoxygenases), confirming the validity of M. truncatula as a model for analysis of legume seed filling. The study also revealed proteins presumably involved in cell division during embryogenesis (beta-tubulin and annexin). Their abundance decreased before the accumulation of the major storage protein families, which itself occurs in a specific temporal order: vicilins (14 d after pollination [DAP]), legumins (16 DAP), and convicilins (18 DAP). Furthermore, the study showed an accumulation of enzymes of carbon metabolism (e.g. sucrose synthase, starch synthase) and of proteins involved in embryonic photosynthesis (e.g. chlorophyll a/b binding), which may play a role in providing cofactors for protein/lipid synthesis or for CO2 refixation during seed filling. Correlated with the reserve deposition phase was the accumulation of proteins associated with cell expansion (actin 7 and reversibly glycosylated polypeptide) and of components of the precursor accumulating vesicles, which give rise to a trypsin inhibitor on maturation. Finally, we revealed a differential accumulation of enzymes involved in methionine metabolism (S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase and S-adenosylhomo-cysteine hydrolase) and propose a role for these enzymes in the transition from a highly active to a quiescent state during seed development.

  9. First-passage time criteria for the operation of reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aiden J.; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Akande, Kunle

    2014-11-01

    A multi-objective optimisation for reservoir operation based on expected monetary value and expected first passage-time criterion is proposed. The computations are facilitated by the algorithms of matrix analytic methods. The formal structure, classifying states as levels and phases within levels, and associated algorithms of matrix analytic methods are introduced in the context of multi-reservoir systems. The algorithms underpin the feasibility of the computations for large systems and enable the calculation of the full distribution of first passage time. A new algorithm for computing results for a seasonal model, which reduces computing time by an order of magnitude for monthly time steps is presented. The methods are illustrated for a two reservoir system, with an option of pumping additional water from a transfer scheme, in the East of England. The Pareto front of Pareto optimal policies is shown.

  10. Time reversal acoustics for small targets using decomposition of the time reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simko, Peter C.

    The method of time reversal acoustics has been the focus of considerable interest over the last twenty years. Time reversal imaging methods have made consistent progress as effective methods for signal processing since the initial demonstration that physical time reversal methods can be used to form convergent wave fields on a localized target, even under conditions of severe multipathing. Computational time reversal methods rely on the properties of the so-called 'time reversal operator' in order to extract information about the target medium. Applications for which time reversal imaging have previously been explored include medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation, and mine detection. Emphasis in this paper will fall on two topics within the general field of computational time reversal imaging. First, we will examine previous work on developing a time reversal imaging algorithm based on the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. MUSIC, though computationally very intensive, has demonstrated early promise in simulations using array-based methods applicable to true volumetric (three-dimensional) imaging. We will provide a simple algorithm through which the rank of the time reversal operator subspaces can be properly quantified so that the rank of the associated null subspace can be accurately estimated near the central pulse wavelength in broadband imaging. Second, we will focus on the scattering from small acoustically rigid two dimensional cylindrical targets of elliptical cross section. Analysis of the time reversal operator eigenmodes has been well-studied for symmetric response matrices associated with symmetric systems of scattering targets. We will expand these previous results to include more general scattering systems leading to asymmetric response matrices, for which the analytical complexity increases but the physical interpretation of the time reversal operator remains unchanged. For asymmetric responses, the qualitative properties of the

  11. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  12. Space time neural networks for tether operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992 will attempt to prove the feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit. due to the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether, the tethered system may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation referred to as the 'skiprope' phenomenon. Effective damping of skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of skiprope magnitude and phase. Because of non-linear dynamic coupling, the satellite attitude behavior has characteristic oscillations during the skiprope motion. Since the satellite attitude motion has many other perturbations, the relationship between the skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very involved and non-linear. We propose a Space-Time Neural Network implementation for filtering satellite rate gyro data to rapidly detect and predict skiprope magnitude and phase. Training and testing of the skiprope detection system will be performed using a validated Orbital Operations Simulator and Space-Time Neural Network software developed in the Software Technology Branch at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  13. Time Scale of Gas Accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (Iceland) from 210Po Radioactive Excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt. The early formed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po/210Pb)0= 1.88)] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po)0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte (end of May 2010) had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, on in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. A model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, allows calculating the ratio of mass of basalt magma degassing over mass of magma accumulating excess gas. This ratio decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupted first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and deeper seismicity strongly suggests that the excess gas phase originated from a basalt magma batch intruded at depth, and that this gas phase reached the surface approximately a year later.

  14. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  15. Near Real Time Data for Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather operations presents unique challenges for data systems and providers. Space weather events evolve more quickly than terrestrial weather events. While terrestrial weather occurs on timescales of minutes to hours, space weather storms evolve on timescales of seconds to minutes. For example, the degradation of the High Frequency Radio communications between the ground and commercial airlines is nearly instantaneous when a solar flare occurs. Thus the customer is observing impacts at the same time that the operational forecast center is seeing the event unfold. The diversity and spatial scale of the space weather system is such that no single observation can capture the salient features. The vast space that encompasses space weather and the scarcity of observations further exacerbates the situation and make each observation even more valuable. The physics of interplanetary space, through which many major storms propagate, is very different from the physics of the ionosphere where most of the impacts are felt. And while some observations can be made from ground-based observatories, many of the most critical data comes from satellites, often in unique orbits far from Earth. In this presentation, I will describe some of the more important sources and types of data that feed into the operational alerts, watches, and warnings of space weather storms. Included will be a discussion of some of the new space weather forecast models and the data challenges that they bring forward.

  16. Fermion wave-mechanical operators in curved space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Cocke, W.J.; Lloyd-Hart, M. )

    1990-09-15

    In the context of a general wave-mechanical formalism, we derive explicit forms for the Hamiltonian, kinetic energy, and momentum operators for a massive fermion in curved space-time. In the two-spinor representation, the scalar products of state vectors are conserved under the Dirac equation, but the time-development Hamiltonian is in general not Hermitian for a nonstatic metric. A geodesic normal coordinate system provides an economical framework in which to interpret the results. We apply the formalism to a closed Robertson-Walker metric, for which we find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the kinetic energy density. The angular momentum parts turn out to be simpler than in the usual four-spinor representation, and the radial parts involve Jacobi polynomials.

  17. An assessment of the quality indicators of operative and non-operative times in a public university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Altair da Silva; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; de Novais, Maykon Anderson Pires; Zucchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the operative time indicators in a public university hospital. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using data from operating room database. The sample was obtained from January 2011 to January 2012. The operations performed in sequence in the same operating room, between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm, elective or emergency, were included. The procedures with incomplete data in the system were excluded, as well as the operations performed after 5:00 pm or on weekends or holidays. Results We measured the operative and non-operative time of 8,420 operations. The operative time (mean and standard deviation) of anesthesias and operations were 177.6±110 and 129.8±97.1 minutes, respectively. The total time of the patient in operative room (mean and standard deviation) was 196.8±113.2. The non-operative time, e.g., between the arrival of the patient and the onset of anesthesia was 14.3±17.3 minutes. The time to set the next patient in operating room was 119.8±79.6 minutes. Our total non-operative time was 155 minutes. Conclusion Delays frequently occurred in our operating room and had a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. The non-operative time was longer than the operative time. It is possible to increase the operating room capacity by management and training of the professionals involved. The indicators provided a tool to improve operating room efficiency. PMID:26761557

  18. Timing of early Quaternary gravel accumulation in the Swiss Alpine Foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anne, Claude; Naki, Akçar; Susan, Ivy-Ochs; Fritz, Schlunegger; Peter, Kubik W.; Andreas, Dehnert; Joachim, Kuhlemann; Meinert, Rahn; Christian, Schlüchter

    2017-01-01

    Deckenschotter ('Cover Gravels') are proximal glaciofluvial gravels located in the northern Alpine Foreland mainly beyond the extent of the Last Glacial Maximum. They cover Tertiary Molasse or Mesozoic bedrock with an erosional unconformity. In Switzerland, Deckenschotter are referred to as Höhere (Higher) and Tiefere (Lower) Deckenschotter based on their topographical positions with a significant phase of incision that separates these two units. For this study, we performed sedimentological analyses to identify the provenance, transport mechanisms and depositional environment of these gravels. In addition, we established the chronology of the Höhere Deckenschotter gravels at Stadlerberg using cosmogenic 10Be depth-profile dating technique. The inherited 10Be concentration then allowed estimation of a catchment-wide palaeo-denudation rate. The results from clast fabric investigations indicate that braided rivers within a glaciofluvial environment transported these sediments to the study site mainly as bedload. In addition, the petrographic composition of the deposits shows that a large portion of the gravels was derived through erosional recycling of Miocene Molasse conglomerates. Some material was additionally sourced in the northern Central Alps. We then conclude that gravel accumulation in the Swiss Alpine Foreland was completed at 1.9 ± 0.2 Ma. This age, however, represents a minimum age and the oldest 10Be depth-profile age ever obtained for a geological unit. Furthermore, a palaeo-denudation rate of c. 0.3-0.4 mm/a was estimated for the catchment of Stadlerberg gravels. Finally, elevation differences between the bedrock underlying the Höhere Deckenschotter and the modern base level imply a long-term regional incision rate of c. 0.12 mm/a.

  19. An Operational Geodatabase Service for Disseminating Raster Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asante, K. O.

    2009-12-01

    The volume of raster time series data available for earth science applications is rapidly expanding with improvements in spatial and temporal resolution of earth imaging from remote sensing missions. Current dissemination systems are typically designed for mission efficiency rather than supporting the various needs of diverse user communities. This promotes the building of multiple archives of the same dataset by end users who acquire the skills needed to establish and maintain their own data streams. Such processing often becomes a barrier to the adoption of new datasets. This presentation describes the development of an operational geodatabase service for the dissemination of raster time series. The service combines innovative geocoding schemes with traditional database and geospatial capabilities to facilitate direct access to raster time series. It includes functionality such as search and retrieval, data segmentation, trend analysis and direct integration into third-party applications using predefined data schemas. The service allows end users to interact with data using simple web-based tools without the need for complex data processing skills. A live implementation of the service is demonstrated using sample global environmental datasets.

  20. Reliable identification of mental tasks using time-embedded EEG and sequential evidence accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles; Forney, Elliott; Hains, Douglas; Natarajan, Annamalai

    2011-04-01

    Eleven channels of EEG were recorded from a subject performing four mental tasks. A time-embedded representation of the untransformed EEG samples was constructed. Classification of the time-embedded samples was performed by linear and quadratic discriminant analysis and by an artificial neural network. A classifier's output for consecutive samples is combined to increase reliability. A new performance measure is defined as the number of correct selections that would be made by a brain-computer interface (BCI) user of the system, accounting for the need for an incorrect selection to be followed by a correct one to 'delete' the previous selection. A best result of 0.32 correct selections s-1 (about 3 s per BCI decision) was obtained with a neural network using a time-embedding dimension of 50.

  1. Alpha: A real-time decentralized operating system for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Alpha is a new kind of operating system that is unique in two highly significant ways. First, it is decentralized transparently providing reliable resource management across physically dispersed nodes, so that distributed applications programming can be done largely as though it were centralized. And second, it provides comprehensive, high technology support for real-time system integration and operation, an application area which consists predominately of aperiodic activities having critical time constraints such as deadlines. Alpha is extremely adaptable so that it can be easily optimized for a wide range of problem-specific functionality, performance, and cost. Alpha is the first systems effort of the Archons Project, and the prototype was created at Carnegie-Mellon University directly on modified Sun multiprocessor workstation hardware. It has been demonstrated with a real-time C(sup 2) application. Continuing research is leading to a series of enhanced follow-ons to Alpha; these are portable but initially hosted on Concurrent's MASSCOMP line of multiprocessor products.

  2. Acidobacteria dominate the active bacterial communities of Arctic tundra with widely divergent winter-time snow accumulation and soil temperatures.

    PubMed

    Männistö, Minna K; Kurhela, Emilia; Tiirola, Marja; Häggblom, Max M

    2013-04-01

    The timing and extent of snow cover is a major controller of soil temperature and hence winter-time microbial activity and plant diversity in Arctic tundra ecosystems. To understand how snow dynamics shape the bacterial communities, we analyzed the bacterial community composition of windswept and snow-accumulating shrub-dominated tundra heaths of northern Finland using DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA gene community fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment polymorphism) and clone library analysis. Members of the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities of both windswept and snow-accumulating habitats with the most abundant phylotypes corresponding to subdivision (SD) 1 and 2 Acidobacteria in both the DNA- and RNA-derived community profiles. However, different phylotypes within Acidobacteria were found to dominate at different sampling dates and in the DNA- vs. RNA-based community profiles. The results suggest that different species within SD1 and SD2 Acidobacteria respond to environmental conditions differently and highlight the wide functional diversity of these organisms even within the SD level. The acidic tundra soils dominated by ericoid shrubs appear to select for diverse stress-tolerant Acidobacteria that are able to compete in the nutrient poor, phenolic-rich soils. Overall, these communities seem stable and relatively insensitive to the predicted changes in the winter-time snow cover.

  3. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  4. Real-Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie; Oliver, Brett; Brickner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the utilization of embedded clocks inside of operating network data links as an auxiliary clock source to satisfy local oscillator monitoring requirements. Modem network interfaces, typically serial network links, often contain embedded clocking information of very tight precision to recover data from the link. This embedded clocking data can be utilized by the receiving device to monitor the local oscillator for tolerance to required specifications, often important in high-integrity fault-tolerant applications. A device can utilize a received embedded clock to determine if the local or the remote device is out of tolerance by using a single link. The local device can determine if it is failing, assuming a single fault model, with two or more active links. Network fabric components, containing many operational links, can potentially determine faulty remote or local devices in the presence of multiple faults. Two methods of implementation are described. In one method, a recovered clock can be directly used to monitor the local clock as a direct replacement of an external local oscillator. This scheme is consistent with a general clock monitoring function whereby clock sources are clocking two counters and compared over a fixed interval of time. In another method, overflow/underflow conditions can be used to detect clock relationships for monitoring. These network interfaces often provide clock compensation circuitry to allow data to be transferred from the received (network) clock domain to the internal clock domain. This circuit could be modified to detect overflow/underflow conditions of the buffering required and report a fast or slow receive clock, respectively.

  5. Accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/Kip1 and the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Gao, F B; Raff, M

    1997-01-01

    Many types of vertebrate precursor cells divide a limited number of times before they stop and terminally differentiate. In no case is it known what causes them to stop dividing. We have been studying this problem in the proliferating precursor cells that give rise to postmitotic oligodendrocytes, the cells that make myelin in the central nervous system. We show here that two components of the cell cycle control system, cyclin D1 and the Cdc2 kinase, are present in the proliferating precursor cells but not in differentiated oligodendrocytes, suggesting that the control system is dismantled in the oligodendrocytes. More importantly, we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 progressively accumulates in the precursor cells as they proliferate and is present at high levels in oligodendrocytes. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that the accumulation of p27 is part of both the intrinsic counting mechanism that determines when precursor cell proliferation stops and differentiation begins and the effector mechanism that arrests the cell cycle when the counting mechanism indicates it is time. The recent findings of others that p27-deficient mice have an increased number of cells in all of the organs examined suggest that this function of p27 is not restricted to the oligodendrocyte cell lineage. PMID:9029151

  6. Biomass Accumulation Rates of Amazonian Secondary Forest and Biomass of Old-Growth Forests from Landsat Time Series and GLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E.; Lefsky, M. A.; Roberts, D.

    2009-12-01

    We estimate the age of humid lowland tropical forests in Rondônia, Brazil, from a somewhat densely spaced time series of Landsat images (1975-2003) with an automated procedure, the Threshold Age Mapping Algorithm (TAMA), first described here. We then estimate a landscape-level rate of aboveground woody biomass accumulation of secondary forest by combining forest age mapping with biomass estimates from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Though highly variable, the estimated average biomass accumulation rate of 8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 agrees well with ground-based studies for young secondary forests in the region. In isolating the lowland forests, we map land cover and general types of old-growth forests with decision tree classification of Landsat imagery and elevation data. We then estimate aboveground live biomass for seven classes of old-growth forest. TAMA is simple, fast, and self-calibrating. By not using between-date band or index differences or trends, it requires neither image normalization nor atmospheric correction. In addition, it uses an approach to map forest cover for the self-calibrations that is novel to forest mapping with satellite imagery; it maps humid secondary forest that is difficult to distinguish from old-growth forest in single-date imagery; it does not assume that forest age equals time since disturbance; and it incorporates Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Variations on the work that we present here can be applied to other forested landscapes. Applications that use image time series will be helped by the free distribution of coregistered Landsat imagery, which began in December 2008, and of the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Vegetation Product, which simplifies the use of GLAS data. Finally, we demonstrate here for the first time how the optical imagery of fine spatial resolution that is viewable on Google Earth provides a new source of reference data for remote sensing applications related to land cover

  7. Time to Thrive, Not Just Survive: Accumulating Advantage for Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, Debra

    2005-04-01

    Our departments of science, technology, mathematics, and engineering (STEM) need more women as faculty, and not only to show their undergraduates that a career in academia is a viable path. Their absence warns us that an unhealthy environment exists: unhealthy to those scientists who want fulfilling lives beyond academe and unhealthy to those women, who once they demonstrate productivity, scholarship, and mentorship, still reap less respect, space, salary, funding, and awards than their male colleagues. The recalcitrance of too many of our research universities toward diversifying their faculty is a national disgrace in that these universities covet a diversified student body, but do not reflect that pool of talent onto their faculty. Similar difficulties are apparent among the staff of National and Federal laboratories. Self-reform is not getting it done, and is especially frustrating in light of the historic opportunity to change the demographics as scientists and engineers hired in the 1960s retire. Is it time to apply the logic of Title IX--the loss of Federal funds--for the entrenched inability to increase the number of women represented on STEM faculties? Such a threat may be the impetus necessary for university administrators to create departmental environments that women are willing to call home. The July 2004 release of the GAO report on Women's Participation in the Sciences (which also surveyed DOE facilities) reminded those Federal agencies that fund scientific research that Title IX is the law and that these agencies must begin Title IX assessments of compliance in the STEM departments and institutions they fund. It is past time that women thrive, not just survive in their career homes. Using the mechanistic philosophy of Title IX--denial of resources to recalacitrant departments and laboratories--may be the start of a truly inclusive scientific enterprise in the United States. We must accept this opportunity to redirect the nature of the research

  8. Time evolution of secondary electron emission and trapped charge accumulation in polyimide film under various primary electron irradiation currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bai-Peng; Zhou, Run-Dong; Su, Guo-Qiang; Mu, Hai-Bao; Zhang, Guan-Jun; Bu, Ren-An

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved evolution of secondary electron emission and trapped charge accumulation in polyimide film is investigated during two interval electrons bombardment, derived from the measurement of displacement current and secondary current via a hemispherical detector with the shielded grid. Under various irradiation current, secondary electron yield (SEY σ) at a certain injected energy decreases exponentially from initial amplitude σ0 to self-consistent steady value σ∞ close to 0.93. The time constant τ of charging process is characterized as a function of incident current Ip, and the results indicate that the formula Ip × τ is fitted by a hyperbolical law. The influence of Ip on the amount of trapped charge is studied and no significant change in its saturation value is observed. The evolution of SEY σ and trapped charge is dependent on incident dose Qp but not the incident rate Ip. Furthermore, the trap density and capture cross section are discussed.

  9. Tropical mountain glaciers on Mars: Altitude-dependence of ice accumulation, accumulation conditions, formation times, glacier dynamics, and implications for planetary spin-axis/orbital history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Forget, Francois

    2008-12-01

    Fan-shaped deposits up to ˜166,000 km in area are found on the northwest flanks of the huge Tharsis Montes volcanoes in the tropics of Mars. Recent spacecraft data have confirmed earlier hypotheses that these lobate deposits are glacial in origin. Increased knowledge of polar-latitude terrestrial glacial analogs in the Antarctic Dry Valleys has been used to show that the lobate deposits are the remnants of cold-based glaciers that formed in the extremely cold, hyper-arid climate of Mars. Mars atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) show that these glaciers could form during periods of high obliquity when upwelling and adiabatic cooling of moist air favor deposition of snow on the northwest flanks of the Tharsis Montes. We present a simulation of the Tharsis Montes ice sheets produced by a static accumulation pattern based on the GCM results and compare this with the nature and extent of the geologic deposits. We use the fundamental differences between the atmospheric snow accumulation environments (mass balance) on Earth and Mars, geological observations and ice-sheet models to show that two equilibrium lines should characterize ice-sheet mass balance on Mars, and that glacial accumulation should be favored on the flanks of large volcanoes, not on their summits as seen on Earth. Predicted accumulation rates from such a parameterization, together with sample spin-axis obliquity histories, are used to show that obliquity in excess of 45° and multiple 120,000 year obliquity cycles are necessary to produce the observed deposits. Our results indicate that the formation of these deposits required multiple successive stages of advance and retreat before their full extent could be reached, and thus imply that spin-axis obliquity remained at these high values for millions of years during the Late Amazonian period of Mars history. Spin-axis obliquity is one of the main factors in the distribution and intensity of solar insolation, and thus in determining the climate

  10. Tropical Mountain Glaciers on Mars: Altitude-Dependence of Ice Accumulation, Accumulation Conditions, Formation Times, Glacier Dynamics, and Implications for Planetary Spin- Axis/Orbital History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    Lobate deposits up to ~166,000 km2 in area are found on the northwest flanks of the huge Tharsis Montes volcanos in the tropics of Mars. Recent spacecraft data have confirmed earlier hypotheses that these lobate deposits are glacial in origin. Increased knowledge of polar-latitude terrestrial glacial analogs in the Antarctic Dry Valleys has been used to show that the lobate deposits are the remnants of cold-based glaciers that formed in the extremely cold, hyper-arid climate of Mars. Mars atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) show that these glaciers form during periods of high obliquity when upwelling and adiabatic cooling of moist polar air favor deposition of snow on the northwest flanks of the Tharsis Montes. We present a simulation of the Tharsis Montes ice sheets produced by a static accumulation pattern based on the GCM results and compare this with the nature and extent of the geologic deposits. We use the fundamental differences between the atmospheric snow accumulation environments (mass balance) on Earth and Mars, geological observations and ice sheet models to show that two equilibrium lines should characterize ice sheet mass balance on Mars, and that glacial accumulation should be favored on the flanks of large volcanos, not on their summits as seen on Earth. Predicted accumulation rates from such a parameterization, together with sample spin-axis obliquity histories, are used to show that mean obliquity in excess of 45 degrees and multiple 120,000 year obliquity cycles are necessary to produce the observed deposits. Our results indicate that the formation of these deposits required multiple successive stages of advance and retreat before their full extent could be reached, and thus imply that spin-axis obliquity remained at these high values for millions of years during the Late Amazonian period of Mars history. Spin-axis obliquity is one of the main factors in the distribution and intensity of solar insolation, and thus in determining the

  11. Using Time-Varying Evidence to Test Models of Decision Dynamics: Bounded Diffusion vs. the Leaky Competing Accumulator Model.

    PubMed

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L; Usher, Marius

    2012-01-01

    When people make decisions, do they give equal weight to evidence arriving at different times? A recent study (Kiani et al., 2008) using brief motion pulses (superimposed on a random moving dot display) reported a primacy effect: pulses presented early in a motion observation period had a stronger impact than pulses presented later. This observation was interpreted as supporting the bounded diffusion (BD) model and ruling out models in which evidence accumulation is subject to leakage or decay of early-arriving information. We use motion pulses and other manipulations of the timing of the perceptual evidence in new experiments and simulations that support the leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model as an alternative to the BD model. While the LCA does include leakage, we show that it can exhibit primacy as a result of competition between alternatives (implemented via mutual inhibition), when the inhibition is strong relative to the leak. Our experiments replicate the primacy effect when participants must be prepared to respond quickly at the end of a motion observation period. With less time pressure, however, the primacy effect is much weaker. For 2 (out of 10) participants, a primacy bias observed in trials where the motion observation period is short becomes weaker or reverses (becoming a recency effect) as the observation period lengthens. Our simulation studies show that primacy is equally consistent with the LCA or with BD. The transition from primacy-to-recency can also be captured by the LCA but not by BD. Individual differences and relations between the LCA and other models are discussed.

  12. The accumulation pattern of ferruginol in the heartwood-forming Cryptomeria japonica xylem as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Hashida, Koh; Imai, Takanori; Kushi, Masayoshi; Saito, Kaori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heartwood formation is a unique phenomenon of tree species. Although the accumulation of heartwood substances is a well-known feature of the process, the accumulation mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation process of ferruginol, a predominant heartwood substance of Cryptomeria japonica, in heartwood-forming xylem. Methods The radial accumulation pattern of ferruginol was examined from sapwood and through the intermediate wood to the heartwood by direct mapping using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The data were compared with quantitative results obtained from a novel method of gas chromatography analysis using laser microdissection sampling and with water distribution obtained from cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ferruginol initially accumulated in the middle of the intermediate wood, in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary. It accumulated throughout the entire earlywood in the inner intermediate wood, and in both the earlywood and the latewood in the heartwood. The process of ferruginol accumulation continued for more than eight annual rings. Ferruginol concentration peaked at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, while the concentration was less in the latewood compared wiht the earlywood in each annual ring. Ferruginol tended to accumulate around the ray parenchyma cells. In addition, at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, the accumulation was higher in areas without water than in areas with water. Conclusions TOF-SIMS clearly revealed ferruginol distribution at the cellular level. Ferruginol accumulation begins in the middle of intermediate wood, initially in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary, then throughout the entire earlywood, and finally across to the whole annual ring in the heartwood. The heterogeneous timing of ferruginol accumulation could be related to the distribution of ray parenchyma cells

  13. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  14. Improving operating room turnover time: a systems based approach.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P < 0.001 for each. Using Vascular and Orthopedic surgical specialties as controls (n = 13), mean TT was reduced by 0:15:16 min (95 % CI, 0:07:18-0:23:14), from 0:38:51 to 0:23:35, a 39.4 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT reduced by 0:08:47, from 0:14:39 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min reduced from 69.2 to 11.7 %. P < 0.001 for each. Reductions in mean TT present major efficiency, quality improvement, and cost-reduction opportunities. An OR redesign process focusing on parallel processing and enhanced communication resulted in greater than 35 % reduction in TT. A systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.

  15. Cadmium accumulation and toxicity in the unicellular alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: Influence of metal-binding exudates and exposure time.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Nathalie; Lavoie, Michel; Maloney, Frédéric; Duval, Jérôme F L; Campbell, Peter G C; Fortin, Claude

    2015-07-01

    Predicting metal availability and toxicity for chronic (several hours or days) metal exposure scenarios, even for unicellular algae, is a major challenge to existing toxicity models. This is because several factors affecting metal uptake and toxicity, such as the release of metal-binding exudates, changes in the kinetics of metal uptake and toxicity over time, and algal physiological acclimation to internalized metals, are still poorly understood. The present study assessed the influence of these factors on Cd uptake and toxicity in laboratory batch cultures of the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. To do so, changes in the free Cd(2+) concentrations caused by the release of metal-binding algal exudates were monitored, (109)Cd accumulation in algal cells was measured, and Cd-induced inhibition of algal growth as a function of exposure time (from 12 h to 96 h) was followed. Results indicate that metal-binding exudates may decrease the proportion of the free Cd(2+) ion in solution up to 2-fold, a decrease that affects Cd uptake and toxicity. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata has the capacity to decrease net Cd uptake rate on short time scales (<24 h), but this reduction in the Cd uptake rate disappeared after 24 h, and Cd toxicity occurred at relatively high Cd concentrations in solution. These data illustrate some of the pitfalls of standard algal toxicity assays, which were designed for acute exposures, and suggest how robust chronic bioassays might be developed.

  16. RadMonitor: radiology operations data mining in real time.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Channin, David S

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the web-based visualization interface of RadMonitor, a platform-independent web application designed to help manage the complexity of information flow within a health care enterprise. The system eavesdrops on Health Layer 7 traffic and parses statistical operational information into a database. The information is then presented to the user as a treemap--a graphical visualization scheme that simplifies the display of hierarchical information. While RadMonitor has been implemented for the purpose of analyzing radiology operations, its XML backend allows it to be reused for virtually any other hierarchical data set.

  17. Real-time support for high performance aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time processing schemes using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is investigated. A rationale for digital neural nets is presented and a general processor architecture for control applications is illustrated. Research results on ANN structures for real-time applications are given. Research results on ANN algorithms for real-time control are also shown.

  18. Operation Smile "Changing Lives, One Smile at a Time."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Although many young people are concerned about acne and dieting, there are some children who retreat from social contact because of facial deformities that can be changed only through surgery. Operation Smile is an organization dedicated to giving young people suffering from physical disfigurement an opportunity to come out of hiding and become…

  19. Inspiration, Perspiration, and Time: Operations and Achievement in Edison Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Lockwood, J. R.; Marsh, Julie A.; Zimmer, Ron W.; Hill, Deanna; Pribesh, Shana

    2005-01-01

    New forms of governing and managing public schools have proliferated in recent years, spawning the establishment and growth of companies that operate public schools under contract. Among these education management organizations, or EMOs, the largest and most visible is Edison Schools, Inc., with a nationwide network in 2004-2005 of 103 managed…

  20. Environmental Protection Department Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division Contingency Plan for Site 300 Waste Accumulation Area(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R

    2005-07-14

    This Contingency Plan identifies personnel responsibilities, emergency equipment, and required actions necessary to mitigate potential incidents at the Waste Accumulation Area(s) (WAA)(s) located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site 300 (Site 300) as shown in Figure 1. This Plan is designed to prepare personnel to minimize hazards to human health and the environment from fires, explosions, or any sudden or nonsudden release of hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste constituents to the air, ground surface, or water from waste stored in the WAA(s). The LLNL Site 300 currently has one WAA. The location of the WAA is shown in Figure 2 and identified in Table 1. As programmatic needs change, it may become necessary to establish additional WAAs at Site 300. The WAA is a small, regularly monitored storage area where waste can be accumulated and stored temporarily. Hazardous and mixed waste can be stored or accumulated in a WAA for up to 90 days, after which it must be transferred to a Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) authorized onsite treatment or storage facility or an authorized offsite treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSDF). The onsite TSDFs authorized by DTSC are managed by the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division and by the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate (CMS) at Site 300. Hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste is referred to as ''waste'' in this document. Radioactive waste has been included in this Plan as a ''Best Management Practice'' to aid in response, where appropriate. However, radioactive waste is not regulated by DTSC under this Plan. This Contingency Plan is divided into two parts: (1) The first part, referred to as the ''General Plan'', is general information that is applicable to the existing and any subsequent WAAs. The General Plan includes Sections 1-7 and Appendices A-C. (2) The second part, referred to as the ''Site-Specific Plan'', contains site

  1. Improved Operations at the APL Time and Frequency Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Figure 4), which will fly past Pluto and Kuiper belt objects in an attempt to answer basic questions about their surface properties, geology, interior...intercepting Pluto in July 2015. The JHUAPL Time and Frequency Lab is supporting the ongoing integration and test activities with timing and

  2. Single α-particle irradiation permits real-time visualization of RNF8 accumulation at DNA damaged sites.

    PubMed

    Muggiolu, Giovanna; Pomorski, Michal; Claverie, Gérard; Berthet, Guillaume; Mer-Calfati, Christine; Saada, Samuel; Devès, Guillaume; Simon, Marina; Seznec, Hervé; Barberet, Philippe

    2017-01-31

    As well as being a significant source of environmental radiation exposure, α-particles are increasingly considered for use in targeted radiation therapy. A better understanding of α-particle induced damage at the DNA scale can be achieved by following their tracks in real-time in targeted living cells. Focused α-particle microbeams can facilitate this but, due to their low energy (up to a few MeV) and limited range, α-particles detection, delivery, and follow-up observations of radiation-induced damage remain difficult. In this study, we developed a thin Boron-doped Nano-Crystalline Diamond membrane that allows reliable single α-particles detection and single cell irradiation with negligible beam scattering. The radiation-induced responses of single 3 MeV α-particles delivered with focused microbeam are visualized in situ over thirty minutes after irradiation by the accumulation of the GFP-tagged RNF8 protein at DNA damaged sites.

  3. Single α-particle irradiation permits real-time visualization of RNF8 accumulation at DNA damaged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggiolu, Giovanna; Pomorski, Michal; Claverie, Gérard; Berthet, Guillaume; Mer-Calfati, Christine; Saada, Samuel; Devès, Guillaume; Simon, Marina; Seznec, Hervé; Barberet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    As well as being a significant source of environmental radiation exposure, α-particles are increasingly considered for use in targeted radiation therapy. A better understanding of α-particle induced damage at the DNA scale can be achieved by following their tracks in real-time in targeted living cells. Focused α-particle microbeams can facilitate this but, due to their low energy (up to a few MeV) and limited range, α-particles detection, delivery, and follow-up observations of radiation-induced damage remain difficult. In this study, we developed a thin Boron-doped Nano-Crystalline Diamond membrane that allows reliable single α-particles detection and single cell irradiation with negligible beam scattering. The radiation-induced responses of single 3 MeV α-particles delivered with focused microbeam are visualized in situ over thirty minutes after irradiation by the accumulation of the GFP-tagged RNF8 protein at DNA damaged sites.

  4. Single α-particle irradiation permits real-time visualization of RNF8 accumulation at DNA damaged sites

    PubMed Central

    Muggiolu, Giovanna; Pomorski, Michal; Claverie, Gérard; Berthet, Guillaume; Mer-Calfati, Christine; Saada, Samuel; Devès, Guillaume; Simon, Marina; Seznec, Hervé; Barberet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    As well as being a significant source of environmental radiation exposure, α-particles are increasingly considered for use in targeted radiation therapy. A better understanding of α-particle induced damage at the DNA scale can be achieved by following their tracks in real-time in targeted living cells. Focused α-particle microbeams can facilitate this but, due to their low energy (up to a few MeV) and limited range, α-particles detection, delivery, and follow-up observations of radiation-induced damage remain difficult. In this study, we developed a thin Boron-doped Nano-Crystalline Diamond membrane that allows reliable single α-particles detection and single cell irradiation with negligible beam scattering. The radiation-induced responses of single 3 MeV α-particles delivered with focused microbeam are visualized in situ over thirty minutes after irradiation by the accumulation of the GFP-tagged RNF8 protein at DNA damaged sites. PMID:28139723

  5. Predicting Operator Execution Times Using CogTool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Latorella, Kara A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and developers of NextGen systems can use predictive human performance modeling tools as an initial approach to obtain skilled user performance times analytically, before system testing with users. This paper describes the CogTool models for a two pilot crew executing two different types of a datalink clearance acceptance tasks, and on two different simulation platforms. The CogTool time estimates for accepting and executing Required Time of Arrival and Interval Management clearances were compared to empirical data observed in video tapes and registered in simulation files. Results indicate no statistically significant difference between empirical data and the CogTool predictions. A population comparison test found no significant differences between the CogTool estimates and the empirical execution times for any of the four test conditions. We discuss modeling caveats and considerations for applying CogTool to crew performance modeling in advanced cockpit environments.

  6. 47 CFR 73.561 - Operating schedule; time sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., the permittee or licensee will notify the FCC, Attention: Audio Division of the date that normal... § 73.561: For allocations purposes, both (all) stations sharing time will be treated as unlimited...

  7. 47 CFR 73.561 - Operating schedule; time sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the permittee or licensee will notify the FCC, Attention: Audio Division of the date that normal... § 73.561: For allocations purposes, both (all) stations sharing time will be treated as unlimited...

  8. 47 CFR 73.561 - Operating schedule; time sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the permittee or licensee will notify the FCC, Attention: Audio Division of the date that normal... § 73.561: For allocations purposes, both (all) stations sharing time will be treated as unlimited...

  9. Influence of spatial location on the timing of the snow accumulation and melt in the Sierra Nevada: An analysis with FANOVA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, E.; Meiring, W.; Dozier, J.

    2015-12-01

    In California, snow represents one of the primary water resources. California precipitation occurs predominately in the winter and spring months, whereas the summer and fall generally are dry. Variation in the timing of snowpack accumulation and melt in the Sierra Nevada can be quantified through statistical curve registration summaries of seasonal cycle variation in daily snow pillow records. This procedure provides a set of functional sample observations that may be used to study the characteristics that influence the timing of snowpack events. Using functional analysis of variance, we investigate differences in the timing of snowpack accumulation and melt associated with spatial location attributes.

  10. The Older of Two Trees: Young Children's Development of Operational Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; Russell, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Piaget (1971) made a distinction between intuitive (preoperational) time and operational (logico-mathematical) time. According to Piaget, operational time develops around 7-8 years of age and is characterized by children's ability to deduce, for example, that if A was born before B, A will always be older than B. When time is still intuitive,…

  11. Managing Science Operations during Planetary Surface Operations at Long Light Delay-Time Targets: The 2011 Desert RATS Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. Conducted since 1997, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where multi-day tests are achievable. Desert RATS 2011 Science Operations Test simulated the management of crewed science operations at targets that were beyond the light delay time experienced during Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) and lunar surface missions, such as a mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) or the martian surface. Operations at targets at these distances are likely to be the norm as humans move out of the Earth-Moon system. Operating at these distances places significant challenges on mission operations, as the imposed light-delay time makes normal, two-way conversations extremely inefficient. Consequently, the operations approach for space missions that has been exercised during the first half-century of human space operations is no longer viable, and new approaches must be devised.

  12. Onboard Run-Time Goal Selection for Autonomous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm for use onboard spacecraft and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  13. Observation of Accumulated Metal Cation Distribution in Fish by Novel Stigmatic Imaging Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Jun; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of radioactive substances in biological organisms is a matter of great concern since the incident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. We have developed a novel technique for observing the distribution of accumulated metal cations in fish that employs a new imaging mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG2. Distributions of 133Cs and 88Sr in a sliced section of medaka (Oryzias latipes) are obtained with spatial resolution of µm-scale.

  14. Time Critical Targeting Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    video.  1 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SBR constellation overhead 40-80% of time with SAR and GMTI.  1 Rivet Joint orbit or Signals Intelligence (SIGINT...1217, Springer -Verlag 1997, 203-208. Keithley, H, “Space Based Radar Utility Analysis”, DSC FY02 Study Task 1 (DSC 02-1), Volume III Tracking

  15. Developing Operationally-Proficient Linguists: It’s About Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-14

    rings of Saturn .”4 Given DoD’s shortfalls in foreign language capabilities and regional and cultural expertise, 9/11 served as a “Sputnik moment...the linguist to satisfy routine social demands and limited working requirements.44 After several months of full - time effort, students have only...thinking and best practices from around the world enabling them to leverage culture as a tool for competitive advantage.”52 The President, with the full

  16. The operant reserve: a computer simulation in (accelerated) real time.

    PubMed

    Catania, A Charles

    2005-05-31

    In Skinner's Reflex Reserve theory, reinforced responses added to a reserve depleted by responding. It could not handle the finding that partial reinforcement generated more responding than continuous reinforcement, but it would have worked if its growth had depended not just on the last response but also on earlier responses preceding a reinforcer, each weighted by delay. In that case, partial reinforcement generates steady states in which reserve decrements produced by responding balance increments produced when reinforcers follow responding. A computer simulation arranged schedules for responses produced with probabilities proportional to reserve size. Each response subtracted a fixed amount from the reserve and added an amount weighted by the reciprocal of the time to the next reinforcer. Simulated cumulative records and quantitative data for extinction, random-ratio, random-interval, and other schedules were consistent with those of real performances, including some effects of history. The model also simulated rapid performance transitions with changed contingencies that did not depend on molar variables or on differential reinforcement of inter-response times. The simulation can be extended to inhomogeneous contingencies by way of continua of reserves arrayed along response and time dimensions, and to concurrent performances and stimulus control by way of different reserves created for different response classes.

  17. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  18. Diversification of Angraecum (Orchidaceae, Vandeae) in Madagascar: Revised Phylogeny Reveals Species Accumulation through Time Rather than Rapid Radiation.

    PubMed

    Andriananjamanantsoa, Herinandrianina N; Engberg, Shannon; Louis, Edward E; Brouillet, Luc

    Angraecum. The macroevolutionary model-based phylogeny failed to detect shifts in diversification that could be associated directly with morphological diversification. Diversification in Angraecum resulted from gradual species accumulation through time rather than from rapid radiation, a diversification pattern often encountered in tropical rain forests.

  19. Diversification of Angraecum (Orchidaceae, Vandeae) in Madagascar: Revised Phylogeny Reveals Species Accumulation through Time Rather than Rapid Radiation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Angraecum. The macroevolutionary model-based phylogeny failed to detect shifts in diversification that could be associated directly with morphological diversification. Diversification in Angraecum resulted from gradual species accumulation through time rather than from rapid radiation, a diversification pattern often encountered in tropical rain forests. PMID:27669569

  20. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  1. Work Involvement and Timing of Motherhood in the Accumulation of Problems in Social Functioning in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronka, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea

    1998-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the relationship between earlier risk factors and later problems in young Finnish women's social functioning. Found that low work involvement mediated between risk factors and accumulation of problems in social functioning in young adulthood. Risk factors increased the likelihood of early motherhood, but early motherhood…

  2. Degradation of Ndd1 by APC/C(Cdh1) generates a feed forward loop that times mitotic protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sajman, Julia; Zenvirth, Drora; Nitzan, Mor; Margalit, Hanah; Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J; Reiss, Yuval; Cohen, Itamar; Ravid, Tommer; Brandeis, Michael

    2015-05-11

    Ndd1 activates the Mcm1-Fkh2 transcription factor to transcribe mitotic regulators. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activated by Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)) mediates the degradation of proteins throughout G1. Here we show that the APC/C(Cdh1) ubiquitinates Ndd1 and mediates its degradation, and that APC/C(Cdh1) activity suppresses accumulation of Ndd1 targets. We confirm putative Ndd1 targets and identify novel ones, many of them APC/C(Cdh1) substrates. The APC/C(Cdh1) thus regulates these proteins in a dual manner—both pretranscriptionally and post-translationally, forming a multi-layered feedforward loop (FFL). We predict by mathematical modelling and verify experimentally that this FFL introduces a lag between APC/C(Cdh1) inactivation at the end of G1 and accumulation of genes transcribed by Ndd1 in G2. This regulation generates two classes of APC/C(Cdh1) substrates, early ones that accumulate in S and late ones that accumulate in G2. Our results show how the dual state APC/C(Cdh1) activity is converted into multiple outputs by interactions between its substrates.

  3. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  4. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  5. 33 CFR 164.55 - Deviations from rules: Continuing operation or period of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Deviations from rules: Continuing operation or period of time. The Captain of the Port, upon written... in the waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port for any continuing operation or period of time the Captain of the Port specifies....

  6. A Virtual-Time Operating-System Shell For A Hypercube In Robotics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, J. R.; Barhen, J.; Jefferson, D.

    1987-03-01

    Hypercube multiprocessors possess many attributes advantageous for autonomous, intelligent robots which operate in time-critical fashion in hostile environments. However, their message-passing architecture presents certain dif-ficulties in rapid changes of plans in response to unpredictable events in the environment. The status of a "virtual-time" operating-system shell, providing functions which facilitate such responses, is described.

  7. A discounted-cost continuous-time flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model solved by deconvexification over time

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C.; Rothblum, U.G.

    1990-08-01

    A discounted-cost, continuous-time, infinite-horizon version of a flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model is solved. The solution procedure is to convexify the discrete operator-assignment constraints to obtain a linear program, and then to regain the discreteness and obtain an approximate manufacturing schedule by deconvexification of the solution of the linear program over time. The strong features of the model are the accommodation of linear inequality relations among the manufacturing activities and the discrete manufacturing scheduling, whereas the weak features are intra-period relaxation of inventory availability constraints, and the absence of inventory costs, setup times, and setup charges.

  8. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acid concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.

  9. Dynamic Quantum Allocation and Swap-Time Variability in Time-Sharing Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, U. Narayan; Nance, Richard E.

    The effects of dynamic quantum allocation and swap-time variability on central processing unit (CPU) behavior are investigated using a model that allows both quantum length and swap-time to be state-dependent random variables. Effective CPU utilization is defined to be the proportion of a CPU busy period that is devoted to program processing, i.e.…

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: II. The time-dependent case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolicard, Georges; Killingbeck, John P.

    2003-10-01

    Part II of the review shows how the stationary Bloch wave operator of part I can be suitably modified to give a time-dependent wave operator. This operator makes it possible to use a relatively small active space in order to describe the dynamical processes which occur in quantum mechanical systems which have a time-dependent Hamiltonian. A close study is made of the links between the time-dependent and time-independent wave operators at the adiabatic limit; the analysis clarifies the way in which the wave operator formalism allows the time evolution of a system or a wave packet to be described in terms of a fast evolution inside the active space together with weak transitions out of this space which can be treated by perturbation methods. Two alternative wave operator equations of motion are derived and analysed. The first one is a non-linear differential equation in the usual Hilbert space; the second one is a differential equation in an extended Hilbert space with an extra time variable added and becomes equivalent to the usual Bloch equation when the Floquet Hamiltonian is taken in place of the ordinary Hamiltonian. A study is made of the close relationships between the time-dependent wave operator formalism, the Floquet theory and the (t, t') theory. Some original methods of solution of the two forms of wave operator equation are proposed and lead to new techniques of integration for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (e.g., the generalized Green equation procedure). Mixed procedures involving both the time-independent and time-dependent wave operators are shown to be applicable to the internal eigenstate problem for large complex matrices. A detailed account is given of the description of inelastic and photoreactive processes by means of the time-dependent wave operator formalism, with particular attention to laser-molecule interactions. The emphasis is on projection operator techniques, with special attention being given to the method of selection of

  11. Applying real-time operations to integrate and evaluate Space Station Freedom design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Winkler, David

    1990-01-01

    During its 30 year lifetime, Space Station Freedom will provide unique opportunities for a variety of research, commercial and space exploration activities. The diversity of Freedom's on-orbit operations and the partitioning of the spacecraft's flight elements and systems requires consideration of operations early in the design development. This paper presents a method for defining a structured relationship between Space Station Freedom real-time operations and system functionality, and discusses how this relationship can be used when evaluating the spacecraft design.

  12. A Concurrent Implementation of the Cascade-Correlation Algorithm, Using the Time Warp Operating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the method in which the Cascade-Correlation algorithm was parallelized in such a way that it could be run using the Time Warp Operating System (TWOS). TWOS is a special purpose operating system designed to run parellel discrete event simulations with maximum efficiency on parallel or distributed computers.

  13. An assembly to provide a time reference for the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Lopez, J. G.; Kelley, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is described which provides the value of date coordinated universal time (date UTC) to the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real Time (NOCC-RT) facility. The NOCC-RT is the real time portion of the NOCC upgrade task. The time scale is generated in the NOCC-RT clock processor; however, there is a continuous reference to UTC, as realized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and transmitted by Earth orbiting satellites. An important functional design requirement is the 99.9 pct. availability.

  14. Effect of Streamflow Forecast Uncertainty on Real-Time Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

    2010-12-01

    Various hydrological forecast products have been applied to real-time reservoir operation, including deterministic streamflow forecast (DSF), DSF-based probabilistic streamflow forecast (DPSF), and ensemble streamflow forecast (ESF), which represent forecast uncertainty in the form of deterministic forecast error, deterministic forecast error-based uncertainty distribution, and ensemble forecast errors, respectively. Compared to previous studies that treat these forecast products as ad hoc inputs for reservoir operation models, this paper attempts to model the uncertainties involved in the various forecast products and explores their effect on real-time reservoir operation decisions. In hydrology, there are various indices reflecting the magnitude of streamflow forecast uncertainty; meanwhile, few models illustrate the forecast uncertainty evolution process. This research introduces Martingale Model of Forecast Evolution (MMFE) from supply chain management and justifies its assumptions for quantifying the evolution of uncertainty in streamflow forecast as time progresses. Based on MMFE, this research simulates the evolution of forecast uncertainty in DSF, DPSF, and ESF, and applies the reservoir operation models (dynamic programming, DP; stochastic dynamic programming, SDP; and standard operation policy, SOP) to assess the effect of different forms of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation. Through a hypothetical single-objective real-time reservoir operation model, the results illustrate that forecast uncertainty exerts significant effects. Reservoir operation efficiency, as measured by a utility function, decreases as the forecast uncertainty increases. Meanwhile, these effects also depend on the type of forecast product being used. In general, the utility of reservoir operation with ESF is nearly as high as the utility obtained with a perfect forecast; the utilities of DSF and DPSF are similar to each other but not as efficient as ESF. Moreover

  15. Intelligent operating systems for autonomous robots: Real-time capabilities on a hypercube super-computer

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, J.R.; Barhen, J.; Jefferson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Autonomous robots which must perform time-critical tasks in hostile environments require computers which can perform many asynchronous tasks at extremely high speeds. Certain hypercube multiprocessors have many of the required attributes, but their operating systems must be provided with special functions to improve the capability of the system to respond rapidly to unpredictable events. A ''virtual-time'' shell, under design for addition to the Vertex operating system of the NCUBE hypercube computer, and having such capabilities, is described.

  16. Real-time portal imaging devices operating on high-pressure gaseous electronic principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakos, George C.; Richardson, Donna B.; Ghotra, P.; Pillai, Bindu; Seetharaman, Lakshmi; Passalaqua, Anthony M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Endorf, Robert J.; Devidas, Sreenivas

    1995-05-01

    A novel real-time portal imaging scanning detector, based on high-pressure gaseous electronics principles and operating up to 60 atmospheres, is presented and the predicted performance of this detector is analyzed. The idea is to utilize high pressure gaseous electronics imaging detectors operating in the saturation regime, aimed at improving image performance characteristics in real time portal imaging. As a result, beam localization errors are controlled, identified and corrected accurately and the patient radiotherapy treatment becomes more effective.

  17. Real-time solar magnetograph operation system software design and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Real Time Solar Magnetograph (RTSM) Operation system software design on PDP11/23+ is presented along with the User's Guide. The RTSM operation software is for real time instrumentation control, data collection and data management. The data is used for vector analysis, plotting or graphics display. The processed data is then easily compared with solar data from other sources, such as the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM).

  18. Command and Control of Special Operations Aviation: Time for a Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    coordination or aircraft deconfliction as a significant issue. The actions of TF Ranger during Operation GOTHIC SERPENT in Somalia is the final...examples. However, a significant difference between the previous two operations listed and GOTHIC SERPENT was the time sensitive and dynamic nature of... GOTHIC SERPENT proved essential for prosecuting time sensitive targets (TSTs). A command relationship of ARSOA as a subordinate element in the JSOTF also

  19. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  20. Toward Integrated Operator Interface for Advanced Teleoperation under Time-Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Fiorini, Paolo; Kim, Won Soo; Schenker, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly describes an Advanced Teleoperator (ATOP) system and its control station where a variety of computer-based operator interface devices and techniques are integrated into a functional setting, accommodating a primary operator and secondary operators. Computer graphics is a key operator interface component in the control station where new types of manual interface devices also are employed. The results of some generic and applications task experiments are summarized, including the performance of a simulated remote satellite servicing task, carried out under four to eight seconds communications time delay, using satellite TV and Internet computer communication links. In conclusion, the paper highlights the lessons learned so far,.

  1. Photonic temporal integration of broadband intensity waveforms over long operation time windows.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José

    2011-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel design for temporal integration of microwave and optical intensity waveforms with combined high processing speed and a long operation time window. It is based on concatenating in series a discrete-time (low-speed) photonic integrator and a high-speed analog time-limited intensity integrator. This scheme is demonstrated here using a cascaded fiber-based interferometers' system (as a passive eight-point discrete-time integrator) and an analog time-limited intensity integrator. The latter is based on temporal intensity modulation of the input waveform with a rectangular-like incoherent energy spectrum followed by linear dispersion. Using this setup, we experimentally achieve accurate time integration of intensity signals with ~36 GHz bandwidths over an operation time window of ~4 ns, corresponding to a processing time-bandwidth product of >144.

  2. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Neves, Carlos F H

    2010-06-01

    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.

  3. Multi-objective teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for reducing carbon emissions and operation time in turning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenwen; Yu, D. Y.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Chaoyong; Zhang, Sanqiang; Tian, Huiyu; Luo, Min; Liu, Shengqiang

    2015-07-01

    In addition to energy consumption, the use of cutting fluids, deposition of worn tools and certain other manufacturing activities can have environmental impacts. All these activities cause carbon emission directly or indirectly; therefore, carbon emission can be used as an environmental criterion for machining systems. In this article, a direct method is proposed to quantify the carbon emissions in turning operations. To determine the coefficients in the quantitative method, real experimental data were obtained and analysed in MATLAB. Moreover, a multi-objective teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed, and two objectives to minimize carbon emissions and operation time are considered simultaneously. Cutting parameters were optimized by the proposed algorithm. Finally, the analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the optimal solution, which was found to be more environmentally friendly than the cutting parameters determined by the design of experiments method.

  4. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  5. Sustained Accumulation of Microtubule-Binding Chemotherapy Drugs in the Peripheral Nervous System: Correlations with Time Course and Neurotoxic Severity.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Krystyna M; Vornov, James J; Wu, Ying; Nomoto, Kenichi; Littlefield, Bruce A; DesJardins, Christopher; Yu, Yanke; Lai, George; Reyderman, Larisa; Wong, Nancy; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many antineoplastic agents, but the mechanisms underlying the toxicities are unclear. At their MTDs, the microtubule-binding drugs paclitaxel and ixabepilone induce more severe neuropathy in mice relative to eribulin mesylate, paralleling their toxicity profiles in clinic. We hypothesized that the severity of their neurotoxic effects might be explained by the levels at which they accumulate in the peripheral nervous system. To test this hypothesis, we compared their pharmacokinetics and distribution in peripheral nerve tissue. After administration of a single intravenous dose, each drug was rapidly cleared from plasma but all persisted in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve (SN) for up to 72 hours. Focusing on paclitaxel and eribulin, we performed a 2-week MTD-dosing regimen, followed by a determination of drug pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and multiple functional measures of peripheral nerve toxicity for 4 weeks. Consistent with the acute dosing study, both drugs persisted in peripheral nervous tissues for weeks, in contrast to their rapid clearance from plasma. Notably, although eribulin exhibited greater DRG and SN penetration than paclitaxel, the neurotoxicity observed functionally was consistently more severe with paclitaxel. Overall, our results argue that sustained exposure of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents in peripheral nerve tissues cannot by itself account for their associated neurotoxicity. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3332-9. ©2016 AACR.

  6. Spectrometric characterization of effluent organic matter of a sequencing batch reactor operated at three sludge retention times.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Núñez-Hernández, S; Fall, C

    2011-12-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from activated sludge systems is composed primarily of influent refractory compounds, residual degradable substrate, intermediate products and soluble microbial products (SMPs). Depending on operational conditions (hydraulic and sludge retention time (SRT)), the quantity and quality of EfOM significantly changes. The main objective of this research was to quantify and characterize the EfOM of a lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which was operated at three SRTs and fed glucose, an easily biodegradable substrate. EfOM was followed with two direct-quantification methods (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), three spectrometric methods (ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and three organic matter (OM) indices (specific UVA(254) (SUVA), SUVA-COD, COD/DOC ratio). The significant increment of UVA(254) and OM indices after treatment indicated an accumulation of refractory high-molecular-weight humic-like compounds in the EfOM, which demonstrated that EfOM was composed mainly by SMPs and not glucose. On the other hand, as the SRT increased, the amount of EfOM decreased, but SUVA, SUVA-COD and fluorescence intensity increased; these trends indicated the accumulation of SMPs of increased molecular weight and aromaticity. Increasing SRT in the SBRs reduced the amount of EfOM, but increased its aromaticity and reactivity. Visual analysis of EfOM EEMs showed two protein- and one humic-like peak, which were attributed to SMPs generated within the SBRs. PARAFAC determined that a two-component model best represented EfOM EEMs. The two-components from PARAFAC were mathematically correlated to the visually identified protein- and humic-like SMPs peaks.

  7. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate...

  8. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate...

  9. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  10. Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System: Phase I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, A. H.; And Others

    The first phase of an ongoing library automation project at Stanford University is described. Project BALLOTS (Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System) seeks to automate the acquisition and cataloging functions of a large library using an on-line time-sharing computer. The main objectives are to control…

  11. Rise Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    The rise time test (along with the settleometer procedure) is used to monitor sludge behavior in the secondary clarifier of an activated sludge system. The test monitors the effect of the nitrification/denitrification process and aids the operator in determining optimum clarifier sludge detention time and, to some extent, optimum degree of…

  12. Real-Time Reporting of Small Operational Failures in Nursing Care

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Addressing microsystem problems from the frontline holds promise for quality enhancement. Frontline providers are urged to apply quality improvement; yet no systematic approach to problem detection has been tested. This study investigated a self-report approach to detecting operational failures encountered during patient care. Methods. Data were collected from 5 medical-surgical units over 4 weeks. Unit staff documented operational failures on a small distinctive Pocket Card. Frequency distributions for the operational failures in each category were calculated for each hospital overall and disaggregated by shift. Rate of operational failures on each unit was also calculated. Results. A total of 160 nurses participated in this study reporting a total of 2,391 operational failures over 429 shifts. Mean number of problems per shift varied from 4.0 to 8.5 problems with equipment/supply problems being the most commonly reported category. Conclusions. Operational failures are common on medical-surgical clinical units. It is feasible for unit staff to record these failures in real time. Many types of failures were recognized by frontline staff. This study provides preliminary evidence that the Pocket Card is a feasible approach to detecting operational failures in real time. Continued research on methodologies to investigate the impact of operational failures is warranted. PMID:27895940

  13. Intelligent real-time operation of a pumping station for an urban drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2013-05-01

    SummaryIn this study, we apply artificial intelligence techniques to the development of two real-time pumping station operation models, namely, a historical and an optimized adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-His and ANFIS-Opt, respectively). The functions of these two models are the determination of the real-time operation criteria of various pumping machines for controlling flood in an urban drainage system during periods when the drainage gate is closed. The ANFIS-His is constructed from an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using historical operation records. The ANFIS-Opt is constructed from an ANFIS using the best operation series, which are optimized by a tabu search of historical flood events. We use the Chung-Kong drainage basin, New Taipei City, Taiwan, as the study area. The operational comparison variables are the highest water level (WL) and the absolute difference between the final WL and target WL of a pumping front-pool. The results show that the ANFIS-Opt is better than the ANFIS-His and historical operation models, based on the operation simulations of two flood events using the two operation models.

  14. Teaching surgery takes time: the impact of surgical education on time in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M.; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Results Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p < 0.001). In regression analysis, procedures performed in teaching hospitals were associated with an overall 22% (95% confidence interval 20%–24%) increase in surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Conclusion Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies. PMID:27007088

  15. Operating Room Time Savings with the Use of Splint Packs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Tyler A.; Bluman, Eric M.; Palms, David; Smith, Jeremy T.; Chiodo, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR) is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP) contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS) splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB) prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p<0.001) in the SP group compared with the BS group. There was no significant difference in application time between the SP group and BS group. Conclusion: The use of SP made the process of splinting more lean. This has resulted in an average of 2 minutes 52 seconds saved in total splinting time compared to BS, making it an effective cost-cutting and time saving technique. For high volume ORs, use of splint packs may contribute to substantial time and cost savings without impacting patient safety. PMID:26894212

  16. Time and frequency domain analysis of sampled data controllers via mixed operation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1981-01-01

    Specification of the mathematical equations required to define the dynamic response of a linear continuous plant, subject to sampled data control, is complicated by the fact that the digital components of the control system cannot be modeled via linear ordinary differential equations. This complication can be overcome by introducing two new mathematical operations; namely, the operation of zero order hold and digial delay. It is shown that by direct utilization of these operations, a set of linear mixed operation equations can be written and used to define the dynamic response characteristics of the controlled system. It also is shown how these linear mixed operation equations lead, in an automatable manner, directly to a set of finite difference equations which are in a format compatible with follow on time and frequency domain analysis methods.

  17. Real-Time Online Communications: ’Chat’ Use in Navy Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    within US military command and control. Introduction Chat Systems The ability to conduct a real-time conversation online has become a...Oonk, Smallman & Moore, 2000; Oonk, Rogers & Moore, 2001) and military operations ( Schermerhorn , Oonk & Moore, 2002) and suggest that improvements...the discussions that become the basis for operational orders. Overall, it is clear that a comprehensive knowledge management approach is required to

  18. Distributed Resource Energy Analysis and Management System (DREAMS) Development for Real-time Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, Dora; Gouveia, Lauren

    2016-10-24

    This project supports development of the next generation, integrated energy management infrastructure (EMS) able to incorporate advance visualization of behind-the-meter distributed resource information and probabilistic renewable energy generation forecasts to inform real-time operational decisions. The project involves end-users and active feedback from an Utility Advisory Team (UAT) to help inform how information can be used to enhance operational functions (e.g. unit commitment, load forecasting, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) reserve monitoring, ramp alerts) within two major EMS platforms. Objectives include: Engaging utility operations personnel to develop user input on displays, set expectations, test and review; Developing ease of use and timeliness metrics for measuring enhancements; Developing prototype integrated capabilities within two operational EMS environments; Demonstrating an integrated decision analysis platform with real-time wind and solar forecasting information and timely distributed resource information; Seamlessly integrating new 4-dimensional information into operations without increasing workload and complexities; Developing sufficient analytics to inform and confidently transform and adopt new operating practices and procedures; Disseminating project lessons learned through industry sponsored workshops and conferences;Building on collaborative utility-vendor partnership and industry capabilities

  19. Development and operation of a real-time simulation at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Christopher; Sheppard, Shirin; Chetelat, Monique

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) facility at the NASA Ames Research Center combines the largest vertical motion capability in the world with a flexible real-time operating system allowing research to be conducted quickly and effectively. Due to the diverse nature of the aircraft simulated and the large number of simulations conducted annually, the challenge for the simulation engineer is to develop an accurate real-time simulation in a timely, efficient manner. The SimLab facility and the software tools necessary for an operating simulation will be discussed. Subsequent sections will describe the development process through operation of the simulation; this includes acceptance of the model, validation, integration and production phases.

  20. Effect of operational cycle time length on nitrogen removal in an alternating oxidation ditch system.

    PubMed

    Mantziaras, I D; Stamou, A; Katsiri, A

    2011-06-01

    This paper refers to nitrogen removal optimization of an alternating oxidation ditch system through the use of a mathematical model and pilot testing. The pilot system where measurements have been made has a total volume of 120 m(3) and consists of two ditches operating in four phases during one cycle and performs carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and settling. The mathematical model consists of one-dimensional mass balance (convection-dispersion) equations based on the IAWPRC ASM 1 model. After the calibration and verification of the model, simulation system performance was made. Optimization is achieved by testing operational cycles and phases with different time lengths. The limits of EU directive 91/271 for nitrogen removal have been used for comparison. The findings show that operational cycles with smaller time lengths can achieve higher nitrogen removals and that an "equilibrium" between phase time percentages in the whole cycle, for a given inflow, must be achieved.

  1. Nonunitary similarity transformation of conservative to dissipative evolutions: Intertwining without time operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Fernando

    2007-04-01

    Reversible evolutions are usually expressed in terms of unitary groups on separable Hilbert spaces, whereas irreversible ones are described by contraction semigroups. In the theory of nonunitary similarity transformations intertwining unitary groups and contraction semigroups, proposed initially in the context of statistical mechanics as part of an exact theory of irreversibility, the unitary groups with such intertwining property have been qualified by the existence of an internal time operator. This work tackles the question of existence of internal time operators for unitary groups with the intertwining property. Equivalent conditions to the existence of internal time operators for such unitary groups are given on the basis of the Sz.-Nagy-Foiaş [Harmonic Analysis of Operators on Hilbert Spaces (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970)] dilation theory and the theory of shift invariant subspaces. These conditions permit us to solve the inverse intertwining problem in the negative: there are unitary groups with the intertwining property which do not admit internal time operator. A representative family of such unitary groups is given.

  2. Operating manual for the R100 digital vibration-time totalizer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordes, Edwin H.; Shi, Minghua

    1988-01-01

    A vibration sensor that monitors the running time of pumps to determine water withdrawal by various public-supply, agricultural, and industrial groups has been developed in response to a need demonstrated by data gathering activities of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Use Information Program. This sensor, the R100 digital vibration-time totalizer, attaches to monitored equipment such as a pump, motor, or pipe facility and senses vibration to determine running time. Battery-powered and packaged for field environment, the R100 can be left unattended for up to 1 year. Time is recorded to the nearest 0.01 hour, or 36 seconds. This operating manual for the R100 digital vibration-time totalizer describes the R100 's principal of operation and gives installation guidelines and instructions for battery replacements. (USGS)

  3. Real-time science operations to support a lunar polar volatiles rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2015-05-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the ∼ 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  4. Evidence of self organization in great Sumatra earthquake recurrence times: Implications for coupling of tidal forcing and tectonic stress accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Puli, K.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed inter- event time series of earthquake activities (M≥ 5) of Sumatra region spanning over 1973 to 2009 using techniques of nonlinear dynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the USGS catalogue centered on latitude 3.240N and longitude 95.825E. As a first step, in our analyses we computed the rank order statistics which revealed mixed response of earthquake dynamics indicating distinct breaks in slope of the rank order. This suggests that earthquake dynamics in this region is partly unstable and partly "self-organized" with a random tail. Comparison of return maps of the earthquakes inter- event time series with those representing random, stochastic and chaotic processes shows a quasi-deterministic behavior of earthquake genesis in the region. We further assessed the dimensionality of earthquake-generating mechanisms using a nonlinear predictor technique on two dimensional phase portrait constructed by recurrence time series. The nonlinear forecasting analysis suggests that the earthquake processes in the Sumatra region evolve on a non-random low-dimensional chaotic plane. Further, "K2" Entropy revealed a coherent structure indicating the deterministic dynamical pattern. This analysis is consistent with "self-organized" processes which could be explained invoking earth's internal dynamics, where, impulsively derived interdependencies cascades through the stress generated by tectonic plate movement. Our results, however, do not preclude the role of coupling of the above self-organized system with tidal forcing. Evidence for such a coupling in this region exists as 'triggering force". Keywords: Sumatra Earthquakes, Quasi-deterministic, Stochastic, Chaotic, Self-organized, K2 entropy, Phase portrait.

  5. Sediment accumulation, stratigraphic order, and the extent of time-averaging in lagoonal sediments: a comparison of 210Pb and 14C/amino acid racemization chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosnik, Matthew A.; Hua, Quan; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-14 calibrated amino acid racemization (14C/AAR) data and lead-210 (210Pb) data are used to examine sediment accumulation rates, stratigraphic order, and the extent of time-averaging in sediments collected from the One Tree Reef lagoon (southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia). The top meter of lagoonal sediment preserves a stratigraphically ordered deposit spanning the last 600 yrs. Despite different assumptions, the 210Pb and 14C/AAR chronologies are remarkably similar indicating consistency in sedimentary processes across sediment grain sizes spanning more than three orders of magnitude (0.1-10 mm). Estimates of long-term sediment accumulation rates range from 2.2 to 1.2 mm yr-1. Molluscan time-averaging in the taphonomically active zone is 19 yrs, whereas below the depth of final burial (~15 cm), it is ~110 yrs/5 cm layer. While not a high-resolution paleontological record, this reef lagoon sediment is suitable for paleoecological studies spanning the period of Western colonization and development. This sedimentary deposit, and others like it, should be useful, albeit not ideal, for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on coral reef systems.

  6. Risk Analysis of Multipurpose Reservoir Real-time Operation based on Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, which outputs a lot of inflow scenarios or traces, does well in depicting the inflow not only the marginal distribution but also their corrections. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir operating risk by inputting probabilistic hydrologic forecasting into reservoir real-time operation. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, two alternative techniques, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), are implemented for producing probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, respectively, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of traces that excessive (or below) the critical value to the total number of traces, and (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is build to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits with the inputted probabilistic hydrologic forecasting. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated and minimized based on the proposed methods, and this is great potential benefit in decision and choosing the most realistic one.

  7. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  8. Dynamic simulation and optimal real-time operation of CHP systems for buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hee Jin

    Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems have been widely recognized as a key alternative for electric and thermal energy generation because of their outstanding energy efficiency, reduced environmental emissions, and relative independence from centralized power grids. The systems provide simultaneous onsite or near-site electric and thermal energy generation in a single, integrated package. As CHP becomes increasingly popular worldwide and its total capacity increases rapidly, the research on the topics of CHP performance assessment, design, and operational strategy become increasingly important. Following this trend of research activities to improve energy efficiency, environmental emissions, and operational cost, this dissertation focuses on the following aspects: (a) performance evaluation of a CHP system using a transient simulation model; (b) development of a dynamic simulation model of a power generation unit that can be effectively used in transient simulations of CHP systems; (c) investigation of real-time operation of CHP systems based on optimization with respect to operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions; and (d) development of optimal supervisory feed-forward control that can provide realistic real-time operation of CHP systems with electric and thermal energy storages using short-term weather forecasting. The results from a transient simulation of a CHP system show that technical and economical performance can be readily evaluated using the transient model and that the design, component selection, and control of a CHP system can be improved using this model. The results from the case studies using optimal real-time operation strategies demonstrate that CHP systems with an energy dispatch algorithm have the potential to yield savings in operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions with respect to a conventional HVAC system. Finally, the results from the case study using a

  9. Real-time automated failure analysis for on-orbit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Sarah; Lauritsen, Janet; Pack, Ginger; Ha, Anhhoang; Jowers, Steven; Mcnenny, Robert; Truong, The; Dell, James

    1993-01-01

    A system which is to provide real-time failure analysis support to controllers at the NASA Johnson Space Center Control Center Complex (CCC) for both Space Station and Space Shuttle on-orbit operations is described. The system employs monitored systems' models of failure behavior and model evaluation algorithms which are domain-independent. These failure models are viewed as a stepping stone to more robust algorithms operating over models of intended function. The described system is designed to meet two sets of requirements. It must provide a useful failure analysis capability enhancement to the mission controller. It must satisfy CCC operational environment constraints such as cost, computer resource requirements, verification, and validation. The underlying technology and how it may be used to support operations is also discussed.

  10. Real-Time Assessment of Robot Performance During Remote Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Fong, Terrence; Milam, Tod; Pacis, Estrellina; Utz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    To ensure that robots are used effectively for exploration missions, it is important to assess their performance during operations. We are investigating the definition and computation of performance metrics for assessing remote robotic operations in real-time. Our approach is to monitor data streams from robots, compute performance metrics, and provide Web-based displays of these metrics for assessing robot performance during operations. We evaluated our approach for measuring robot performance with the K10 rovers from NASA Ames Research Center during a field test at Moses Lake Sand Dunes (WA) in June 2008. In this paper we present the results of evaluating our software for robot performance and discuss our conclusions from this evaluation for future robot operations.

  11. Influence of Trainee Participation on Operative Times for Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Kozin, Elliot; Sethi, Rosh; Hight, A.E.; Shrime, Mark; Gray, Stacey T.; Cohen, Michael; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined operative times for cochlear implantation (CI) using multivariable linear regression analyses to identify predictors of case length. Herein, we assess whether trainee participation, among other factors, influences OR times. Methods We retrospectively reviewed total OR and procedural times for isolated unilateral implants over a five-year period (2009-2013) in children and adults. Cases performed by 14 different surgeons at a single tertiary care center were evaluated. Total operating and procedural times were compared. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify predictors of procedural time, including presence of trainee (resident or fellow), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical classification, age, gender, and surgeon identity. Results We identified a total of 455 unilateral CI procedures (n = 35 pediatric, n = 420 adult). Mean total OR time was 193.6 min (SD = 58.9 min) and mean procedural time was 147.1 min (SD = 56.2). The presence of trainees was associated with a significant difference in procedure time (149.9 min [SD = 54.9] with trainees vs. 136.6 min [SD= 59.9] without, p=0.0375). Trainee involvement did not significantly increase total OR time (196.3 minutes [SD=56.9] with residents, 183.8 minutes [SD=65.0] without, p=0.0653). Surgeon identity was also associated with differences in procedural time (p<0.001). Patient age, gender, ASA classification, pediatric designation had no significant impact on length of case. Conclusions Major predictors of longer procedural OR times for CI are surgeon identity and trainee participation. Few published data exist on length of cochlear implantation in an academic setting using multivariable linear regression analyses. Our data may be instructive for comparative analyses and has implications for operative planning and surgical education. PMID:25387322

  12. Evolving from Planning and Scheduling to Real-Time Operations Support: Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ludowise, Melissa; McCurdy, Michael; Li, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Versions of Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration (SPIFe) have supported a variety of mission operations across NASA. This software tool has evolved and matured over several years, assisting planners who develop intricate schedules. While initially conceived for surface Mars missions, SPIFe has been deployed in other domains, where people rather than robotic explorers, execute plans. As a result, a diverse set of end-users has compelled growth in a new direction: supporting real-time operations. This paper describes the new needs and challenges that accompany this development. Among the key features that have been built for SPIFe are current time indicators integrated into the interface and timeline, as well as other plan attributes that enable execution of scheduled activities. Field tests include mission support for the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) campaigns.

  13. Implementation of Arithmetic Operations With Time-Free Spiking Neural P Systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangrong; Li, Ziming; Liu, Juan; Liu, Logan; Zeng, Xiangxiang

    2015-09-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SN P systems) are a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired from the way neurons communicate by means of spikes. In most applications of SN P systems, synchronization plays a key role which means the execution of a rule is completed in exactly one time unit (one step). However, such synchronization does not coincide with the biological fact: in biological nervous systems, the execution times of spiking rules cannot be known exactly. Therefore, a "realistic" system called time-free SN P systems were proposed, where the precise execution time of rules is removed. In this paper, we consider building arithmetical operation systems based on time-free SN P systems. Specifically, adder, subtracter, multiplier, and divider are constructed by using time-free SN P systems. The obtained systems always produce the same computation result independently from the execution time of the rules.

  14. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  15. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  16. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  17. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  18. 47 CFR 90.155 - Time in which station must be placed in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.155 Time in... associated mobile station is also placed in operation. See also §§ 90.633(d) and 90.631(f). (d... multilateration technology, to one or more mobile units. Specifically, LMS multilateration stations will only...

  19. 33 CFR 164.55 - Deviations from rules: Continuing operation or period of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Continuing operation or period of time. 164.55 Section 164.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS §...

  20. Tactical increases in operating room block time for capacity planning should not be based on utilization.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2008-01-01

    When a decision has been made to expand operating room (OR) capacity, the choice of surgical subspecialties to receive additional block time and fill the additional OR capacity is a tactical decision. Such decisions are made approximately once a year. Afterwards, typically a few months before the day of surgery, a second stage occurs in which operational decisions allocate OR time and determine the hours of staffing for each specialty based on its expected workload. In practice, cases are not scheduled into block time that has been planned tactically, but instead are scheduled during the second stage into the staffed time that is allocated operationally. This article reviews the literature on tactical decision-making for expansion of OR capacity. When additional OR capacity is available, it should be planned for those subspecialties that have the greatest contribution margin per OR hour, that have the potential for growth, and that have minimal need for limited resources such as intensive care unit beds. Numerous reasons are presented to explain why tactical planning of additional block time should not be based on current or past utilization of block time.

  1. Associations of sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eline H; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Bours, Martijn J L; Lynch, Brigid M; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Kant, Ijmert; Beets, Geerard L; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Healy, Genevieve N; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake) is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2-10 years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 145) diagnosed (2002-2010) at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands, wore the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor 24 h/day for seven consecutive days. HRQoL outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, WHODAS II, Checklist Individual Strength, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate associations with HRQoL outcomes of MOX-derived total and prolonged sedentary time (in prolonged sedentary bouts ≥ 30 min), and usual sedentary bout duration, corrected for waking wear time. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.6), and 4.5 h/day in prolonged sedentary time (2.3). Mean usual sedentary bout duration was 27.3 min (SD, 16.8). Greater total and prolonged sedentary time, and longer usual sedentary bout duration were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower physical functioning, and higher disability and fatigue scores. Greater prolonged sedentary time and longer usual sedentary bout duration also showed significant associations with lower global quality of life and role functioning. Associations with distress and social functioning were non-significant. Sedentary time was cross-sectionally associated with poorer HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are needed to investigate whether sedentary time reduction is a potential target for lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the HRQoL of CRC survivors.

  2. Flywheel set for accumulating kinetic energy of rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Theyse, F.H.

    1980-09-16

    A flywheel set is described for accumulating energy with elastically supported bearings, resulting in a low critical speed, lying at all times under the operational flywheel speed. The axial thrust taking bearings, or one bearing, may be operating with magnetic forces.

  3. Turnover and accumulation of genetic diversity across large time-scale cycles of isolation and connection of populations

    PubMed Central

    Alcala, Nicolas; Vuilleumier, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Major climatic and geological events but also population history (secondary contacts) have generated cycles of population isolation and connection of long and short periods. Recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that fast evolutionary processes might be triggered by such events, as commonly illustrated in ecology by the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes (isolation and reconnection of lakes and watersheds) and in epidemiology by the fast adaptation of the influenza virus (isolation and reconnection in hosts). We test whether cyclic population isolation and connection provide the raw material (standing genetic variation) for species evolution and diversification. Our analytical results demonstrate that population isolation and connection can provide, to populations, a high excess of genetic diversity compared with what is expected at equilibrium. This excess is either cyclic (high allele turnover) or cumulates with time depending on the duration of the isolation and the connection periods and the mutation rate. We show that diversification rates of animal clades are associated with specific periods of climatic cycles in the Quaternary. We finally discuss the importance of our results for macroevolutionary patterns and for the inference of population history from genomic data. PMID:25253456

  4. Preoperative computed tomography angiography for planning DIEP flap breast reconstruction reduces operative time and overall complications

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Chowdhry, Muhammad; Band, Bassam; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.; Griffiths, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background The approach and operative techniques associated with breast reconstruction have steadily been refined since its inception, with abdominal perforator-based flaps becoming the gold standard reconstructive option for women undergoing breast cancer surgery. The current study comprises a cohort of 632 patients, in whom specific operative times are recorded by a blinded observer, and aims to address the potential benefits seen with the use of computer tomography (CT) scanning preoperatively on operative outcomes, complications and surgical times. Methods A prospectively recorded, retrospective review was undertaken of patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap at the St Andrews Centre over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) scanning of patients began in September 2012 and thus 2 time periods were compared: 2 years prior to the use of CTA scans and 2 years afterwards. For all patients, key variables were collected including patient demographics, operative times, flap harvest time, pedicle length, surgeon experience and complications. Results In group 1, comprising patients within the period prior to CTA scans, 265 patients underwent 312 flaps; whilst in group 2, the immediately following 2 years, 275 patients had 320 flaps. The use of preoperative CTA scans demonstrated a significant reduction in flap harvest time of 13 minutes (P<0.013). This significant time saving was seen in all flap modifications: unilateral, bilateral and bipedicled DIEP flaps. The greatest time saving was seen in bipedicle flaps, with a 35-minute time saving. The return to theatre rate significantly dropped from 11.2% to 6.9% following the use of CTA scans, but there was no difference in the total failure rate. Conclusions The study has demonstrated both a benefit to flap harvest time as well as overall operative times when using preoperative CTA. The use of CTA was associated with a significant reduction in complications

  5. [Surgical Correction of Scoliosis: Does Intraoperative CT Navigation Prolong Operative Time?

    PubMed

    Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Ježek, M; Džupa, V; Kadeřábek, R; Douša, P; Rusnák, R; Krbec, M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to compare the duration of corrective surgery for scoliosis in relation to the intra-operative use of either fluoroscopic or CT navigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS The indication for surgery was adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in younger patients and degenerative scoliosis in middleage or elderly patients. In a retrospective study, treatment outcomes in 43 consecutive patients operated on between April 2011 and April 2014 were compared. Only patients undergoing surgical correction of five or more spinal segments (fixation of six and more vertebrae) were included. RESULTS Transpedicular screw fixation of six to 13 vertebrae was performed under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance in 22 patients, and transpedicular screws were inserted in six to 14 vertebrae using the O-arm imaging system in 21 patients. A total of 246 screws were placed using the C-arm system and 340 screws were inserted using the O-arm system (p < 0.001). The procedures with use of the O-arm system were more complicated and required an average operative time longer by 48% (measured from the first skin incision to the completion of skin suture). However, the mean time needed for one screw placement (the sum of all surgical procedures with the use of a navigation technique divided by the number of screws placed using this technique) was the same in both techniques (19 min). DISCUSSION With good teamwork (surgeons, anaesthesiologists and a radiologist attending to the O-arm system), the time required to obtain one intra-operative CT scan is 3 to 5 minutes. The study showed that the mean time for placement of one screw was identical in both techniques although the average operative time was longer in surgery with O-arm navigation. The 19- minute interval was not the real placement time per screw. It was the sum of all operative times of surgical procedures (from first incision to suture completion including the whole approach within the range of planned stabilization

  6. Development of a subway operation incident delay model using accelerated failure time approaches.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Xuedong; Meng, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to develop a subway operational incident delay model using the parametric accelerated time failure (AFT) approach. Six parametric AFT models including the log-logistic, lognormal and Weibull models, with fixed and random parameters are built based on the Hong Kong subway operation incident data from 2005 to 2012, respectively. In addition, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity is also considered to compare the model performance. The goodness-of-fit test results show that the log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is most suitable for estimating the subway incident delay. First, the results show that a longer subway operation incident delay is highly correlated with the following factors: power cable failure, signal cable failure, turnout communication disruption and crashes involving a casualty. Vehicle failure makes the least impact on the increment of subway operation incident delay. According to these results, several possible measures, such as the use of short-distance and wireless communication technology (e.g., Wifi and Zigbee) are suggested to shorten the delay caused by subway operation incidents. Finally, the temporal transferability test results show that the developed log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is stable over time.

  7. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    DOE PAGES

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such,more » it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.« less

  8. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such, it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.

  9. Stability improvement of an operational two-way satellite time and frequency transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Jiun; Fujieda, Miho; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tseng, Wen-Hung; Tsao, Hen-Wai

    2016-04-01

    To keep national time accurately coherent with coordinated universal time, many national metrology institutes (NMIs) use two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) to continuously measure the time difference with other NMIs over an international baseline. Some NMIs have ultra-stable clocks with stability better than 10-16. However, current operational TWSTFT can only provide frequency uncertainty of 10-15 and time uncertainty of 1 ns, which is inadequate. The uncertainty is dominated by the short-term stability and the diurnals, i.e. the measurement variation with a period of one day. The aim of this work is to improve the stability of operational TWSTFT systems without additional transmission, bandwidth or increase in signal power. A software-defined receiver (SDR) comprising a high-resolution correlator and successive interference cancellation associated with open-loop configuration as the TWSTFT receiver reduces the time deviation from 140 ps to 73 ps at averaging time of 1 h, and occasionally suppresses diurnals. To study the source of the diurnals, TWSTFT is performed using a 2  ×  2 earth station (ES) array. Consequently, some ESs sensitive to temperature variation are identified, and the diurnals are significantly reduced by employing insensitive ESs. Hence, the operational TWSTFT using the proposed SDR with insensitive ESs achieves time deviation to 41 ps at 1 h, and 80 ps for averaging times from 1 h to 20 h.

  10. The Impact of Pre-Operative Breast MRI on Surgical Waiting Time

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michelle; Sun, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of pre-operative breast MRI on surgical waiting time, and to identify factors contributing to the delay. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study involving 1274 patients was conducted after obtaining institutional ethics review. Surgical candidates for newly diagnosed breast cancer from 2007 to 2013 at a tertiary center were divided into 2 groups: those who had pre-operative MRI and those who did not. Linear regression using matched populations was used to compare the surgical waiting times, defined as time from the date of the first positive biopsy to the date of surgery. Potential influences on surgical waiting time and subgroup analysis were obtained using median regression analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Mean surgical waiting time was 57.9 days (95% CI: 55.6–60.1) for MRI patients, compared to 46.8 days (95% CI: 45.1–48.9) for the control group, after matching for potential confounding factors (p<0.0001). Increased surgical waiting time was associated with more favorable pathology, later year of diagnosis, older patient age, surgeon and summer time. Second-look ultrasound and subsequent biopsies were associated with increased waiting time (p = 0.001). Conclusions Pre-operative breast MRI increased surgical waiting time by 11 days using a conventional average of differences, and by 12 days after using a full matching statistical method (p<0.0001), with the main contributor being additional post-MRI procedures and imaging. PMID:28068382

  11. Real-Time Wastewater System Operational Strategy Adaptation for Rainfall Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schmidt, A.; Ostfeld, A.; Treinish, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    prevent the selection of solutions that may lead to transients, allowing more efficient management approaches while still preventing flow instabilities. Modifications to the Genetic Algorithm (GA) such as decreased search space, memory enhancement, and a diversity-enhancing micro-GA allow rapid convergence to good solutions that help define the rules. This paper also discusses how the work will be extended to include rainfall forecast verification strategies. Forecasted peak rainfall intensities, spatial areas of similar intensity, and other storm characteristics may differ from gauge and radar observations. The possible errors in prediction can be quantified as verification scores with the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) software. The verification scores should be considered while optimizing system operations; selected verification scores will be accumulated to acquire score uncertainty for distinct storm types. The uncertainties in forecasts may be incorporated into, and may change, the optimized system rules for a deterministic forecast.

  12. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  13. Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Prasertkulsak, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Itonaga, T; Yamamoto, K

    2016-05-01

    Pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h for the treatment of hospital wastewater. The removals of eleven pharmaceutical compounds in MBR operated at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level were investigated during which nitrification degree was differed. The results experiments revealed the importance of immediate adsorption onto the colloidal particles in supernatant of MBR sludge and subsequently removed by membrane filtration for the recalcitrant pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, the removals through biodegradation during short HRT were also found significant for some compounds. DGGE profile revealed the development of pharmaceutical degrading microorganisms in MBR.

  14. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  15. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  16. Streamflow forecast uncertainty evolution and its effect on real-time reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Singh, Vijay P.; Lu, Weiwei; Zhang, Junhong; Zhou, Jianzhong; Guo, Shenglian

    2016-09-01

    When employing streamflow forecasting in practical applications, such as reservoir operation, one important issue is to deal with the uncertainty involved in forecasting. Traditional studies dealing with the uncertainty in streamflow forecasting have been limited in describing the evolution of forecast uncertainty. This paper proposes a copula-based uncertainty evolution (CUE) model to describe the evolution of streamflow forecast uncertainty. The generated forecast uncertainty series fits the observed series well in terms of observed mean, standard deviation and skewness. Daily flow with forecast uncertainty are simulated and used to determine the effect of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. Results show that using the forecast inflow coupled with the pre-release module for reservoir operation of TGR in flood season cannot increase the flood risk.

  17. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  18. Use of an operating microscope during spine surgery is associated with minor increases in operating room times and no increased risk of infection

    PubMed Central

    Basques, Bryce A.; Golinvaux, Nicholas S.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Yacob, Alem; Toy, Jason O.; Varthi, Arya G.; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective database review. Objective To evaluate whether microscope use during spine procedures is associated with increased operating room times or increased risk of infection. Summary of Background Data Operating microscopes are commonly used in spine procedures. It is debated whether the use of an operating microscope increases operating room time or confers increased risk of infection. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, which includes data from over 370 participating hospitals, was used to identify patients undergoing elective spinal procedures with and without an operating microscope for the years 2011 and 2012. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to test the association between microscope use and operating room times. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were similarly conducted to test the association between microscope use and infection occurrence within 30 days of surgery. Results A total of 23,670 elective spine procedures were identified, of which 2,226 (9.4%) used an operating microscope. The average patient age was 55.1 ± 14.4 years. The average operative time (incision to closure) was 125.7 ± 82.0 minutes. Microscope use was associated with minor increases in preoperative room time (+2.9 minutes, p=0.013), operative time (+13.2 minutes, p<0.001), and total room time (+18.6 minutes, p<0.001) on multivariate analysis. A total of 328 (1.4%) patients had an infection within 30 days of surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant difference between the microscope and non-microscope groups for occurrence of any infection, superficial surgical site infection (SSI), deep SSI, organ space infection, or sepsis/septic shock, regardless of surgery type. Conclusions We did not find operating room times or infection risk to be significant deterrents for use of an operating microscope during spine surgery. PMID:25188600

  19. Lindbladian operators, von Neumann entropy and energy conservation in time-dependent quantum open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Congjie; Chamberlin, Ralph V.; Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is widely employed in studies of Markovian quantum open systems. Here, the following question is posed: in a quantum open system with a time-dependent Hamiltonian such as a subsystem in contact with the heat bath, what is the corresponding Lindblad equation for the quantum state that keeps the internal energy of the subsystem constant in time? This issue is of importance in realizing quasi-stationary states of open systems such as quantum circuits and batteries. As an illustrative example, the time-dependent harmonic oscillator is analyzed. It is shown that the Lindbladian operator is uniquely determined with the help of a Lie-algebraic structure, and the time derivative of the von Neumann entropy is shown to be nonnegative if the curvature of the harmonic potential monotonically decreases in time.

  20. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  1. Influence of sludge retention time on tolerance of copper toxicity for polyphosphate accumulating organisms linked to polyhydroxyalkanoates metabolism and phosphate removal.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Pin; Chen, Hsiu-Ting

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the influence of sludge retention time (SRT) on tolerance of copper invasion for polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The experimental data showed the anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage for the sludge at 10d SRT was less influenced by copper invasion than those at 5d and 15d SRTs. The reaction of PAOs aerobically taking up phosphate for the sludge at 5d or 15d SRT almost ceased at 2 mg Cu L(-1), whereas PAOs in the sludge at 10d SRT retained half of the ability to take up phosphate. Both the PHAs degradation and synthesis rates decreased with increasing copper concentration, regardless of the SRTs. However, the copper inhibition of the former was greater than that of the later.

  2. Validation of an operational product to determine L1 to Earth propagation time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, M. D.; Witters Hicks, S.; Biesecker, D. A.; Reinard, A. A.; Koning, C. A.; Weimer, D. R.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development and validation of an operational space weather tool to forecast propagation delay times between L1 and Earth using the Weimer and King (2008) tilted phase front technique. A simple flat plane convection delay method is currently used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) to propagate the solar wind from a monitoring satellite located at L1 to a point upstream of the magnetosphere. This technique assumes that all observed solar wind discontinuities, such as interplanetary shocks and interplanetary coronal mass ejection boundaries, are in a flat plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line traveling in the GSE X direction at the observed solar wind velocity. In reality, these phase plane fronts can have significantly tilted orientations, and by relying on a ballistic propagation method, delay time errors of ±15 min are common. In principle, the propagation time delay product presented here should more accurately predict L1 to Earth transit times by taking these tilted phase plane fronts into account. This algorithm, which is based on the work of Weimer and King (2008), is currently running in real time in test mode at SWPC as part of the SWPC test bed. We discuss the current algorithm performance, and via our detailed validation study, show that there is no significant difference between the two propagation methods when run in a real-time operational environment.

  3. A Systematic Approach for Real-Time Operator Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean; Li, Jiang; Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    A task overload condition often leads to high stress for an operator, causing performance degradation and possibly disastrous consequences. Just as dangerous, with automated flight systems, an operator may experience a task underload condition (during the en-route flight phase, for example), becoming easily bored and finding it difficult to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, the disengaged operator may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss an approach for Operator Functional State (OFS) monitoring in a typical aviation environment. A systematic ground truth finding procedure has been designed based on subjective evaluations, performance measures, and strong physiological indicators. The derived OFS ground truth is continuous in time compared to a very sparse estimation of OFS based on an expert review or subjective evaluations. It can capture the variations of OFS during a mission to better guide through the training process of the OFS assessment model. Furthermore, an OFS assessment model framework based on advanced machine learning techniques was designed and the systematic approach was then verified and validated with experimental data collected in a high fidelity Boeing 737 simulator. Preliminary results show highly accurate engagement/disengagement detection making it suitable for real-time applications to assess pilot engagement.

  4. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  5. Initial operation of the NSTX-Upgrade real-time velocity diagnostic

    DOE PAGES

    Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-11-03

    A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). We designed the system in order to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Our measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Furthermore, examples of physics studies enabled bymore » RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.« less

  6. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  7. Initial operation of the NSTX-Upgrade real-time velocity diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-11-03

    A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). We designed the system in order to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Our measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Furthermore, examples of physics studies enabled by RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.

  8. Initial operation of the NSTX-Upgrade real-time velocity diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). The system has been designed to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Examples of physics studies enabled by RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.

  9. An application of timed Petri nets to S/C operations analysis: The Aristoteles autonomy concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barro, E.; Rossi, F.

    1990-10-01

    Petri nets as a methodology for the study and analysis of systems behavior are discussed. They can be tailored to timed approaches, to highlight all the system possible timing critical and deadlock conditions. As a consequence, it is valuable to apply a Petri nets-based methodology in the space environment. Spacecraft operations analysis during system definition is one area of possible application. The application of Petri nets, as a basis for an investigation methodology in the Aristoteles spacecraft autonomy concept definition is described. Significant results are obtained allowing the production of a consistent, formally clean and self explaining system description, to be used as an aid to design and a tool for system evaluation. Such positive achievements support the exploitation of Petri nets-based methodologies in spacecraft operations to describe and analyze the overall space system behavior.

  10. Force-reflection and shared compliant control in operating telemanipulators with time delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Hannaford, Blake; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of an advanced telemanipulation system in the presence of a wide range of time delays between a master control station and a slave robot is quantified. The contemplated applications include multiple satellite links to LEO, geosynchronous operation, spacecraft local area networks, and general-purpose computer-based short-distance designs. The results of high-precision peg-in-hole tasks performed by six test operators indicate that task performance decreased linearly with introduced time delays for both kinesthetic force feedback (KFF) and shared compliant control (SCC). The rate of this decrease was substantially improved with SCC compared to KFF. Task performance at delays above 1 s was not possible using KFF. SCC enabled task performance for such delays, which are realistic values for ground-controlled remote manipulation of telerobots in space.

  11. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  12. HOPE real time flight operations analyses for return to earth phase, part A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The results of the HOPE (H-2 Orbiting Plane) real time flight operation analysis for return to earth phase are presented. The analyses of the flight parameter real time estimation accuracy was conducted (including definition of the estimate system operation, close examination of required function and programs, and study on the verification and experiment plans) and the following two items of the system verification and experiment are proposed: (1) utilization of the ETS-X (Engineering Test Satellite-X); and (2) utilization of mock-up landing experiment plane. The study on the limit of deviation from the flight path was conducted, and various factors to improve the flight path deviation are outlined.

  13. Time-domain theory of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers operating at grazing incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Zheleznov, I. V.

    2015-01-15

    Time-domain theory of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) operating at grazing incidence has been developed. The theory is based on a description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental results of the observation of subnanosecond pulse amplification in a gyro-TWT consisting of three gain sections separated by severs. The theory developed can also be used successfully for a description of amplification of monochromatic signals.

  14. Factors determining the smooth flow and the non-operative time in a one-induction room to one-operating room setting

    PubMed Central

    Mulier, Jan P; De Boeck, Liesje; Meulders, Michel; Beliën, Jeroen; Colpaert, Jan; Sels, Annabel

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives What factors determine the use of an anaesthesia preparation room and shorten non-operative time? Methods A logistic regression is applied to 18 751 surgery records from AZ Sint-Jan Brugge AV, Belgium, where each operating room has its own anaesthesia preparation room. Surgeries, in which the patient's induction has already started when the preceding patient's surgery has ended, belong to a first group where the preparation room is used as an induction room. Surgeries not fulfilling this property belong to a second group. A logistic regression model tries to predict the probability that a surgery will be classified into a specific group. Non-operative time is calculated as the time between end of the previous surgery and incision of the next surgery. A log-linear regression of this non-operative time is performed. Results It was found that switches in surgeons, being a non-elective surgery as well as the previous surgery being non-elective, increase the probability of being classified into the second group. Only a few surgery types, anaesthesiologists and operating rooms can be found exclusively in one of the two groups. Analysis of variance demonstrates that the first group has significantly lower non-operative times. Switches in surgeons, anaesthesiologists and longer scheduled durations of the previous surgery increases the non-operative time. A switch in both surgeon and anaesthesiologist strengthens this negative effect. Only a few operating rooms and surgery types influence the non-operative time. Conclusion The use of the anaesthesia preparation room shortens the non-operative time and is determined by several human and structural factors. PMID:25496600

  15. Marginal analysis in assessing factors contributing time to physician in the Emergency Department using operations data

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Sameer A.; Bhutta, Zain A.; Moinudheen, Jibin; Jenkins, Dominic; Silva, Ashwin D.; Sharma, Yogdutt; Saleh, Warda A.; Khudabakhsh, Zeenat; Irfan, Furqan B.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Standard Emergency Department (ED) operations goals include minimization of the time interval (tMD) between patients' initial ED presentation and initial physician evaluation. This study assessed factors known (or suspected) to influence tMD with a two-step goal. The first step was generation of a multivariate model identifying parameters associated with prolongation of tMD at a single study center. The second step was the use of a study center-specific multivariate tMD model as a basis for predictive marginal probability analysis; the marginal model allowed for prediction of the degree of ED operations benefit that would be affected with specific ED operations improvements. Methods: The study was conducted using one month (May 2015) of data obtained from an ED administrative database (EDAD) in an urban academic tertiary ED with an annual census of approximately 500,000; during the study month, the ED saw 39,593 cases. The EDAD data were used to generate a multivariate linear regression model assessing the various demographic and operational covariates' effects on the dependent variable tMD. Predictive marginal probability analysis was used to calculate the relative contributions of key covariates as well as demonstrate the likely tMD impact on modifying those covariates with operational improvements. Analyses were conducted with Stata 14MP, with significance defined at p < 0.05 and confidence intervals (CIs) reported at the 95% level. Results: In an acceptable linear regression model that accounted for just over half of the overall variance in tMD (adjusted r 2 0.51), important contributors to tMD included shift census (p = 0.008), shift time of day (p = 0.002), and physician coverage n (p = 0.004). These strong associations remained even after adjusting for each other and other covariates. Marginal predictive probability analysis was used to predict the overall tMD impact (improvement from 50 to 43 minutes, p < 0.001) of consistent staffing

  16. Dynamic range extension of SiPM detectors with the time-gated operation.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Eva; Diéguez, Angel

    2014-05-19

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a novel detector technology that has undergone a fast development in the last few years, owing to its single-photon resolution and ultra-fast response time. However, the typical high dark count rates of the sensor may prevent the detection of low intensity radiation fluxes. In this article, the time-gated operation with short active periods in the nanosecond range is proposed as a solution to reduce the number of cells fired due to noise and thus increase the dynamic range. The technique is aimed at application fields that function under a trigger command, such as gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

  17. A preliminary study: aspirin discontinuation before elective operations; when is the optimal timing?

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Suleyman; Ozis, Erpulat; Sahli, Zafer; Demirtas, Selda; Korkmaz, Atilla

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the optimum timing of aspirin cessation before noncardiac surgeries. We have conducted a pilot study to minimize the aspirin cessation time before various surgeries. Methods Eighty patients who were taking regular aspirin for secondary prevention undergoing elective surgical operations were enrolled in the study. We separated the patients into two groups. The control group had 35 patients who stopped aspirin intake 10 days before surgery. The study group had 45 patients who stopped their aspirin intake and underwent surgery one day after arachidonic acid aggregation tests were within normal limits. Bleeding, blood loss, and transfusion requirements were assessed perioperatively. Results The mean time between aspirin cessation and aspirin nonresponsiveness were found to be 4.2 days with a median value of 4 days. In addition, the mean time between aspirin cessation and operation day were found to be 5.5 days with a median value of 5 days. No perioperative bleeding, thromboembolic or cardiovascular complications were encountered. Conclusion Reducing time of aspirin cessation from 7-10 days to 4-5 days is a possibility for patients using aspirin for secondary prevention without increased perioperative complications. PMID:24106686

  18. Reducing wait times through operations research: optimizing the use of surge capacity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Jonathan; Puterman, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Widespread public demand for improved access, political pressure for shorter wait times, a stretched workforce, an aging population and overutilized equipment and facilities challenge healthcare leaders to adopt new management approaches. This paper highlights the significant benefits that can be achieved by applying operations research (OR) methods to healthcare management. It shows how queuing theory provides managers with insights into the causes for excessive wait times and the relationship between wait times and capacity. It provides a case study of the use of several OR methods, including Markov decision processes, linear programming and simulation, to optimize the scheduling of patients with multiple priorities. The study shows that by applying this approach, wait time targets can be attained with the judicious use of surge capacity in the form of overtime. It concludes with some policy insights.

  19. Reducing Wait Times through Operations Research: Optimizing the Use of Surge Capacity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Jonathan; Puterman, Martin L

    2008-02-01

    Widespread public demand for improved access, political pressure for shorter wait times, a stretched workforce, an aging population and overutilized equipment and facilities challenge healthcare leaders to adopt new management approaches. This paper highlights the significant benefits that can be achieved by applying operations research (OR) methods to healthcare management. It shows how queuing theory provides managers with insights into the causes for excessive wait times and the relationship between wait times and capacity. It provides a case study of the use of several OR methods, including Markov decision processes, linear programming and simulation, to optimize the scheduling of patients with multiple priorities. The study shows that by applying this approach, wait time targets can be attained with the judicious use of surge capacity in the form of overtime. It concludes with some policy insights.

  20. Operational characteristics of single-particle heat engines and refrigerators with time-asymmetric protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the single-particle heat engine and refrigerator driven by time-asymmetric protocol of finite duration. Our system consists of a particle in a harmonic trap with time-periodic strength that drives the particle cyclically between two baths. Each cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps connecting them. The system works in irreversible mode of operation even in the quasistatic regime. This is indicated by finite entropy production even in the large cycle time limit. Consequently, Carnot efficiency for heat engine or Carnot coefficient of performance (COP) for refrigerators is not achievable. We further analyzed the phase diagram of heat engines and refrigerators. They are sensitive to time-asymmetry of the protocol. Phase diagram shows several interesting features, often counterintuitive. The distribution of stochastic efficiency and COP is broad and exhibits power-law tails.

  1. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).

  2. Quantifying groundwater travel time near managed recharge operations using 35S as an intrinsic tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2016-12-01

    Identifying groundwater retention times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for managing water quality, especially for operations that incorporate recycled wastewater. To protect public health, California guidelines for Groundwater Replenishment Reuse Projects require a minimum 2-6 month subsurface retention time for recycled water depending on the level of disinfection, which highlights the importance of quantifying groundwater travel times on short time scales. This study developed and evaluated a new intrinsic tracer method using the naturally occurring radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S). The 87.5 day half-life of 35S is ideal for investigating groundwater travel times on the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. Natural concentrations of 35S found in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) were measured in source waters and groundwater at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, CA, and Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County, CA. 35SO4 travel times are comparable to travel times determined by well-established deliberate tracer studies. The study also revealed that 35SO4 in MAR source water can vary seasonally and therefore careful characterization of 35SO4 is needed to accurately quantify groundwater travel time. More data is needed to fully assess whether or not this tracer could become a valuable tool for managers.

  3. Quantifying groundwater travel time near managed recharge operations using 35S as an intrinsic tracer

    DOE PAGES

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; ...

    2016-04-23

    By identifying groundwater retention times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for managing water quality, especially for operations that incorporate recycled wastewater. In order to protect public health, California guidelines for Groundwater Replenishment Reuse Projects require a minimum 2–6 month subsurface retention time for recycled water depending on the level of disinfection, which highlights the importance of quantifying groundwater travel times on short time scales. This study developed and evaluated a new intrinsic tracer method using the naturally occurring radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S). The 87.5 day half-life of 35S is ideal for investigating groundwater travel times onmore » the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. Natural concentrations of 35S found in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) were measured in source waters and groundwater at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, CA, and Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County, CA. 35SO4 travel times are comparable to travel times determined by well-established deliberate tracer studies. The study also revealed that 35SO4 in MAR source water can vary seasonally and therefore careful characterization of 35SO4 is needed to accurately quantify groundwater travel time. But, more data is needed to fully assess whether or not this tracer could become a valuable tool for managers.« less

  4. Quantifying groundwater travel time near managed recharge operations using 35S as an intrinsic tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2016-04-23

    By identifying groundwater retention times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for managing water quality, especially for operations that incorporate recycled wastewater. In order to protect public health, California guidelines for Groundwater Replenishment Reuse Projects require a minimum 2–6 month subsurface retention time for recycled water depending on the level of disinfection, which highlights the importance of quantifying groundwater travel times on short time scales. This study developed and evaluated a new intrinsic tracer method using the naturally occurring radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S). The 87.5 day half-life of 35S is ideal for investigating groundwater travel times on the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. Natural concentrations of 35S found in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) were measured in source waters and groundwater at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, CA, and Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County, CA. 35SO4 travel times are comparable to travel times determined by well-established deliberate tracer studies. The study also revealed that 35SO4 in MAR source water can vary seasonally and therefore careful characterization of 35SO4 is needed to accurately quantify groundwater travel time. But, more data is needed to fully assess whether or not this tracer could become a valuable tool for managers.

  5. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  6. Low-sensitivity H ∞ filter design for linear delta operator systems with sampling time jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiang-Gui; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2012-04-01

    This article is concerned with the problem of designing H ∞ filters for a class of linear discrete-time systems with low-sensitivity to sampling time jitter via delta operator approach. Delta-domain model is used to avoid the inherent numerical ill-condition resulting from the use of the standard shift-domain model at high sampling rates. Based on projection lemma in combination with the descriptor system approach often used to solve problems related to delay, a novel bounded real lemma with three slack variables for delta operator systems is presented. A sensitivity approach based on this novel lemma is proposed to mitigate the effects of sampling time jitter on system performance. Then, the problem of designing a low-sensitivity filter can be reduced to a convex optimisation problem. An important consideration in the design of correlation filters is the optimal trade-off between the standard H ∞ criterion and the sensitivity of the transfer function with respect to sampling time jitter. Finally, a numerical example demonstrating the validity of the proposed design method is given.

  7. Inflow forecasting model construction with stochastic time series for coordinated dam operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Jung, Y.; Kim, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dam inflow forecasting is one of the most important tasks in dam operation for an effective water resources management and control. In general, dam inflow forecasting with stochastic time series model is possible to apply when the data is stationary because most of stochastic process based on stationarity. However, recent hydrological data cannot be satisfied the stationarity anymore because of climate change. Therefore a stochastic time series model, which can consider seasonality and trend in the data series, named SARIMAX(Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Average with eXternal variable) model were constructed in this study. This SARIMAX model could increase the performance of stochastic time series model by considering the nonstationarity components and external variable such as precipitation. For application, the models were constructed for four coordinated dams on Han river in South Korea with monthly time series data. As a result, the models of each dam have similar performance and it would be possible to use the model for coordinated dam operation.Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures by using 3D BIM Technique' [NEMA-NH-12-57] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  8. Real-time bio-sensors for enhanced C2ISR operator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James C.

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of two Air Force Small Business research topics were to develop a real-time, unobtrusive, biological sensing and monitoring technology for evaluating cognitive readiness in command and control environments (i.e., console operators). We sought an individualized status monitoring system for command and control operators and teams. The system was to consist of a collection of bio-sensing technologies and processing and feedback algorithms that could eventually guide the effective incorporation of fatigue-adaptive workload interventions into weapon systems to mitigate episodes of cognitive overload and lapses in operator attention that often result in missed signals and catastrophic failures. Contractors set about determining what electro-physiological and other indicators of compromised operator states are most amenable for unobtrusive monitoring of psychophysiological and warfighter performance data. They proposed multi-sensor platforms of bio-sensing technologies for development. The sensors will be continuously-wearable or off-body and will not require complicated or uncomfortable preparation. A general overview of the proposed approaches and of progress toward the objective is presented.

  9. Fast-Time Evaluations of Airborne Merging and Spacing in Terminal Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Barmore, Bryan; Bussink, Frank; Weitz, Lesley; Dahlene, Laura

    2005-01-01

    NASA researchers are developing new airborne technologies and procedures to increase runway throughput at capacity-constrained airports by improving the precision of inter-arrival spacing at the runway threshold. In this new operational concept, pilots of equipped aircraft are cleared to adjust aircraft speed to achieve a designated spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to a designated lead aircraft. A new airborne toolset, prototypes of which are being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, assists pilots in achieving this objective. The current prototype allows precision spacing operations to commence even when the aircraft and its lead are not yet in-trail, but are on merging arrival routes to the runway. A series of fast-time evaluations of the new toolset were conducted at the Langley Research Center during the summer of 2004. The study assessed toolset performance in a mixed fleet of aircraft on three merging arrival streams under a range of operating conditions. The results of the study indicate that the prototype possesses a high degree of robustness to moderate variations in operating conditions.

  10. Use of real-time tools to support field operations of NSF's Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.; Johnson, E.; Martin, C.; Webster, C.; Dixon, M.; Maclean, G.

    2012-12-01

    NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) operates Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities (LAOF) for the scientific community, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. In order to obtain the highest quality dataset during field campaigns, real-time decision-making critically depends on the availability of timely data and reliable communications between field operations staff and instrument operators. EOL incorporates the latest technologies to monitor the health of instrumentation, facilitate remote operations of instrumentation and keep project participants abreast of changing conditions in the field. As the availability of bandwidth on mobile communication networks and the capabilities of their associated devices (smart phone, tablets, etc.) improved, so has the ability of researchers to respond to rapidly changing conditions and coordinate ever more detailed measurements from multiple remote fixed, portable and airborne platforms. This presentation will describe several new tools that EOL is making available to project investigators and how these tools are being used in a mobile computing environment to support enhanced data collection during field campaigns. LAOF platforms such as radars, aircraft, sondes, balloons and surface stations all rely on displays of real-time data for their operations. Data from sondes are ingested into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for assimilation into regional forecasting models that help guide project operations. Since many of EOL's projects occur around the globe and at the same time instrument complexity has increased, automated monitoring of instrumentation platforms and systems has become essential. Tools are being developed to allow remote instrument control of our suite of observing systems where feasible. The Computing, Data and Software (CDS) Facility of EOL develops and supports a Field Catalog used in field campaigns for nearly two decades. Today, the Field Catalog serves as a hub for the

  11. 40 CFR 94.220 - Service accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accumulation. (a) Each test emission data engine in the test fleet may be operated with all emission control systems operating properly for a period, up to 125 hours of operation, that is sufficient to...

  12. Human-in-the-Loop Operations over Time Delay: NASA Analog Missions Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, Steven N.; Reagan, Marcum L.; Janoiko, Barbara; Johnson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Teams at NASA have conducted studies of time-delayed communications as it effects human exploration. In October 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Analog Missions project conducted a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the primary stakeholders to share information and experiences of studying time delay, to build a coherent picture of how studies are covering the problem domain, and to determine possible forward plans (including how to best communicate study results and lessons learned, how to inform future studies and mission plans, and how to drive potential development efforts). This initial meeting s participants included personnel from multiple NASA centers (HQ, JSC, KSC, ARC, and JPL), academia, and ESA. It included all of the known studies, analog missions, and tests of time delayed communications dating back to the Apollo missions including NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS/RATS), International Space Station Test-bed for Analog Research (ISTAR), Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), Mars 520, JPL Mars Orbiters/Rovers, Advanced Mission Operations (AMO), Devon Island analog missions, and Apollo experiences. Additionally, the meeting attempted to capture all of the various functional perspectives via presentations by disciplines including mission operations (flight director and mission planning), communications, crew, Capcom, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Medical/Surgeon, Science, Education and Public Outreach (EPO), and data management. The paper summarizes the descriptions and results from each of the activities discussed at the TIM and includes several recommendations captured in the meeting for dealing with time delay in human exploration along with recommendations for future development and studies to address this issue.

  13. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  14. Time estimation as a secondary task to measure workload. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Variation in the length of time productions and verbal estimates of duration was investigated to determine the influence of concurrent activity on operator time perception. The length of 10-, 20-, and 30-sec intervals produced while performing six different compensatory tracking tasks was significantly longer, 23% on the average, than those produced while performing no other task. Verbal estimates of session duration, taken at the end of each of 27 experimental sessions, reflected a parallel increase in subjective underestimation of the passage of time as the difficulty of the task performed increased. These data suggest that estimates of duration made while performing a manual control task provide stable and sensitive measures of the workload imposed by the primary task, with minimal interference.

  15. Estimating Periodic Software Rejuvenation Schedules under Discrete-Time Operation Circumstance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Kazuki; Dohi, Tadashi; Kaio, Naoto

    Software rejuvenation is a preventive and proactive solution that is particularly useful for counteracting the phenomenon of software aging. In this article, we consider periodic software rejuvenation models based on the expected cost per unit time in the steady state under discrete-time operation circumstance. By applying the discrete renewal reward processes, we describe the stochastic behavior of a telecommunication billing application with a degradation mode, and determine the optimal periodic software rejuvenation schedule minimizing the expected cost. Similar to the earlier work by the same authors, we develop a statistically non-parametric algorithm to estimate the optimal software rejuvenation schedule, by applying the discrete total time on test concept. Numerical examples are presented to estimate the optimal software rejuvenation schedules from the simulation data. We discuss the asymptotic behavior of estimators developed in this paper.

  16. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions—operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation

    PubMed Central

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries. PMID:27357605

  17. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions—operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries.

  18. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  19. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  20. Time Series Modeling of Human Operator Dynamics in Manual Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A time-series technique is presented for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the human operator in manual control tasks from relatively short records of experimental data. Control of system excitation signals used in the identification is not required. The approach is a multi-channel identification technique for modeling multi-input/multi-output situations. The method presented includes statistical tests for validity, is designed for digital computation, and yields estimates for the frequency response of the human operator. A comprehensive relative power analysis may also be performed for validated models. This method is applied to several sets of experimental data; the results are discussed and shown to compare favorably with previous research findings. New results are also presented for a multi-input task that was previously modeled to demonstrate the strengths of the method.

  1. Time series modeling of human operator dynamics in manual control tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A time-series technique is presented for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the human operator in manual control tasks from relatively short records of experimental data. Control of system excitation signals used in the identification is not required. The approach is a multi-channel identification technique for modeling multi-input/multi-output situations. The method presented includes statistical tests for validity, is designed for digital computation, and yields estimates for the frequency responses of the human operator. A comprehensive relative power analysis may also be performed for validated models. This method is applied to several sets of experimental data; the results are discussed and shown to compare favorably with previous research findings. New results are also presented for a multi-input task that has not been previously modeled to demonstrate the strengths of the method.

  2. Real-time observations of lithium battery reactions-operando neutron diffraction analysis during practical operation.

    PubMed

    Taminato, Sou; Yonemura, Masao; Shiotani, Shinya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Nagao, Miki; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Ukyo, Yoshio; Adipranoto, Dyah Sulistyanintyas; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-06-30

    Among the energy storage devices for applications in electric vehicles and stationary uses, lithium batteries typically deliver high performance. However, there is still a missing link between the engineering developments for large-scale batteries and the fundamental science of each battery component. Elucidating reaction mechanisms under practical operation is crucial for future battery technology. Here, we report an operando diffraction technique that uses high-intensity neutrons to detect reactions in non-equilibrium states driven by high-current operation in commercial 18650 cells. The experimental system comprising a time-of-flight diffractometer with automated Rietveld analysis was developed to collect and analyse diffraction data produced by sequential charge and discharge processes. Furthermore, observations under high current drain revealed inhomogeneous reactions, a structural relaxation after discharge, and a shift in the lithium concentration ranges with cycling in the electrode matrix. The technique provides valuable information required for the development of advanced batteries.

  3. Applications For Real Time NOMADS At NCEP To Disseminate NOAA's Operational Model Data Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.; Rutledge, G.

    2007-05-01

    A wide range of environmental information, in digital form, with metadata descriptions and supporting infrastructure is contained in the NOAA Operational Modeling Archive Distribution System (NOMADS) and its Real Time (RT) project prototype at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). NOMADS is now delivering on its goal of a seamless framework, from archival to real time data dissemination for NOAA's operational model data holdings. A process is under way to make NOMADS part of NCEP's operational production of products. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development. In the National Research Council's "Completing the Forecast", Recommendation 3.4 states: "NOMADS should be maintained and extended to include (a) long-term archives of the global and regional ensemble forecasting systems at their native resolution, and (b) re-forecast datasets to facilitate post-processing." As one of many participants of NOMADS, NCEP serves the operational model data base using data application protocol (Open-DAP) and other services for participants to serve their data sets and users to obtain them. Using the NCEP global ensemble data as an example, we show an Open-DAP (also known as DODS) client application that provides a request-and-fulfill mechanism for access to the complex ensemble matrix of holdings. As an example of the DAP service, we show a client application which accesses the Global or Regional Ensemble data set to produce user selected weather element event probabilities. The event probabilities are easily extended over model forecast time to show probability histograms defining the future trend of user selected events. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit only the data necessary for their tasks. Data sets are served by OPeN-DAP allowing commercial clients such as MATLAB or IDL as well as freeware clients

  4. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  5. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  6. Late Operating Room Start Times Impact Mortality and Cost for Nonemergent Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kenan W; Lau, Christine L; Yarboro, Leora T; Ghanta, Ravi K; Kron, Irving L; Kern, John A; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing concern over the effect of starting non-emergent cardiac surgery later in the day on clinical outcomes and resource utilization. Our objective was to determine the differences in patient outcomes for starting non-emergent cardiac surgery after 3pm. Methods All non-emergent cardiac operations performed at a single institution from July 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Cases were stratified based on “early start” or “late start,” defined by incision time before or after 3pm. Rates of observed and risk-adjusted mortality, major complications, and costs were compared on a univariate basis for all patients and via multivariable linear and logistic regression for patients with a valid Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Predicted Risk of Mortality (PROM). Results A total of 3,395 non-emergent cardiac operations were reviewed, including 368 late start cases. Compared to cases starting earlier, mortality was significantly higher for patients undergoing late operations (5.2% vs. 3.5%, p=0.046) despite similar preoperative risk (STS PROM 3.8% vs. 3.3%) and major complication rates (18.2% vs. 18.3%). Costs were 8% higher with late start cases ($51,576 vs. $47,641, p<0.001). After controlling for case type, surgeon, year, and risk, late cases resulted in higher mortality (odds ratio 2.04, p=0.041) despite shorter operative duration (16 min, p<0.001). Conclusions Starting non-emergent cardiac cases later in the day is associated with 2× higher absolute and risk-adjusted mortality. These data should be carefully considered—not only by surgeons and patients but also in the context of the operating room system—when scheduling non-emergent cardiac cases. PMID:26209491

  7. Generating Real-Time Tsunami Forecast Animations for Tsunami Warning Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.; Weinstein, S.

    2012-12-01

    The complex calculations inherent in tsunami forecast models once required supercomputers to solve and could only be deployed in an operational setting as a database of precomputed best-guess solutions for likely future tsunamis. More recently scientists at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) developed a tsunami forecast model, RIFT, that takes an earthquake's centroid moment tensor solution—either from nearby historic events or rapidly determined by W-phase analysis—and solves the linear shallow water equations in real time with commercial off-the-shelf computer servers and open-source software tools (Wang et al., 2009). RIFT not only rapidly calculates tsunami forecasts in real time, but also generates and archives data grids easily ingested by other software packages to generate maps and animations in a variety of image, video, and geobrowser file formats (e.g., KML). These graphical products aid both operational and outreach efforts as they help PTWC scientists to rapidly ingest and comprehend large, complex data sets, to share these data with emergency managers, and to educate the general public about the behavior of tsunamis. Prior to developing animation capability PTWC used tsunami travel time contour maps to show expected arrival times of the first tsunami waves. Though useful to expert users, such maps can mislead a nonexpert as they do not show amplitude information and give the impression that tsunami waves have constant amplitudes throughout an ocean basin. A tsunami forecast "energy map" improves tsunami hazard communication by showing the variability in maximum wave heights, but does not show the timing of the maximum wave arrivals. A tsunami forecast animation, however, shows both how fast the tsunami will move and the distribution of its amplitudes over time, thus communicating key concepts about tsunami behavior such as reflection and refraction of waves, that the first arriving wave is not necessarily the largest wave, and that tsunami

  8. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients.

  9. Weaving time into system architecture: satellite cost per operational day and optimal design lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Hastings, Daniel E.; Newman, Dava J.

    2004-03-01

    An augmented perspective on system architecture is proposed (diachronic) that complements the traditional views on system architecture (synchronic). This paper proposes to view in a system architecture the flow of service (or utility) that the system will provide over its design lifetime. It suggests that the design lifetime is a fundamental component of system architecture although one cannot see it or touch it. Consequently, cost, utility, and value per unit time metrics are introduced. A framework is then developed that identifies optimal design lifetimes for complex systems in general, and space systems in particular, based on this augmented perspective of system architecture and on these metrics. It is found that an optimal design lifetime for a satellite exists, even in the case of constant expected revenues per day over the system's lifetime, and that it changes substantially with the expected Time to Obsolescence of the system and the volatility of the market the system is serving in the case of a commercial venture. The analysis thus proves that it is essential for a system architect to match the design lifetime with the dynamical characteristics of the environment the system is/will be operating in. It is also shown that as the uncertainty in the dynamical characteristics of the environment the system is operating in increases, the value of having the option to upgrade, modify, or extend the lifetime of a system at a later point in time increases depending on how events unfold.

  10. Time series and MinTS analysis of strain accumulation along the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) over the 2003-2010 period, from ENVISAT InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Lin, N.; Simons, M.; Doin, M.; Hetland, E. A.; Muse, P.; Peltzer, G.; Jianbao, S.; Dailu, R.

    2010-12-01

    We use SAR interferometry to measure the strain accumulation along the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (hereafter HFS), that marks the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a thrust fault system. There has been no known large earthquake on the central section of the HFS, the “Tianzhu seismic gap”, in the last ~1000 years. We first analyze the complete ENVISAT SAR data archive along three descending and two ascending tracks for the 2003-2009 period and construct an InSAR-based mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity map around the HFS from the eastern end of the Qilian Shan (102° E), to the west, to the Liupan Shan (106° E), to the east. We empirically correct our interferograms for propagation delays associated with changes on the stratified atmospheric structure. We then estimate the mean LOS velocity for each track using a time series analysis which reveals the existence of a 40 km long creeping segment located at the western end of the 1920 rupture. Extending from the Jingtai pull-apart basin, which shows a 2-3 mm/yr subsidence rate, to the Mao Mao Shan, the creep rate is estimated to reach 8 mm/yr locally and is higher than the long term loading rate of the Haiyuan fault, estimated geodetically at 5±1 mm/yr. The surface extension of the creeping segment is colocated with strong micro- and moderate seismic activity. We also explore the possibility of transient creep during the 2003-2010 time period, using a SBAS style, smoothed, time series analysis and the Multiscale Interferometric Time Series method (MinTS, CalTech, see Hetland et al. 2010 AGU abstract). While classic time series methods are based on a pixel-by-pixel approach and do not consider spatial data covariances, due to residual atmospheric noise, the wavelet decomposition of each interferograms and the time inversion in the

  11. Theory and operation of a three-gate time-of-flight velocity analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martus, K. E.; Orient, O. J.; Hodges, R. R.; Chutjian, A.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical considerations and test results are presented for a new-type velocity analyzer for incident fast neutral particles, positive ions, and negative ions. Velocity analysis is carried out by means of a pulsed, three-gate time-of-flight (TOF) technique capable of eliminating alias velocities (harmonics) to sixth order. In addition the design and operation are presented of a four-element ion lens system, with small spherical and chromatic aberrations, suitable for interfacing a large-diameter ion beam from the TOF section with a subsequent mass analyzer.

  12. Operation redwing: Report to the scientific director. Timing and firing (sanitized version)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-29

    Task Unit 5 (YU-5) was organized to accomplish the following tasks during Operation Redwing (May - June 1956): (1) To supply timing signals and voice count-down to meet the principal requirements of the experimental programs; (2) To supply the arming and firing pulses to the devices tested; (3) To furnish personnel as members of the arming and firing parties; (4) To provide and maintain the Task Group 7.1 (TG 7.1) short-range commercial radio communications at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls; and (5) To perform such scientific measurements and photography as provided for under existing contractual agreements.

  13. Real-time operating system for a multi-laser/multi-detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, G.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-one hazard detector system, used on the Rensselaer Mars rover, is reviewed briefly with respect to the hardware subsystems, the operation, and the results obtained. A multidetector scanning system was designed to improve on the original system. Interactive support software was designed and programmed to implement real time control of the rover or platform with the elevation scanning mast. The formats of both the raw data and the post-run data files were selected. In addition, the interface requirements were selected and some initial hardware-software testing was completed.

  14. Transfer of Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model; Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S. F.; Hwang, J.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, G. J.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Friedel, R. H.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (rtDREAM) was developed by LANL for nowcast of energetic electrons' flux at the radiation belt to quantify potential risks from radiation damage at the satellites. Assimilated data are from multiple sources including LANL assets (GEO, GPS). For transfer from research to operation of the rtDREAM code, LANL/KSWC/NOAA makes a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) on the collaboration between three parts. By this MOU, KWSC/RRA provides all the support for transitioning the research version of DREAM to operations. KASI is primarily responsible for providing all the interfaces between the current scientific output formats of the code and useful space weather products that can be used and accessed through the web. In the second phase, KASI will be responsible in performing the work needed to transform the Van Allen Probes beacon data into "DREAM ready" inputs. KASI will also provide the "operational" code framework and additional data preparation, model output, display and web page codes back to LANL and SWPC. KASI is already a NASA partnering ground station for the Van Allen Probes' space weather beacon data and can here show use and utility of these data for comparison between rtDREAM and observations by web. NOAA has offered to take on some of the data processing tasks specific to the GOES data.

  15. Supporting Real-Time Operations and Execution through Timeline and Scheduling Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Pyrzak, Guy; Hashemi, Sam; Ahmed, Samia; McMillin, Kevin Edward; Medwid, Joseph Daniel; Chen, Diana; Hurtle, Esten

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, the NASA Ames Research Center has been actively involved in researching and advancing the state-of-the-art of planning and scheduling tools for NASA mission operations. Our planning toolkit SPIFe (Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration) has supported a variety of missions and field tests, scheduling activities for Mars rovers as well as crew on-board International Space Station and NASA earth analogs. The scheduled plan is the integration of all the activities for the day/s. In turn, the agents (rovers, landers, spaceships, crew) execute from this schedule while the mission support team members (e.g., flight controllers) follow the schedule during execution. Over the last couple of years, our team has begun to research and validate methods that will better support users during realtime operations and execution of scheduled activities. Our team utilizes human-computer interaction principles to research user needs, identify workflow processes, prototype software aids, and user test these. This paper discusses three specific prototypes developed and user tested to support real-time operations: Score Mobile, Playbook, and Mobile Assistant for Task Execution (MATE).

  16. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-11-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format.

  17. Striatal lesions produce distinctive impairments in reaction time performance in two different operant chambers.

    PubMed

    Brasted, P J; Döbrössy, M D; Robbins, T W; Dunnett, S B

    1998-08-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in mediating voluntary movement. Excitotoxic striatal lesions in rats have previously been shown to impair the initiation but not the execution of movement in a choice reaction time task in an automated lateralised nose-poke apparatus (the "nine-hole box"). Conversely, when a conceptually similar reaction time task has been applied in a conventional operant chamber (or "Skinner box"), striatal lesions have been seen to impair the execution rather than the initiation of the lateralised movement. The present study was undertaken to compare directly these two results by training the same group of rats to perform a choice reaction time task in the two chambers and then comparing the effects of a unilateral excitotoxic striatal lesion in both chambers in parallel. Particular attention was paid to adopting similar parameters and contingencies in the control of the task in the two test chambers. After striatal lesions, the rats showed predominantly contralateral impairments in both tasks. However, they showed a deficit in reaction time in the nine-hole box but an apparent deficit in response execution in the Skinner box. This finding confirms the previous studies and indicates that differences in outcome are not simply attributable to procedural differences in the lesions, training conditions or tasks parameters. Rather, the pattern of reaction time deficit after striatal lesions depends critically on the apparatus used and the precise response requirements for each task.

  18. High-Performance Computing for Real-Time Grid Analysis and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-10-31

    Power grids worldwide are undergoing an unprecedented transition as a result of grid evolution meeting information revolution. The grid evolution is largely driven by the desire for green energy. Emerging grid technologies such as renewable generation, smart loads, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and distributed generation provide opportunities to generate energy from green sources and to manage energy use for better system efficiency. With utility companies actively deploying these technologies, a high level of penetration of these new technologies is expected in the next 5-10 years, bringing in a level of intermittency, uncertainties, and complexity that the grid did not see nor design for. On the other hand, the information infrastructure in the power grid is being revolutionized with large-scale deployment of sensors and meters in both the transmission and distribution networks. The future grid will have two-way flows of both electrons and information. The challenge is how to take advantage of the information revolution: pull the large amount of data in, process it in real time, and put information out to manage grid evolution. Without addressing this challenge, the opportunities in grid evolution will remain unfulfilled. This transition poses grand challenges in grid modeling, simulation, and information presentation. The computational complexity of underlying power grid modeling and simulation will significantly increase in the next decade due to an increased model size and a decreased time window allowed to compute model solutions. High-performance computing is essential to enable this transition. The essential technical barrier is to vastly increase the computational speed so operation response time can be reduced from minutes to seconds and sub-seconds. The speed at which key functions such as state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (typically every 3-5 minutes) needs to be dramatically increased so that the analysis of contingencies is both

  19. Research on rapid agile metrology for manufacturing based on real-time multitask operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jihong; Song, Zhen; Yang, Daoshan; Zhou, Ji; Buckley, Shawn

    1996-10-01

    Rapid agile metrology for manufacturing (RAMM) using multiple non-contact sensors is likely to remain a growing trend in manufacturing. High speed inspecting systems for manufacturing is characterized by multitasks implemented in parallel and real-time events which occur simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a real-time operating system into RAMM research. A general task model of a class-based object- oriented technology is proposed. A general multitask frame of a typical RAMM system using OPNet is discussed. Finally, an application example of a machine which inspects parts held on a carrier strip is described. With RTOS and OPNet, this machine can measure two dimensions of the contacts at 300 parts/second.

  20. Metamorphoses of ONAV console operations: From prototype to real time application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Malise; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System is being developed as a real time console assistant to the ONAV flight controller for use in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Currently the entry and rendezvous systems are in verification, and the ascent is being prototyped. To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, what is verification, and availability, stability, and the size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware stability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  1. An evaluation of time in establishing operation on the effectiveness of functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Nicole M; Fisher, Wayne W; Steege, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether different durations of exposure to relevant establishing operations (EO) during treatment of problem behavior affected treatment efficacy and response bursting. In Study 1, we compared 2 functional communication training (FCT) interventions. In the first treatment, we used a card touch as the target mand; this was associated with limited exposure to the EO because we could physically guide the mand at prescribed times. In the other treatment, we used a vocal response as the mand; this was associated with longer exposure to the EO because it was not possible to guide the response. In Study 2, we exposed participants to time-based reinforcement schedules that were yoked to the schedules of obtained reinforcement from the 2 FCT interventions in Study 1. Results indicated that limited exposure to the EO was associated with less response bursting, larger and more rapid reductions in problem behavior, and faster acquisition of the alternative mand.

  2. Real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hesong; Wilder, Joseph

    1999-08-01

    A real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope is presented in this paper. The system has achieved real-time color image display for 640 X 480 pixel images. Multi-resolution image representation can be provided for efficient transmission through the network. Through the control interface the computer can communicate with the programmable microscope via the RS232 serial ports. By choosing one of three scanning patterns, a sequence of images can be saved as BMP or PGM files to record information on an entire microscope slide. The system will be used by medical and graduate students at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for distance learning. It can be used in many network-based telepathology applications.

  3. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  4. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (less than 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE

  5. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra's high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  6. Effect of solids retention time and temperature on waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation under alkaline conditions in continuous-flow reactors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Leiyu; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and the production of SCFAs. The changes in SRT gave also impact on the percentage of acetic and propionic acids in the fermentative SCFAs, but little influence on that of the slightly long-chain SCFAs, such as n-butyric, iso-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids. Compared with the control (pH unadjusted) experiment, at SRT of 12d and temperature of 20 degrees C the concentration of SCFAs produced at pH 10 increased from 261.2 to 933.5mg COD/L, and the propionic acid percentage improved from 11.7 to 16.0%. It can be concluded from this investigation that the efficient continuous production of SCFAs at pH 10 is feasible.

  7. PLIO: a generic tool for real-time operational predictive optimal control of water networks.

    PubMed

    Cembrano, G; Quevedo, J; Puig, V; Pérez, R; Figueras, J; Verdejo, J M; Escaler, I; Ramón, G; Barnet, G; Rodríguez, P; Casas, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a generic tool, named PLIO, that allows to implement the real-time operational control of water networks. Control strategies are generated using predictive optimal control techniques. This tool allows the flow management in a large water supply and distribution system including reservoirs, open-flow channels for water transport, water treatment plants, pressurized water pipe networks, tanks, flow/pressure control elements and a telemetry/telecontrol system. Predictive optimal control is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands with appropriate pressure levels, optimizing operational goals such as network safety volumes and flow control stability. PLIO allows to build the network model graphically and then to automatically generate the model equations used by the predictive optimal controller. Additionally, PLIO can work off-line (in simulation) and on-line (in real-time mode). The case study of Santiago-Chile is presented to exemplify the control results obtained using PLIO off-line (in simulation).

  8. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  9. Transient-Free Operations With Physics-Based Real-time Analysis and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolemen, Egemen; Burrell, Keith; Eggert, William; Eldon, David; Ferron, John; Glasser, Alex; Humphreys, David

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand and predict disruptions, the two most common methods currently employed in tokamak analysis are the time-consuming ``kinetic EFITs,'' which are done offline with significant human involvement, and the search for correlations with global precursors using various parameterization techniques. We are developing automated ``kinetic EFITs'' at DIII-D to enable calculation of the stability as the plasma evolves close to the disruption. This allows us to quantify the probabilistic nature of the stability calculations and provides a stability metric for all possible linear perturbations to the plasma. This study also provides insight into how the control system can avoid the unstable operating space, which is critical for high-performance operations close to stability thresholds at ITER. A novel, efficient ideal stability calculation method and new real-time CER acquisition system are being developed, and a new 77-core server has been installed on the DIII-D PCS to enable experimental use. Sponsored by US DOE under DE-SC0015878 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Performance of infiltration swales with regard to operation in winter times in an Alpine region.

    PubMed

    Fach, Stefan; Engelhard, Carolina; Wittke, Nina; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In cold climate regions winter conditions significantly influence the performance of stormwater infiltration devices. Frozen soil and water storage by snow changes their operation. In this paper winter operation of a grassed infiltration swale was investigated using on-site and laboratory measurements. The field investigation of a grassed swale at a parking place in an Alpine region showed that the swale fulfilled its function properly. Although the top layer was frozen for some time, the storage capacity of the swale was sufficient to store the precipitation until the conditions improved. The soil attenuated the air temperature, at 20 cm below ground surface the soil was only frozen for one week. winter maintenance proved to be a problem, together with the snow from the parking place a lot of gravel and fine particles were deposited at one end of the swale. This decreased the hydraulic conductivity at that point significantly. The laboratory tests with soil columns showed an increase of flow time through the soil column with decreasing soil moisture content. For soil temperatures below 0 degrees C the hydraulic conductivity was reduced for increasing initial soil moisture contents. All in all the hydraulic conductivity was best around 0 degrees C for all soil water contents. However, also at minus 5 degrees C the coefficient of hydraulic conductivity was always at least above 10(-6) m/s, thus within the range of tolerated hydraulic conductivity specified in the national guidelines. Nevertheless, the handling of the soil was found to have high influence on the results. The results indicate that in the Alpine region infiltration swales operate sufficiently under winter conditions although with decreased performance.

  11. The influence of time of maternal exposure to 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime ,5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl on its accumulation in their nursing offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) is mobilized from rodent tissues during the lipid depletion associated with food restriction or lactation, the latter condition resulting in the substantial elimination of the maternal body burden of the chemical to nursing offspring. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the rate and/or magnitude of accumulation of 6-CB in nursing offspring differed with time following PCB administration to the maternal animal. Female ICR mice were administered two doses of 6-CB. Group I animals received (14C)-6-CB as weanlings (15-20 g) followed by unlabeled 6-CB 5 weeks later, after mating, on Day 1 of gestation. Group II received unlabeled 6-CB as weanlings and (14C)-6-CB on Day 1 of gestation. Thus, 14C identified the mobilization and elimination of either the first or the second dose of 6-CB in the treatment groups (I = (14C)-6-CB, 6-CB; II = 6-CB, (14C)-6-CB). Both groups of animals retained approximately 80% of the administered radiolabeled dose. The tissue distribution of (14C)-6-CB in group II as a percentage of the body burden was not different from that in group I as determined from maternal tissue concentrations on Day 14 of gestation. The percentage of the maternal body burden of (14C)-6-CB accumulated in suckling offspring of group II mothers was significantly greater than that in group I offspring on Day 1 (I, 2.2 +/- 0.5%; II, 3.5 +/- 0.4%), Day 3 (I, 14.8 +/- 1.9%; II, 24.6 +/- 2.7%), Day 5 (I, 16.8 +/- 1.4%; II, 24.8 +/- 0.8%), and Day 12 (I, 32.3 +/- 0.5%; II, 45.5 +/- 1.7%) postpartum. This differential elimination was reflected in the t1/2 of elimination of the radiolabeled dose from parametrial fat during lactation, which was significantly longer in group I (14 days) than group II maternal animals (9 days).

  12. Real-time monitoring of superoxide accumulation and antioxidant activity in a brain slice model using an electrochemical cytochrome c biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The overproduction of reactive oxygen species and resulting damage are central to the pathology of many diseases. The study of the temporal and spatial accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been limited due to the lack of specific probes and techniques capable of continuous measurement. We demonstrate the use of a miniaturized electrochemical cytochrome C (Cyt C) biosensor for real-time measurements and quantitative assessment of superoxide production and inactivation by natural and engineered antioxidants in acutely prepared brain slices from mice. During control conditions, superoxide radicals produced from the hippocampal region of the brain in 400 μm thick sections were well within the range of detection of the electrode. Exposure of the slices to ischemic conditions increased the superoxide production two fold and measurements from the slices were stable over a 3–4 hour period. The stilbene derivative and anion channel inhibitor, 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-disulfonic stilbene (DIDS), markedly reduced the extracellular superoxide signal under control conditions suggesting that a transmembrane flux of superoxide into the extracellular space may occur as part of normal redox signaling. The specificity of the electrode for superoxide released by cells in the hippocampus was verified by the exogenous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which decreased the superoxide signal in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were seen with the addition of the SOD-mimetic, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) where the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of nanoceria with an average diameter of 15 nm was equivalent to 527 U of SOD for each 1 μg/ml of nanoceria added. This study demonstrates the potential of electrochemical biosensors for studying real-time dynamics of reactive oxygen species in a biological model and the utility of these measurements in defining the relative contribution of superoxide to oxidative injury. PMID:23085519

  13. Real-time planning/replanning of ongoing operations in a crisis situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, David A.; Smith, Gregory M.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to examine the planned position and movement of police vehicles, personnel, weapons, and status of police assets is an implied requirement in the conduct of police activities. Displays showing the time police vehicles leave on assignment, stops along their route, time of return to station, quantity of vehicles, types of weapons, radio frequencies, and other pertinent information could help in crisis situations. It would be especially helpful if it were easily accessible and simple to understand. Rome Laboratory developed a system for monitoring interrelated planned events and for changing these events to correct for deviations in the plan. The system is called force level execution (FLEX), and it displays information on timing charts, tables, and a geographic map background. The FLEX graphics enhance the military commander's ability to grasp the tactical situation which typically includes 2000 to 3000 air sorties per day. A sortie is a single flight of a single aircraft. Because the 'fog of war' causes unexpected events, status reports are needed, replanning options are generated, and new plans are issued to correct for these unexpected events. The authors believe there are law enforcement and other crisis situations that are analogous to some military scenarios. These may include state police operating over large geographical areas, coordination with county police operating over somewhat smaller areas, coordination with the county sheriff's office and city police, not only for criminal apprehension, but for disaster relief. Other participants in a crisis situation may include fire departments, ambulances, emergency medical vehicles, hospitals, rescue operations, etc. The position of police vehicles, foot patrolman, helicopters and emergency vehicles can all be superimposed upon a map background, with appropriate cultural features such as roads, rivers, bridges, state and country boundaries, etc. When police vehicles incorporate the global positioning

  14. Definition of an auxiliary processor dedicated to real-time operating system kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halang, Wolfgang A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of process control data processing, it is necessary to enhance the productivity of real time high level languages and to automate the task administration, because presently 60 percent or more of the applications are still programmed in assembly languages. This may be achieved by migrating apt functions for the support of process control oriented languages into the hardware, i.e., by new architectures. Whereas numerous high level languages have already been defined or realized, there are no investigations yet on hardware assisted implementation of real time features. The requirements to be fulfilled by languages and operating systems in hard real time environment are summarized. A comparison of the most prominent languages, viz. Ada, HAL/S, LTR, Pearl, as well as the real time extensions of FORTRAN and PL/1, reveals how existing languages meet these demands and which features still need to be incorporated to enable the development of reliable software with predictable program behavior, thus making it possible to carry out a technical safety approval. Accordingly, Pearl proved to be the closest match to the mentioned requirements.

  15. Time series analysis of strain accumulation along the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) over the 1993-2009 period, from ERS and ENVISAT InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Romain; Lasserre, Cecile; Doin, Marie-Pierre; Guillaso, Stéphane; Cavalié, Olivier; Peltzer, Gilles; Sun, Jianbao; Rong, Dailu; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Xu, Xiwei

    2010-05-01

    We use SAR interferometry to measure the strain accumulation along the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (HFS), that marks the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a thrust fault system. No large earthquake is reported on the central section of the HFS, the "Tianzhu seismic gap", since ~1000 years. We first analyze the complete ENVISAT SAR data archive along 4 descending and 2 ascending tracks for the 2003-2009 period and construct an InSAR-based mean Line-Of-Sight (LOS) velocity map around the HFS from the eastern end of the Qilian shan (102° E), to the west, to the Liupan shan (106° E), to the east. Data are processed using a small baseline chain type. For each track, all radar images are coregistrated to a single master and interferograms are produced using a local adaptative range filtering. Residual orbital and atmospheric delays are jointly inverted and corrected for each unwrapped interferogram. Atmospheric corrections are validated using the ERA40 global atmospheric model (ECMWF). The interferograms series on each track are then inverted to obtain the increments of LOS radar delays between acquisition dates, adapting the Lopez-Quiroz et al. 2009 time series analysis. The obtained LOS mean velocity maps show a dominant left-lateral motion across the fault with along-strike variations: some fault sections are locked at shallow depth while others are creeping and local vertical movements are observed (subsidence in the "Jingtai" pull-apart basin). For various fault slip rates imposed below 20 km (4-10 mm/yr), we model the shallow velocity by inverting the mean LOS velocity maps for both strike-slip and dip-slip motion on vertical, 5km x 2.5km discretized patches, using a least-square method with an appropriate degree of smoothing. The fault geometry follows the surface trace of the

  16. Near Real-Time Multi-Sensor Fusion for Cued Reconnaissance: Operational Analysis of Operation Driftnet 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    TM 2010-252 November 2010 Principal Authors Original signed by S.A. Horn and A. Zegers S.A. Horn and A. Zegers Approved by Original signed by Dr. Roy...Mitchell Dr. Roy Mitchell Section Head, Maritime Operational Research Approved for release by Original signed by Paul Comeau Paul Comeau DRDC CORA...relativement nouveaux ont été mis à l’essai, soit le satellite RADARSAT-2, qui trans- porte à son bord un radar à synthèse d’ouverture (SAR), et

  17. Neoplasms treatment by diode laser with and without real time temperature control on operation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Sosenkova, Svetlana A.; Lazareva, Anastasia A.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2016-04-01

    Results of nevus, papilloma, dermatofibroma, and basal cell skin cancer in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and automatic power control (APC) mode are presented. The collateral damage width and width of graze wound area around the collateral damage area were demonstrated. The total damage area width was calculated as sum of collateral damage width and graze wound area width. The mean width of total damage area reached 1.538+/-0.254 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in CW mode, papilloma - 0.586+/-0.453 mm, dermatofibroma - 1.568+/-0.437 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 1.603+/-0.613 mm. The mean width of total damage area reached 1.201+/-0.292 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in APC mode, papilloma - 0.413+/-0.418 mm, dermatofibroma - 1.240+/-0.546 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 1.204+/-0.517 mm. It was found that using APC mode decreases the total damage area width at removing of these nosological neoplasms of human skin, and decreases the width of graze wound area at removing of nevus and basal cell skin cancer. At the first time, the dynamic of output laser power and thermal signal during laser removal of nevus in CW and APC mode is presented. It was determined that output laser power during nevus removal for APC mode was 1.6+/-0.05 W and for CW mode - 14.0+/-0.1 W. This difference can explain the decrease of the total damage area width and width of graze wound area for APC mode in comparison with CW mode.

  18. Evaluation of Operational Procedures for Using a Time-Based Airborne Inter-arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Abbott, Terence S.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed based on the concept of an aircraft maintaining a time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft state data to compute a speed command for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain a required time interval behind another aircraft. The tool and candidate operational procedures were tested in a high-fidelity, full mission simulator with active airline subject pilots flying an arrival scenario using three different modes for speed control. The objectives of this study were to validate the results of a prior Monte Carlo analysis of the ATAAS algorithm and to evaluate the concept from the standpoint of pilot acceptability and workload. Results showed that the aircraft was able to consistently achieve the target spacing interval within one second (the equivalent of approximately 220 ft at a final approach speed of 130 kt) when the ATAAS speed guidance was autothrottle-coupled, and a slightly greater (4-5 seconds), but consistent interval with the pilot-controlled speed modes. The subject pilots generally rated the workload level with the ATAAS procedure as similar to that with standard procedures, and also rated most aspects of the procedure high in terms of acceptability. Although pilots indicated that the head-down time was higher with ATAAS, the acceptability of head-down time was rated high. Oculometer data indicated slight changes in instrument scan patterns, but no significant change in the amount of time spent looking out the window between the ATAAS procedure versus standard procedures.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of stone fragments in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy using a time reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jen-Chieh; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-03-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used widely in the noninvasive treatment of kidney calculi. The fine fragments less than 2 mm in size can be discharged by urination, which determines the success of ESWL. Although ultrasonic and fluorescent imaging are used to localize the calculi, it's challenging to monitor the stone comminution progress, especially at the late stage of ESWL when fragments spread out as a cloud. The lack of real-time and quantitative evaluation makes this procedure semi-blind, resulting in either under- or over-treatment after the legal number of pulses required by FDA. The time reversal operator (TRO) method has the ability to detect point-like scatterers, and the number of non-zero eigenvalues of TRO is equal to that of the scatterers. In this study, the validation of TRO method to identify stones was illustrated from both numerical and experimental results for one to two stones with various sizes and locations. Furthermore, the parameters affecting the performance of TRO method has also been investigated. Overall, TRO method is effective in identifying the fragments in a stone cluster in real-time. Further development of a detection system and evaluation of its performance both in vitro and in vivo during ESWL is necessary for application.

  20. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  1. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Zhang, Li; Mahmoud, Anas M.; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Wen, Yi

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  2. Time- and power-dependent operation of a parametric spin-wave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Pirro, P.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B.

    2014-12-08

    We present the experimental observation of the localized amplification of externally excited, propagating spin waves in a transversely in-plane magnetized Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} magnonic waveguide by means of parallel pumping. By employing microfocussed Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we analyze the dependency of the amplification on the applied pumping power and on the delay between the input spin-wave packet and the pumping pulse. We show that there are two different operation regimes: At large pumping powers, the spin-wave packet needs to enter the amplifier before the pumping is switched on in order to be amplified while at low powers the spin-wave packet can arrive at any time during the pumping pulse.

  3. Localized operator partitioning method for electronic excitation energies in the time-dependent density functional formalism.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Frisch, Michael J; Brumer, Paul; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2016-12-28

    We extend the localized operator partitioning method (LOPM) [J. Nagesh, A. F. Izmaylov, and P. Brumer, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 084114 (2015)] to the time-dependent density functional theory framework to partition molecular electronic energies of excited states in a rigorous manner. A molecular fragment is defined as a collection of atoms using Becke's atomic partitioning. A numerically efficient scheme for evaluating the fragment excitation energy is derived employing a resolution of the identity to preserve standard one- and two-electron integrals in the final expressions. The utility of this partitioning approach is demonstrated by examining several excited states of two bichromophoric compounds: 9-((1- naphthyl)- methyl)- anthracene and 4-((2- naphthyl)- methyl)- benzaldehyde. The LOPM is found to provide nontrivial insights into the nature of electronic energy localization that is not accessible using a simple density difference analysis.

  4. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Verma, P K; Islam, M N; Grisham, M P; Jain, R; Sharma, A; Roopendra, K; Singh, K; Singh, P; Verma, I; Solomon, S

    2015-05-01

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell wall (CWI) invertases are important. Expression of these enzymes was compared in an early (CoJ64) and late (BO91) maturing sugarcane variety using end-point and qRT-PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR at four crop stages revealed high CWI expression in upper internodes of CoJ64, which declined significantly in both top and bottom internodes with maturity. In BO91, CWI expression was high in top and bottom internodes and declined significantly only in top internodes as the crop matured. Overall, CWI expression was higher in CoJ64 than in BO91. During crop growth, there was no significant change in SPS expression in bottom internodes in CoJ64, whereas in BO91 it decreased significantly. Apart from a significant decrease in expression of SuSy in mature bottom internodes of BO91, there was no significant change. Similar SAI expression was observed with both end-point and RT-PCR, except for significantly increased expression in top internodes of CoJ64 with maturity. SAI, being a major sucrose hydrolysing enzyme, was also monitored with end-point PCR expression in internode tissues of CoJ64 and BO91, with higher expression of SAI in BO91 at early crop stages. Enzyme inhibitors, e.g. manganese chloride (Mn(++) ), significantly suppressed expression of SAI in both early- and late-maturing varieties. Present findings enhance understanding of critical sucrose metabolic gene expression in sugarcane varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage. Thus, through employing these genes, improvement of sugarcane sucrose content is possible.

  5. Assessment of Manual Operation Time for the Manufacturing of Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display: A Bayesian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chien-wen

    2009-01-01

    During the processes of TFT-LCD manufacturing, steps like visual inspection of panel surface defects still heavily rely on manual operations. As the manual inspection time of TFT-LCD manufacturing could range from 4 hours to 1 day, the reliability of time forecasting is thus important for production planning, scheduling and customer response. This study would like to propose a practical and easy-to-implement prediction model through the approach of Bayesian networks for time estimation of manual operated procedures in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Given the lack of prior knowledge about manual operation time, algorithms of necessary path condition and expectation-maximization are used for structural learning and estimation of conditional probability distributions respectively. This study also applied Bayesian inference to evaluate the relationships between explanatory variables and manual operation time. With the empirical applications of this proposed forecasting model, approach of Bayesian networks demonstrates its practicability and prediction accountability.

  6. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging.

  7. Time-to-Surgery and Pre-operative Cerebral Hemodynamics Predict Post-operative White Matter Injury in Neonates with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jennifer M.; Buckley, Erin M.; Schwab, Peter J.; McCarthy, Ann L.; Winters, Madeline E.; Busch, David R.; Xiao, Rui; Goff, Donna A.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Fuller, Stephanie; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Licht, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypoxic-ischemic white mater brain injury commonly occurs in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Approximately half of the HLHS survivors exhibit neurobehavioral symptoms believed to be associated with this injury, though the exact timing of the injury is not known. Methods Neonates with HLHS were recruited for pre- and post-operative monitoring of cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) using two non-invasive optical-based techniques, namely diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed prior to and approximately one week after surgery in order to quantify the extent and timing of the acquired white matter injury. Risk factors for developing new or worsened white matter injury were assessed using uni- and multi-variate logistic regression. Results Thirty-seven neonates with HLHS were studied. In a univariate analysis, neonates who developed a large volume of new, or worsened, postoperative white matter injury had a significantly longer time-to-surgery (p=0.0003). In a multivariate model, longer time between birth and surgery (i.e., time-to-surgery), delayed sternal closure, and higher pre-operative CBF were predictors of post-operative white matter injury. Additionally, longer time-to-surgery and higher pre-operative CBF on morning of surgery were correlated with lower ScO2 (p=0.03 and p=0.05) and higher OEF (p=0.05 and p=0.05). Conclusions Longer time-to-surgery is associated with new post-operative white matter injury in otherwise healthy neonates with HLHS. The results suggest that earlier Norwood palliation may decrease the likelihood of acquiring postoperative white matter injury. PMID:25109755

  8. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  9. The squares of the dirac and spin-dirac operators on a riemann-cartan space(time)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notte-Cuello, E. A.; Rodrigues, W. A.; Souza, Q. A. G.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we introduce the Dirac and spin-Dirac operators associated to a connection on Riemann-Cartan space(time) and standard Dirac and spin-Dirac operators associated with a Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian (Lorentzian) space(time) and calculate the squares of these operators, which play an important role in several topics of modern mathematics, in particular in the study of the geometry of moduli spaces of a class of black holes, the geometry of NS-5 brane solutions of type II supergravity theories and BPS solitons in some string theories. We obtain a generalized Lichnerowicz formula, decompositions of the Dirac and spin-Dirac operators and their squares in terms of the standard Dirac and spin-Dirac operators and using the fact that spinor fields (sections of a spin-Clifford bundle) have representatives in the Clifford bundle we present also a noticeable relation involving the spin-Dirac and the Dirac operators.

  10. The detection of flaws in austenitic welds using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Laura J.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Gachagan, Anthony; Harvey, Gerry; Bird, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The non-destructive testing of austenitic welds using ultrasound plays an important role in the assessment of the structural integrity of safety critical structures. The internal microstructure of these welds is highly scattering and can lead to the obscuration of defects when investigated by traditional imaging algorithms. This paper proposes an alternative objective method for the detection of flaws embedded in austenitic welds based on the singular value decomposition of the time-frequency domain response matrices. The distribution of the singular values is examined in the cases where a flaw exists and where there is no flaw present. A lower threshold on the singular values, specific to austenitic welds, is derived which, when exceeded, indicates the presence of a flaw. The detection criterion is successfully implemented on both synthetic and experimental data. The datasets arising from welds containing a flaw are further interrogated using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT) method and the total focusing method (TFM), and it is shown that images constructed via the DORT algorithm typically exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio than those constructed by the TFM algorithm. PMID:27274683

  11. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war.

    PubMed

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind.

  12. One-Year Real-Time Operational Prediction Intervals for Direct Normal Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Carreira Pedro, H. T.; Coimbra, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes an algorithm to generate intra-hour prediction intervals (PIs) for the highly-variable direct normal irradiance, which is the energy source for the concentrated solar power technologies. The prediction intervals are generated using a Multi-layer Stochastic-Learning Model (MSLM), which is developed based on methods such as: sky imaging techniques, support vector machine and artificial neural network. The MSLM is trained using one year of co-located, high-quality irradiance and sky image recording in Folsom, California. In addition to being validated with historical data, the algorithm has been generating operational PI forecasts in real-time for that observatory since July 1st 2014. In the real-time scenario, without re-training or significant maintenance, the hybrid model consistently provides valid PI (PICP > 92%) and outperforms the reference persistence model (PICP ~ 85%) regardless of weather condition. This work has great impact in the field of solar energy to potentially facilitate the level of solar penetration in the grid with significantly reduced integration costs.

  13. Real-time terrain storage generation from multiple sensors towards mobile robot operation interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots.

  14. Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

  15. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed embedded operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, R. B.; Grass, J.; Johnston, G.; Kenny, K.; Russo, V.

    1986-01-01

    The EOS project is investigating the design and construction of a family of real-time distributed embedded operating systems for reliable, distributed aerospace applications. Using the real-time programming techniques developed in co-operation with NASA in earlier research, the project staff is building a kernel for a multiple processor networked system. The first six months of the grant included a study of scheduling in an object-oriented system, the design philosophy of the kernel, and the architectural overview of the operating system. In this report, the operating system and kernel concepts are described. An environment for the experiments has been built and several of the key concepts of the system have been prototyped. The kernel and operating system is intended to support future experimental studies in multiprocessing, load-balancing, routing, software fault-tolerance, distributed data base design, and real-time processing.

  16. A new generation of real-time DOS technology for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Information is given on system integration and operation (SIO) requirements and a new generation of technical approaches for SIO. Real-time, distribution, survivability, and adaptability requirements and technical approaches are covered. An Alpha operating system program management overview is outlined.

  17. Estimation of left ventricular operating stiffness from Doppler early filling deceleration time in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Prior, D.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Shortened early transmitral deceleration times (E(DT)) have been qualitatively associated with increased filling pressure and reduced survival in patients with cardiac disease and increased left ventricular operating stiffness (K(LV)). An equation relating K(LV) quantitatively to E(DT) has previously been described in a canine model but not in humans. During several varying hemodynamic conditions, we studied 18 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Transesophageal echocardiographic two-dimensional volumes and Doppler flows were combined with high-fidelity left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures to determine K(LV). From digitized Doppler recordings, E(DT) was measured and compared against changes in LV and LA diastolic volumes and pressures. E(DT) (180 +/- 39 ms) was inversely associated with LV end-diastolic pressures (r = -0.56, P = 0.004) and net atrioventricular stiffness (r = -0.55, P = 0.006) but had its strongest association with K(LV) (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). K(LV) was predicted assuming a nonrestrictive orifice (K(nonrest)) from E(DT) as K(nonrest) = (0.07/E(DT))(2) with K(LV) = 1.01 K(nonrest) - 0.02; r = 0.86, P < 0.001, DeltaK (K(nonrest) - K(LV)) = 0.02 +/- 0.06 mm Hg/ml. In adults with cardiac disease, E(DT) provides an accurate estimate of LV operating stiffness and supports its application as a practical noninvasive index in the evaluation of diastolic function.

  18. Investigating the Relationship between Customer Wait Time and Operational Availability through Simulation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    inventory level, thereby increasing the material readiness of the operating forces. Intuitively, decreasing CWT increases operational availability (Ao...forward positioning of repair parts shields the operating forces from delays found at the wholesale inventory level, thereby increasing the material...COST BANDING MODEL (EDCBM) ......................................14 D. TARGETING INVENTORIES TO AFFECT GROUND EQUIPMENT READINESS

  19. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell-wall invertase (CWI) are importan...

  20. U.S. Geological Survey input-data form and operational procedure for the assessment of conventional petroleum accumulations: Chapter 25 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, James W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey model for undiscovered conventional accumulations is designed to aid in the assessment of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (collectively called petroleum) resources. Conventional accumulations may be described in terms of discrete fields or pools localized in structural and stratigraphic traps by the buoyancy of oil or natural gas in water. Conventional accumulations are commonly bounded by a down-dip water contact. The assessment model requires estimates of the number and sizes of undiscovered conventional accumulations. Technically recoverable petroleum resources from undiscovered conventional accumulations are calculated by statistically combining probability distributions of the estimated number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations, along with associated risks and coproduct ratios. Probabilistic estimates of petroleum resources are given for oil in oil accumulations, gas (associated/dissolved) in oil accumulations, natural gas liquids in oil accumulations, gas (nonassociated) in gas accumulations, and total liquids (oil and natural gas liquids) in gas accumulations.

  1. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers-Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  2. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  3. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  4. A Modern Operating System for Near-real-time Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Vernon, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The NSF Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) provided an opportunity for expanding the capabilities for managing open, near-real-time (latencies of seconds) data from ocean observatories. The sensors deployed in this system largely return data from seafloor, cabled fiber optic cables as well as satellite telemetry. Bandwidth demands range from high-definition movies to the transmission of data via Iridium satellite. The extended Internet also provides an opportunity to not only return data, but to also control the sensors and platforms that comprise the observatory. The data themselves are openly available to any users. In order to provide heightened network security and overall reliability, the connections to and from the sensors/platforms are managed without Layer 3 of the Internet, but instead rely upon message passing using an open protocol termed Advanced Queuing Messaging Protocol (AMQP). The highest bandwidths in the system are in the Regional Scale Network (RSN) off Oregon and Washington and on the continent with highly reliable network connections between observatory components at 10 Gbps. The maintenance of metadata and life cycle histories of sensors and platforms is critical for providing data provenance over the years. The integrated cyberinfrastructure is best thought of as an operating system for the observatory - like the data, the software is also open and can be readily applied to new observatories, for example, in the rapidly evolving Arctic.

  5. Target characterization using decomposition of the time-reversal operator: electromagnetic scattering from small ellipsoids

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2006-05-18

    Decomposition of the time-reversal operator for an array, or equivalently the singular value decomposition of the multistatic response matrix, has been used to improve imaging and localization of targets in complicated media. Typically, each singular value is associated with one scatterer even though it has been shown in several cases that a single scatterer can generate several singular values. In earlier papers Chambers and Berryman [1, 2] showed that a small spherical scatterer can generate up to six singular values depending on the array geometry and sphere composition. It was shown that the existence and characteristics of multiple singular values for each scatterer can, in principle, be used to determine certain properties of the scatterers, e.g. conducting or non-conducting material. In this paper, we extend this analysis to non-spherical targets and show how orientation information about the target may be obtained from the spectrum of singular values. The general properties of the decomposition for small non-spherical dielectric (and possibly conductive) targets in an electromagnetic field are derived and detailed results are obtained for the specific cases of non-magnetic and perfectly conducting needles and disks. It is shown that scatterer orientation can be estimated by tracking the singular values of a linear array as it is rotated around its midpoint.

  6. Change in working characteristics of the steam turbine metal with operating time of more than 330000 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladshteyn, V. I.; Troitskiy, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It's chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided.

  7. Time-motion analysis of clinical nursing documentation during implementation of an electronic operating room management system for ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed

    Read-Brown, Sarah; Sanders, David S; Brown, Anna S; Yackel, Thomas R; Choi, Dongseok; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency and quality of documentation are critical in surgical settings because operating rooms are a major source of revenue, and because adverse events may have enormous consequences. Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to impact surgical volume, quality, and documentation time. Ophthalmology is an ideal domain to examine these issues because procedures are high-throughput and demand efficient documentation. This time-motion study examines nursing documentation during implementation of an EHR operating room management system in an ophthalmology department. Key findings are: (1) EHR nursing documentation time was significantly worse during early implementation, but improved to a level near but slightly worse than paper baseline, (2) Mean documentation time varied significantly among nurses during early implementation, and (3) There was no decrease in operating room turnover time or surgical volume after implementation. These findings have important implications for ambulatory surgery departments planning EHR implementation, and for research in system design.

  8. Assessing clogging processes caused by biofilm growth and organic particle accumulation in constructed wetlands using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Himi; Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Rivero, Lluís; Font, Xavier; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Constructed wetlands for removing pollutants from wastewater in small communities are growing rapidly in many regions of the world. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems, where land availability is not a limiting factor, are low energy requirements, easy operation and maintenance, low sludge production and cost-effectivity. Nevertheless, with time the cleaning process can result in gradual clogging of the porous layer by suspended solids, bacterial film, chemical precipitates and compaction. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. As the investment involved in reversing clogging can represent a substantial fraction of the cost of a new system it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. Since there is a lack of experiences for monitoring the functionality of constructed wetlands time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography studies have been conducted at horizontal sub-surface flow municipal wastewater treatment wetlands of Catalonia (Spain). The results of this research show that electrical resistivity tomography can be a very useful technique for assessing the extent of silting up processes that clog the subsurface flow constructed wetlands through the gravel layer. In the unsaturated zone, the electrical resistivity is greater at the end of the filter, since the pores contains air which is dielectric, while at the beginning of the filter the resistivity is lower because the electrical conduction of organic matter around the mineral grains. Conversely, in the saturated zone, the electrical resistivity is lower at the end of the filter, since pores contain a higher proportion of high ionic conductivity wastewater, while at the beginning of the filter the electrical resistivity is higher because of the lower porosity due to the clogging process.

  9. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Opportunity Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity was expected to accumulate a sufficient quantity of dust after ninety Martian days (sols) such that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Opportunity continues to operate on the Martian surface for over 4000 sols (over six Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced six Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a method to scientifically estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Meridiani Planum over the course of the entire mission to date.

  10. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Spirit Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Johnson, J. R.; Cantor, B. A.; Stella, P. M.; Chin, K. B.; Wood, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit was expected to accumulate so much dust after ninety Martian days (sols) that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Spirit carried out surface operations for over 2200 sols (over three Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced four Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a tool to quantitatively estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Gusev Crater over the course of the entire mission.

  11. Storing wind energy into electrical accumulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordescu, M.; Petrescu, D. I.; Erdodi, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Shall be determined, in this work, the energy stored in the accumulators electrical, AE, at a wind system operating at wind speeds time-varying. mechanical energy caught in the turbine from the wind, (TV), is transformed into electrical energy by the generator synchronous with the permanent magnets, GSMP. The Generator synchronous with the permanent magnets saws, via a rectifier, energy in a battery AE, finished in a choice of two: variant 1-unregulated rectifier and variant of the 2-controlled rectifier and task adapted. Through simulation determine the differences between the two versions

  12. Towards real-time decentralized operating systems for ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tilborg, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    To satisfy the data processing needs of future ballistic missile defense systems, the US Army's ballistic missile defense advanced technology center is sponsoring extensive research on the subject of parallel computers. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled machines consisting of numerous microcomputer processing elements are being evaluated for use in endoatmospheric, exoatmospheric, and space-based BMD systems. For various reasons, it is important that these parallel computers operate under the control of decentralized operating systems. This paper reports on the current status of research to develop decentralized operating systems for parallel computers used in ballistic missile defense. 24 references.

  13. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  14. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  15. A high-order time-parallel scheme for solving wave propagation problems via the direct construction of an approximate time-evolution operator

    SciTech Connect

    Haut, T. S.; Babb, T.; Martinsson, P. G.; Wingate, B. A.

    2015-06-16

    Our manuscript demonstrates a technique for efficiently solving the classical wave equation, the shallow water equations, and, more generally, equations of the form ∂u/∂t=Lu∂u/∂t=Lu, where LL is a skew-Hermitian differential operator. The idea is to explicitly construct an approximation to the time-evolution operator exp(τL)exp(τL) for a relatively large time-step ττ. Recently developed techniques for approximating oscillatory scalar functions by rational functions, and accelerated algorithms for computing functions of discretized differential operators are exploited. Principal advantages of the proposed method include: stability even for large time-steps, the possibility to parallelize in time over many characteristic wavelengths and large speed-ups over existing methods in situations where simulation over long times are required. Numerical examples involving the 2D rotating shallow water equations and the 2D wave equation in an inhomogenous medium are presented, and the method is compared to the 4th order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method and to the use of Chebyshev polynomials. The new method achieved high accuracy over long-time intervals, and with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than both RK4 and the use of Chebyshev polynomials.

  16. A high-order time-parallel scheme for solving wave propagation problems via the direct construction of an approximate time-evolution operator

    DOE PAGES

    Haut, T. S.; Babb, T.; Martinsson, P. G.; ...

    2015-06-16

    Our manuscript demonstrates a technique for efficiently solving the classical wave equation, the shallow water equations, and, more generally, equations of the form ∂u/∂t=Lu∂u/∂t=Lu, where LL is a skew-Hermitian differential operator. The idea is to explicitly construct an approximation to the time-evolution operator exp(τL)exp(τL) for a relatively large time-step ττ. Recently developed techniques for approximating oscillatory scalar functions by rational functions, and accelerated algorithms for computing functions of discretized differential operators are exploited. Principal advantages of the proposed method include: stability even for large time-steps, the possibility to parallelize in time over many characteristic wavelengths and large speed-ups over existingmore » methods in situations where simulation over long times are required. Numerical examples involving the 2D rotating shallow water equations and the 2D wave equation in an inhomogenous medium are presented, and the method is compared to the 4th order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method and to the use of Chebyshev polynomials. The new method achieved high accuracy over long-time intervals, and with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than both RK4 and the use of Chebyshev polynomials.« less

  17. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  18. Comparison of a subrank to a full-rank time-reversal operator in a dynamic ocean.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Lingevitch, Joseph F; Gaumond, Charles F; Fromm, David M; Calvo, David C

    2007-11-01

    This paper investigates the application of time-reversal techniques to the detection and ensonification of a target of interest. The focusing method is based on a generalization of time-reversal operator techniques. A subrank time-reversal operator is derived and implemented using a discrete set of transmission beams to ensonify a region of interest. In a dynamic ocean simulation, target focusing using a subrank matrix is shown to be superior to using a full-rank matrix, specifically when the subrank matrix is captured in a period shorter than the coherence time of the modeled environment. Backscatter from the point target was propagated to a vertical 64-element source-receiver array and processed to form the sub-rank time-reversal operator matrix. The eigenvector corresponding to the strongest eigenvalue of the time-reversal operator was shown to focus energy on the target in simulation. Modeled results will be augmented by a limited at-sea experiment conducted on the New Jersey shelf in April-May 2004 measured low-frequency backscattered signal from an artificial target (echo repeater).

  19. IFR Operations at Non-Towered, Non-Radar Airports: Can we do Better Than One-at-a-Time?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, K.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept for operations in non-radar terminal airspace around small, nontowered airports. Currently, air traffic operations in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) at airfields without control towers and radar service are severely constrained by what is known as the one-in/one-out paradigm. Under these conditions only one operation (either arrival or departure) is allowed to occur at a time. Since these operations can take over 15 minutes to complete, capacity at these airports is severely restricted in IMC. The proposed concept is an attempt to break this current paradigm by applying emerging airborne and ground-based technologies to enable simultaneous operations by multiple aircraft in nonradar terminal airspace around small non-towered airports in IMC. The general philosophy underlying this concept of operations is the establishment of a newly defined area surrounding these airports called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Aircraft operating within the SCA are required to have a specified minimum level of equipage. Within the SCA, pilots are responsible for separating themselves from other similarly equipped aircraft through the use of new onboard systems and procedures. This concept also takes advantage of newly developed automation at the airport, which provides appropriate sequencing information to the pilots for safe and improved operations. Such operations would enhance the opportunity for point-to-point air taxi or charter operations into smaller airfields that are closer to a traveler s origin and destination. A description of this concept of operations and a simulation environment used for evaluation is provided in this paper.

  20. Real-time iTRAQ-based proteome profiling revealed the central metabolism involved in nitrogen starvation induced lipid accumulation in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vineeta; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Gandhi, Mayuri N.; Das, Debasish; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2017-01-01

    To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase). Profound up-regulation of hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrogenase and enoyl-ACP reductase ascertained lipid accumulation. The carbon skeletons to be integrated into lipid precursors were regenerated by glycolysis, β-oxidation and TCA cycle. The enhanced expression of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes indicates heightened energy needs of FC2 cells for the sustenance of N-starvation. FC2 cells strategically reserved nitrogen by incorporating it into the TCA-cycle intermediates to form amino acids; particularly the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glutamate, aspartate and arginine were up-regulated. Regulation of arginine, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin, lipocalin, serine-hydroxymethyltransferase, cysteine synthase, and octanoyltransferase play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during N-starvation. These findings may provide a rationale for genetic engineering of microalgae, which may enable synchronized biomass and lipid synthesis. PMID:28378827

  1. Real-time iTRAQ-based proteome profiling revealed the central metabolism involved in nitrogen starvation induced lipid accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineeta; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Gandhi, Mayuri N; Das, Debasish; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2017-04-05

    To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase). Profound up-regulation of hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrogenase and enoyl-ACP reductase ascertained lipid accumulation. The carbon skeletons to be integrated into lipid precursors were regenerated by glycolysis, β-oxidation and TCA cycle. The enhanced expression of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes indicates heightened energy needs of FC2 cells for the sustenance of N-starvation. FC2 cells strategically reserved nitrogen by incorporating it into the TCA-cycle intermediates to form amino acids; particularly the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glutamate, aspartate and arginine were up-regulated. Regulation of arginine, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin, lipocalin, serine-hydroxymethyltransferase, cysteine synthase, and octanoyltransferase play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during N-starvation. These findings may provide a rationale for genetic engineering of microalgae, which may enable synchronized biomass and lipid synthesis.

  2. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  3. A feasibility study for conducting unattended night-time operations at WMKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Gajadhar, Sarah; Dahm, Scott; Jordan, Carolyn; Nordin, Tom

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, W. M. Keck Observatory conducted a study of the feasibility of conducting nighttime operations on Maunakea without any staff on the mountain. The study was motivated by the possibility of long term operational costs savings as well as other expected benefits. The goals of the study were to understand the technical feasibility and risk as well as to provide labor and cost estimates for implementation. The results of the study would be used to inform a decision about whether or not to fund and initiate a formal project aimed at the development of this new unattended nighttime operating capability. In this paper we will describe the study process as well as a brief summary of the results including the identified viable design alternative, the risk analysis, and the scope of work. We will also share the decisions made as a result of the study and current status of related follow-on activity.

  4. Operational flood control of a low-lying delta system using large time step Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Negenborn, Rudy R.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The safety of low-lying deltas is threatened not only by riverine flooding but by storm-induced coastal flooding as well. For the purpose of flood control, these deltas are mostly protected in a man-made environment, where dikes, dams and other adjustable infrastructures, such as gates, barriers and pumps are widely constructed. Instead of always reinforcing and heightening these structures, it is worth considering making the most of the existing infrastructure to reduce the damage and manage the delta in an operational and overall way. In this study, an advanced real-time control approach, Model Predictive Control, is proposed to operate these structures in the Dutch delta system (the Rhine-Meuse delta). The application covers non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and the structures. To deal with the non-linearity, a linearization scheme is applied which directly uses the gate height instead of the structure flow as the control variable. Given the fact that MPC needs to compute control actions in real-time, we address issues regarding computational time. A new large time step scheme is proposed in order to save computation time, in which different control variables can have different control time steps. Simulation experiments demonstrate that Model Predictive Control with the large time step setting is able to control a delta system better and much more efficiently than the conventional operational schemes.

  5. Pneumatic shutoff and time-delay valve operates at controlled rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, J. L.; Tomlinson, L. E.

    1966-01-01

    Shutoff and time delay valve, which incorporates a metering spool that moves at constant velocity under pneumatic pressure and spring compression, increases fluid-flow area at a uniform rate. Diaphragm areas, control cavity volume, and bleed-orifice size may be varied to give any desired combination of time delay and spool travel time.

  6. Real-time Affective Indices of Potential CRM Breakdown: Qualitative Testing of an Operational Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation begins by showing several cases where poor crew resource management (CRM) resulted in aircraft accidents. The presenter reviews the emotional states that are present in a situation that frequently leads to an accident. The operational answer suggested is given as an acronym: PACE, which stand for Probe, Alert, Challenge, Emergency Action.

  7. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  8. Time and band limiting for matrix valued functions: an integral and a commuting differential operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. A.; Pacharoni, I.; Zurrián, I.

    2017-02-01

    The problem of recovering a signal of finite duration from a piece of its Fourier transform was solved at Bell Labs in the 1960’s, by exploiting a ‘miracle’: a certain naturally appearing integral operator commutes with an explicit differential one. Here we show that this same miracle holds in a matrix valued version of the same problem.

  9. Real time diagnostic for operation at a CW low voltage FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Balfour, C.; Shaw, A.; Mayhew, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    At Liverpool University, a system for single user control of an FEL has been designed to satisfy the low voltage FEL (ie 200kV) operational requirements. This system incorporates many aspects of computer automation for beam diagnostics, radiation detection and vacuum system management. In this paper the results of the development of safety critical control systems critical control systems are reported.

  10. First Time Go: Creating Capacity for Enduring Stability in Post-Operational Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    local and national narratives, as Record has suggested, it would have aided in the operational planning that produced the Strategic Hamlet program.22...The Strategic Hamlet program as a pacification measure and means to reduce Viet-Cong influence among the peasants was a forced relocation program and

  11. Making Optic Flow Robust to Dynamic Lighting Conditions for Real-Time Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-17

    Operation by Allison Mathis, William Nothwang, Daniel Donavanik, Joseph Conroy, Jared Shamwell, and Ryan Robinson...by Allison Mathis, William Nothwang, Daniel Donavanik, Joseph Conroy, Jared Shamwell, and Ryan Robinson Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Allison Mathis, William Nothwang, Daniel Donavanik, Joseph Conroy, Jared Shamwell, and Ryan Robinson 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  12. Hawaii PTTI test bed. [characteristics and operation on time measurement facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and installation of a test bed for a Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI). A prime goal in the effort is to develop a repertoire of techniques and equipment that will permit communications facilities to be served most effectively by their ties to a common time reference. The test bed provides guidance for the implementation of precise time and frequency discipline at other facilities. One product of the test-bed problem is an assessment of the accuracy of the time-discipline chain from the observatory to each level of use.

  13. Acoustic Reverse-time Migration using Optimal Staggered-grid Finite-difference Operator Based on Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongyong; Yang, Lei; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Reverse-time migration (RTM) directly solves the two-way wave equation for wavefield propagation; therefore, how to solve the wave equation accurately and quickly is very important for RTM. The conventional staggered-grid finite-difference (SFD) operators are usually based on the Taylor-series expansion theory. If they are used to solve wave equation on a larger frequency content, a strong dispersion will occur, which directly affects the seismic image quality. In this paper, we propose an optimal SFD operator based on least squares to solve acoustic wave equation for prestack RTM, and obtain a new antidispersion RTM algorithm that can use short spatial difference operators. The synthetic and real data tests demonstrate that the least squares SFD (LSSFD) operator can mitigate the numerical dispersion, and the acoustic RTM using the LSSFD operator can effectively improve image quality comparing with that using the Taylor-series expansion SFD (TESFD) operator. Moreover, the LSSFD method can adopt a shorter spatial difference operator to reduce the computing cost.

  14. A Memetic Algorithm for the Location-Based Continuously Operating Reference Stations Placement Problem in Network Real-Time Kinematic.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maolin

    2015-10-01

    Network real-time kinematic (NRTK) is a technology that can provide centimeter-level accuracy positioning services in real-time, and it is enabled by a network of continuously operating reference stations (CORS). The location-oriented CORS placement problem is an important problem in the design of a NRTK as it will directly affect not only the installation and operational cost of the NRTK, but also the quality of positioning services provided by the NRTK. This paper presents a memetic algorithm (MA) for the location-oriented CORS placement problem, which hybridizes the powerful explorative search capacity of a genetic algorithm and the efficient and effective exploitative search capacity of a local optimization. Experimental results have shown that the MA has better performance than existing approaches. In this paper, we also conduct an empirical study about the scalability of the MA, effectiveness of the hybridization technique and selection of crossover operator in the MA.

  15. High Availability Applications for NOMADS at the NOAA Web Operations Center Aimed at Providing Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Rutledge, G.; Wang, J.; Freeman, P.; Kang, C. Y.

    2009-05-01

    The NOAA Operational Modeling Archive Distribution System (NOMADS) is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA's official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC). The WOC is a web service used by all organizational units in NOAA and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including metadata. Data sets served in this way with a high availability server offer vast possibilities for the creation of new products for value added retailers and the scientific community. New applications to access data and observations for verification of gridded model output, and progress toward integration with access to conventional and non-conventional observations will be discussed. We will demonstrate how users can use NOMADS services to repackage area subsets either using repackaging of GRIB2 files, or values selected by ensemble component, (forecast) time, vertical levels, global horizontal location, and by variable, virtually a 6- Dimensional analysis services across the internet.

  16. A shorter time step for eco-friendly reservoir operation does not always produce better water availability and ecosystem benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chunxue; Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The time step used in the operation of eco-friendly reservoirs has decreased from monthly to daily, and even sub-daily. The shorter time step is considered a better choice for satisfying downstream environmental requirements because it more closely resembles the natural flow regime. However, little consideration has been given to the influence of different time steps on the ability to simultaneously meet human and environmental flow requirements. To analyze this influence, we used an optimization model to explore the relationships among the time step, environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, and human water needs for a wide range of time steps and e-flow scenarios. We used the degree of hydrologic alteration to evaluate the regime's ability to satisfy the e-flow requirements of riverine ecosystems, and used water supply reliability to evaluate the ability to satisfy human needs. We then applied the model to a case study of China's Tanghe Reservoir. We found four efficient time steps (2, 3, 4, and 5 days), with a remarkably high water supply reliability (around 80%) and a low alteration of the flow regime (<35%). Our analysis of the hydrologic alteration revealed the smallest alteration at time steps ranging from 1 to 7 days. However, longer time steps led to higher water supply reliability to meet human needs under several e-flow scenarios. Our results show that adjusting the time step is a simple way to improve reservoir operation performance to balance human and e-flow needs.

  17. Biohydrogen production from kitchen based vegetable waste: effect of pyrolysis temperature and time on catalysed and non-catalysed operation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Mohan, S Venkata

    2013-02-01

    Pyrolysis of kitchen based vegetable waste (KVW) was studied in a designed packed bed reactor. The effect of process parameters like temperature, time and catalyst on bio-gas yield and its composition was studied. The total bio-gas yield was found to be maximum with non-catalysed operation (260ml/g) at 1073K (180min). Higher hydrogen (H(2)) yield with non-catalysed operation (32.68%) was observed at 1073K (180min) while with catalysed operation the requisite temperature (873K) and time (120min) reduced with both silica gel (33.34%) and sand (41.82%) thus, saving energy input. Methane (CH(4)) yield was found to be highest (4.44times than non-catalysed and 1.42 with silica gel) in presence of sand (71.485ml/g) at medium temperature (873K) and time (60min). The catalyst operation reduced the carbondioxide (CO(2)) share from 47.29% to 41.30% (silica gel catalysed) and 21.91% (sand catalysed) at 873K.

  18. BIOREACTOR ECONOMICS, SIZE AND TIME OF OPERATION (BEST) COMPUTER SIMULATOR FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is an Excel™ spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with the public domain geochemical modeling software, PHREEQCI. The BEST model is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreacto...

  19. A novel real-time resource efficient implementation of Sobel operator-based edge detection on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Saini, Anil K.; Saini, Ravi; Mandal, A. S.; Shekhar, Chandra; Vohra, Anil

    2014-12-01

    A new resource efficient FPGA-based hardware architecture for real-time edge detection using Sobel operator for video surveillance applications has been proposed. The choice of Sobel operator is due to its property to counteract the noise sensitivity of the simple gradient operator. FPGA is chosen for this implementation due to its flexibility to provide the possibility to perform algorithmic changes in later stage of the system development and its capability to provide real-time performance, hard to achieve with general purpose processor or digital signal processor, while limiting the extensive design work, time and cost required for application specific integrated circuit. The proposed architecture uses single processing element for both horizontal and vertical gradient computation for Sobel operator and utilised approximately 38% less FPGA resources as compared to standard Sobel edge detection architecture while maintaining real-time frame rates for high definition videos (1920 × 1080 image sizes). The complete system is implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T) FPGA board.

  20. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Čaja, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  1. Survey of timing/synchronization of operating wideband digital communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to benefit from experience gained from the synchronization of operational wideband digital networks, a survey was made of three such systems: Data Transmission Company, Western Union Telegraph Company, and the Computer Communications Group of the Trans-Canada Telephone System. The focus of the survey was on deployment and operational experience from a practical (as opposed to theoretical) viewpoint. The objective was to provide a report on the results of deployment how the systems performed, and wherein the performance differed from that predicted or intended in the design. It also attempted to determine how the various system designers would use the benefit of hindsight if they could design those same systems today.

  2. Computer vision for real-time orbital operations. Center directors discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, F. L.; Brewster, L. L.; Thomas, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Machine vision research is examined as it relates to the NASA Space Station program and its associated Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Initial operation of OMV for orbital assembly, docking, and servicing are manually controlled from the ground by means of an on board TV camera. These orbital operations may be accomplished autonomously by machine vision techniques which use the TV camera as a sensing device. Classical machine vision techniques are described. An alternate method is developed and described which employs a syntactic pattern recognition scheme. It has the potential for substantial reduction of computing and data storage requirements in comparison to the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) image analysis. The method embodies powerful heuristic pattern recognition capability by identifying image shapes such as elongation, symmetry, number of appendages, and the relative length of appendages.

  3. Application of queueing models to multiprogrammed computer systems operating in a time-critical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A model of a central processor (CPU) which services background applications in the presence of time critical activity is presented. The CPU is viewed as an M/M/1 queueing system subject to periodic interrupts by deterministic, time critical process. The Laplace transform of the distribution of service times for the background applications is developed. The use of state of the art queueing models for studying the background processing capability of time critical computer systems is discussed and the results of a model validation study which support this application of queueing models are presented.

  4. Operational Precipitation prediction in Support of Real-Time Flash Flood Prediction and Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    The presentation will outline the implementation and performance evaluation of a number of national and international projects pertaining to operational precipitation estimation and prediction in the context of hydrologic warning systems and reservoir management support. In all cases, uncertainty measures of the estimates and predictions are an integral part of the precipitation models. Outstanding research issues whose resolution is likely to lead to improvements in the operational environment are presented. The presentation draws from the experience of the Hydrologic Research Center (http://www.hrc-lab.org) prototype implementation projects at the Panama Canal, Central America, Northern California, and South-Central US. References: Carpenter, T.M, and K.P. Georgakakos, "Discretization Scale Dependencies of the Ensemble Flow Range versus Catchment Area Relationship in Distributed Hydrologic Modeling," Journal of Hydrology, 2006, in press. Carpenter, T.M., and K.P. Georgakakos, "Impacts of Parametric and Radar Rainfall Uncertainty on the Ensemble Streamflow Simulations of a Distributed Hydrologic Model," Journal of Hydrology, 298, 202-221, 2004. Georgakakos, K.P., Graham, N.E., Carpenter, T.M., Georgakakos, A.P., and H. Yao, "Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-Objective Reservoir Management in Northern California," EOS, 86(12), 122,127, 2005. Georgakakos, K.P., and J.A. Sperfslage, "Operational Rainfall and Flow Forecasting for the Panama Canal Watershed," in The Rio Chagres: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed, R.S. Harmon, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, 323-334, 2005. Georgakakos, K. P., "Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance," Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.05.009, 2005.

  5. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  6. EPPrePMex: An Operational Real-Time Rainfall Estimation System for Mexico Based on GOES-IR Imagery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sesma, J.

    2007-05-01

    EPPrePMex is a tool for real-time rainfall estimation, calibrated for the Mexican territory and based on satellite imagery. We have implemented, calibrated and operationally evaluated the CST technique (by Adler and Negri) for Mexico. The results show that, in general, EPPrePMex gives an overestimation of the rainfall field. We have realized systematic comparisons for daily rainfall estimations over Mexico and USA with comparable results obtained with HydroEstimator(NOAA). However In order to improve our system, several modifications are planned: a) Calibration for different regions, season and kind of storms, b) A joint use and calibration of satellite and radar images, c) Dynamic study of storms, and d) Real time calibration with microwave and other kind of sensor data from low orbit satellites. We have proposed hydrological applications of the operational results of the EPPrePMex system (real time forecast and warning systems)for central and SW Mexico.

  7. Operational Use of Near Real Time Remote sensing Data at the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. Government agency that brings together the Department of Defense - Navy, Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Homeland Security - U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to support coastal and marine sea ice operations and research in the Polar Regions. The NIC provides specialized strategic and tactical ice analyses to meet the operational needs of the U.S. government and is the only operational ice service in the world that monitors sea ice in both the Arctic, Antarctic regions as well as in other ice infested waters. NIC utilizes multiple sources of near real time satellite and in-situ observations as well as NWP and ocean-sea ice model output to produce sea ice analyses. Key users of NIC products in the Arctic include the Navy submarine force, National Weather Service, USCG and Canadian Coast Guard icebreakers, Military Sealift Command on re-supply missions to Antarctica and Greenland, and NOAA research vessels operating near sea ice cover in both hemispheres as well. Time series of NIC weekly or bi-weekly ice analysis charts, daily marginal ice zone and ice edge routine products, as well as tactical support annotated imagery are generated by expert analysts with wide access to near real time satellite imagery from VIS/IR to passive and active microwave sensors. The status of these satellite data streams and the expected availability of new capabilities in the near future will be discussed.

  8. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  9. Burn-up and Operation Time of Fuel Elements Produced in IPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the developed work along the operational and reliability tests of fuel elements produced in the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, IPEN-CNEN/SP, from the 1980's. The study analyzed the U-235 burn evolution and the element remain in the research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel elements are of the type MTR (Material Testing Reactor), the standard with 18 plates and a 12-plate control, with a nominal mean enrichment of 20%.

  10. Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi

    2012-03-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power, ηm, of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), ηm becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th. For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency ηm at maximum power output is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.

  11. Contributing Factors to Total Mission Time for Medical Evacuation Missions during Operation Iraqi Freedom II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    nature have been conducted to analyze the data. Recent studies focused on the aeromedical evacuation from Level III facilities in theater to higher...missions with unusually large Total Mission Time or to compress the data by taking the natural log of the time variables. However, the data was not...All of the data is unclassified separately, but the analysis could be sensitive in nature so caution has been taken to protect it. Some missions may

  12. Optimising seasonal streamflow forecast lead time for operational decision making in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepen, Andrew; Zhao, Tongtiegang; Wang, Q. J.; Zhou, Senlin; Feikema, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Statistical seasonal forecasts of 3-month streamflow totals are released in Australia by the Bureau of Meteorology and updated on a monthly basis. The forecasts are often released in the second week of the forecast period, due to the onerous forecast production process. The current service relies on models built using data for complete calendar months, meaning the forecast production process cannot begin until the first day of the forecast period. Somehow, the bureau needs to transition to a service that provides forecasts before the beginning of the forecast period; timelier forecast release will become critical as sub-seasonal (monthly) forecasts are developed. Increasing the forecast lead time to one month ahead is not considered a viable option for Australian catchments that typically lack any predictability associated with snowmelt. The bureau's forecasts are built around Bayesian joint probability models that have antecedent streamflow, rainfall and climate indices as predictors. In this study, we adapt the modelling approach so that forecasts have any number of days of lead time. Daily streamflow and sea surface temperatures are used to develop predictors based on 28-day sliding windows. Forecasts are produced for 23 forecast locations with 0-14- and 21-day lead time. The forecasts are assessed in terms of continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) skill score and reliability metrics. CRPS skill scores, on average, reduce monotonically with increase in days of lead time, although both positive and negative differences are observed. Considering only skilful forecast locations, CRPS skill scores at 7-day lead time are reduced on average by 4 percentage points, with differences largely contained within +5 to -15 percentage points. A flexible forecasting system that allows for any number of days of lead time could benefit Australian seasonal streamflow forecast users by allowing more time for forecasts to be disseminated, comprehended and made use of prior to

  13. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Samir; Mujeeb, Abdul; Hussain, Seema Abid; Hussain, Mohammed Abid Zahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates the relationship betweendifferent types of impactions with postoperativeinflammatory tissue reaction. Materials & Methods: Consecutive patients with only mandibular third molar impactions were included in our study. They were classified by winter’s classification. The disimpactions were performed under local anaesthesia. Time for surgery was noted for each surgical procedure. Postoperative inflammatory complication in terms of pain, swelling and trismus were noted. Results: 150 male patients in the age groupof 18-40 years were studied. Inflammatory tissue reactions were increasing with more operative time. Distoangular and Horizontal impactions were associated with more pain on first 3 days of surgery along with more swelling and trismus. Vertically impacted teeth were associated with least complications. Conclusion: Post operative morbidity was increasing along with moreoperating time and increase in the depth of mandibular third molar impaction. How to cite the article: Mansuri S, Mujeeb A, Hussain SA, Hussain MA. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):9-15. PMID:24876696

  14. OOD/OOP experience in the Science Operations Center part of the ground system for X ray Timing Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Abdur Rahim

    1994-01-01

    The Science Operations Center (SOC) for the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) mission is an important component of the XTE ground system. Its mandate includes: (1) command and telemetry for the three XTE instruments, using CCSDS standards; (2) monitoring of the real-time science operations, reconfiguration of the experiment and the instruments, and real-time commanding to address the targets of opportunity (TOO) and alternate observations; and (3) analysis, processing, and archival of the XTE telemetry, and the timely delivery of the data products to the principal investigator (PI) teams and the guest observers (GO). The SOC has two major components: the science operations facility (SOF) that addresses the first two objectives stated above and the guest observer facility (GOF) that addresses the third. The SOF has subscribed to the object oriented design and implementation; while the GOF uses the traditional approach in order to take advantage of the existing software developed in support of previous missions. This paper details the SOF development using the object oriented design (OOD), and its implementation using the object oriented programming (OOP) in C++ under Unix environment on client-server architecture using Sun workstations. It also illustrates how the object oriented (OO) and the traditional approaches coexist in SOF and GOF, the lessons learned, and how the OOD facilitated the distributed software development collaboratively by four different teams. Details are presented for the SOF system, its major subsystems, its interfaces with the rest of the XTE ground data system, and its design and implementation approaches.

  15. Calibration and operation of a neutron time-of-flight scintillator array on nova

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Klare, K.A.; Murphy, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Tion diagnostic is a 1020-channel scintillator array on the Nova laser at Livermore. It measures the arrival time of single d-d or d-t neutrons at 27 m from the target with a time resolution of 4 ns. The effect of neutron scattering has been obtained from Monte-Carlo neutron transport simulations and the scattered response is convolved with a gaussian source to fit the data. The data analysis has been checked using targets which produce roughly equal numbers of d-t and d-d counts. The spectrum from Tion is in reasonable agreement with conventional neutron time-of-flight detectors at yields above 3 x 10{sup 8}.

  16. Operation Hardtack. Report to the Scientific Director. Power-time and total-thermal measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.F.; Perry, J.E.; Rockman, A.G.

    1985-09-01

    The objective of the experiments reported in this volume was to determine the very-high-altitude behavior of two nuclear explosions, namely, the thermal power versus time and the total thermal yield. The power-time measurements were performed wth four bolometers chopper units. A large dynamic range was provided both electronically and by neutral filters. The total thermal yield of the Teak Shot was measured by thermopile recorder systems. The total thermal yield for Orange Shot could not be determined because of the cloud cover present over Johnston Island.

  17. Model Predictive Control application for real time operation of controlled structures for the Water Authority Noorderzijlvest, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Gooijer, Jan; Knot, Floris; Talsma, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands, flood protection has always been a key issue to protect settlements against storm surges and riverine floods. Whereas flood protection traditionally focused on structural measures, nowadays the availability of meteorological and hydrological forecasts enable the application of more advanced real-time control techniques for operating the existing hydraulic infrastructure in an anticipatory and more efficient way. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a powerful technique to derive optimal control variables with the help of model based predictions evaluated against a control objective. In a project for the regional water authority Noorderzijlvest in the north of the Netherlands, it has been shown that MPC can increase the safety level of the system during flood events by an anticipatory pre-release of water. Furthermore, energy costs of pumps can be reduced by making tactical use of the water storage and shifting pump activities during normal operating conditions to off-peak hours. In this way cheap energy is used in combination of gravity flow through gates during low tide periods. MPC has now been implemented for daily operational use of the whole water system of the water authority Noorderzijlvest. The system developed to a real time decision support system which not only supports the daily operation but is able to directly implement the optimal control settings at the structures. We explain how we set-up and calibrated a prediction model (RTC-Tools) that is accurate and fast enough for optimization purposes, and how we integrated it in the operational flood early warning system (Delft-FEWS). Beside the prediction model, the weights and the factors of the objective function are an important element of MPC, since they shape the control objective. We developed special features in Delft-FEWS to allow the operators to adjust the objective function in order to meet changing requirements and to evaluate different control strategies.

  18. Elucidating light-induced charge accumulation in an artificial analogue of methane monooxygenase enzymes using time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Picón, Antonio; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Tu, Ming-Feng; Garrido-Barros, Pablo; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Avenier, Frédéric; Aukauloo, Ally

    2017-02-28

    We report the use of time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the ns-μs time scale to track the light induced two electron transfer processes in a multi-component photocatalytic system, consisting of [Ru(bpy)3](2+)/ a diiron(iii,iii) model/triethylamine. EXAFS analysis with DFT calculations confirms the structural configurations of the diiron(iii,iii) and reduced diiron(ii,ii) states.

  19. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operators using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. S.; Wang, L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Fleischer, A. C.; Gibson, C. R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  20. Online Operation Guidance of Computer System Used in Real-Time Distance Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    Computer system is useful for improving real time and interactive distance education activities. Especially in the case that a large number of students participate in one distance lecture together and every student uses their own computer to share teaching materials or control discussions over the virtual classrooms. The problem is that within…

  1. Point-and-stare operation and high-speed image acquisition in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Richard D.; Bannon, David P.; Ciccone, Domenic; Hill, Sam L.

    2010-04-01

    The design and optical performance of a small-footprint, low-power, turnkey, Point-And-Stare hyperspectral analyzer, capable of fully automated field deployment in remote and harsh environments, is described. The unit is packaged for outdoor operation in an IP56 protected air-conditioned enclosure and includes a mechanically ruggedized fully reflective, aberration-corrected hyperspectral VNIR (400-1000 nm) spectrometer with a board-level detector optimized for point and stare operation, an on-board computer capable of full system data-acquisition and control, and a fully functioning internal hyperspectral calibration system for in-situ system spectral calibration and verification. Performance data on the unit under extremes of real-time survey operation and high spatial and high spectral resolution will be discussed. Hyperspectral acquisition including full parameter tracking is achieved by the addition of a fiber-optic based downwelling spectral channel for solar illumination tracking during hyperspectral acquisition and the use of other sensors for spatial and directional tracking to pinpoint view location. The system is mounted on a Pan-And-Tilt device, automatically controlled from the analyzer's on-board computer, making the HyperspecTM particularly adaptable for base security, border protection and remote deployments. A hyperspectral macro library has been developed to control hyperspectral image acquisition, system calibration and scene location control. The software allows the system to be operated in a fully automatic mode or under direct operator control through a GigE interface.

  2. Improving three-dimensional target reconstruction in the multiple scattering regime using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Chaumet, Patrick C.; Sentenac, Anne; Belkebir, Kamal

    2016-12-01

    The singular vectors of the time reversal operator (décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel, time reversal operator decomposition (DORT) processing) are often used for localizing small echogeneous targets in a cluttered environment. In this work, we show that they can also improve the imaging of relatively large and contrasted targets in a homogeneous environment. It is observed that non-linear inversion schemes, minimizing iteratively the discrepancy between experimental data and simulated field scattered by target estimates, are more efficient when the illuminations correspond to the DORT singular vectors. In addition, DORT preprocessing permits a drastic diminution of the data load and computer burden. This study is conducted with experimental microwave data of targets with size comparable or greater than the wavelength.

  3. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  4. A novel recurrent neural network with one neuron and finite-time convergence for k-winners-take-all operation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingshan; Dang, Chuangyin; Cao, Jinde

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, based on a one-neuron recurrent neural network, a novel k-winners-take-all ( k -WTA) network is proposed. Finite time convergence of the proposed neural network is proved using the Lyapunov method. The k-WTA operation is first converted equivalently into a linear programming problem. Then, a one-neuron recurrent neural network is proposed to get the kth or (k+1)th largest inputs of the k-WTA problem. Furthermore, a k-WTA network is designed based on the proposed neural network to perform the k-WTA operation. Compared with the existing k-WTA networks, the proposed network has simple structure and finite time convergence. In addition, simulation results on numerical examples show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed k-WTA network.

  5. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  6. NASA-Langley Web-Based Operational Real-time Cloud Retrieval Products from Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palikonda, Rabindra; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Nguyen, Louis; Yi, Yuhong; Chan, P. K.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Smith, William L, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), radiances from multiple satellites are analyzed in near real-time to produce cloud products over many regions on the globe. These data are valuable for many applications such as diagnosing aircraft icing conditions and model validation and assimilation. This paper presents an overview of the multiple products available, summarizes the content of the online database, and details web-based satellite browsers and tools to access satellite imagery and products.

  7. Accurate ampacity determination: Temperature-Sag Model for operational real time ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a method for determining transmission line ratings based on the relationship between the conductor`s temperature and its sag. The method is based on the Ruling Span principle and the use of transmission line tension monitoring systems. The report also presents a method of accurately calibrating the final sag of the conductor and determining the actual Ruling Span length of the line sections between deadend structures. Main error sources for two other real time methods are also examined.

  8. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; McCurdy, Dave; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  9. The use of the AOA TTR-4P GPS receiver in operation at the BIPM for real-time restitution of GPS time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System is an outstanding tool for the dissemination of time. Using mono-channel C/A-code GPS time receivers, the restitution of GPS time through the satellite constellation presents a peak-to-peak discrepancy of several tens of nanoseconds without SA but may be as high as several hundreds of nanoseconds with SA. As a consequence, civil users are more and more interested in implementing hardware and software methods for efficient restitution of GPS time, especially in the framework of the project of a real-time prediction of UTC (UTCp) which could be available in the form of time differences (UTCp - GPS time). Previous work, for improving the real-time restitution of GPS time with SA, to the level obtained without SA, focused on the implementation of a Kalman filter based on past data and updated at each new observation. An alternative solution relies upon the statistical features of the noise brought about by SA; it has already been shown that the SA noise is efficiently reduced by averaging data from numerous satellites observed simultaneously over a sufficiently long time. This method was successfully applied to data from a GPS time receiver, model AOA TTR-4P, connected to the cesium clock kept at the BIPM. This device, a multi-channel, dual frequency, P-code GPS time receiver, is one of the first TTR-4P units in operation in a civil laboratory. Preliminary comparative studies of this new equipment with conventional GPS time receivers are described in this paper. The results of an experimental restitution of GPS time, obtained in June 1993, are also detailed: 3 to 6 satellites were observed simultaneously with a sample interval of 15 s, an efficient smoothing of SA noise was realized by averaging data on all observed satellites over more than 1 hour. When the GPS system is complete in 1994, 8 satellites will be observable continuously from anywhere in the world and the same level of uncertainty will be obtained using a shorter averaging

  10. Construction of a Cerebral Hemorrhage Test System Operated in Real-time

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gen; Sun, Jian; Ma, Ke; Yan, Qingguang; Zheng, Xiaolin; Qin, Mingxin; Jin, Gui; Ning, Xu; Zhuang, Wei; Feng, Hua; Huang, Shiyuwei

    2017-01-01

    The real-time monitoring and evaluation of the severity and progression of cerebral hemorrhage is essential to its intensive care and its successful emergency treatment. Based on magnetic induction phase shift technology combined with a PCI data acquisition system and LabVIEW software, this study established a real-time monitoring system for cerebral hemorrhage. To test and evaluate the performance of the system, the authors performed resolution conductivity experiments, salted water simulation experiments and cerebral hemorrhage experiments in rabbits and found that when the conductivity difference was 0.73 S/m, the phase difference was 13.196°. The phase difference change value was positively proportional to the volume of saline water, and the conductivity value was positively related to the phase difference of liquid under the same volume conditions. After injecting 3 mL blood into six rabbits, the average change in the blood phase difference was −2.03783 ± 0.22505°, and it was positively proportional to the volume of blood, which was consistent with the theoretical results. The results show that the system can monitor the progressive development of cerebral hemorrhage in real-time and has the advantages of low cost, small size, high phase accuracy, and good clinical application potentiality. PMID:28205627

  11. Variations in Sleep and Performance by Duty Start Time in Short Haul Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have confirmed that commercial airline pilots experience circadian phase shifts and short sleep duration following travel with layovers in different time zones. Few studies have examined the impact of early and late starts on the sleep and circadian phase of airline pilots who return to their domicile after each duty period. We recruited 44 pilots (4 female) from a short-haul commercial airline to participate in a study examining sleep and circadian phase over four duty schedules (baseline, early starts, mid-day starts, late starts). Each duty schedule was five days long, separated by three rest days. Participants completed the rosters in the same order. Sleep outcomes were estimated using wrist-borne actigraphy (Actiware Software, Respironics, Bend, OR) and daily sleep diaries. Thirteen participants volunteered to collect urine samples for the assessment of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). Urine samples were collected in four-hourly bins during the day and eight-hourly bins during sleep episodes, for 24 hours immediately following each experimental duty schedule. The aMT6s results were fit to a cosine in order to obtain the acrophase to estimate circadian phase. Univariate statistics were calculated for acrophase changes, schedule start times and sleep times. All statistical analyses were computed using SAS software (Cary, IN).

  12. Construction of a Cerebral Hemorrhage Test System Operated in Real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen; Sun, Jian; Ma, Ke; Yan, Qingguang; Zheng, Xiaolin; Qin, Mingxin; Jin, Gui; Ning, Xu; Zhuang, Wei; Feng, Hua; Huang, Shiyuwei

    2017-02-01

    The real-time monitoring and evaluation of the severity and progression of cerebral hemorrhage is essential to its intensive care and its successful emergency treatment. Based on magnetic induction phase shift technology combined with a PCI data acquisition system and LabVIEW software, this study established a real-time monitoring system for cerebral hemorrhage. To test and evaluate the performance of the system, the authors performed resolution conductivity experiments, salted water simulation experiments and cerebral hemorrhage experiments in rabbits and found that when the conductivity difference was 0.73 S/m, the phase difference was 13.196°. The phase difference change value was positively proportional to the volume of saline water, and the conductivity value was positively related to the phase difference of liquid under the same volume conditions. After injecting 3 mL blood into six rabbits, the average change in the blood phase difference was ‑2.03783 ± 0.22505°, and it was positively proportional to the volume of blood, which was consistent with the theoretical results. The results show that the system can monitor the progressive development of cerebral hemorrhage in real-time and has the advantages of low cost, small size, high phase accuracy, and good clinical application potentiality.

  13. Sub-millisecond response time in a photorefractive composite operating under CW conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Jong -Sik; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Jin, Sung -Ho; Oh, Jin -Woo; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2016-09-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based on molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm–1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. As a result, it is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials.

  14. Sub-millisecond response time in a photorefractive composite operating under CW conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Jong -Sik; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; ...

    2016-09-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based onmore » molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm–1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. As a result, it is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials.« less

  15. Sub-Millisecond Response Time in a Photorefractive Composite Operating under CW Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Jin, Sung-Ho; Oh, Jin-Woo; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive study of photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals has yielded data indicating that the inclusion of such nanocrystals enhances the charge-carrier mobility, and subsequently leads to a reduction in the photorefractive response time. Unfortunately, the included nanocrystals may also act as a source of deep traps, resulting in diminished diffraction efficiencies as well as reduced two beam coupling gain coefficients. Nonetheless, previous studies indicate that this problem is mitigated through the inclusion of semiconductor nanocrystals possessing a relatively narrow band-gap. Here, we fully exploit this property by doping PbS nanocrystals into a newly formulated photorefractive composite based on molecular triphenyldiamine photosensitized with C60. Through this approach, response times of 399 μs are observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency, with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm−1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. It is anticipated that this approach can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of this class of materials. PMID:27478156

  16. Video enhancement workbench: an operational real-time video image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, Stephen R.; Van Vactor, David L.; Smedley, Kirk G.

    1993-01-01

    Video image sequences can be exploited in real-time, giving analysts rapid access to information for military or criminal investigations. Video-rate dynamic range adjustment subdues fluctuations in image intensity, thereby assisting discrimination of small or low- contrast objects. Contrast-regulated unsharp masking enhances differentially shadowed or otherwise low-contrast image regions. Real-time removal of localized hotspots, when combined with automatic histogram equalization, may enhance resolution of objects directly adjacent. In video imagery corrupted by zero-mean noise, real-time frame averaging can assist resolution and location of small or low-contrast objects. To maximize analyst efficiency, lengthy video sequences can be screened automatically for low-frequency, high-magnitude events. Combined zoom, roam, and automatic dynamic range adjustment permit rapid analysis of facial features captured by video cameras recording crimes in progress. When trying to resolve small objects in murky seawater, stereo video places the moving imagery in an optimal setting for human interpretation.

  17. Triadic social interactions operate across time: a field experiment with wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Langergraber, Kevin E; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-03-22

    Social animals cooperate with bonding partners to outcompete others. Predicting a competitor's supporter is likely to be beneficial, regardless of whether the supporting relationship is stable or transient, or whether the support happens immediately or later. Although humans make such predictions frequently, it is unclear to what extent animals have the cognitive abilities to recognize others' transient bond partners and to predict others' coalitions that extend beyond the immediate present. We conducted playback experiments with wild chimpanzees to test this. About 2 h after fighting, subjects heard recordings of aggressive barks of a bystander, who was or was not a bond partner of the former opponent. Subjects looked longer and moved away more often from barks of the former opponents' bond partners than non-bond partners. In an additional experiment, subjects moved away more from barks than socially benign calls of the same bond partner. These effects were present despite differences in genetic relatedness and considerable time delays between the two events. Chimpanzees, it appears, integrate memories of social interactions from different sources to make inferences about current interactions. This ability is crucial for connecting triadic social interactions across time, a requirement for predicting aggressive support even after a time delay.

  18. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  19. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  20. VALIDATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE TIME TO FAILURE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICALLY SUPPORTED MAINTENANCE INTERVALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-02-18

    The Savannah River Site operates a Relief Valve Repair Shop certified by the National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors to NB-23, The National Board Inspection Code. Local maintenance forces perform inspection, testing, and repair of approximately 1200 spring-operated relief valves (SORV) each year as the valves are cycled in from the field. The Site now has over 7000 certified test records in the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS); a summary of that data is presented in this paper. In previous papers, several statistical techniques were used to investigate failure on demand and failure rates including a quantal response method for predicting the failure probability as a function of time in service. The non-conservative failure mode for SORV is commonly termed 'stuck shut'; industry defined as the valve opening at greater than or equal to 1.5 times the cold set pressure. Actual time to failure is typically not known, only that failure occurred some time since the last proof test (censored data). This paper attempts to validate the assumptions underlying the statistical lifetime prediction results using Monte Carlo simulation. It employs an aging model for lift pressure as a function of set pressure, valve manufacturer, and a time-related aging effect. This paper attempts to answer two questions: (1) what is the predicted failure rate over the chosen maintenance/ inspection interval; and do we understand aging sufficient enough to estimate risk when basing proof test intervals on proof test results?

  1. Relationship between time in the operating room and incident pressure ulcers: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rachel M; Spear, Marcia E; Lee, Sheree I; Krauser Lupear, Buffy E; Benoit, Richard A; Valerio, Rainy; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between time in the operating room (OR) and hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs), controlling for temporality. The research team identified 931 HAPUs among surgical patients and matched them to 4 controls by hospital length of stay at the time the pressure ulcer (PU) was documented. A regression model estimated the relationship between OR time and HAPU after controlling for matching, age, sex, admission and current Braden score, weight, year, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score. OR time in the 24 hours prior to PU documentation was associated with PUs. Only 5% of HAPUs occurred within 24 hours of extended (>4 hours) surgery and 58% occurred after hospital day 5. Extended surgery is confirmed as a risk factor for PU development. Most PUs do not appear in the immediate postoperative period, and prevention efforts should focus on postoperative patient care, when most HAPUs develop.

  2. Monitoring and simulating real-time electric power system operation with phasor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, A.G.; Thorp, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this research project, two important results have been achieved. The concept of generator axis load flow has been developed more fully, and has been tested through simulations on the 39-bus system (with 10 generators). Generator axis load flow is a load flow calculation which views the entire network from a few retained buses such as the internal nodes of the generators. As these nodes can be indirectly monitored in real time through phasor measurements of generator terminal quantities, it becomes possible to track and predict the behavior of the entire network from these few observation points. This is extremely valuable in the task of predicting network instability in real time. The task of instability prediction of a multi-machine power system is one of the most difficult analytical exercises. We investigated two of the most promising approaches: the extended equal area method, and the transient energy function method. Although both of these methods work well in many instances, we have shown that in other cases, the predictions made by the two methods are incorrect. The failure of the methods can be traced to their inability to deal with the behavior of the system after the first turning point of the motor swing curves. Instead of using these methods, we propose the direct integration of the machine swing equations following the start of a disturbance. Coupled with the generator aids load flow developed above, and using the high speed computers available now, we show that for systems of significant size (39 bus system), accurate predictions through direct computation are possible. The report also includes results on computational efficiency of the method of faster-than-real-time integration using machine equations and the generator aids load flow. It is anticipated that this technique will be useful in most practical applications in power system control centers of the future.

  3. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  4. Rise time reduction of thermal actuators operated in air and water through optimized pre-shaped open-loop driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Doll, J. C.; Loizeau, F.; Hosseini, N.; Peng, A. W.; Fantner, G. E.; Ricci, A. J.; Pruitt, B. L.

    2017-04-01

    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10–90% rise time of 85 μs in air and 234 μs in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10–90% rise time from 85 μs to 3 μs in air and from 234 μs to 5 μs in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate.

  5. Planning for operating room efficiency and faster anesthesia wake-up time in open major upper abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Chan, Shun-Ming; Lu, Chueng-He; Wong, Chih-Shung; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reducing anesthesia-controlled time (ACT) may improve operation room (OR) efficiency result from different anesthetic techniques. However, the information about the difference in ACT between desflurane (DES) anesthesia and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) techniques for open major upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia (GA) is not available in the literature. This retrospective study uses our hospital database to analyze the ACT of open major upper abdominal surgery without liver resection after either desflurane/fentanyl-based anesthesia or TIVA via target-controlled infusion with fentanyl/propofol from January 2010 to December 2011. The various time intervals including waiting for anesthesia time, anesthesia time, surgical time, extubation time, exit from OR after extubation, total OR time, and postanesthetic care unit (PACU) stay time and percentage of prolonged extubation (≥15 minutes) were compared between these 2 anesthetic techniques. We included data from 343 patients, with 159 patients receiving TIVA and 184 patients receiving DES. The only significant difference is extubation time, TIVA was faster than the DES group (8.5 ± 3.8 vs 9.4 ± 3.7 minutes; P = 0.04). The factors contributed to prolonged extubation were age, gender, body mass index, DES anesthesia, and anesthesia time. In our hospital, propofol-based TIVA by target-controlled infusion provides faster emergence compared with DES anesthesia; however, it did not improve OR efficiency in open major abdominal surgery. Older, male gender, higher body mass index, DES anesthesia, and lengthy anesthesia time were factors that contribute to extubation time. PMID:28207547

  6. Real time simulation of computer-assisted sequencing of terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dear, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A simulation was developed to investigate the utilization of computer assisted decision making for the task of sequencing and scheduling aircraft in a high density terminal area. The simulation incorporates a decision methodology termed Constrained Position Shifting. This methodology accounts for aircraft velocity profiles, routes, and weight classes in dynamically sequencing and scheduling arriving aircraft. A sample demonstration of Constrained Position Shifting is presented where six aircraft types (including both light and heavy aircraft) are sequenced to land at Denver's Stapleton International Airport. A graphical display is utilized and Constrained Position Shifting with a maximum shift of four positions (rearward or forward) is compared to first come, first serve with respect to arrival at the runway. The implementation of computer assisted sequencing and scheduling methodologies is investigated. A time based control concept will be required and design considerations for such a system are discussed.

  7. The Just-in-Time Operating Philosophy: Implications for Workers and Work Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    block effect (teams) e - random error component DATA : COLLABORATION INDEX 2 TREATMENTS BLOCKS TI T2 T3 B 0.681 0.596 0.638 D 0.595 0.558 0.620 Q 0.814...6i where: y - collaboration index 1 A - overall mean r - treatment effect (survey time) - block effect (teams) e - random error component DATA ... COLLABORATION INDEX 1 TREATMENTS BLOCKS T1 T2 T3 B 0.774 0.699 0.769 D 0.953 0.779 0.753 Q 1.030 1.025 1.153 R 0.558 1.123 1.009 S 1.230 1.616 1.486 RESULTS

  8. A Time History of Control Operation of a C-54 Airplane in Blind Landing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talmage, Donald B.

    1947-01-01

    Tests were made with a C-54 airplane in which airline pilots made several blind approaches to determine whether any special flying techniques were used in blind landings and whether any special handling-qualities requirements would have to be formulated because of such special techniques. It was found that the airplane was flown at all times in the normal manner; that is, all turns were banked turns that were nearly coordinated by use of the rudder so that the sideslip was held close to zero. The pilot expended considerable physical work in continually moving the controls but this wake was due in part to the large friction in the three control systems. The actual control deflections used were small compared to the maximum deflections available.

  9. Analysis of the Best Timing for Applying Tirofiban in PCI Operation for the Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhang; Xiaoming, Zhong; Yan, Hong; Ming, Zhong Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the best timing for applying tirofiban in the PCI emergency treatment for STEMI patients. We selected 109 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction from October 2013 to October 2014 and divided them into two groups, the early treatment group (53 cases) received tirofiban during the operation and the later treatment group (56 cases) received tirofiban after operation. The analysis was then conducted. Results: The proportion of IRA forward flow in TIMI2-3 for the 1st group during the radiography was higher than 2nd group, 50 cases with TIMI3 blood flow and 52 cases with TIMI3 blood flow in later treatment group. Comparing the TIMI3 flow of both groups, the difference was not statistically significant; for the CK-MB 4h and 8h after operation as well as the LVEF after operation, the differences are were not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of hemorrhage complication was low for both groups. The early use of tirofiban can make the thrombus fully dissolve and coronary blood flow remains in a good state, which is not only beneficial for myocardial perfusion but also helpful for deciding the length and side branch situation of coronary artery pathological changes. PMID:28352723

  10. Low-voltage-operated organic one-time programmable memory using printed organic thin-film transistors and antifuse capacitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soon-Won; Na, Bock Soon; Park, Chan Woo; Koo, Jae Bon

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate an organic one-time programmable memory cell formed entirely at plastic-compatible temperatures. All the processes are performed at below 130 degrees C. Our memory cell consists of a printed organic transistor and an organic capacitor. Inkjet-printed organic transistors are fabricated by using high-k polymer dielectric blends comprising poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for low-voltage operation. P(NDI2OD-T2) transistors have a high field-effect mobility of 0.2 cm2/Vs and a low operation gate voltage of less than 10 V. The operation voltage effectively decreases owing to the high permittivity of the P(VDF-TrFE):PMMA blended film. The data in the memory cell are programmed by electrically breaking the organic capacitor. The organic capacitor acts like an antifuse capacitor, because it is initially open, and it becomes permanently short-circuited by applying a high voltage. The organic memory cells are programmed with 4 V, and they are read out with 2 V. The memory data are read out by sensing the current in the memory cell. The printed organic one-time programmable memory is suitable for applications storing small amount of data, such as low-cost radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag.

  11. Modeling Real-Time Coordination of Distributed Expertise and Event Response in NASA Mission Control Center Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Jeffrey

    This dissertation introduces a multidisciplinary framework for the enabling of future research and analysis of alternatives for control centers for real-time operations of safety-critical systems. The multidisciplinary framework integrates functional and computational models that describe the dynamics in fundamental concepts of previously disparate engineering and psychology research disciplines, such as group performance and processes, supervisory control, situation awareness, events and delays, and expertise. The application in this dissertation is the real-time operations within the NASA Mission Control Center in Houston, TX. This dissertation operationalizes the framework into a model and simulation, which simulates the functional and computational models in the framework according to user-configured scenarios for a NASA human-spaceflight mission. The model and simulation generates data according to the effectiveness of the mission-control team in supporting the completion of mission objectives and detecting, isolating, and recovering from anomalies. Accompanying the multidisciplinary framework is a proof of concept, which demonstrates the feasibility of such a framework. The proof of concept demonstrates that variability occurs where expected based on the models. The proof of concept also demonstrates that the data generated from the model and simulation is useful for analyzing and comparing MCC configuration alternatives because an investigator can give a diverse set of scenarios to the simulation and the output compared in detail to inform decisions about the effect of MCC configurations on mission operations performance.

  12. A Brain-Machine Interface Operating with a Real-Time Spiking Neural Network Control Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dethier, Julie; Nuyujukian, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris; Stewart, Terry; Elassaad, Shauki A; Shenoy, Krishna V; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Motor prostheses aim to restore function to disabled patients. Despite compelling proof of concept systems, barriers to clinical translation remain. One challenge is to develop a low-power, fully-implantable system that dissipates only minimal power so as not to damage tissue. To this end, we implemented a Kalman-filter based decoder via a spiking neural network (SNN) and tested it in brain-machine interface (BMI) experiments with a rhesus monkey. The Kalman filter was trained to predict the arm's velocity and mapped on to the SNN using the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF). A 2,000-neuron embedded Matlab SNN implementation runs in real-time and its closed-loop performance is quite comparable to that of the standard Kalman filter. The success of this closed-loop decoder holds promise for hardware SNN implementations of statistical signal processing algorithms on neuromorphic chips, which may offer power savings necessary to overcome a major obstacle to the successful clinical translation of neural motor prostheses.

  13. Real-time dynamics and control strategies for space operations of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alvin, K. F.; Alexander, S.

    1993-01-01

    This project (NAG9-574) was meant to be a three-year research project. However, due to NASA's reorganizations during 1992, the project was funded only for one year. Accordingly, every effort was made to make the present final report as if the project was meant to be for one-year duration. Originally, during the first year we were planning to accomplish the following: we were to start with a three dimensional flexible manipulator beam with articulated joints and with a linear control-based controller applied at the joints; using this simple example, we were to design the software systems requirements for real-time processing, introduce the streamlining of various computational algorithms, perform the necessary reorganization of the partitioned simulation procedures, and assess the potential speed-up realization of the solution process by parallel computations. The three reports included as part of the final report address: the streamlining of various computational algorithms; the necessary reorganization of the partitioned simulation procedures, in particular the observer models; and an initial attempt of reconfiguring the flexible space structures.

  14. Near-Real Time Cloud Retrievals from Operational and Research Meteorological Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Palilonda, Rabindra; Heck, Patrick W.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Doelling, David R.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Smith, William L., Jr.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Avey, Lance A.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Yost, Chris R.; Chee, Thad L.; Sun-Mack, Szedung

    2008-01-01

    A set of cloud retrieval algorithms developed for CERES and applied to MODIS data have been adapted to analyze other satellite imager data in near-real time. The cloud products, including single-layer cloud amount, top and base height, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid and ice water paths, are being retrieved from GOES- 10/11/12, MTSAT-1R, FY-2C, and Meteosat imager data as well as from MODIS. A comprehensive system to normalize the calibrations to MODIS has been implemented to maximize consistency in the products across platforms. Estimates of surface and top-of-atmosphere broadband radiative fluxes are also provided. Multilayered cloud properties are retrieved from GOES-12, Meteosat, and MODIS data. Native pixel resolution analyses are performed over selected domains, while reduced sampling is used for full-disk retrievals. Tools have been developed for matching the pixel-level results with instrumented surface sites and active sensor satellites. The calibrations, methods, examples of the products, and comparisons with the ICESat GLAS lidar are discussed. These products are currently being used for aircraft icing diagnoses, numerical weather modeling assimilation, and atmospheric radiation research and have potential for use in many other applications.

  15. Multi-spacecraft testing of time-dependent interplanetary MHD models for operational forecasting of geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, M.; Smith, Z. K.

    1989-01-01

    An MHD 2-1/2D, time-dependent model is used, together with observations of six solar flares during February 3-7, 1986, to demonstrate global, large-scale, compound disturbances in the solar wind over a wide range of heliolongitudes. This scenario is one that is likely to occur many times during the cruise, possibly even encounter, phases of the Multi-Comet Mission. It is suggested that a model such as this one should be tested with multi-spacecraft data (such as the MCM and earth-based probes) with several goals in view: (1) utility of the model for operational real-time forecasting of geomagnetic storms, and (2) scientific interpretation of certain forms of cometary activities and their possible association with solar-generated activity.

  16. Fowler DMO and time migration for transversely isotropic media with explicit operators

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Alkhalifah, T.; Tsvankin, I.

    1994-12-01

    In this report, the authors devise a Fowler-type DMO algorithm for transversely isotropic media using the analytic expression for normal-moveout velocity given by Tsvankin (1995a). Alkhalifah and Tsvankin (1995) have shown that in transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) the P-wave normal-moveout (NMO) velocity as a function of ray parameter can be fully described by just two parameters: the zero-dip NMO velocity V{sub nmo}(O) and the anisotropic parameter {eta}. In the authors extension of Fowler DMO, resampling in the frequency-wavenumber domain makes it possible to obtain the values of V{sub nmo}(O) and {eta} by inspecting zero-offset (stacked) panels for different pairs of the two parameters. The simplest way to reduce the range of solutions in this two-dimensional search is to obtain V{sub nmo}(O) from conventional NMO velocity analysis. Since most of the computing time is spent on generating constant-velocity stacks, the added computational effort due to the presence of anisotropy is relatively minor. Synthetic and field-data examples demonstrate that the isotropic Fowler DMO technique fails to generate an accurate zero-offset section and obtain the zero-dip NMO velocity for non-elliptical VTI models. In contrast, their anisotropic algorithm allows one to find the values of the parameters V{sub nmo}(O) and {eta}, and correct for the influence of transverse isotropy in the DMO processing. Combined with poststack F-K Stolt migration, this method represents a complete inversion-processing sequence capable of recovering the effective parameters of transversely isotropic media and producing migrated images for the best-fit homogeneous anisotropic model. Although the current implementation is limited to transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI), it can be generalized for more complicated anisotropic models.

  17. The effect of obesity and increasing age on operative time and length of stay in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ben M; Griffiths, Shelly N; Stewart, Kyle J; Higgins, Gordon A; Hockings, Michael; Isaac, David L

    2014-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 589 patients undergoing lower-limb arthroplasty, recording age, body mass index (BMI) and co-morbidities. The effect of these on operative duration and length of stay (LOS) was analysed. For a 1 point increase in BMI we expect LOS to increase by a factor of 2.9% and mean theatre time to increase by 1.46minutes. For a 1-year increase in age, we expect LOS to increase by a factor of 1.2%. We have calculated the extra financial costs associated. The current reimbursement system underestimates the financial impact of BMI and age. The results have been used to produce a chart that allows prediction of LOS following lower limb arthroplasty based on BMI and age. These data are of use in planning operating lists.

  18. A highly reliable, high performance open avionics architecture for real time Nap-of-the-Earth operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Elks, Carl

    1995-01-01

    An Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) has been developed to meet real-time fault tolerant processing requirements of future Army applications. AFTA is the enabling technology that will allow the Army to configure existing processors and other hardware to provide high throughput and ultrahigh reliability necessary for TF/TA/NOE flight control and other advanced Army applications. A comprehensive conceptual study of AFTA has been completed that addresses a wide range of issues including requirements, architecture, hardware, software, testability, producibility, analytical models, validation and verification, common mode faults, VHDL, and a fault tolerant data bus. A Brassboard AFTA for demonstration and validation has been fabricated, and two operating systems and a flight-critical Army application have been ported to it. Detailed performance measurements have been made of fault tolerance and operating system overheads while AFTA was executing the flight application in the presence of faults.

  19. Time series analysis of strain accumulation across the Haiyuan fault, Gansu, China, over the 2003-2009 period from ENVISAT InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Doin, M.; Guillaso, S.; Cavalie, O.; Peltzer, G.; Sun, J.; Shen, Z.

    2009-12-01

    We use sar interferometry to characterize the present-day behaviour of the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (HFS), one of the main geological structure at the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau that accomodates the eastward movement of Tibet relative to the Gobi-Ala Shan platform. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a nearby thrust fault system. A ~260 km-long seismic gap has been identified on the central part of the HFS, along which creep may occur. We propose to further investigate the relationships between the present day deformation processes observed along the HFS and its seismic history and segmentation. We construct an extended InSAR-based map of the deformation around the Haiyuan fault from the eastern end of the Qilian Shan (102° E), to the west, to the junction with the Liupan Shan (106° E), to the east. We use monthly ENVISAT acquisitions along 4 descending and 2 ascending tracks, spanning the 2003-2009 time period. Data are processed using a small baseline chain type. For each track, all radar images are coregistrated to a single master and interferograms are produced using a local adaptative range filtering. Residual orbital and atmospheric effects are jointly inverted and corrected for each unwrapped interferogram. Atmospheric corrections are validated “a posteriori” , using the most recent global atmospheric model. We also investigate the potential improvements of these models for “a priori” atmospheric corrections. The interferograms series on each track are then inverted to obtain the increments of Line Of Sight (LOS) radar delays between acquisition dates, adapting the Lopez-Quiroz et al. 2009 time series analysis. We derive LOS mean velocity maps, that show along-strike variations including local shallow creep and vertical movements (subsidence in the Jingtai pull-apart basin). These features

  20. In-SITU, Time-resolved Raman Spectro-micro-topography of an Operating Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Yu; Cai, Wen-Bin; Xing, Xue-Kun; Scherson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    A Raman microscope has been coupled to a computer-controlled, two-dimensional linear translator attached to a custom-designed, sealed optical chamber to allow in situ acquisition of space-, and time-resolved spectra of an operating thin graphite/LiCoO2 Li-ion battery. This unique arrangement made it possible to collect continuously series of Raman spectra from a sharply defined edge of the battery exposing the anode (A), separator (S), and cathode (C), during charge and discharge, while the device was moved back and forth under the fixed focused laser beam along an axis normal to the layered A/S/C plane. Clear spectral evidence was obtained for changes in the amount of Li(+) within particles of graphite in the anode, and, to a lesser extent, of LiCoO2 in the cathode, during battery discharge both as a function of position and time. Analysis of time-resolved Raman spectro-micro-topography (SMT) measurements of the type described in this work are expected to open new prospects for assessing the validity of theoretical models aimed at simulating the flow of Li(+) within Li-ion batteries under operating conditions.

  1. The impact of a dedicated orthoplastic operating list on time to soft tissue coverage of open lower limb fractures

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, MA; Wallis, K; Venus, M; Skillman, J; Young, J; Costa, ML

    2015-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of 105 patients presenting with an open fracture of the tibia or ankle to determine the impact of a dedicated orthoplastic operating list on our management of these injuries over the time period January 2012 to July 2014. There were 51 patients before and 54 after the introduction of the orthoplastic list. Significant improvements were noted in our ability to deliver a service in line with national guidelines across all Gustilo–Anderson grades of injury. Among patients with the most severe grades of injury (Gustilo types IIIB and IIIC), there was a trend towards an improved time to first skeletal stabilisation (29.5 vs 14.2 hours, p=0.068), an improvement in time to soft tissue coverage (173.6 vs 88.1 hours, p=0.009) and a trend towards a reduced length of inpatient stay (32.6 vs 23.2 days, p=0.138). Where the 72-hour target had been breached, there was a significant improvement in the proportion of patients covered within 7 days of injury (48.2% vs 83.3%, p=0.017). Our compliance with national management standards increased significantly to reflect these improvements in care. These results support the implementation of dedicated orthoplastic operating sessions to meet the growing burden of patients presenting with open fractures at specialist centres. PMID:26274740

  2. Real-Time Ocean Forecasting System in support of U.S. Coast Guard's Search and Rescue Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, C.; Chao, Y.; Howlett, E.; Allen, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    This talk will describe a real-time ocean forecasting system off the U.S. west coast developed to enhance U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) decision support tools for search and rescue operations. The forecasting model is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with multi-domain nested configurations. A multi-scale 3-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation scheme is used to assimilate both in situ (e.g., gliders) and remotely sensed data from both satellite and land-based platforms (e.g., high-frequency (HF) radars). The performance of this real-time ocean forecasting system was evaluated during a two-week field experiment during July-August 2009 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The 72-hour ocean forecast fields in Alaska's Prince William Sound and California coastal ocean are now produced in real-time and accessible by the USCG's decision support tool during search and rescue operations. Recent test results using the independent data collected by the USCG will be discussed.

  3. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  4. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source.

  5. Mechanisms of damage accumulation in time-dependent cyclic deformation. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1983. [Cr-Mo-V rotor steel

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, C.

    1983-08-01

    The proposal called for the parallel study of various kinds of damage produced in cyclic creep: (1) change in dislocation density and arrangement, to be studied in copper; (2) development of fracture mechanisms under cyclic creep in pure copper; and (3) damage phenomena perhaps involving precipitates in Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. Progress in studying these types of damage has been encouraging. In copper tested at low temperatures, strain bursts were recognized for the first time in polycrystals of a pure metal in both cyclic and static creep and in other forms of tests. Since then we have defined cyclic stress-strain response in cyclic creep, and carried out a study of single crystals in order to study better the dislocation structures associated with bursts. Strain bursts have been associated with abrupt increases in secondary dislocation activity. For the study of rotor steel, a Westinghouse steel was chosen for detailed study. The interesting indication of damage shown by the ratio of diametral strain to longitudinal strain, discovered early in the investigation, has been found not to apply at low strains. These results have reconciled those reported last year and which gave us problems of interpretation. In the study of fracture mechanisms in cyclic creep, we have found the Coffin-Manson law to apply and a two stage form of this law is associated with two different fracture regimes.

  6. Time-History Data of Maneuvers Performed by an F-86A Airplane During Squadron Operational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Campbell; Thornton, James; Mayo, Alton

    1952-01-01

    Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program are presented in the form of plots of load factor.and angular acceleration against indicated airspeed and of time histories of several measured quantities. The results were obtained from 197 maneuvers performed by an F-86A jet-fighter airplane during normal squadron operational training. Most of the tactical maneuver8 of which the F-86A is capable were performed at pressure altitudes ranging from 0 to 32,000 feet and at indicated airspeeds ranging from 95 to 650 miles per hour.

  7. OceanNOMADS: Real-time and retrospective access to operational U.S. ocean prediction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J. M.; Cross, S. L.; Bub, F.; Ji, M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) provides both real-time and archived atmospheric model output from servers at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) respectively (http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/txt_descriptions/marRutledge-1.pdf). The NOAA National Ocean Data Center (NODC) with NCEP is developing a complementary capability called OceanNOMADS for operational ocean prediction models. An NCEP ftp server currently provides real-time ocean forecast output (http://www.opc.ncep.noaa.gov/newNCOM/NCOM_currents.shtml) with retrospective access through NODC. A joint effort between the Northern Gulf Institute (NGI; a NOAA Cooperative Institute) and the NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC; a division of NODC) created the developmental version of the retrospective OceanNOMADS capability (http://www.northerngulfinstitute.org/edac/ocean_nomads.php) under the NGI Ecosystem Data Assembly Center (EDAC) project (http://www.northerngulfinstitute.org/edac/). Complementary funding support for the developmental OceanNOMADS from U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) through the Southeastern University Research Association (SURA) Model Testbed (http://testbed.sura.org/) this past year provided NODC the analogue that facilitated the creation of an NCDDC production version of OceanNOMADS (http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/ocean-nomads/). Access tool development and storage of initial archival data sets occur on the NGI/NCDDC developmental servers with transition to NODC/NCCDC production servers as the model archives mature and operational space and distribution capability grow. Navy operational global ocean forecast subsets for U.S waters comprise the initial ocean prediction fields resident on the NCDDC production server. The NGI/NCDDC developmental server currently includes the Naval Research Laboratory Inter-America Seas

  8. Real-time pressure monitoring for dynamic control during paper mill operation using fiber optic pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Boyd, Clark; Palmer, Matthew; Eriksen, Oddbjørn

    2006-03-01

    Fiber optic pressure sensors were integrated into the grinding plates of an operational paper pulp mill for real-time monitoring of the pulp grinding process. On-line system monitoring will allow smart, active control of the grinding plates thereby improving the quality and consistency of the pulp produced. Sensors were constructed and calibrated for use in the harsh environment of an operating paper pulp grinder. The sensors were 1.65mm in diameter including titanium housing, and were installed directly into the grooves of the grinding plates. The sensing elements were flush-mounted with the wall and exposed to the wood pulp slurry. Nine sensors were calibrated up to 1000psi. During operation, pressure was sampled at 1.0MHz, and pressure spikes up to 175psi were observed. Pressure pulses measured are due to the relative motion between the grooves and channels on two pulp grinding plates. The consistency, size distribution, and quality of paper pulp exiting from the grinder are directly related to the distance between the channels on the two rotating elements. The pressure pulses produced are also proportional to the distance between channels. Therefore, by monitoring pressure fluctuations, grinding elements can be dynamically controlled thereby producing a "smart mill."

  9. Vortex information display system program description manual. [data acquisition from laser Doppler velocimeters and real time operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, R.; Matuck, G. N.; Roe, J. M.; Taylor, J.; Turner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A vortex information display system is described which provides flexible control through system-user interaction for collecting wing-tip-trailing vortex data, processing this data in real time, displaying the processed data, storing raw data on magnetic tape, and post processing raw data. The data is received from two asynchronous laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV's) and includes position, velocity, and intensity information. The raw data is written onto magnetic tape for permanent storage and is also processed in real time to locate vortices and plot their positions as a function of time. The interactive capability enables the user to make real time adjustments in processing data and provides a better definition of vortex behavior. Displaying the vortex information in real time produces a feedback capability to the LDV system operator allowing adjustments to be made in the collection of raw data. Both raw data and processing can be continually upgraded during flyby testing to improve vortex behavior studies. The post-analysis capability permits the analyst to perform in-depth studies of test data and to modify vortex behavior models to improve transport predictions.

  10. Real-time job monitoring and performance control of primary cementing operations as a way to total quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerker, H.F.

    1995-12-01

    A high-accuracy wellsite mud-logging system was developed and implemented to compare standpipe pressures and annular flow rates during primary cementing operations with real-time predictions from a hydraulic simulation model. This paper investigates the development of possible cementing job execution problems, such as low (laminar) flow rates in the annulus at critical job stages, resulting in unsatisfactory mud displacement and ultimately inadequate zonal isolation. Ways to eliminate or at least control free-fall-induced problems through hydraulic simulation at the rigsite and comparison with real-time job parameters, such as pump rates, standpipe pressures, and annular return rates, are presented with detailed descriptions of tested flowmeter equipment and logging experience gained during field testing. Several case studies are presented that compare predictions from job simulation with recorded data (flow-in/-out and standpipe pressure) highlighting special trends, such as fracturing formations, caused by excessive equivalent circulating densities (ECD`s) during free-fall conditions.

  11. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M.

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  12. The SAFT-UT (synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing) real-time inspection system: Operational principles and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T. E.; Reid, L. D.; Doctor, S. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document provides a technical description of the real-time imaging system developed for rapid flaw detection and characterization utilizing the synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing (SAFT-UT). The complete fieldable system has been designed to perform inservice inspection of light-water reactor components. Software was written on a DEC LSI 11/23 computer system to control data collection. The unprocessed data is transferred to a VAX 11/730 host computer to perform data processing and image display tasks. A parallel architecture peripheral to the host computer, referred to as the Real-Time SAFT Processor, rapidly performs the SAFT processing function. From the host's point of view, this device operates on the SAFT data in such a way that one may consider it to be a specialized or SAFT array processor. A guide to SAFT-UT theory and conventions is included, along with a detailed description of the operation of the software, how to install the software, and a detailed hardware description.

  13. Electricity generation and bivalent copper reduction as a function of operation time and cathode electrode material in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dan; Huang, Liping; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The performance of carbon rod (CR), titanium sheet (TS), stainless steel woven mesh (SSM) and copper sheet (CS) cathode materials are investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for simultaneous electricity generation and Cu(II) reduction, in multiple batch cycle operations. After 12 cycles, the MFC with CR exhibits 55% reduction in the maximum power density and 76% increase in Cu(II) removal. In contrast, the TS and SSM cathodes at cycle 12 show maximum power densities of 1.7 (TS) and 3.4 (SSM) times, and Cu(II) removal of 1.2 (TS) and 1.3 (SSM) times higher than those observed during the first cycle. Diffusional resistance in the TS and SSM cathodes is found to appreciably decrease over time due to the copper deposition. In contrast to CR, TS and SSM, the cathode made with CS is heavily corroded in the first cycle, exhibiting significant reduction in both the maximum power density and Cu(II) removal at cycle 2, after which the performance stabilizes. These results demonstrate that the initial deposition of copper on the cathodes of MFCs is crucial for efficient and continuous Cu(II) reduction and electricity generation over prolonged time. This effect is closely associated with the nature of the cathode material. Among the materials examined, the SSM is the most effective and inexpensive cathode for practical use in MFCs.

  14. Artificial Neural Network classification of operator workload with an assessment of time variation and noise-enhancement to increase performance.

    PubMed

    Casson, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Workload classification-the determination of whether a human operator is in a high or low workload state to allow their working environment to be optimized-is an emerging application of passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems. Practical systems must not only accurately detect the current workload state, but also have good temporal performance: requiring little time to set up and train the classifier, and ensuring that the reported performance level is consistent and predictable over time. This paper investigates the temporal performance of an Artificial Neural Network based classification system. For networks trained on little EEG data good classification accuracies (86%) are achieved over very short time frames, but substantial decreases in accuracy are found as the time gap between the network training and the actual use is increased. Noise-enhanced processing, where artificially generated noise is deliberately added to the testing signals, is investigated as a potential technique to mitigate this degradation without requiring the network to be re-trained using more data. Small stochastic resonance effects are demonstrated whereby the classification process gets better in the presence of more noise. The effect is small and does not eliminate the need for re-training, but it is consistent, and this is the first demonstration of such effects for non-evoked/free-running EEG signals suitable for passive BCI.

  15. Valve timing adjusting mechanism for internal combustion engine for adjusting timing of intake valve and/or exhaust valve corresponding to engine operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Akassaka, A.; Suga, S.; Sawada, T.

    1989-03-14

    A valve timing adjusting mechanism for an internal combustion engine is described, comprising: a camshaft carrying a cam for driving one of an intake valve and an exhaust valve, the camshaft having a section formed with first helical gear teeth; a cam pulley engaging a timing belt driven by the engine for rotation in synchronism with engine revolution, the cam pulley having second helical gear teeth; a ring gear having inner and outer helical gear teeth engageable with the first and second gear teeth of the camshaft and the cam pulley; first means for defining an enclosed chamber facing one planar face of the ring gear and connected with a fluid pressure source to receive pressurized fluid therefrom; a spring means associated with the other planar face of the ring gear for exerting an initial biasing force on the ring gear in opposition to the force due to the pressure on the ring gear from the enclosed chamber; and second means for controlling the fluid pressure introduced into the enclosed chamber in accordance with engine operating conditions so as to shift the ring gear between two positions.

  16. Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-03-15

    Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ∼ 16% and ∼ 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data.

  17. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies July 2001 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the on-orbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  18. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies from July 2011 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the onorbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  19. Successful operation of continuous reactors at short retention times results in high-density, fast-rate Dehalococcoides dechlorinating cultures.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Anca G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Popat, Sudeep C; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of Dehalococcoides mccartyi reducing perchloroethene and trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene was a key landmark for bioremediation applications at contaminated sites. D. mccartyi-containing cultures are typically grown in batch-fed reactors. On the other hand, continuous cultivation of these microorganisms has been described only at long hydraulic retention times (HRTs). We report the cultivation of a representative D. mccartyi-containing culture in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) at a short, 3-d HRT, using TCE as the electron acceptor. We successfully operated 3-d HRT CSTRs for up to 120 days and observed sustained dechlorination of TCE at influent concentrations of 1 and 2 mM TCE to ≥ 97 % ethene, coupled to the production of 10(12) D. mccartyi cells Lculture (-1). These outcomes were possible in part by using a medium with low bicarbonate concentrations (5 mM) to minimize the excessive proliferation of microorganisms that use bicarbonate as an electron acceptor and compete with D. mccartyi for H2. The maximum conversion rates for the CSTR-produced culture were 0.13 ± 0.016, 0.06 ± 0.018, and 0.02 ± 0.007 mmol Cl(-) Lculture (-1) h(-1), respectively, for TCE, cis-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride. The CSTR operation described here provides the fastest laboratory cultivation rate of high-cell density Dehalococcoides cultures reported in the literature to date. This cultivation method provides a fundamental scientific platform for potential future operations of such a system at larger scales.

  20. Predictive factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib therapy using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Nishijima, Norihiro; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Takashi; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Osaki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To investigate variables before sorafenib therapy on the clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving sorafenib and to further assess and compare the predictive performance of continuous parameters using time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Patients and methods: A total of 225 HCC patients were analyzed. We retrospectively examined factors related to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subsequently, we performed time-dependent ROC analysis of continuous parameters which were significant in the multivariate analysis in terms of OS and PFS. Total sum of area under the ROC in all time points (defined as TAAT score) in each case was calculated. Results: Our cohort included 175 male and 50 female patients (median age, 72 years) and included 158 Child-Pugh A and 67 Child-Pugh B patients. The median OS time was 0.68 years, while the median PFS time was 0.24 years. On multivariate analysis, gender, body mass index (BMI), Child-Pugh classification, extrahepatic metastases, tumor burden, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were identified as significant predictors of OS and ECOG-performance status, Child-Pugh classification and extrahepatic metastases were identified as significant predictors of PFS. Among three continuous variables (i.e., BMI, AST and AFP), AFP had the highest TAAT score for the entire cohort. In subgroup analyses, AFP had the highest TAAT score except for Child-Pugh B and female among three continuous variables. Conclusion: In continuous variables, AFP could have higher predictive accuracy for survival in HCC patients undergoing sorafenib therapy. PMID:28261338

  1. eMODIS Expedited: Overview of a Near Real Time MODIS Production System for Operational Vegetation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Werpy, J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

    2010-12-01

    The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS production system derives near-real time Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance provided by the Land and Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE). There are currently three regions covered by this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) capability, including the continental U.S., Africa, and the Central America/Caribbean regions. Each of the eMODIS production streams is configured to output its data in map projections, compositing intervals, spatial resolutions, and file formats specific to its region and user community. The challenges of processing 1,000-meter, 500-m, and especially 250-m products by midnight on the last day of a product interval have been met with increasingly effective software and system architecture. An anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS) allows users direct access to eMODIS NDVI products for operational (near-real time) monitoring of vegetation conditions like drought, crop failure, insect infestation, and other threats, thus supporting subsequent early warning of famine and the targeting of vulnerable populations for insecure food situations.

  2. MIROS: a hybrid real-time energy-efficient operating system for the resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Kun Mean; de Vaulx, Christophe; Shi, Hongling; El Gholami, Khalid

    2014-09-22

    Operating system (OS) technology is significant for the proliferation of the wireless sensor network (WSN). With an outstanding OS; the constrained WSN resources (processor; memory and energy) can be utilized efficiently. Moreover; the user application development can be served soundly. In this article; a new hybrid; real-time; memory-efficient; energy-efficient; user-friendly and fault-tolerant WSN OS MIROS is designed and implemented. MIROS implements the hybrid scheduler and the dynamic memory allocator. Real-time scheduling can thus be achieved with low memory consumption. In addition; it implements a mid-layer software EMIDE (Efficient Mid-layer Software for User-Friendly Application Development Environment) to decouple the WSN application from the low-level system. The application programming process can consequently be simplified and the application reprogramming performance improved. Moreover; it combines both the software and the multi-core hardware techniques to conserve the energy resources; improve the node reliability; as well as achieve a new debugging method. To evaluate the performance of MIROS; it is compared with the other WSN OSes (TinyOS; Contiki; SOS; openWSN and mantisOS) from different OS concerns. The final evaluation results prove that MIROS is suitable to be used even on the tight resource-constrained WSN nodes. It can support the real-time WSN applications. Furthermore; it is energy efficient; user friendly and fault tolerant.

  3. MIROS: A Hybrid Real-Time Energy-Efficient Operating System for the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Kun Mean; de Vaulx, Christophe; Shi, Hongling; Gholami, Khalid El

    2014-01-01

    Operating system (OS) technology is significant for the proliferation of the wireless sensor network (WSN). With an outstanding OS; the constrained WSN resources (processor; memory and energy) can be utilized efficiently. Moreover; the user application development can be served soundly. In this article; a new hybrid; real-time; memory-efficient; energy-efficient; user-friendly and fault-tolerant WSN OS MIROS is designed and implemented. MIROS implements the hybrid scheduler and the dynamic memory allocator. Real-time scheduling can thus be achieved with low memory consumption. In addition; it implements a mid-layer software EMIDE (Efficient Mid-layer Software for User-Friendly Application Development Environment) to decouple the WSN application from the low-level system. The application programming process can consequently be simplified and the application reprogramming performance improved. Moreover; it combines both the software and the multi-core hardware techniques to conserve the energy resources; improve the node reliability; as well as achieve a new debugging method. To evaluate the performance of MIROS; it is compared with the other WSN OSes (TinyOS; Contiki; SOS; openWSN and mantisOS) from different OS concerns. The final evaluation results prove that MIROS is suitable to be used even on the tight resource-constrained WSN nodes. It can support the real-time WSN applications. Furthermore; it is energy efficient; user friendly and fault tolerant. PMID:25248069

  4. [Bilateral clavicular fractures occurring at different times. Conservative vs operative therapy using intramedullary nailing--a case report].

    PubMed

    Braunstein, V; Kirchhoff, C; Buhmann, S; Mutschler, W; Biberthaler, P

    2007-08-01

    In this case report we present treatment strategies and the functional and cosmetic outcome in a case of midclavicular fractures. A 20-year-old patient suffered from nearly identical fractures of the left and right clavicle with a time interval of 2 years following snowboard falls. The first fracture was treated conservatively leading to an unsatisfactory course and result. This was the reason why 2 years later the contralateral fracture was treated by intramedullary nailing using an elastic titanium nail. The functional and cosmetic outcome of this treatment was excellent. In cases of clavicular fractures elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is a minimally invasive technique leading to fast analgesia resulting in a high level of mobility and ultimately a pleased patient. If the indication is right, intramedullary nailing can be a helpful operation technique which complements the already established procedures (conservative and plate osteosynthesis) in cases of dislocated clavicular fractures.

  5. Effects of ion source operating parameters on direct analysis in real time of 18 active components from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Qu, Haibin

    2016-03-20

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) provides a new analytical method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The present study investigated the effects of key ion source operating parameters on DART-MS analysis of various TCM active components. A total of 18 active components, including phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavones, volatile oils, and glycosides, were examined. For each substance, the peak area and signal-to-noise of its characteristic ions under different reagent gases and heater temperatures were compared. Based on the comparison, the relationships among chemical structures, ion source parameters and instrument responses were revealed. Finally, some suggestions about choosing reagent gas and heater temperature were proposed for types of TCM active substance, which offered a reference for the application of DART-MS on TCM analysis.

  6. Predictive Methods for Real-Time Control of Flood Operation of a Multireservoir System: Methodology and Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Karbowski, Andrzej

    1996-04-01

    Predictive methods for real-time flood operation of water systems consisting of reservoirs located in parallel on tributaries to the main river are presented and discussed. The aspect of conflicting individual goals of the local decision units and other objectives important from an overall point of view is taken into account. The particular attention is focused on hierarchical control structure which provides framework for organization of an on-line reservoir management problem. The important factor involved in flood control the uncertainty with respect to future inflows is taken into consideration. A case study of the upper Vistula river basin system in the southern part of Poland is presented. Simulation results based on 11 historical floods are briefly described and discussed.

  7. Enhanced multi-hop operation using hybrid optoelectronic router with time-to-live-based selective forward error correction.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Tatsushi; Suzaki, Yasumasa; Urata, Ryohei; Segawa, Toru; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2011-12-12

    Multi-hop operation is demonstrated with a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router for optical packet switched networks. The router is realized by combining key optical/optoelectronic device/sub-system technologies and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics. Using the hop count monitored via the time-to-live field in the packet label, the optoelectronic buffer of the router performs buffering with forward error correction selectively for packets degraded due to multiple hopping every N hops. Experimental results for 10-Gb/s optical packets confirm that the scheme can expand the number of hops while keeping the bit error rate low without the need for optical 3R regenerators at each node.

  8. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  9. Visualizing the store-operated channel complex assembly in real time: identification of SERCA2 as a new member.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Alicia; Zepeda, Angelica; Asanov, Alexander; Vaca, Luis

    2009-05-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium stores leads to the activation of calcium influx via the so-called store-operated channels (SOCs). Recent evidence positions Orai proteins as the putative channels responsible for this process. The stromal interacting molecule (STIM1) has been recently identified as the calcium sensor located at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and responsible for communicating the deplete state of calcium stores to Orai at the plasma membrane (PM). However, recent experimental findings suggest that Orai and STIM1 are only part of a larger molecular complex required to modulate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In the present study we describe the assembly of the several of the components from the SOC complex in real-time, utilizing a novel imaging method. Using FRET imaging we show that under resting conditions (with calcium stores replenished) STIM1 travels continuously through the ER associated to the microtubule tracking protein, EB1. Upon depletion of the ER STIM1 dissociates from EB1 and aggregates into macromolecular complexes at the ER which includes the microsomal calcium ATPase. This association follows the assembly of Orai into macromolecular aggregates at the PM. We show that STIM1-Orai association follows a similar time course as that of Orai aggregation at the PM. During this last step of the process, calcium-selective, whole-cell inward currents developed, simultaneously. We show that this process is fully reversible. Replenishing intracellular calcium stores induces STIM1-Orai complex dissociation and shuts down inward currents. Under these conditions STIM1 re-associates to EB1, and reinitiates its travel through the ER.

  10. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time-variable rainfall thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2015-04-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b) and makes use of LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult, and it provides different outputs. When switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a basic data view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the variability of the geomorphological and meteorological settings encountered in Tuscany, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of more than 300 rain gauges, it allows for the monitoring of each alert zone separately so that warnings can be issued independently. An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the WebGIS interface may vary in time depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set. The starting time of the rainfall event is considered as a variable by the early warning system: whenever new rainfall data are available, a recursive algorithm identifies the starting time for which the rainfall path is closest to or overcomes the threshold. This is considered the most hazardous condition, and it is displayed by the WebGIS interface. The early warning system is used to forecast and monitor the landslide hazard in the whole region

  11. Comparison of Anesthesia-Controlled Operating Room Time between Propofol-Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Desflurane Anesthesia in Open Colorectal Surgery: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wei-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Lin, Chin; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Lai, Hou-Chuan; Chan, Shun-Ming; Lu, Chueng-He; Cherng, Chen-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the anesthesia-controlled time and factors that contribute to prolonged extubation in open colorectal surgery. Using our hospital database, demographic data, various time intervals (waiting for anesthesia time, anesthesia time, surgical time, emergence time, exit from operating room after extubation, total operating room time, and post-anesthesia care unit stay time), and incidence of prolonged extubation (≥ 15 mins), were compared between patients who received desflurane/fentanyl-based anesthesia and total intravenous anesthesia via target-controlled infusion with fentanyl/propofol. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between variables that contributed to prolonged extubation. In conclusion, the anesthesia-controlled time was similar in desflurane anesthesia and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia for open colorectal surgery in our hospital. Surgical time greater than 210 minutes, as well as age, contributed to prolonged extubation. PMID:27780241

  12. Ultrasonic Imaging in Highly Attenuating Materials with Hadamard Codes and the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator.

    PubMed

    Lopez Villaverde, Eduardo; Robert, Sebastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-04-03

    In this work, defects in a high density polyethylene pipe are imaged with the total focusing method. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material greatly reduces the signal level and leads to a poor signal-to-noise ratio due to electronic noise. To improve the image quality, the decomposition of the time reversal operator method is combined with the spatial Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating images in the time domain. Because the Hadamard coding is not compatible with conventional imaging systems, the paper proposes two modified coding methods based on sparse Hadamard matrices with +1/0 coefficients. The signal-to-noise ratios expected with the different spatial codes are demonstrated, then validated on both simulated and experimental data. Experiments are performed with a transducer array in contact with the base material of a polyethylene pipe. In order to improve the noise filtering procedure, the singular values associated with electronic noise are expressed on the basis of the random matrix theory. This model of noise singular values allows a better identification of the defect response in noisy experimental data. Lastly, the imaging method is evaluated in a more industrial inspection configuration where an immersion array probe is used to image defects in a butt fusion weld with a complex geometry.

  13. Puget Sound Operational Forecast System - A Real-time Predictive Tool for Marine Resource Management and Emergency Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Chase, Jared M.; Wang, Taiping

    2009-12-01

    To support marine ecological resource management and emergency response and to enhance scientific understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in Puget Sound, a real-time Puget Sound Operational Forecast System (PS-OFS) was developed by the Coastal Ocean Dynamics & Ecosystem Modeling group (CODEM) of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PS-OFS employs the state-of-the-art three-dimensional coastal ocean model and closely follows the standards and procedures established by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). PS-OFS consists of four key components supporting the Puget Sound Circulation and Transport Model (PS-CTM): data acquisition, model execution and product archive, model skill assessment, and model results dissemination. This paper provides an overview of PS-OFS and its ability to provide vital real-time oceanographic information to the Puget Sound community. PS-OFS supports pacific northwest region’s growing need for a predictive tool to assist water quality management, fish stock recovery efforts, maritime emergency response, nearshore land-use planning, and the challenge of climate change and sea level rise impacts. The structure of PS-OFS and examples of the system inputs and outputs, forecast results are presented in details.

  14. Roles of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in peri-operation of transcatheter left atrial appendage closure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Song, Hongning; Zhang, Lan; Deng, Qing; Chen, Jinling; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yijia; Guo, Ruiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a new treatment option for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Conventional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D TEE) has some limitations in the imaging assessment of LAA closure. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) allows for detailed morphologic assessment of the LAA. In this study, we aim to determine the clinical values of RT-3D TEE in the periprocedure of LAA closure. Thirty-eight persistent or paroxysmal AF patients with indications for LAA closure were enrolled in this study. RT-3D TEE full volume data of the LAA were recorded before operation to evaluate the anatomic feature, the landing zone dimension, and the depth of the LAA. On this basis, selection of LAA closure device was carried out. During the procedure, RT-3D TEE was applied to guide the interatrial septal puncture, device operation, and evaluate the occlusion effects. The patients were follow-up 1 month and 3 months postclosure. Twenty-eight (73.7%) patients with AF received placement of LAA occlusion device under RT-3D TEE. Eleven cases with single-lobe LAAs were identified using RT-3D TEE, among which 4 showed limited depth. Seventeen cases showed bilobed or multilobed LAA. Seven cases received LAA closure using Lefort and 21 using LAmbre based on the 3D TEE and radiography. The landing zone dimension of the LAA measured by RT-3D TEE Flexi Slice mode was better correlated with the device size used for occlusion (r = 0.90) than 2D TEE (r = 0.88). The interatial septal puncture, the exchange of the sheath, as well as the release of the device were executed under the guidance of RT-3D TEE during the procedure. The average number of closure devices utilized for optimal plugging was (1.11 ± 0.31). There were no clinically unacceptable residual shunts, pericardial effusion, or tamponade right after occlusion. All the patients had the device well

  15. Identifying Factors That Predict Promotion Time to E-4 and Re-Enlistment Eligibility for U.S. Marine Corps Field Radio Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    FACTORS THAT PREDICT PROMOTION TIME TO E-4 AND RE-ENLISTMENT ELIGIBILITY FOR U.S. MARINE CORPS FIELD RADIO OPERATORS by William G. Wathen... PROMOTION TIME TO E-4 AND RE-ENLISTMENT ELIGIBILITY FOR U.S. MARINE CORPS FIELD RADIO OPERATORS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William G. Wathen...testing for MOS suitability. 14. SUBJECT TERMS career assignment, mos assignment, linear regression 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 16. PRICE CODE 17

  16. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  17. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  18. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  19. A Review of the First 10 Years of Critical Care Aeromedical Transport During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom The Importance of Evacuation Timing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-25

    person team(an intensive careunit [ ICU ] physician, ICU nurse, and respiratory therapist) with a self- carriedequipment set capableof supporting the...The care process en route begins at the point of wounding and continues through the delivery of the pa- tient to rehabilitation centers back in the...fa- cilities evolved along with limited ICU capabilities. Solutions were continually advanced and operational strategies modi- fied tomeet the

  20. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  1. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    PubMed

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  2. Human Exploration using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO): A space exploration strategy for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around Mars and other exploration targets of interest, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely-controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay or "latency" with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments. This in effect gives them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expands the scientific return at these destinations. HERRO mitigates several of the major issues that have hindered the progress of human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by: (1) broadening the range of destinations for near-term human missions; (2) reducing cost and risk through less complexity and fewer man-rated elements; (3) offering benefits of human-equivalent in-situ cognition, decision-making and field-work on planetary bodies; (4) providing a simpler approach to returning samples from Mars and planetary surfaces; and (5) facilitating opportunities for international collaboration through contribution of diverse robotic systems. HERRO provides a firm justification for human spaceflight—one that expands the near-term capabilities of scientific exploration while providing the space transportation infrastructure needed for eventual human landings in the future.

  3. Hairpin resonator probes with frequency domain boxcar operation for time resolved density measurements in pulsed RF discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Kummerer, Theresa; Coumou, David; Shannon, Steven

    2014-10-01

    In this work, microsecond time resolved electron density measurements in pulsed RF discharges are shown using an automated hairpin resonance probe using relatively low cost electronics, on par with normal Langmuir probe boxcar mode operation. A low cost signal generator is used to produce the applied microwave frequency and the reflected waveform is filtered to remove the RF component. The signal is then heterodyned with a simple frequency mixer to produce a dc signal read by an oscilloscope to determine the electron density. The applied microwave frequency is automatically shifted in small increments in a frequency boxcar routine through a Labview™program to determine the resonant frequency. A simple dc sheath correction is then easily applied since the probe is fully floating, producing low cost, high fidelity, and highly reproducible electron density measurements. The measurements are made in a capacitively coupled, parallel plate configuration in a 13.56 MHz, 50--200 W RF discharge pulsed at 500 Hz, 200 W, 50% duty cycle. The gas input ranged from 50--100 mTorr pure Ar or with 5--10% O/He mixtures.

  4. Time-resolved imaging of magnetic vortex dynamics using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator.

    PubMed

    Bukin, N; McKeever, C; Burgos-Parra, E; Keatley, P S; Hicken, R J; Ogrin, F Y; Beutier, G; Dupraz, M; Popescu, H; Jaouen, N; Yakhou-Harris, F; Cavill, S A; van der Laan, G

    2016-10-31

    The magnetisation dynamics of the vortex core and Landau pattern of magnetic thin-film elements has been studied using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator (HERALDO). Here we present the first time-resolved x-ray measurements using this technique and investigate the structure and dynamics of the domain walls after excitation with nanosecond pulsed magnetic fields. It is shown that the average magnetisation of the domain walls has a perpendicular component that can change dynamically depending on the parameters of the pulsed excitation. In particular, we demonstrate the formation of wave bullet-like excitations, which are generated in the domain walls and can propagate inside them during the cyclic motion of the vortex core. Based on numerical simulations we also show that, besides the core, there are four singularities formed at the corners of the pattern. The polarisation of these singularities has a direct relation to the vortex core, and can be switched dynamically by the wave bullets excited with a magnetic pulse of specific parameters. The subsequent dynamics of the Landau pattern is dependent on the particular configuration of the polarisations of the core and the singularities.

  5. Microbial community changes during different empty bed residence times and operational fluctuations in an air diffusion reactor for odor abatement.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel

    2017-03-08

    The succession of bacterial and fungal populations was assessed in an activated sludge (AS) diffusion bioreactor treating a synthetic malodorous emission containing H2S, toluene, butanone and alpha-pinene. Microbial community characteristics (bacterial and fungal diversity, richness, evenness and composition) and bioreactor function relationships were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs) and after process fluctuations and operational failures (robustness test). For H2S, butanone and toluene, the bioreactor showed a stable and efficient abatement performance regardless of the EBRT and fluctuations applied, while low alpha-pinene removals were observed. While no clear positive or negative relationship between community characteristics and bioreactor functions was observed, ecological parameters such as evenness and community dynamics seemed to be of importance for maintaining reactor stability. The optimal degree of evenness of the inoculum likely contributed to the high robustness of the system towards the fluctuations imposed. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Fungi (Hypocreales, Chaeatothyriales) were the most abundant groups retrieved from the AS system with a putative key role in the degradation of butanone and toluene. Typical H2S and alpha-pinene degraders were not retrieved from the system. The inoculation of P. fluorescens, a known alpha-pinene degrader, to the system did not result in the enhancement of the degradation of this compound. This strain was likely outcompeted by the microorganisms already adapted to the AS environment.

  6. Time-resolved imaging of magnetic vortex dynamics using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator

    PubMed Central

    Bukin, N.; McKeever, C.; Burgos-Parra, E.; Keatley, P. S.; Hicken, R. J.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Beutier, G.; Dupraz, M.; Popescu, H.; Jaouen, N.; Yakhou-Harris, F.; Cavill, S. A.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetisation dynamics of the vortex core and Landau pattern of magnetic thin-film elements has been studied using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator (HERALDO). Here we present the first time-resolved x-ray measurements using this technique and investigate the structure and dynamics of the domain walls after excitation with nanosecond pulsed magnetic fields. It is shown that the average magnetisation of the domain walls has a perpendicular component that can change dynamically depending on the parameters of the pulsed excitation. In particular, we demonstrate the formation of wave bullet-like excitations, which are generated in the domain walls and can propagate inside them during the cyclic motion of the vortex core. Based on numerical simulations we also show that, besides the core, there are four singularities formed at the corners of the pattern. The polarisation of these singularities has a direct relation to the vortex core, and can be switched dynamically by the wave bullets excited with a magnetic pulse of specific parameters. The subsequent dynamics of the Landau pattern is dependent on the particular configuration of the polarisations of the core and the singularities. PMID:27796347

  7. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Matyas, Josef; Owen, Antoinette T.

    2012-08-28

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  8. Near-real-time mapping of GNSS products from an area of complex topography for operational meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terradellas, E.; Téllez, B.; Valdés, M.

    2009-04-01

    Triggering of severe convection is often focalized in areas of moisture convergence. On the other hand, the inflow of wet air usually plays an important role in the fog onset, even in typical events of radiation fog. Therefore, knowledge of the spatial distribution of atmospheric humidity is crucial to the operational forecaster, especially in the weather nowcasting at regions of complex topography. Radiosonde measurements are very sparse and present a limited time resolution of 6 or 12 hours. Near-real-time mapping of the vertically-integrated water vapour (IWV) retrieved from ground-based GNSS observations is an alternative way to present information on the horizontal distribution of humidity with a high time resolution. On average, nearly half the total atmospheric water is between sea level and a 1.5-km height. Therefore, the horizontal distribution of water vapour is strongly modulated by the topography. In the Iberian Peninsula, an area of complex topography, the penetration of shallow air masses of maritime origin through passes underneath mountain ranges is a common mechanism of moistening the air of inland regions. This fact makes difficult to build a realistic map of IWV without a high-resolution network of GNSS receivers. A method to smooth the dependence on height of the magnitude to be interpolated is presented here. The method is based on the decomposition of any IWV value into a constant statistical average and a variable part. The mean geographical distribution of IWV is computed from the dataset of daily averages at the different stations. Since this dataset usually presents some gaps, the estimation of the mean values and covariance matrix is performed together with the imputation of the missing values using an iterative method based on a regularized maximization-expectation algorithm. A linear regression yields a model accounting for the statistical dependence of the mean values on latitude, longitude and altitude. The model residuals are then

  9. Extending RST-FLOOD to thermal infrared data: a possible operational strategy for flooded areas detection in near real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruolo, Mariapia; Coviello, Irina; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    during night-time conditions. Specifically, RST-FLOOD has been implemented on night-time thermal data acquired by AVHRR and MODIS (channel 4 and channel 31, respectively), defining a possible operational strategy for a reliable mapping of flooded areas, which will be presented and discussed in this work. The extreme flood occurred in Germany during the August 2002 was selected as test case.

  10. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  11. [Unnecessary operations in the exercise of surgery. A topic of our times with serious implications in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Guarner, V

    2000-01-01

    Unnecessary operations represent between 20 and 25% of total surgical practice. This article analyses causes, history, enormous economic effects and their consequences as an iatrogenic harm. Looking for a solution to the problem of unnecessary operations is urgent because these surgeries have a direct effect on the field of ethics and morality in the practice of surgery.

  12. Study of a noncovalent trp repressor: DNA operator complex by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Potier, N; Donald, L J; Chernushevich, I; Ayed, A; Ens, W; Arrowsmith, C H; Standing, K G; Duckworth, H W

    1998-06-01

    Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) has been used to study noncovalent interactions between the trp apo-repressor (TrpR), its co-repressor tryptophan and its specific operator DNA. In 5 mM ammonium acetate, TrpR was detected as a partially unfolded monomer. In the presence of a 21-base-pair DNA possessing the two symmetrically arranged CTAG consensus sequences required for specific TrpR binding, a homodimer-dsDNA complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry was observed. Co-repressor was not needed for the complex to form under our experimental conditions. Collision induced dissociation (CID-MS) revealed that this complex was very stable in the gas phase since dissociation was achieved only at energies that also broke covalent bonds. We saw no evidence for the presence of the six water molecules that mediate the interaction between the protein and the DNA in the crystal structure. To check the binding specificity of the TrpR for its target DNA, a competitive experiment was undertaken: the protein was mixed with an equimolar amount of three different DNAs in which the two CTAG sequences were separated by 2, 4, and 6 bp, respectively. Only the DNA with the correct consensus spacing of 4 bp was able to form stable interactions with TrpR. This experiment demonstrates the potential of ESI-MS to test the sequence-specificity of protein-DNA complexes. The interactions between the TrpR-DNA complex and 5-methyl-, L- and D-tryptophan were also investigated. Two molecules of 5-methyl- or L-tryptophan were bound with high affinity to the TrpR-DNA complex. On the other hand, D-tryptophan appeared to bind to the complex with poor specificity and poor affinity.

  13. Study of a noncovalent trp repressor: DNA operator complex by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Potier, N.; Donald, L. J.; Chernushevich, I.; Ayed, A.; Ens, W.; Arrowsmith, C. H.; Standing, K. G.; Duckworth, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) has been used to study noncovalent interactions between the trp apo-repressor (TrpR), its co-repressor tryptophan and its specific operator DNA. In 5 mM ammonium acetate, TrpR was detected as a partially unfolded monomer. In the presence of a 21-base-pair DNA possessing the two symmetrically arranged CTAG consensus sequences required for specific TrpR binding, a homodimer-dsDNA complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry was observed. Co-repressor was not needed for the complex to form under our experimental conditions. Collision induced dissociation (CID-MS) revealed that this complex was very stable in the gas phase since dissociation was achieved only at energies that also broke covalent bonds. We saw no evidence for the presence of the six water molecules that mediate the interaction between the protein and the DNA in the crystal structure. To check the binding specificity of the TrpR for its target DNA, a competitive experiment was undertaken: the protein was mixed with an equimolar amount of three different DNAs in which the two CTAG sequences were separated by 2, 4, and 6 bp, respectively. Only the DNA with the correct consensus spacing of 4 bp was able to form stable interactions with TrpR. This experiment demonstrates the potential of ESI-MS to test the sequence-specificity of protein-DNA complexes. The interactions between the TrpR-DNA complex and 5-methyl-, L- and D-tryptophan were also investigated. Two molecules of 5-methyl- or L-tryptophan were bound with high affinity to the TrpR-DNA complex. On the other hand, D-tryptophan appeared to bind to the complex with poor specificity and poor affinity. PMID:9655343

  14. A simple method to estimate the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve with right censored data.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom; Hu, Bo

    2016-11-27

    The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve is often used to study the diagnostic accuracy of a single continuous biomarker, measured at baseline, on the onset of a disease condition when the disease onset may occur at different times during the follow-up and hence may be right censored. Due to right censoring, the true disease onset status prior to the pre-specified time horizon may be unknown for some patients, which causes difficulty in calculating the time-dependent sensitivity and specificity. We propose to estimate the time-dependent sensitivity and specificity by weighting the censored data by the conditional probability of disease onset prior to the time horizon given the biomarker, the observed time to event, and the censoring indicator, with the weights calculated nonparametrically through a kernel regression on time to event. With this nonparametric weighting adjustment, we derive a novel, closed-form formula to calculate the area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve. We demonstrate through numerical study and theoretical arguments that the proposed method is insensitive to misspecification of the kernel bandwidth, produces unbiased and efficient estimators of time-dependent sensitivity and specificity, the area under the curve, and other estimands from the receiver operating characteristic curve, and outperforms several other published methods currently implemented in R packages.

  15. Simulation of accumulated matter from human feces in the sawdust matrix of the composting toilet.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Shinya; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-02-01

    A bio-kinetic model for aerobic biodegradation of human feces was applied to the practical operation of the composting toilet. The first aim of this study was to describe nitrogen transformation in the toilet as well as organic carbon. Second aim was to obtain the kinetic parameters for better prediction of accumulated matter for a long time of the practical operation. Six simple fractions of fecal carbon (slowly hydrolyzable matter, easily hydrolyzable matter, readily biodegradable matter, biologically inert type of matter etc.) were prepared in the model. Nitrogen factors were incorporated to each factor of fecal carbon. Modification of only one kinetic parameter for hydrolysis of slowly hydrolyzable carbon was required to obtain the best fitting curve of accumulation in the toilet. Model prediction for one-year operation of the toilet showed that temporal accumulation of biodegradable organic matter was significant in the first stage whereas main accumulation would be biologically inert type of organic matter at the end of the operation.

  16. Question on Timing When Control Equipment Must Be In Operation In Order To Limit PTE For Title V Purposes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Some Operational Aspects of the International Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Experiment Using INTELSAT Satellites at 307 Degrees East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    SOME OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL TWO-WAY SATELLITE TIME AND FREQUENCY TRANSFER (TWSTFT) EXPERIMENT USING INTELSAT SATELLITES AT 307...DEGREES EAST J. A. DeYoung and A. McKinley U.S. Naval Observatory Time Service Department (USNO) Washington, D.C. 20392 USA J. A. Davis National...Germany Abstract Eight labondoris are participating in an international TWSTFT experiment. Roguh time and frequency transfers have been performed

  18. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  19. JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 Regulates the Nuclear Accumulation of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7, Influencing the RNA Processing of FLOWERING LOCUS C Antisense Transcripts and Flowering Time in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Chunhua; Xu, Shujuan; Xing, Lijing; Xu, Yunyuan; Chong, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Lectins selectively recognize sugars or glycans for defense in living cells, but less is known about their roles in the development process and the functional network with other factors. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 (AtJAC1) functions in flowering time control. Loss of function of AtJAC1 leads to precocious flowering, whereas overexpression of AtJAC1 causes delayed flowering. AtJAC1 influences flowering through regulation of the key flowering repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Genetic analysis revealed that AtJAC1’s function is mostly dependent on GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7 (GRP7), an upstream regulator of FLC. Biochemical and cell biological data indicated that AtJAC1 interacted physically with GRP7 specifically in the cytoplasm. AtJAC1 influences the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GRP7, with predominant nuclear localization of GRP7 when AtJAC1 function is lost but retention of GRP7 in the cytoplasm when AtJAC1 is overexpressed. A temporal inducible assay suggested that AtJAC1’s regulation of flowering could be compromised by the nuclear accumulation of GRP7. In addition, GRP7 binds to the antisense precursor messenger RNA of FLC through a conserved RNA motif. Loss of GRP7 function leads to the elevation of total FLC antisense transcripts and reduced proximal-distal polyadenylation ratio, as well as histone methylation changes in the FLC gene body region and increased total functional sense FLC transcript. Attenuating the direct binding of GRP7 with competing artificial RNAs leads to changes of FLC antisense precursor messenger RNA processing and flowering transition. Taken together, our study indicates that AtJAC1 coordinates with GRP7 in shaping plant development through the regulation of RNA processing in Arabidopsis. PMID:26392261

  20. 802.16 OFDM Rapidly Deployed Network for Near-Real-Time Collaboration of Expert Services in Maritime Security Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Megabits Per Second MS – Microsoft NIC – Network Interface Card NOC – Network Operations Center NPS- Naval Postgraduate School OFDM – Orthogonal...environment. Germanium is preferred 12 over other super conductors because of its excellent detection resolution. In order to operate however, the...Virtual Office”. Recently purchased by Microsoft , Groove provides any user that is connected by a network (either LAN or Internet) the ability to