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Sample records for accumulated similar amounts

  1. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  2. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  3. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area.

  4. Rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries use remarkably similar amounts of health care services.

    PubMed

    Stensland, Jeffrey; Akamigbo, Adaeze; Glass, David; Zabinski, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Medicare payment policies for rural health care providers are influenced by the assumption that the limited supply of physicians in rural areas causes rural Medicare beneficiaries to receive fewer health care services than their urban counterparts do. This assumption has contributed to the growth in special payments to rural providers. As a result, Medicare pays rural providers $3 billion more each year in special payments than they would receive under traditional payment rates. To test the validity of the assumption that rural beneficiaries systematically receive less care, we analyzed claims data for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2008, stratified by rural/urban status and region. After adjusting for health status, we found no significant differences between rural and urban beneficiaries in either the amount of health care received or satisfaction with access to care. Although there were systematic differences in the amount of care used across regions of the country, there was very little difference within a region between rural and urban areas. To the extent that Medicare payment policies are designed to ensure access, they should be assessed on the basis of achieving similar service use rather than similar local physician supply. They should also be targeted to isolated rural providers needed to preserve access to care.

  5. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  6. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications.

  7. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  8. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  9. The effects of breads containing similar amounts of phytate but different amounts of wheat bran on calcium, zinc and iron balance in man.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Nävert, B; Bingham, S A; Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H

    1983-11-01

    The capacity of wheat bran to impair mineral absorption independent of its phytate content was studied by metabolic balance studies in man. Three breads were prepared, equivalent to white, brown and wholemeal, by adding bran in different quantities to white flour. Calcium, iron, zinc and sodium phytate were added to the loaves to make the amounts equal in all breads. Six healthy volunteers were studied for three consecutive 24-d-periods during which they ate a controlled diet, typical of that normally consumed in the UK but with 200 g bread/d. Only the type of bread changed between each dietary period. The phytate contents (mmol) of 200 g of each of the breads after baking were: white 2.3, brown 2.1 and wholemeal 2.2; non-starch polysaccharide contents (g) were: white 3.3, brown 10.9 and wholemeal 18.7. The increased amount of bran in the breads increased stool output in the expected way but no change was seen in Ca, Zn and Fe balance. Blood levels of these minerals remained unchanged. It is concluded that wheat bran and, in particular, the cell-wall polysaccharides of bran, are unlikely to exert a significant effect on mineral absorption in man, in amounts customarily eaten, independently of the effect of phytate present in the bran.

  10. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  11. When You Can't Find the Perfect Match: Using the Accumulated Most Similar Design in Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, John James

    2009-01-01

    What happens when you want to use a most similar case study design for a small-N study, but you cannot find a particular pair of cases where all of the relevant, competing explanations are held constant? It is proposed here that scholars and teachers could employ or teach the "accumulated most-similar/crucial case design." This design…

  12. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  13. Distribution of mercury in metallothionein-null mice after exposure to mercury vapor: amount of metallothionein isoform does not affect accumulation of mercury in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Akiko; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contribution of metallothionein (MT) to mercury accumulation in mouse tissues, 129 strain female mice and MT null mice were exposed to metallic mercury vapor at a sub-toxic level, and Hg levels in the brain, kidney and liver were determined on 1, 3 and 7 days after the exposure. After exposure to mercury vapor, significant Hg accumulation was observed in the brains of wild-type and MT-I/II null and MT-III null mice, as well as in the liver and kidneys. No strain difference was observed in the tissue Hg accumulations 24 hr after the exposure except for the kidneys, where the highest accumulation was found in MT-III null mice. Although the brains of MT-III null mice showed slightly higher Hg accumulation than the other two strains, no significant difference was observed except in the cerebrum on Day 7. Gel chromatograms of cerebrum soluble fractions revealed that a significant amount of Hg existed as an MT-bound form in all the mouse strains. On the other hand, MT-bound Hg was found as a minor fraction in soluble fractions of the kidneys and livers in wild-type and MT-III null mice. Despite a significant strain difference in total MT levels in the cerebrum, there was no difference among the three strains in the amount of Hg accumulated in the cerebrum and its distribution rates in MT fractions. The present study demonstrated that brain uptake of Hg(0) and its accumulation as Hg(2+) did not depend on the amount of MT isoform in the tissue, at least in the early phase.

  14. Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, James A.; Striebel, James F.; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E.; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083

  15. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources. PMID:25446876

  16. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  17. [Water-holding characteristics and accumulation amount of the litters under main forest types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Ling, Lei; Zhang, Guang-zhong; Yan, Pei-bin; Tao, Ji-xin; Chai, Chun-shan; Xue, Rui

    2011-10-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory soaking extraction, an investigation was conducted on the accumulation amount, water-holding capacity, water-holding rate, and water-absorption rate of the litters under six main forests (Picea wilsonii forest, P. wilsonii - Betula platyphlla forest, Populus davidiana - B. platyphlla forest, Cotonester multiglorus - Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest) in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu. The accumulation amount of the litters under the forests was 13.40-46.32 t hm(-2), and in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus-R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litter storage of coniferous forests was greater than that of broadleaved forests, and the storage percentage of semi-decomposed litters was all higher than that of un-decomposed litters. The maximum water-holding rate of the litters was 185.5%-303.6%, being the highest for L. principis-rupprechtii forest and the lowest for P. tabulaeformis forest. The litters' water-holding capacity changed logarithmically with their soaking time. For coniferous forests, un-decomposed litters had a lower water-holding rate than semi-decomposed litters; whereas for broadleaved forests, it was in adverse. The maximum water-holding capacity of the litters varied from 3.94 mm to 8.59 mm, and was in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus - R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litters' water-holding capacity also changed logarithmically with immersing time, and the half-decomposed litters had a larger water-holding capacity than un-decomposed litters. The water-absorption rate of the litters presented a power function with immersing time. Within the first one hour of immersed in water, the

  18. Acidophilic Green Alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 Accumulates High Amount of Lipid Droplets under a Nitrogen-Depleted Condition at a Low-pH

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0–5.0 and a temperature 20–25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  19. Similar PAH Fate in Anaerobic Digesters Inoculated with Three Microbial Communities Accumulating Either Volatile Fatty Acids or Methane

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10 % to 30 %, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH

  20. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH removal

  1. Shear-wave Velocity Structure and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in the Up-Dip Region of the Cascadia Subduction Zone: Similarities to Tohoku?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Wei, M.

    2013-12-01

    the measured compliances in this frequency band using a genetic algorithm that solves for the S-wave velocity, P-wave velocity, and density in a layered structure. By including constraints on the Vp distribution from active-source studies, these parameters appear well constrained down to about 4 km depth from our dataset. There is a clear difference in observed compliance values between stations close to the deformation front (~10 km) and those further up the continental slope (~30-40 km) indicating a region of unconsolidated, high-porosity sediment similar to the off-Tohoku region. The low S-wave velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios in the up-dip region correspond to unconsolidated high-porosity sediments. We calculated the effect of this material property contrast on the inter-seismic strain accumulation in the up-dip region of the subduction zone using a finite element model and find that the sediments can increase the amount of inter-seismic strain accumulated in the up-dip region by >100% relative to a homogenous elastic model.

  2. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  3. Small and similar amounts of micromotion in an anatomical stem and a customized cementless femoral stem in regular-shaped femurs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose High primary stability is important for long-term survival of uncemented femoral stems. Different stem designs are currently in use. The ABG-I is a well-documented anatomical stem with a press-fit design. The Unique stem is designed for a tight customized fit to the cortical bone of the upper femur. This implant was initially developed for patients with abnormal anatomy, but the concept can also be used in patients with normal femoral anatomy. We present 5-year radiostereometric analysis (RSA) results from a randomized study comparing the ABG-I anatomical stem with the Unique femoral stem. Patients and methods 100 hips with regular upper femur anatomy were randomized to either the ABG-I stem or the Unique femoral stem. RSA measurements were performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months. Results RSA measurements from 80 hips were available for analysis at the 5-year follow-up. Small amounts of movement were observed for both stems, with no statistically significant differences between the 2 types. Interpretation No improvement in long-term stability was found from using a customized stem design. However, no patients with abnormal geometry of the upper femur were included in this study. PMID:24650024

  4. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation.

  5. X-Ray induced cataract is preceded by LEC loss, and coincident with accumulation of cortical DNA, and ROS; similarities with age-related cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Zitnik, Galynn; Tsai, Ryan; Wolf, Norman

    2010-01-01

    -eyes were examined for ROS damage to DNA with antibodies specific for 8-OH-G lesions. The frequency of 8-OH-G lesions increased dramatically in lenses from old unirradiated mice over 24 months of age, and similarly in X-irradiated lenses by 9–11 months post irradiation. The accumulation of cortical nuclei was not the result of conversion or invasion by myofibroblasts as tested by antibodies to a marker for such cells, alpha smooth muscle actin. Conclusions X-irradiation damage induces a large decrease in surface LECs over a period of 3–11 months post X-irradiation of young mice. These changes are similar in extent to those seen in 24–29 months-old control mouse lenses with age-related cataracts. In 24+ month-old unirradiated mice the secondary lens fibers are not able to degrade nuclei or nuclear DNA efficiently and accumulate large numbers of cortical nuclei and nuclear fragments as well as ROS and 8-OHG lesions. X-irradiated lenses develop the same abnormalities in a more accelerated fashion. The extensive loss of LECS and accumulation of undegraded nuclei, ROS, and ROS damage may play a causal role in cataract generation in both unirradiated old mice and in previously irradiated young adult mice. PMID:20806081

  6. Induction of duodenal mucosal tumors of intestinal epithelial cell origin showing frequent nuclear β-catenin accumulation similar to the concurrently induced colorectal tumors in rats after treatment with azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Kikuchihara, Yoh; Onda, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Masayuki; Kangawa, Yumi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogen used for induction of colon tumors in rats and mice. It is also known that AOM treatment induces small bowel tumors in addition to colorectal tumors in rats. The present study examined the histogenesis of AOM-induced rat duodenal tumors in comparison with concurrently induced colorectal tumors by histochemical and immunohistochemical approaches. Duodenal and colorectal tumors were positive for both periodic acid-Schiff reaction and Alcian blue staining. Immunohistochemically, duodenal tumors were positive for intestinal epithelial markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 20 (100%) and mucin (MUC) 2 (91.7%) but negative for pancreaticobiliary markers such as CK7 (100%) and MUC1 (100%). All colorectal tumors were also negative for CK7 and MUC1 but positive for CK20. Eighty percent of colorectal tumors were positive for MUC2. In addition, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was found in duodenal tumors (70.8%), which was similar to colorectal tumors (90.0%). These results indicate that duodenal tumors induced by AOM treatment of rats were derived from intestinal epithelium. Similar to colorectal tumors, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin indicates activation of Wnt signaling as a driving force for tumor progression in AOM-induced duodenal tumors.

  7. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  8. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils.

  9. Molecular similarity and property similarity.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Frédérique; Horvath, Dragos

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the main efforts undertaken up to date in order to understand, rationalize and apply the similarity principle (similar compounds=>similar properties) as a computational tool in modern drug discovery. The best suited mathematical expression of this classical working hypothesis of medicinal chemistry needs to be carefully chosen (out of the virtually infinite possible implementations in terms of molecular descriptors and molecular similarity metrics), in order to achieve an optimal validation of the hypothesis that molecules that are neighbors in the Structural Space will also display similar properties. This overview will show why no single "absolute" measure of molecular similarity can be conceived, and why molecular similarity scores should be considered tunable tools that need to be adapted to each problem to solve.

  10. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  11. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  12. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  13. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  14. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  15. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  16. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  17. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  2. Accumulation of extracellular calcium at the endplate of mouse diaphragm after ecothiopate in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, P. F.; Ferry, C. B.; Smith, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    1. Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation from the extracellular medium of 45Ca2+ by the endplate region of skeletal muscle. 2. Mouse diaphragm muscle was incubated in physiological saline labelled with 45Ca at 37 degrees C for periods of up to 1.5 h. 3. The muscle was divided into junctional and non-junctional portions and the Ca from the extracellular fluid accumulated at the endplate determined from the 45Ca content of the portions. 4. The accumulation of extracellular Ca at the endplate region of muscles incubated in pysiological saline alone was nil, but there was accumulation in the presence of the anticholinesterase ecothiopate iodide 0.5 x 10(-6) M (ECO). Stimulation of the phrenic nerve at 0.02 Hz caused no further increase in accumulation but reduced the amount of spontaneous fasciculation. In tetrodotoxin (TTX) 10(-6) M, the accumulation was halved, and in 3.5 mM Mg2+ the accumulation was nil. Carbachol 10(-4) M resulted in an accumulation of Ca similar to that in ECO. 5. It is concluded that there was an accumulation of extracellular Ca following excitation of the nerve by stimulation at a low frequency and during the spontaneous fasciculations, and about half of the accumulation of extracellular Ca after ECO in the experiments was due to the postsynaptic action of ACh released non-quantally from the nerve terminals. PMID:2804548

  3. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total.

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  5. MAGNETIC HELICITY OF SELF-SIMILAR AXISYMMETRIC FORCE-FREE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Mei; Flyer, Natasha; Low, Boon Chye

    2012-08-10

    In this paper, we continue our theoretical studies addressing the possible consequences of magnetic helicity accumulation in the solar corona. Our previous studies suggest that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are natural products of coronal evolution as a consequence of magnetic helicity accumulation and that the triggering of CMEs by surface processes such as flux emergence also have their origin in magnetic helicity accumulation. Here, we use the same mathematical approach to study the magnetic helicity of axisymmetric power-law force-free fields but focus on a family whose surface flux distributions are defined by self-similar force-free fields. The semi-analytical solutions of the axisymmetric self-similar force-free fields enable us to discuss the properties of force-free fields possessing a huge amount of accumulated magnetic helicity. Our study suggests that there may be an absolute upper bound on the total magnetic helicity of all bipolar axisymmetric force-free fields. With the increase of accumulated magnetic helicity, the force-free field approaches being fully opened up with Parker-spiral-like structures present around a current-sheet layer as evidence of magnetic helicity in the interplanetary space. It is also found that among the axisymmetric force-free fields having the same boundary flux distribution, the one that is self-similar is the one possessing the maximum amount of total magnetic helicity. This gives a possible physical reason why self-similar fields are often found in astrophysical bodies, where magnetic helicity accumulation is presumably also taking place.

  6. Accumulated versus continuous exercise for health benefit: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marie H; Blair, Steven N; Murtagh, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Current physical activity guidelines endorse the notion that the recommended amount of daily physical activity can be accumulated in short bouts performed over the course of a day. Although intuitively appealing, the evidence for the efficacy of accumulated exercise is not plentiful. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of similar amounts of exercise performed in either one continuous or two or more accumulated bouts on a range of health outcomes. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review, in which at least one outcome known to affect health was measured before and after continuous and accumulated exercise training interventions. Where improvements in cardiovascular fitness were noted, most studies reported no difference in the alterations between accumulated and continuous patterns of exercise. In the few studies where a normalization of blood pressure was observed from baseline to post-intervention, there appear to be no differences between accumulated and continuous exercise in the magnitude of this effect. For other health outcomes such as adiposity, blood lipids and psychological well-being, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether accumulated exercise is as effective as the more traditional continuous approach. Seven short-term studies in which at least one health-related outcome was measured during the 0- to 48-hour period after a single continuous bout of exercise and a number of short bouts of equivalent total duration were included in the review. Many of the studies of such short-term effects considered the plasma triglyceride response to a meal following either accumulated short or continuous bouts of exercise. Collectively, these studies suggest that accumulated exercise may be as effective at reducing postprandial lipaemia. Further research is required to determine if even shorter bouts of accumulated exercise (<10 minutes) confer a health benefit and whether an accumulated approach to physical

  7. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  8. Mechanisms of Cadmium Mobility and Accumulation in Indian Mustard.

    PubMed Central

    Salt, D. E.; Prince, R. C.; Pickering, I. J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), a high biomass crop plant, accumulated substantial amounts of cadmium, with bioaccumulation coefficients (concentration of Cd in dry plant tissue/concentration in solution) of up to 1100 in shoots and 6700 in roots at nonphytotoxic concentrations of Cd (0.1 [mu]g/mL) in solution. This was associated with a rapid accumulation of phytochelatins in the root, where the majority of the Cd was coordinated with sulfur ligands, probably as a Cd-S4 complex, as demonstrated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In contrast, Cd moving in the xylem sap was coordinated predominantly with oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and the rate of Cd accumulation in the leaves displayed similar saturation kinetics, suggesting that the process of Cd transport from solution through the root and into the xylem is mediated by a saturable transport system(s). However, Cd translocation to the shoot appeared to be driven by transpiration, since ABA dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in leaves. Within leaves, Cd was preferentially accumulated in trichomes on the leaf surface, and this may be a possible detoxification mechanism. PMID:12228679

  9. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  10. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before... computation of an accumulation distribution, the amount includible under subpart D (section 665 and following... beneficiaries A and B. However, the trustee may make discretionary distributions to either beneficiary after...

  11. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-3 - Other amounts distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a... to be paid in all events but which is payable only out of corpus; (4) a distribution of property in... section 678(c) out of corpus or out of other than income for the taxable year; and (6) an amount...

  12. Calcium: Some aspects of subcellular accumulation and distribution in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Shappell, N.W.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution and bioavailability of {sup 47}calcium in milk labeled by extrinsic and intrinsic methods was investigated. Milk from Sprague Dawley rats was labeled by both methods, and milk from a cow was labeled by the extrinsic method. Retention of {sup 47}Ca from milks administered to young male Sprague Dawley rats was determined through whole body counting for 6 days after administration of milk. Percent of {sup 47}Ca dose retained was 72% for extrinsically labeled cow milk, 62% for extrinsically labeled rat milk, and 55% for intrinsically labeled rat milk. Samples were fractionated by ultracentrifugation and by gel exclusion chromatography. {sup 47}Calcium distributions in rat milk labeled intrinsically or extrinsically were similar. The majority of {sup 47}Ca was found in a particulate, >30,000 molecular weight fraction. The amount of milk calcium retained by rats appeared to be related to the amount of noncasein micelle-associated calcium. When administered by intraperitoneal injection into rats, {sup 45}Ca specific activity of milk peaked in 60 to 90 minutes. In vitro {sup 45}Ca accumulation was compared in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum from liver and mammary gland of lactating Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs. In the presence of ATP, highest accumulation per unit total fraction protein was found in Golgi apparatus (mammary gland 28% of available {sup 45}Ca, liver 11%) while 8% was accumulated by endoplasmic reticulum fractions.

  13. Biosimilar Insulins: How Similar is Similar?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the “original” insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  14. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  15. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of a chemistry space. Although all three concepts molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemistry space are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations, that is, representations of the same mathematical form, into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another.

  16. Root responses to nitrogen pulse frequency under different nitrogen amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Wang, Pu; Liu, Lu; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-04-01

    Responses of morphology and biomass allocation of roots to frequency of nitrogen (N) pulse potentially influence the fitness of plants, but such responses may be determined by root size. We grew 12 plant species of three functional groups (grasses, forbs, and legumes) under two N pulse frequencies (high vs. low supply frequency) and two N amounts (high vs. low supply amount). Compared to low-amount N supply, high-amount N supply stimulated biomass accumulation and root growth by either increasing the thickness and length of roots or decreasing the root mass fraction. Compared to low-frequency N supply, high-frequency N supply improved biomass accumulation and root growth in forbs or grasses, but not in legumes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response to N frequency was significantly negatively correlated with root size at the species scale, but this was only true when the N amount was high. We conclude that root responses to N frequency are related to plant functional types, and non-legume species is more sensitive to N frequency than legume species. Our results also suggest that root size is a determinant of root responses to N frequency when N supply amount is high.

  17. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-11 Accumulated production expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated production expenditures generally means the cumulative amount...

  18. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…

  19. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  20. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  1. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

  2. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  3. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  4. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  5. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  6. Oleaginous yeasts from Antarctica: Screening and preliminary approach on lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Viñarta, Silvana C; Angelicola, M Virginia; Barros, J Maximiliano; Fernández, Pablo M; Mac Cormak, Walter; Aybar, Manuel J; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2016-12-01

    The capability of 17 Rhodotorula spp. isolated from Antarctica to accumulate intracellular lipids in nitrogen-limited medium was investigated. As results, 10 isolates were selected by Nile red staining, while 12 isolates were selected as oleaginous by analysis of total lipid content (20.4-73%, w/w of dry biomass). The higher lipid production and accumulation was exhibited for six strains belonging to three species of Rhodotorula (Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula glacialis, and Rhodotorula laryngis). This is the first report where R. laryngis have been identified within oleaginous specie. Lipid accumulation was evaluated comparatively in two nitrogen-limited glucose-based media (MI and MII). MI (low C/N ratio) was more suitable for biomass and lipid production while in MII (high C/N ratio) total lipid content was improved. R. glutinis R4, R. glacialis R15, and R. glutinis R48 showed high lipid concentrations (4.65-6.93 g L(-1) ) and they were able to accumulate large amounts of lipids per gram of biomass (47-77%, w/w). A similar profile in fatty acids composition and content of neutral lipids to vegetable oils was observed, indicating that lipids produced by oleaginous Antarctic yeasts can be considered an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Antarctica represents an important source of oleaginous yeasts with adaptive capabilities to accumulate considerable amounts of lipids with biotechnological interest at 15 °C and 25 °C.

  7. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  10. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  11. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  12. Similar enzymes, different structures

    PubMed Central

    Tarasev, Michael; Kaddis, Catherine S.; Yin, Sheng; Loo, Joseph A.; Burgner, John; Ballou, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) is a member of a class of bacterial oxygenases that contain both Rieske [2Fe-2S] and Fe(II) mononuclear centers. Recent crystal structures of several Rieske dioxygenases showed that they exist as α3β3 multimers with subunits arranged head-to-tail in α and β stacked planar consists of only α-subunits, remains to be solved. Although similar to other Rieske dioxygenases in many aspects, PDO was shown to differ in the mechanism of catalysis. Gel filtration and analytical centrifugation experiments, supplemented with mass spectrometric analysis (both ESI-MS and ESI-GEMMA), in this work showed a hexameric arrangement of subunits in the PDO multimer. Our proposed model for the subunit arrangement in PDO postulates two α3 planar rings one on top the other, similar to the α3β3 arrangement in other Rieske dioxygenases. Unlike other Rieske dioxygenases, this arrangement brings two Rieske and two mononuclear centers, all on separate subunits, into proximity, allowing their cooperation for catalysis. Potential reasons necessitating this unusual structural arrangement are discussed. PMID:17764654

  13. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  14. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  16. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  17. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  18. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-02-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

  19. Abscisic Acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). About equal amounts of ABA were found both in the leaf slices and in detached leaves, whereas 2 to 4 times more ABA accumulated in the medium than in the slices. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Ethylene glycol was not inhibitory with respect to ABA accumulation. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. Aquacide III causes cytorrhysis, a situation similar to that found in wilted leaves. Thus, it appears that loss of turgor is essential for ABA accumulation.When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity (KHSO(3), 2-propanol, or KCl) no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress (loss of turgor) rather than a chemical stress (membrane damage).

  20. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting.

  1. Sulphur interferes with selenium accumulation in Tartary buckwheat plants.

    PubMed

    Golob, Aleksandra; Gadžo, Drena; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Djikić, Mirha; Gavrić, Teofil; Kreft, Ivan; Germ, Mateja

    2016-11-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) and common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) plants grown in the field were treated foliarly with 126 μM solutions of selenate and/or sulphate in order to study the effect of sulphur (S) on selenium (Se) concentration in plants. In both species, the concentration of Se in all plant parts was similar in control and S treated plants. In Tartary buckwheat the concentration of Se was higher in S and Se treated plants than in plants treated with Se alone. S was shown to enhance Se accumulation in Tartary buckwheat. It was also shown that it is possible to produce grain and herb of Tartary and common buckwheat containing appropriate amounts of Se for food without affecting the yield of the plants.

  2. 47 CFR 32.3400 - Accumulated amortization-tangible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... include: (1) the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2681, Capital leases. (2) the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2682... be charged with the cost of the retired item. Remaining amounts associated with the item shall...

  3. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  4. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  5. Dust Accumulation on MER Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Cull, S.

    2011-12-01

    HiRISE acquired in March 2011 a color image of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover from orbit that shows an exceptionally bright reflection from the rover solar panels. HiRISE data combined with laboratory measurements of MER solar cell reflectance provide a method for constraining the thickness of dust on the solar panels. Spirit is the brightest object in the HiRISE scene with a reflectance that is about 3 times higher at 500 nm and about 1.5 times higher at 700 and 850 nm than bright outcrop and soil near the rover. The rover is also less red than these nearby materials and less red than a typical Mars dust spectrum modeled with the same geometry and seen through similar atmospheric conditions as the HiRISE image. Lighting and viewing angles for the HiRISE image of Spirit are close to a specular reflection geometry when factoring in the rover orientation, the sun position, and the location of HiRISE during image acquisition. Laboratory photometric measurements of clean and dust-coated MER solar cells show a strong specular reflection for dust coating thicknesses up to at least 45 micrometers. The specular reflection was not present in the laboratory data when the solar cell was covered with about a 135 micrometer thick layer. The dust used in the experiments consisted of less than 10 micrometer sized particles derived from a palagonitic tephra from Mauna Kea that is spectrally similar to Mars dust. A survey of MER Pancam color images acquired by Spirit and Opportunity also shows several examples of specular reflections from the solar panels. These examples correspond to times when the solar cells were moderately clean to dusty as inferred from the amount of power generated by the cells. Specular reflections in Pancam images have been observed when the solar cell output was only 45% that of a dust-free cell. Spirit HiRISE data indicate that the rover was not covered by an optical thick layer of dust because some of the reflected light must have come from the

  6. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  7. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  8. Threshold amounts of organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Thomas, Lashun K.; Bradley, Paul M.; Rectanus, Heather V.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer sediment and groundwater chemistry data from 15 Department of Defense facilities located throughout the United States were collected and analyzed with the goal of estimating the amount of natural organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems. Aquifer sediments were analyzed for hydroxylamine and NaOH-extractable organic carbon, yielding a probable underestimate of potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC). Aquifer sediments were also analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) using an elemental combustion analyzer, yielding a probable overestimate of bioavailable carbon. Concentrations of PBOC correlated linearly with TOC with a slope near one. However, concentrations of PBOC were consistently five to ten times lower than TOC. When mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed at each site were plotted versus PBOC, it showed that anoxic conditions were initiated at approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC. Similarly, the accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products relative to parent compounds increased at a PBOC concentration of approximately 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) in sediments also increased at approximately 200 mg/kg, and bioassays showed that sediment CO2 production correlated positively with THAA. The results of this study provide an estimate for threshold amounts of bioavailable carbon present in aquifer sediments (approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC; approximately 1,000 to 2,000 mg/kg of TOC) needed to support reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems.

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  10. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  11. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  12. Role of sooty mold fungi in accumulation of fine-particle-associated PAHs and metals on deciduous leaves.

    PubMed

    Jouraeva, Venera A; Johnson, David L; Hassett, John P; Nowak, David J; Shipunova, Natalia A; Barbarossa, Dana

    2006-11-01

    The focus of this research was on elucidation of the role of deciduous tree ecosystems in accumulation of fine-particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals on leaves of deciduous trees. The studied species were Tilia x euchlora (frequently infested by sooty mold fungi) and Pyrus calleryana (unaffected by sooty mold fungi). The selected species have similar leaf morphology and were exposed to identical environmental conditions. Intra-species comparison showed that moldy linden leaves accumulate significantly higher amounts of PAHs and metals than unaffected linden leaves. Inter-species comparison revealed that in the absence of sooty mold fungi, physico-chemical properties of epicuticular waxes, rather than the amounts of waxes, might play an important role in accumulation of particulate matter on leaves. The accumulation and/or degradation of a number of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs on leaves was temperature dependent. The results show that the presence of sooty mold fungi on deciduous leaves alters either the accumulation modes and/or degradation pathways of PAHs on deciduous leaves.

  13. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  14. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  15. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  16. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  17. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  18. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable... job search; or (ii) The cost per mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the...

  19. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  20. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  1. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  2. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  3. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  4. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  5. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  6. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  7. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  8. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  9. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the... orders with priority, the following shall apply: (1) Unless otherwise provided by federal...

  10. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  11. ABA accumulation in water-stressed Citrus roots does not rely on carotenoid content in this organ.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-11-01

    Sustained abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in dehydrated citrus roots depends on the transport from aerial organs. Under this condition, the role of the β,β-carotenoids (ABA precursors) to the de novo synthesis of ABA in roots needs to be clarified since their low availability in this organ restricts its accumulation. To accomplish that, detached citrus roots were exposed to light (to increase their carotenoid content) and subsequently dehydrated (to trigger ABA accumulation). Stress imposition sharply decreased the pool of β,β-carotenoids but, unexpectedly, no concomitant rise in ABA content was observed. Contrastingly, roots of intact plants (with low levels of carotenoids) showed a similar decrease of ABA precursor together with a significant ABA accumulation. Furthermore, upon dehydration both types of roots showed similar upregulation of the key genes involved in biosynthesis of carotenoids and ABA (CsPSY3a; CsβCHX1; CsβCHX2; CsNCED1; CsNCED2), demonstrating a conserved transcriptional response triggered by water stress. Thus, the sharp decrease in root carotenoid levels in response to dehydration should be related to other stress-related signals instead of contributing to ABA biosynthesis. In summary, ABA accumulation in dehydrated-citrus roots largely relies on the presence of the aerial organs and it is independent of the amount of available root β,β-carotenoids.

  12. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL... § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under § 1335.7(a) of this part shall be eligible to receive $25,000. (b) Initiation grant. A State that qualifies...

  13. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  14. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    PubMed

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated.

  15. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  16. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  17. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... July of the preceding year involved and rounded to the nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2011... judicial review will rise to $1,300 for the 2011 calendar year. These updated amounts are based on the...

  18. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year... nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2013 The AIC threshold amount for ALJ hearing requests...

  19. Mercury accumulation in placenta and foetal membranes. A study of dental workers and their babies.

    PubMed

    Wannag, A; Skjaeråsen, J

    1975-01-01

    To investigate the hazards of exposure to levels of elemental mercury lower than the present TLV value (0.05 mg/m3) a group of dental workers and a nonexposed group were studied. The amount of mercury in blood from mothers and babies at the time of delivery was similar. The exposed group had increased mercury content in placenta and foetal membranes. Mercury accumulation in these organs might serve as a protection for the foetus against mercury exposure. Since exposure to sub-TLV concentrations of elemental mercury during pregnancy will not be reflected in blood mercury content at the time of delivery, the amount of mercury in placenta and foetal membranes might serve as a biological indicator of such exposure.

  20. An oleaginous bacterium that intrinsically accumulates long-chain free Fatty acids in its cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Kanno, Manabu; Morita, Naoki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Mitani, Yasuo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    Medium- and long-chain fatty acids are present in organisms in esterified forms that serve as cell membrane constituents and storage compounds. A large number of organisms are known to accumulate lipophilic materials as a source of energy and carbon. We found a bacterium, designated GK12, that intrinsically accumulates free fatty acids (FFAs) as intracellular droplets without exhibiting cytotoxicity. GK12 is an obligatory anaerobic, mesophilic lactic acid bacterium that was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that GK12 is affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but is distantly related to type species in this family (less than 92% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Saturated fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 14, 16, 18, and 20 were produced from glucose under stress conditions, including higher-than-optimum temperatures and the presence of organic solvents that affect cell membrane integrity. FFAs were produced at levels corresponding to up to 25% (wt/wt) of the dry cell mass. Our data suggest that FFA accumulation is a result of an imbalance between excess membrane fatty acid biosynthesis due to homeoviscous adaptation and limited β-oxidation activity due to anaerobic growth involving lactic acid fermentation. FFA droplets were not further utilized as an energy and carbon source, even under conditions of starvation. A naturally occurring bacterium that accumulates significant amounts of long-chain FFAs with noncytotoxicity would provide useful strategies for microbial biodiesel production.

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  3. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  4. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  5. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  6. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  7. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  8. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  9. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee amounts..., or export a List I chemical, the applicant shall pay an annual fee of $1,147. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 15250, Mar. 15, 2012, § 1309.11 was revised, effective April 16, 2012. For the convenience...

  10. Holocene Carbon Accumulation Rates in the SPRUCE Bog Prior to Warming and Elevated CO2 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Iversen, C. M.; Phillips, J. R.; Brice, D. J.; Hanson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment warming and elevated CO2 treatments are being applied to an ombrotrophic spruce bog: the S1 Bog (S1) at Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. To provide a historical context for recent and expected experimentally-induced changes in the bog's belowground carbon balance, we reconstructed historical carbon accumulation rates in peat using radiocarbon from 19 peat cores collected from randomly distributed SPRUCE plots. This unusually high number of cores allows us to assess spatial variability in age-depth profiles and accumulation rates across the SPRUCE study area within S1. This data, along with recent C flux measurements, show that the bog has been accumulating carbon for at least 12,0000 years and has continued to be a sink for atmospheric carbon of approximately 150 g C m-2 yr-1 in recent decades. Early Holocene accumulation rates are similar to those reported for other northern peatlands (approximately 25 g C m-2 yr-1), but apparent carbon accumulation decreased substantially around 3,000 years ago (to 5-15 g C m-2 yr-1) and stayed low until the last century. This decrease is considerably larger than that reported for other peatlands and is therefore unlikely to result only from cooling during the Holocene or bog succession. Although no charcoal has been found in peat at this site, evidence from a neighboring bog indicates a considerable amount of peat formed during this period was consumed by fire and it is possible that smoldering fires consumed peat, resulting in low apparent accumulation rates. Past droughts may have also contributed to observed trends by lowering the acrotelm/catotelm boundary, allowing for enhanced aerobic peat decomposition. This work provides important background information on spatial variability and carbon biogeochemistry that will aid in interpretation of climate change simulation experiments at S1.

  11. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán, Pedro P.

    2016-01-01

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900–34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth–age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico’s arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region. PMID:27035950

  12. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

  13. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  14. Learning similarity with multikernel method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Li, Xuelong

    2011-02-01

    In the field of machine learning, it is a key issue to learn and represent similarity. This paper focuses on the problem of learning similarity with a multikernel method. Motivated by geometric intuition and computability, similarity between patterns is proposed to be measured by their included angle in a kernel-induced Hilbert space. Having noticed that the cosine of such an included angle can be represented by a normalized kernel, it can be said that the task of learning similarity is equivalent to learning an appropriate normalized kernel. In addition, an error bound is also established for learning similarity with the multikernel method. Based on this bound, a boosting-style algorithm is developed. The preliminary experiments validate the effectiveness of the algorithm for learning similarity.

  15. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  16. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  17. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the..., may not exceed $250,000 per incident; (2) Must be for removal costs consistent with the...

  18. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the..., may not exceed $250,000 per incident; (2) Must be for removal costs consistent with the...

  19. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the..., may not exceed $250,000 per incident; (2) Must be for removal costs consistent with the...

  20. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the..., may not exceed $250,000 per incident; (2) Must be for removal costs consistent with the...

  1. Discuss Similarity Using Visual Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2012-01-01

    The change in size from a smaller shape to a larger similar shape (or vice versa) is created through continuous proportional stretching or shrinking in every direction. Students cannot solve similarity tasks simply by iterating or partitioning a composed unit, strategies typically used on numerical proportional tasks. The transition to thinking…

  2. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  3. Ataxia induced by small amounts of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Setta, F; Jacquy, J; Hildebrand, J; Manto, M

    1998-01-01

    A patient is described who exhibited cerebellar ataxia after drinking small amounts of alcohol. Intake of 5 g alcohol induced a gaze evoked nystagmus, a scanning speech, a body sway after eye closure, and bilateral postural leg tremor. Kinematic and EMG analysis of fast wrist movements showed normal movements before and marked hypermetria after alcohol intake. Dysmetria was due to abnormal programming of antagonist muscle activity.

 PMID:9728953

  4. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  5. Choline Accumulation by Photoreceptor Cells of the Rabbit Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masland, Richard H.; Mills, John W.

    1980-03-01

    Photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina accumulate choline from the extracellular environment by an overall process that has a high affinity for choline. These cells do not synthesize acetylcholine; instead, the choline taken up is incorporated into phosphorylcholine and eventually phospholipid. A mechanism for efficient choline accumulation is presumably concomitant to the photoreceptor cell's synthesis of large amounts of membrane for outer segment membrane renewal. Its existence in the photoreceptor cell supports previous evidence that high-affinity choline uptake is not confined to neurons that release acetylcholine, but may be present wherever large amounts of choline are required.

  6. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance.

  7. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  8. Comparing fixed-amount and progressive-amount DRO Schedules for tic suppression in youth with chronic tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Matthew R; Turkel, Jennifer E; Johnson, Rachel A; Espil, Flint M; Woods, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) involve motor and/or vocal tics that often cause substantial distress and impairment. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedules of reinforcement produce robust, but incomplete, reductions in tic frequency in youth with CTDs; however, a more robust reduction may be needed to affect durable clinical change. Standard, fixed-amount DRO schedules have not commonly yielded such reductions, so we evaluated a novel, progressive-amount DRO schedule, based on its ability to facilitate sustained abstinence from functionally similar behaviors. Five youth with CTDs were exposed to periods of baseline, fixed-amount DRO (DRO-F), and progressive-amount DRO (DRO-P). Both DRO schedules produced decreases in tic rate and increases in intertic interval duration, but no systematic differences were seen between the two schedules on any dimension of tic occurrence. The DRO-F schedule was generally preferred to the DRO-P schedule. Possible procedural improvements and other future directions are discussed.

  9. Popularity, similarity, and the network extraversion bias.

    PubMed

    Feiler, Daniel C; Kleinbaum, Adam M

    2015-05-01

    Using the emergent friendship network of an incoming cohort of students in an M.B.A. program, we examined the role of extraversion in shaping social networks. Extraversion has two important implications for the emergence of network ties: a popularity effect, in which extraverts accumulate more friends than introverts do, and a homophily effect, in which the more similar are two people's levels of extraversion, the more likely they are to become friends. These effects result in a systematic network extraversion bias, in which people's social networks will tend to be overpopulated with extraverts and underpopulated with introverts. Moreover, the most extraverted people have the greatest network extraversion bias, and the most introverted people have the least network extraversion bias. Our finding that social networks were systematically misrepresentative of the broader social environment raises questions about whether there is a societal bias toward believing other people are more extraverted than they actually are and whether introverts are better socially calibrated than extraverts.

  10. Renewing the respect for similarity.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction-critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be

  11. Renewing the respect for similarity

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction—critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be

  12. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  13. Spatial Imaging And Speciation of Lead in the Accumulator Plant Sedum Alfredii By Microscopically Focused Synchrotron X-Ray Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, S.; Lu, L.; Yang, X.; Webb, S.M.; Du, Y.; Brown, P.H.; /SLAC

    2012-08-23

    Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae), a species native to China, has been characterized as a Zn/Cd cohyperaccumulator and Pb accumulator though the mechanisms of metal tolerance and accumulation are largely unknown. Here, the spatial distribution and speciation of Pb in tissues of the accumulator plant was investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and powder Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Lead was predominantly restricted to the vascular bundles of both leaf and stem of the accumulator. Micro-XRF analysis revealed that Pb distributed predominantly within the areas of vascular bundles, and a positive correlation between the distribution patterns of S and Pb was observed. The dominant chemical form of Pb (>60%) in tissues of both accumulating (AE) and nonaccumulating ecotype (NAE) S. alfredii was similar to prepared Pb-cell wall compounds. However, the percentage of the Pb-cell wall complex is lower in the stem and leaf of AE, and a small amount of Pb appeared to be associated with SH-compounds. These results suggested a very low mobility of Pb out of vascular bundles, and that the metal is largely retained in the cell walls during transportation in plants of S. alfredii.

  14. Global average net radiation sensitivity to cloud amount variations

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, O.

    1993-12-01

    Time series analysis performed using an autoregressive model is carried out to study monthly oscillations in the earth radiation budget (ERB) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and cloud amount estimates on a global basis. Two independent cloud amount datasets, produced elsewhere by different authors, and the ERB record based on the Nimbus-7 wide field-of-view 8-year (1978-86) observations are used. Autoregressive models are used to eliminate the effects of the earth`s orbit eccentricity on the radiation budget and cloud amount series. Nonzero cross correlation between the residual series provides a way of estimating the contribution of the cloudiness variations to the variance in the net radiation. As a result, a new parameter to estimate the net radiation sensitivity at the TOA to changes in cloud amount is introduced. This parameter has a more general character than other estimates because it contains time-lag terms of different length responsible for different cloud-radiation feedback mechanisms in the earth climate system. Time lags of 0, 1, 12, and 13 months are involved. Inclusion of the zero-lag term only shows that the albedo effect of clouds dominates, as is known from other research. Inclusion of all four terms leads to an average quasi-annual insensitivity. Approximately 96% of the ERB variance at the TOA can be explained by the eccentricity factor and 1% by cloudiness variations, provided that the data used are without error. Although the latter assumption is not fully correct, the results presented allow one to estimate the contribution of current cloudiness changes to the net radiation variability. Two independent cloud amount datasets have very similar temporal variability and also approximately equal impact on the net radiation at the TOA.

  15. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart.

  16. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  17. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    PubMed

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration.

  18. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  19. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  20. Similarity of the Velocity Profile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    su x (with 0 constantb = ) is the empirically derived velocity scale developed by Zagarola and Smits [5] for turbulent boundary layer flow...Zagarola and Smits and others have shown that the velocity scaling factor given by Eq. 5 with sδ as the boundary layer thickness can collapse certain...and Smits , it is important to point out that the fact that the similarity length scale factor and the similarity velocity scale factor must follow

  1. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  2. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  3. 29 CFR 531.55 - Examples of amounts not received as tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... received in applying the provisions of section 3(m) and 3(t). Similarly, where negotiations between a hotel and a customer for banquet facilities include amounts for distribution to employees of the hotel,...

  4. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  5. What difference reveals about similarity.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with low overlap; thus, "different" responses are faster for low-similarity than for high-similarity pairs. In contrast, identifying a specific difference generally requires a full structural alignment of the two images, and this alignment process is faster for high-similarity pairs. We described four experiments that demonstrate this dissociation and show that the results can be simulated using the Structure-Mapping Engine. These results pose a significant challenge for nonstructural accounts of similarity comparison and suggest that structural alignment processes play a significant role in visual comparison.

  6. 29 CFR 531.55 - Examples of amounts not received as tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section 3(m) and 3(t). Similarly, where negotiations between a hotel and a customer for banquet facilities... amounts not received as tips. (a) A compulsory charge for service, such as 15 percent of the amount of the bill, imposed on a customer by an employer's establishment, is not a tip and, even if distributed...

  7. 29 CFR 531.55 - Examples of amounts not received as tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section 3(m) and 3(t). Similarly, where negotiations between a hotel and a customer for banquet facilities... amounts not received as tips. (a) A compulsory charge for service, such as 15 percent of the amount of the bill, imposed on a customer by an employer's establishment, is not a tip and, even if distributed...

  8. 29 CFR 531.55 - Examples of amounts not received as tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section 3(m) and 3(t). Similarly, where negotiations between a hotel and a customer for banquet facilities... amounts not received as tips. (a) A compulsory charge for service, such as 15 percent of the amount of the bill, imposed on a customer by an employer's establishment, is not a tip and, even if distributed...

  9. 29 CFR 531.55 - Examples of amounts not received as tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section 3(m) and 3(t). Similarly, where negotiations between a hotel and a customer for banquet facilities... amounts not received as tips. (a) A compulsory charge for service, such as 15 percent of the amount of the bill, imposed on a customer by an employer's establishment, is not a tip and, even if distributed...

  10. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-01

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25-70 Pg C in peatland and 13-22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36-63 Pg C at present, including 27-48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9-15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5-3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3-0.6 Pg C in peatlands and 2.2-3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr-1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr-1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr-1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.

  11. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equal to the present value of all initial withdrawal liability payments for which the employer was not liable pursuant to section 4219(c)(1)(B) of ERISA. The present value of such payments shall...

  12. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgrun were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO(4)(3-) concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO(4)(3-) at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with

  13. Ultrasonic Atomization Amount for Different Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Honma, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zheng; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization was estimated by measuring the vaporization amount from a bulk liquid with a fountain. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the atomization characteristics were investigated when the directivities of the acoustic field from a transducer were almost the same. The sample was distillated water and the ultrasonic frequencies were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.4 MHz. The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity and decreasing ultrasonic frequency. The fountain was formed at the liquid surface where the effective value of acoustic pressure was above atmospheric pressure. The fountain height was strongly governed by the acoustic pressure at the liquid surface of the transducer center. At the same ultrasonic intensity, the dependence of ultrasonic frequency on the number of atomized droplets was small. At the same apparent surface area of the fountain, the number of atomized droplets became larger as the ultrasonic frequency increased.

  14. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  15. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  16. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  17. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this…

  18. Phylogenetic metrics of community similarity.

    PubMed

    Ives, Anthony R; Helmus, Matthew R

    2010-11-01

    We derive a new metric of community similarity that takes into account the phylogenetic relatedness among species. This metric, phylogenetic community dissimilarity (PCD), can be partitioned into two components, a nonphylogenetic component that reflects shared species between communities (analogous to Sørensen' s similarity metric) and a phylogenetic component that reflects the evolutionary relationships among nonshared species. Therefore, even if a species is not shared between two communities, it will increase the similarity of the two communities if it is phylogenetically related to species in the other community. We illustrate PCD with data on fish and aquatic macrophyte communities from 59 temperate lakes. Dissimilarity between fish communities associated with environmental differences between lakes often has a phylogenetic component, whereas this is not the case for macrophyte communities. With simulations, we then compare PCD with two other metrics of phylogenetic community similarity, II(ST) and UniFrac. Of the three metrics, PCD was best at identifying environmental drivers of community dissimilarity, showing lower variability and greater statistical power. Thus, PCD is a statistically powerful metric that separates the effects of environmental drivers on compositional versus phylogenetic components of community structure.

  19. What causes similarity in catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest issues in hydrology is how to handle the heterogeneity of catchment properties at different scales. But is this really such a big issue? Is this problem not merely the consequence of how we conceptualise and how we model catchments? Is there not far more similarity than we observe. Maybe we are not looking at the right things or at the right scale to see the similarity. The identity of catchments is largely determined by: the landscape, the ecosystem living on the landscape, and the geology, in that order. Soils, which are often seen as a crucial aspect of hydrological behaviour, are far less important, as will be demonstrated. The main determinants of hydrological behaviour are: the landscape composition, the rooting depth and the phenology. These determinants are a consequence of landscape and ecosystem evolution, which, in turn, are the manifestations of entropy production. There are striking similarities between catchments. The different runoff processes from hillslopes are linked and similar in different environments (McDonnell, 2013). Wetlands behave similarly all over the world. The key is to classify landscapes and to link the ecosystems living on them to climate. The ecosystem then is the main controller of hydrological behaviour. Besides phenology, the rooting depth is key in determining runoff behaviour. Both are strongly linked to climate and much less to soil properties. An example is given of how rooting depth is determined by climate, and how rooting depth can be predicted without calibration, providing a strong constraints on the prediction of rainfall partitioning and catchment runoff.

  20. Effects of exogenous glucose on carotenoid accumulation in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Stammitti, Linda; Telef, Nadège; Colardelle, Patrice; Brouquisse, Renaud; Rolin, Dominique; Gallusci, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the effect of carbohydrate on carotenoid accumulation in leaves, excised plants of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiformae, wva 106) were supplied with glucose through the transpiration stream for 48 h. We report here that sugar accumulation in leaves led to a decrease of carotenoid content, which was related to the reduction of Chl. The decrease in carotenoid amount correlated with a sugar-induced repression of genes encoding enzymes of the carotenoid and of the Rohmer pathways. The lower 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase transcript level probably leads to a decreased metabolic flux through the methylerythritol pathway and subsequently to a lower amount of substrate available for plastidic isoprenoid synthesis. Differences between responses of young (sink) and mature (source) leaves to carbohydrate accumulation are discussed.

  1. Sublethal effects of contamination on the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe: metal accumulation and biological responses.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, E; Martí, R; Uriz, J M; Turon, X

    2003-10-01

    The effect of low levels of pollution on the growth, reproduction output, morphology and survival of adult sponges and settlers of the sponge Crambe crambe were examined. We transplanted sponges from a control area to a contaminated site and measured the main environmental variables (chemical and physical) of both sites during the study period. Except some punctual differences in particulate organic matter, silicates, nitrates, and water motion, most environmental variables in the water were similar at both sites during the study months. Mainly copper, lead and OM concentrations in the sediment, and water motion were significantly higher at the polluted site and may be implicated in the biological effects observed: decrease in the percentage of specimens with embryos, increase in shape irregularity and decrease in growth rate. Individuals naturally occurring at the polluted site and those transplanted there for four months accumulated ten times more copper than either untouched or transplant controls. Although lead concentration in sediment did not differ between sites, native specimens from the contaminated site accumulated this metal more than untouched controls. Vanadium concentration also tended to increase in the sponges living at or transplanted to the contaminated site but this difference was not significant. C. crambe is a reliable indicator of metal contamination since it accumulates copper, lead and vanadium in high amounts. At the contaminated site, sponge growth, fecundity and survival were inhibited, whereas sponge irregularity ending in sponge fission was promoted. All these effects may compromise the structure and dynamics of the sponge populations in sheltered, metal-contaminated habitats.

  2. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  3. Inertia-induced accumulation of flotsam in the subtropical gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beron-Vera, F. J.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Lumpkin, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent surveys of marine plastic debris density have revealed high levels in the center of the subtropical gyres. Earlier studies have argued that the formation of great garbage patches is due to Ekman convergence in such regions. In this work we report a tendency so far overlooked of drogued and undrogued drifters to accumulate distinctly over the subtropical gyres, with undrogued drifters accumulating in the same areas where plastic debris accumulate. We show that the observed accumulation is too fast for Ekman convergence to explain it. We demonstrate that the accumulation is controlled by finite-size and buoyancy (i.e., inertial) effects on undrogued drifter motion subjected to ocean current and wind drags. We infer that the motion of flotsam in general is constrained by similar effects. This is done by using a newly proposed Maxey-Riley equation which models the submerged (surfaced) drifter portion as a sphere of the fractional volume that is submerged (surfaced).

  4. Using GRACE to constrain precipitation amount over cold mountainous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Gardner, Alex S.; Reager, John T.; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance for hydrology and climate-change studies, current quantitative knowledge on the amount and distribution of precipitation in mountainous and high-elevation regions is limited due to instrumental and retrieval shortcomings. Here by focusing on two large endorheic basins in High Mountain Asia, we show that satellite gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) can be used to provide an independent estimate of monthly accumulated precipitation using mass balance equation. Results showed that the GRACE-based precipitation estimate has the highest agreement with most of the commonly used precipitation products in summer, but it deviates from them in cold months, when the other products are expected to have larger errors. It was found that most of the products capture about or less than 50% of the total precipitation estimated using GRACE in winter. Overall, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) showed better agreement with GRACE estimate than other products. Yet on average GRACE showed 30% more annual precipitation than GPCP in the study basins. In basins of appropriate size with an absence of dense ground measurements, as is a typical case in cold mountainous regions, we find GRACE can be a viable alternative to constrain monthly and seasonal precipitation estimates from other remotely sensed precipitation products that show large bias.

  5. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  6. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  7. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  8. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  9. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  10. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  11. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription Drug... the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for July 2003 to July of the year... (Prescription Drug Plan) Appeals The annually adjusted AIC threshold amounts for ALJ hearings and...

  12. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  13. Methods to Calculate Spectrum Similarity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Şule; Vandermarliere, Elien; Martens, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Scoring functions that assess spectrum similarity play a crucial role in many computational mass spectrometry algorithms. These functions are used to compare an experimentally acquired fragmentation (MS/MS) spectrum against two different types of target MS/MS spectra: either against a theoretical MS/MS spectrum derived from a peptide from a sequence database, or against another, previously acquired MS/MS spectrum. The former is typically encountered in database searching, while the latter is used in spectrum clustering and spectral library searching. The comparison between acquired versus theoretical MS/MS spectra is most commonly performed using cross-correlations or probability derived scoring functions, while the comparison of two acquired MS/MS spectra typically makes use of a normalized dot product, especially in spectrum library search algorithms. In addition to these scoring functions, Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients, mean squared error, or median absolute deviation scores can also be used for the same purpose. Here, we describe and evaluate these scoring functions with regards to their ability to assess spectrum similarity for theoretical versus acquired, and acquired versus acquired spectra.

  14. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  15. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  16. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  17. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  18. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  19. Effects of harvesting date and storage on the amounts of polyacetylenes in carrots, Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Marie E

    2010-11-24

    The amounts of three main polyacetylenes in carrots; falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol-3-acetate, were determined by HPLC, during three seasons, in carrots harvested several times per season and at different locations in Sweden. The amounts of falcarindiol first decreased from a relatively high level and then increased later in the harvest season. The amounts of falcarindiol-3-acetate showed similar variations, whereas the amounts of falcarinol did not exhibit any significant variation during the harvest season. During storage the amount of polyacetylenes leveled off, increasing in samples initially low and decreasing in samples initially high in polyacetylenes. The amounts of all polyacetylenes varied significantly due to external factors and between stored and fresh samples. This variation opens up possibilities to achieve a chemical composition of polyacetylenes at harvest that minimizes the risk of bitter off-taste and maximizes the positive health effects reported in connection with polyacetylenes in carrots.

  20. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  1. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  2. Differential accumulation of four phaseolin glycoforms in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Bustos, M M; Kalkan, F A; VandenBosch, K A; Hall, T C

    1991-03-01

    An intron-less phaseolin gene was used to express phaseolin polypeptides in transgenic tobacco plants. The corresponding amounts of phaseolin immunoreactive polypeptides and mRNA were similar to those found in plants transformed with a bean genomic DNA sequence that encodes an identical beta-phaseolin subunit. These results justified the use of the intron-less gene for engineering of the phaseolin protein by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Each and both of the two Asn residues that serve as glycan acceptors in wild-type phaseolin were modified to prevent N-linked glycosylation. Wild-type (beta wti-) and mutant phaseolin glycoforms (beta dgly1, beta dgly2 and beta dgly1,2) were localized to the protein body matrix by immunogold microscopy. Although quantitative slot-blot hybridization analysis showed similar levels of phaseolin mRNA in transgenic seed derived from all constructs, seed from the beta dgly1 and beta dgly2 mutations contained only 41% and 73% of that expressed from the wild-type control; even less (23%) was present in seed of plants transformed with the phaseolin beta dgly1,2 gene. Additionally, the profile of 25-29 kDa processed peptides was different for each of the glycoforms, indicating that processing of the full-length phaseolin polypeptides was modified. Thus, although targeting of phaseolin to the protein body was not eliminated by removal of the glycan side-chains, decreased accumulation and stability of the full-length phaseolin protein in transgenic tobacco seed were evident.

  3. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  4. Characterization of cadmium accumulation in willow as a woody metal accumulator using synchrotron radiation-based X-ray microanalyses.

    PubMed

    Harada, Emiko; Hokura, Akiko; Takada, Saori; Baba, Kei'ichi; Terada, Yasuko; Nakai, Izumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2010-05-01

    Trees that accumulate metals are important plants for restoring contaminated soil because of their high biomass. We examined the cadmium (Cd) tolerance and growth rate of six willow (Salix) species common in Japan. To characterize in detail the localization of Cd and its ligands, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis was used. This revealed the accumulation of cadmium at the tips of the serrations in leaves, and the phellogen and/or the phelloderm under the stem surface. micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of Cd in all the accumulation sites were similar to that of the Cd ion coordinated by O ligands in S. gilgiana.

  5. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  6. Phylogenetically related and ecologically similar carnivores harbour similar parasite assemblages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Stephens, Patrick R; Gittleman, John L; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Most parasites infect multiple hosts, but what factors determine the range of hosts a given parasite can infect? Understanding the broad scale determinants of parasite distributions across host lineages is important for predicting pathogen emergence in new hosts and for estimating pathogen diversity in understudied host species. In this study, we used a new data set on 793 parasite species reported from free-ranging populations of 64 carnivore species to examine the factors that influence parasite sharing between host species. Our results showed that parasites are more commonly shared between phylogenetically related host species pairs. Additionally, host species with higher similarity in biological traits and greater geographic range overlap were also more likely to share parasite species. Of three measures of phylogenetic relatedness considered here, the number divergence events that separated host species pairs most strongly influenced the likelihood of parasite sharing. We also showed that viruses and helminths tend to infect carnivore hosts within more restricted phylogenetic ranges than expected by chance. Overall, our results underscore the importance of host evolutionary history in determining parasite host range, even when simultaneously considering other factors such as host ecology and geographic distribution.

  7. Accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisca; Nadal, Martí; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Fàbrega, Francesc; Domingo, José L; Barceló, Damià; Farré, Marinella

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmental pollutants with an important bioaccumulation potential. However, their metabolism and distribution in humans are not well studied. In this study, the concentrations of 21 PFASs were analyzed in 99 samples of autopsy tissues (brain, liver, lung, bone, and kidney) from subjects who had been living in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The samples were analyzed by solvent extraction and online purification by turbulent flow and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of PFASs was confirmed in all human tissues. Although PFASs accumulation followed particular trends depending on the specific tissue, some similarities were found. In kidney and lung, perfluorobutanoic acid was the most frequent compound, and at highest concentrations (median values: 263 and 807ng/g in kidney and lung, respectively). In liver and brain, perfluorohexanoic acid showed the maximum levels (median: 68.3 and 141ng/g, respectively), while perfluorooctanoic acid was the most contributively in bone (median: 20.9ng/g). Lung tissues accumulated the highest concentration of PFASs. However, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid were more prevalent in liver and bone, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the accumulation of different PFASs in samples of various human tissues from the same subjects is here reported for the very first time. The current results may be of high importance for the validation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, which are being developed for humans. However, further studies on the distribution of the same compounds in the human body are still required.

  8. Premature chromatin condensation upon accumulation of NIMA.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, M J; Norbury, C; Nurse, P

    1994-01-01

    The NIMA protein kinase of Aspergillus nidulans is required for the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Mutants lacking NIMA arrest without morphological characteristics of mitosis, but they do contain an activated p37nimX kinase (the Aspergillus homologue of p34cdc2). To gain a better understanding of NIMA function we have investigated the effects of expressing various NIMA constructs in Aspergillus, fission yeast and human cells. Our experiments have shown that the instability of the NIMA protein requires sequences in the non-catalytic C-terminus of the protein. Removal of this domain results in a stable protein that, once accumulated, promotes a lethal premature condensation of chromatin without any other aspects of mitosis. Similar effects were also observed in fission yeast and human cells accumulating Aspergillus NIMA. This phenotype is independent of cell cycle progression and does not require p34cdc2 kinase activity. As gain of NIMA function by accumulation results in premature chromatin condensation, and loss of NIMA function results in an inability to enter mitosis, we propose that NIMA functions in G2 to promote the condensation of chromatin normally associated with entry into mitosis. Images PMID:7957060

  9. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  10. Analysis of strains lacking known osmolyte accumulation mechanisms reveals contributions of osmolytes and transporters to protection against abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E; Deutch, Charles E; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H; Plater, Samantha M; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie; Wood, Janet M

    2014-09-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K(+) glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm.

  11. Analysis of Strains Lacking Known Osmolyte Accumulation Mechanisms Reveals Contributions of Osmolytes and Transporters to Protection against Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E.; Deutch, Charles E.; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H.; Plater, Samantha M.; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie

    2014-01-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K+ glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm. PMID:24951793

  12. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  13. Hydrothermal sulfide accumulation along the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, J. W.; Clague, D. A.; Hannington, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide deposits that form on the seafloor are often located by the detection of hydrothermal plumes in the water column, followed by exploration with deep-towed cameras, side-scan sonar imaging, and finally by visual surveys using remotely-operated vehicle or occupied submersible. Hydrothermal plume detection, however, is ineffective for finding hydrothermally-inactive sulfide deposits, which may represent a significant amount of the total sulfide accumulation on the seafloor, even in hydrothermally active settings. Here, we present results from recent high-resolution, autonomous underwater vehicle-based mapping of the hydrothermally-active Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the ridge bathymetry resulted in the location of 581 individual sulfide deposits along 24 km of ridge length. Hydrothermal deposits were distinguished from volcanic and tectonic features based on the characteristics of their surface morphology, such as shape and slope angles. Volume calculations for each deposit results in a total volume of 372,500 m3 of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica material, for an equivalent mass of ∼1.2 Mt of hydrothermal material on the seafloor within the ridge's axial valley, assuming a density of 3.1 g/cm3. Much of this total volume is from previously undocumented inactive deposits outside the main active vent fields. Based on minimum ages of sulfide deposition, the deposits accumulated at a maximum rate of ∼400 t/yr, with a depositional efficiency (proportion of hydrothermal material that accumulates on the seafloor to the total amount hydrothermally mobilized and transported to the seafloor) of ∼5%. The calculated sulfide tonnage represents a four-fold increase over previous sulfide estimates for the Endeavour Segment that were based largely on accumulations from within the active fields. These results suggest that recent global seafloor sulfide resource estimates, which were based mostly

  14. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  15. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  16. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  17. 18 CFR 367.1080 - Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. 367.1080 Section 367.1080 Conservation of... Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. (a) This account must be credited with the following: (1) Amounts charged to account 403, Depreciation expense (§ 367.4030), or...

  18. Methane fluxes above the Hainich forest by True Eddy Accumulation and Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebicke, Lukas; Gentsch, Lydia; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of forests for the global methane cycle requires quantifying vegetation-atmosphere exchange of methane, however observations of turbulent methane fluxes remain scarce. Here we measured turbulent fluxes of methane (CH4) above a beech-dominated old-growth forest in the Hainich National Park, Germany, and validated three different measurement approaches: True Eddy Accumulation (TEA, closed-path laser spectroscopy), and eddy covariance (EC, open-path and closed-path laser spectroscopy, respectively). The Hainich flux tower is a long-term Fluxnet and ICOS site with turbulent fluxes and ecosystem observations spanning more than 15 years. The current study is likely the first application of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) for the measurement of turbulent exchange of methane and one of the very few studies comparing open-path and closed-path eddy covariance (EC) setups side-by-side. We observed uptake of methane by the forest during the day (a methane sink with a maximum rate of 0.03 μmol m-2 s-1 at noon) and no or small fluxes of methane from the forest to the atmosphere at night (a methane source of typically less than 0.01 μmol m-2 s-1) based on continuous True Eddy Accumulation measurements in September 2015. First results comparing TEA to EC CO2 fluxes suggest that True Eddy Accumulation is a valid option for turbulent flux quantifications using slow response gas analysers (here CRDS laser spectroscopy, other potential techniques include mass spectroscopy). The TEA system was one order of magnitude more energy efficient compared to closed-path eddy covariance. The open-path eddy covariance setup required the least amount of user interaction but is often constrained by low signal-to-noise ratios obtained when measuring methane fluxes over forests. Closed-path eddy covariance showed good signal-to-noise ratios in the lab, however in the field it required significant amounts of user intervention in addition to a high power consumption. We conclude

  19. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  20. Bioturbo similarity searching: combining chemical and biological similarity to discover structurally diverse bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Glick, Meir

    2013-03-25

    Virtual screening using bioactivity profiles has become an integral part of currently applied hit finding methods in pharmaceutical industry. However, a significant drawback of this approach is that it is only applicable to compounds that have been biologically tested in the past and have sufficient activity annotations for meaningful profile comparisons. Although bioactivity data generated in pharmaceutical institutions are growing on an unprecedented scale, the number of biologically annotated compounds still covers only a minuscule fraction of chemical space. For a newly synthesized compound or an isolated natural product to be biologically characterized across multiple assays, it may take a considerable amount of time. Consequently, this chemical matter will not be included in virtual screening campaigns based on bioactivity profiles. To overcome this problem, we herein introduce bioturbo similarity searching that uses chemical similarity to map molecules without biological annotations into bioactivity space and then searches for biologically similar compounds in this reference system. In benchmark calculations on primary screening data, we demonstrate that our approach generally achieves higher hit rates and identifies structurally more diverse compounds than approaches using chemical information only. Furthermore, our method is able to discover hits with novel modes of inhibition that traditional 2D and 3D similarity approaches are unlikely to discover. Test calculations on a set of natural products reveal the practical utility of the approach for identifying novel and synthetically more accessible chemical matter.

  1. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  2. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed.

  3. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  4. Similarity between particles and bubbles as micro-additives in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, Yoichi

    2015-11-01

    The acceleration of turbulent fluid flow in a vertical channel by the use of a uniform distribution of microparticles and of microbubbles has been examined by using a direct numerical simulation to calculate the fluid velocities seen by the additives. The flows considered are the downward gas flow to which solid particles of density ratio of 103 are added and the upward liquid flow to which bubbles of density ratio of 10-3 are added. Both additives, ranging in volume fraction up to 2 ×10-3 , are represented as solid spheres. The Froude numbers are chosen so as to have similar effects in both flows by the use of the same volume fraction of the additives. The fluid-phase momentum balance, integrated over the domain, is used to examine the changes in drag, wall friction and averaged feedback force of the non-stationary flow models. The feedback force per volume fraction is unchanged in the bubble flow. It decreases with increasing volume fraction and inertia of particles in the particle flow. Similarities between the two disperse flows are seen at small times for small volume fractions. Drag is reduced by both additives. The amount of reduced drag decreases with time at large times in the bubble flow, due to the increases in the accumulation of bubbles above walls. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420097.

  5. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  6. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  7. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of...

  8. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Accumulation and beta-Adrenergic Binding in Unweighted and Denervated Rat Soleus Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Woolridge, Dale; Tischler, Marc E.

    1992-01-01

    Unweighting, but not denervation, of muscle reportedly "spares" insulin receptors, increasing insulin sensitivity. Unweighting also increases beta-adrenergic responses of carbohydrate metabolism. These differential characteristics were studied further by comparing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and beta-adrenergic binding in normal and 3-day unweighted or denervated soleus muscle. Submaximal amounts of isoproterenol, a p-agonist, increased cAMP accumulation in vitro and in vivo (by intramuscular (IM) injection) to a greater degree (P less than .05) in unweighted muscles. Forskolin or maximal isoproterenol had similar in vitro effects in all muscles, suggesting increased beta-adrenergic sensitivity following unweighting. Increased sensitivity was confirmed by a greater receptor density (B(sub max)) for iodo-125(-)-pindolol in particulate preparations of unweighted (420 x 10(exp -18) mol/mg muscle) than of control or denervated muscles (285 x 10(exp-18) mol/mg muscle). The three dissociation constant (Kd) values were similar (20.3 to 25.8 pmol/L). Total binding capacity (11.4 fmol/muscle) did not change during 3 days of unweighting, but diminished by 30% with denervation. This result illustrates the "sparing" and loss of receptors, respectively, in these two atrophy models. In diabetic animals, IM injection of insulin diminished CAMP accumulation in the presence of theophylline in unweighted muscle (-66% +/- 2%) more than in controls (-42% +'- 6%, P less than .001). These results show that insulin affects CAMP formation in muscle, and support a greater in vivo insulin response following unweighting atrophy. These various data support a role for lysosomal proteolysis in denervation, but not in unweighting, atrophy.

  9. A pointwise correspondence based DT-MRI fiber similarity measure.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Sema; Acar, Burak

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DTI) fiber tractography is a way to reconstruct fiber tracts underlying data according to local anisotropic diffusion characteristics. Reliability of fiber tracts as a result of tractography decreases due to noise in the data, error accumulation during integration and stochastic nature of the underlying data. We proposed a new similarity measure based on point-wise correspondence between tracts. Laplacian Eigenmaps are used to embed the fiber tracts into ℜ(3) based on the new similarity measure. We compared our method with a previously proposed method, on real and phantom data, that uses a 9D feature space to measure fiber similarity and showed that the new similarity measure results in a low dimensional manifold representing the fiber bundles. We presented preliminary results demonstrating that the fibers that fall far from this manifold correspond to outliers.

  10. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  11. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  12. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate [3H]prostaglandins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Harper, M J

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with 3H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of [3H]PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of [3H]PGE2 and [3H]PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the [3H]PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. We conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  13. Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens sp. nov., a polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating diazotroph isolated from a New Zealand pulp and paper wastewater.

    PubMed

    Addison, Sarah L; Foote, Sonia M; Reid, Nicola M; Lloyd-Jones, Gareth

    2007-11-01

    A diazotroph capable of accumulating significant amounts of polyhydroxyalkanoate was isolated in New Zealand from a bioreactor treating nitrogen-deficient pulp and paper-mill effluent. Strain Y88T is Gram-negative, rod-shaped and positive for catalase, nitrate reductase and urease activities. The complete 16S rRNA gene sequence was most similar to those of other members of the genus Novosphingobium, the highest level of similarity (94.7%) being found with respect to the type strain of Novosphingobium stygium. The combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and sequence data show that while strain Y88T belongs to the genus Novosphingobium, it is distinct from all currently recognized Novosphingobium species. Therefore, strain Y88T represents the first nitrogen-fixing species of the genus Novosphingobium, for which the name Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y88T (=ICMP 16470T=DSM 19370T).

  14. Accelerated mutation accumulation in asexual lineages of a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T; Logsdon, John M; Taylor, Douglas R

    2010-04-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction.

  15. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  16. Forms and accumulation of soil P in natural and recently restored peatlands - Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, S.A.; Craft, C.B.; McCormick, P.V.; Aldous, A.

    2005-01-01

    Forms, amounts, and accumulation of soil phosphorus (P) were measured in natural and recently restored marshes surrounding Upper Klamath Lake located in south-central Oregon, USA to determine rates of P accumulation in natural marshes and to assess changes in P pools caused by long-term drainage in recently restored marshes. Soil cores were collected from three natural marshes and radiometrically dated to determine recent (l37Cs-based) and long-term (210Pb-based) rates of peat accretion and P accumulation. A second set of soil cores collected from the three natural marshes and from three recently restored marshes was analyzed using a modification of the Hedley procedure to determine the forms and amounts of soil P. Total P in the recently restored marshes (222 to 311 ??g cm-3) was 2-3 times greater than in the natural marshes (103 to 117 ??g cm-3), primarily due to greater bulk density caused by soil subsidence, a consequence of long-term marsh drainage. Occluded Fe- and Al-bound Pi, calcium-bound Pi and residual P were 4 times, 22 times, and 5 times greater, respectively, in the recently restored marshes. More than 67% of the P pool in both the natural and recently restored marshes was present in recalcitrant forms (humic-acid P o and residual P) that provide long-term P storage in peat. Phosphorus accumulation in the natural marshes averaged 0.45 g m-2 yr-1 (137Cs) and 0.40 g m-2 yr-1 (210Pb), providing a benchmark for optimizing P sequestration in the recently restored marshes. Effective P sequestration in the recently restored marshes, however, will depend on re-establishing equilibrium between the P-enriched soils and the P concentration of floodwaters and a hydrologie regime similar to the natural marshes. ?? 2005, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure.

  18. Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of fatigue microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Matthew D; Li, Jiliang; Turnbull, Travis L; Burr, David B; Niebur, Glen L; Roeder, Ryan K

    2011-03-01

    Conventional methods used to image and quantify microdamage accumulation in bone are limited to histological sections, which are inherently invasive, destructive, two-dimensional, and tedious. These limitations inhibit investigation of microdamage accumulation with respect to volumetric spatial variation in mechanical loading, bone mineral density, and microarchitecture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate non-destructive, three-dimensional (3-D) detection of microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to validate micro-CT measurements against conventional histological methods. Unloaded controls and specimens loaded in cyclic uniaxial tension to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus were labeled with a precipitated BaSO₄ stain for micro-CT and basic fuchsin for histomorphometry. Linear microcracks were similarly labeled by BaSO₄ and basic fuchsin as shown by backscattered electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The higher X-ray attenuation of BaSO₄ relative to the bone extracellular matrix provided enhanced contrast for the detection of damage that was otherwise not able to be detected by micro-CT prior to staining. Therefore, contrast-enhanced micro-CT was able to nondestructively detect the presence, 3-D spatial location, and accumulation of fatigue microdamage in human cortical bone specimens in vitro. Microdamage accumulation was quantified on segmented micro-CT reconstructions as the ratio of BaSO₄ stain volume (SV) to total bone volume (BV). The amount of microdamage measured by both micro-CT (SV/BV) and histomorphometry (Cr.N, Cr.Dn, Cr.S.Dn) progressively increased from unloaded controls to specimens loaded to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus (p < 0.001). Group means for micro-CT measurements of damage accumulation were strongly correlated to those using histomorphometry (p < 0.05), validating the new methods. Limitations of the new

  19. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  20. Mass versus molar doses, similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, A; Lamparczyk, H

    2008-11-01

    Generally, they are two systems expressing the amounts of active substance in a given drug product, i.e. mass and molar dose. Currently, the dose system based on the mass is widely used in which doses are expressed in grams or milligrams. On the other hand, the molar dose system is in direct relation to the number of molecules. Hence, the objective of this work was to compare both systems in order to find their advantages and disadvantages. Active substances belonging to the groups of antibiotics, nootropic agents, beta-blockers, vitamins, GABA-analog, COX-2 inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, lipid-modifying agents (fibrates), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (profens), estrogens, neuroleptics, analgesics and benzodiazepines were considered. Moreover, products containing two active substances were also taken into account. These are mixtures of hydrochlorothiazide with active substances influencing the renin-angiotensin system and combined oral contraceptives. For each active substance, belonging to the groups mentioned above molar doses were calculated from mass doses and molar mass. Hence, groups of drugs with a single active substance, drugs with similar pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical alternatives, and drugs with a single active ingredient manufactured in different doses were compared in order to find which dose system describes more adequately differences between and within the groups mentioned above. Comparisons were supported by a number of equations, which theoretically justify the data, and relationships derived from calculations.

  1. PiZ Mouse Liver Accumulates Polyubiquitin Conjugates That Associate with Catalytically Active 26S Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher J.; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gautam, Madhav; James, Jared; Mielcarska, Joanna; Gogol, Edward; Teckman, Jeffrey; Skowyra, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome

  2. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  3. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  4. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu

    2016-11-01

    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  5. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  6. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e) Operator Comments. The operator shall have...

  7. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  8. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  9. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  10. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  11. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in...

  12. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  13. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery. (a... liabilities associated with the transaction. To determine the amount of Federal recovery, the adjusted...

  14. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  15. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  16. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  17. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  18. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  19. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  20. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount...

  1. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans Agency: National Credit Union Administration... unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative to predatory... permitted under the general lending rule, but imposes limitations on the permissible term, amount, and...

  2. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available....

  3. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16... Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation of any prohibition in § 7.4...

  4. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance. 870.702... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount of Basic insurance an annuitant or compensationer...

  5. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  6. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  7. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  8. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  9. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  10. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  11. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  12. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  13. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  14. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  15. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  16. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  17. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  18. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  19. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  20. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  1. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Limitations on Annual Purchases § 353.10 Amounts which may be purchased. The amount of savings bonds of Series EE and HH which may be purchased and held, in the... and is limited as follows: (a) Series EE—(1) General annual limitation. $5,000 (principal amount)....

  2. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  3. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  4. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  5. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  6. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  7. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  8. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will...

  9. 30 CFR 723.14 - Determination of amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of amount of penalty. 723.14 Section 723.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 723.14 Determination of amount of penalty. The Office shall determine the amount of any...

  10. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  11. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  12. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  13. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  14. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  15. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  16. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  17. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl− transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl− cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl− in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  18. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  19. Two age-related accumulation profiles of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the body burden levels of toxic metals in Japanese, five toxic metal concentrations in scalp hair samples from 28,424 subjects from infant to elderly were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean of hair mercury concentrations showed a high-significant age-correlated increase (r = 0.341, p < 0.0001) with a peak at the 6th decade of life and then decreased with further aging in both sexes. The mean mercury concentrations in male adults were significantly higher than those in female (p < 0.001), indicating the gender difference (male > female) in mercury accumulation. Arsenic also showed a similar accumulation profile with age dependency and gender difference in adult subjects. In contrast, cadmium, lead and aluminium exhibited another type of accumulation profile: the highest burden level was observed in infants aged 0-3 years old for every element in both sexes. In addition, cadmium was found to have a character accumulating in aged females, with significant age-dependency (r = 0.134, p < 0.0001) and gender difference (female > male). These findings suggest that toxic metals are classified into two families on the basis of their accumulation profiles, and that the three elements of mercury, arsenic and cadmium which accumulate age-dependently in adults, may play a role in aging process and higher burden with them may lead to acceleration of aging.

  20. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  1. [Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on nutrient accumulation and allocation in Betula albo-sinensis seedlings].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Wang, Kai-yun; Zhang, Chao

    2008-01-01

    With enclosed chamber system, this paper studied the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 micromol x mol(-1), E(C)), temperature (ambient + 2 degrees C, E(T)), and their combination (E(CT)) on the nutrient accumulation and allocation in subalpine Betula albo-sinensis seedlings in western Sichuan Province. The results showed that after a growth season, the accumulation amount of N, P and K per plant increased by 44%, 45% and 11% under E(C) (P < 0.05), by 37%, 76% and 9% under E(T) (P < 0.05), and by 24%, 88% and 20% under E(CT) (P < 0.05), respectively. The N allocation to leaves reduced by 11.68% (P < 0.05) under E(C) but increased by 11.09% (P <0.05) under E(T) while that to branches, stems and roots increased by 2.95%, 3.39% and 5.34% under E(C) (P > 0.05), but decreased by 0.69%, 10.35% and 0.05% under E(T) (P > 0.05), respectively. The N allocation pattern under E(CT) was similar to that under E(C). The allocation of P and K had greater differences under E(C), E(T) and E(CT). All of these suggested that elevated CO2 concentration and temperature could promote nutrient accumulation, and change its allocation pattern in plant organs.

  2. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  3. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-25

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25–70 Pg C in peatland and 13–22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36–63 Pg C at present, including 27–48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9–15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5–3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3–0.6 Pg C in peatlandsmore » and 2.2–3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr−1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr−1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr−1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.« less

  4. Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect of amount was not due to changes in the rate parameter of the discounting function, but rather was due to increases in the exponent. These results stand in contrast to those observed with the discounting of delayed monetary rewards, in which the degree of discounting decreases with reward amount due to amount-dependent decreases in the rate parameter. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that delay and probability discounting reflect different underlying mechanisms. That is, the fact that the exponent in the delay discounting function is independent of amount is consistent with a psychophysical scaling interpretation, whereas the finding that the exponent of the probability-discounting function is amount-dependent is inconsistent with such an interpretation. Instead, the present results are consistent with the idea that the probability-discounting function is itself the product of a value function and a weighting function. This idea was first suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), although their prospect theory does not predict amount effects like those observed. The effect of amount on probability discounting was parsimoniously incorporated into our hyperboloid discounting function by assuming that the exponent was proportional to the amount raised to a power. The amount-dependent exponent of the probability-discounting function may be viewed as reflecting the effect of amount on the weighting of the probability with which the reward will be received.

  5. Beyond Literal Similarity. Technical Report No. 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortony, Andrew

    Hitherto, theories of similarity have restricted themselves to judgments of what might be called literal similarity. A central thesis of this paper is that a complete account of similarity needs also to be sensitive to nonliteralness, or metaphoricity, an aspect of similarity statements that is most evident in similes, but that actually underlies…

  6. DISCOUNTING OF DELAYED AND PROBABILISTIC LOSSES OVER A WIDE RANGE OF AMOUNTS

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Oliveira, Luís; Chang, Seo Eun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined delay and probability discounting of hypothetical monetary losses over a wide range of amounts (from $20 to $500,000) in order to determine how amount affects the parameters of the hyperboloid discounting function. In separate conditions, college students chose between immediate payments and larger, delayed payments and between certain payments and larger, probabilistic payments. The hyperboloid function accurately described both types of discounting, and amount of loss had little or no systematic effect on the degree of discounting. Importantly, the amount of loss also had little systematic effect on either the rate parameter or the exponent of the delay and probability discounting functions. The finding that the parameters of the hyperboloid function remain relatively constant across a wide range of amounts of delayed and probabilistic loss stands in contrast to the robust amount effects observed with delayed and probabilistic rewards. At the individual level, the degree to which delayed losses were discounted was uncorrelated with the degree to which probabilistic losses were discounted, and delay and probability loaded on two separate factors, similar to what is observed with delayed and probabilistic rewards. Taken together, these findings argue that although delay and probability discounting involve fundamentally different decision-making mechanisms, nevertheless the discounting of delayed and probabilistic losses share an insensitivity to amount that distinguishes it from the discounting of delayed and probabilistic gains. PMID:24745086

  7. The absence of numbers to express the amount may affect delay discounting with humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Huerta, Hugo E; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2016-09-01

    Human delay discounting is usually studied with experimental protocols that use symbols to express delay and amount. In order to further understand discounting, we evaluated whether the absence of numbers to represent reward amounts affects discount rate in general, and whether the magnitude effect is generalized to nonsymbolic situations in particular. In Experiment 1, human participants were exposed to a delay-discounting task in which rewards were presented using dots to represent monetary rewards (nonsymbolic); under this condition the magnitude effect did not occur. Nevertheless, the magnitude effect was observed when equivalent reward amounts were presented using numbers (symbolic). Moreover, in estimation tasks, magnitude increments produced underestimation of large amounts. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed only to the nonsymbolic discounting task and were required to estimate reward amounts in each trial. Consistent with Experiment 1, the absence of numbers representing reward amounts produced similar discount rates of small and large rewards. These results suggest that value of nonsymbolic rewards is a nonlinear function of amount and that value attribution depends on perceived difference between the immediate and the delayed nonsymbolic rewards.

  8. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  9. An experimental test of the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles in a forested region.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Sebastian; Bässler, Claus; Brandl, Roland; Fahrig, Lenore; Förster, Bernhard; Heurich, Marco; Hothorn, Torsten; Scheipl, Fabian; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2017-03-19

    The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i.e., density of dead trees in the surrounding landscape). Although dead wood is a spatio-temporally dynamic habitat, saproxylic insects have life cycles shorter than the time needed for habitat turnover and they closely track their resource. Patch size was manipulated by adding various amounts of downed dead wood to the plots (~800 m³ in total); dead trees in the surrounding landscape (~240 km²) were identified using airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). Over three years, 477 saproxylic species (101,416 individuals) were recorded. Considering 20-1,000 m radii around the patches, local landscapes were identified as having a radius of 40-120 m. Both patch size and habitat amount in the local landscapes independently affected species numbers without a significant interaction effect, hence refuting the island effect. Species accumulation curves relative to cumulative patch size were not consistent with either the habitat-patch hypothesis or the habitat-amount hypothesis: several small dead-wood patches held more species than a single large patch with an amount of dead wood equal to the sum of that of the small patches. Our results indicate that conservation of saproxylic beetles in forested regions should primarily focus on increasing the overall amount of dead wood without considering its spatial arrangement

  10. First Nuclear DNA Amounts in more than 300 Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    ZONNEVELD, B. J. M.; LEITCH, I. J.; BENNETT, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genome size (DNA C-value) data are key biodiversity characters of fundamental significance used in a wide variety of biological fields. Since 1976, Bennett and colleagues have made scattered published and unpublished genome size data more widely accessible by assembling them into user-friendly compilations. Initially these were published as hard copy lists, but since 1997 they have also been made available electronically (see the Plant DNA C-values database www.kew.org/cval/homepage.html). Nevertheless, at the Second Plant Genome Size Meeting in 2003, Bennett noted that as many as 1000 DNA C-value estimates were still unpublished and hence unavailable. Scientists were strongly encouraged to communicate such unpublished data. The present work combines the databasing experience of the Kew-based authors with the unpublished C-values produced by Zonneveld to make a large body of valuable genome size data available to the scientific community. • Methods C-values for angiosperm species, selected primarily for their horticultural interest, were estimated by flow cytometry using the fluorochrome propidium iodide. The data were compiled into a table whose form is similar to previously published lists of DNA amounts by Bennett and colleagues. • Key Results and Conclusions The present work contains C-values for 411 taxa including first values for 308 species not listed previously by Bennett and colleagues. Based on a recent estimate of the global published output of angiosperm DNA C-value data (i.e. 200 first C-value estimates per annum) the present work equals 1·5 years of average global published output; and constitutes over 12 % of the latest 5-year global target set by the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop (see www.kew.org/cval/workshopreport.html). Hopefully, the present example will encourage others to unveil further valuable data which otherwise may lie forever unpublished and unavailable for comparative analyses. PMID:15905300

  11. Estimating the Amount of Eroded Section in a Partially Exhumed Basin from Geophysical Well Logs: An Example from the North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, W. Matthew; Hayba, Daniel O.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of partially exhumed basins requires an estimation of the amount of erosion that has occurred since the time of maximum burial. We have developed a method for estimating eroded thickness by using porosity-depth trends derived from borehole sonic logs of wells in the Colville Basin of northern Alaska. Porosity-depth functions defined from sonic-porosity logs in wells drilled in minimally eroded parts of the basin provide a baseline for comparison with the porosity-depth trends observed in other wells across the basin. Calculated porosities, based on porosity-depth functions, were fitted to the observed data in each well by varying the amount of section assumed to have been eroded from the top of the sedimentary column. The result is an estimate of denudation at the wellsite since the time of maximum sediment accumulation. Alternative methods of estimating exhumation include fission-track analysis and projection of trendlines through vitrinite-reflectance profiles. In the Colville Basin, the methodology described here provides results generally similar to those from fission-track analysis and vitrinite-reflectance profiles, but with greatly improved spatial resolution relative to the published fission-track data and with improved reliability relative to the vitrinite-reflectance data. In addition, the exhumation estimates derived from sonic-porosity logs are independent of the thermal evolution of the basin, allowing these estimates to be used as independent variables in thermal-history modeling.

  12. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution.

  13. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous ...

  14. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  15. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  16. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-06-18

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method.

  17. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate (/sup 3/H)prostaglandins in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.A.; Harper, M.J.

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with /sup 3/H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of (/sup 3/H)PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of (/sup 3/H)PGE2 and (/sup 3/H)PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the (/sup 3/H)PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. The authors conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  18. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  19. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  20. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  1. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  2. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  3. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  4. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  5. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  6. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  7. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  8. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  9. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  10. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  11. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  12. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  13. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  14. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  15. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  16. 26 CFR 1.50A-1 - Determination of amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-1 Determination of amount. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section and in § 1.50A-2, the amount of the work incentive program... section); corporations which are members of a controlled group (see paragraph (f) of this...

  17. 20 CFR 404.333 - Wife's and husband's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. 404.333... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.333 Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. Your wife's or husband's monthly benefit is equal to one-half the insured person's primary insurance...

  18. 42 CFR 489.65 - Amount of the bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 489.65 Amount of the bond. (a) Basic rule. The amount of the surety bond must be $50,000 or 15 percent... computation of the 15 percent will be based on the number of months of the fiscal year that the bond...

  19. 45 CFR 1225.11 - Amount of attorney fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of attorney fees. 1225.11 Section 1225.11... § 1225.11 Amount of attorney fees. (a) When a decision of the agency provides for an award of attorney's fees or costs, the complainant's attorney shall submit a verified statement of costs and...

  20. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time...

  1. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  2. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  3. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  4. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  5. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  6. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  7. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar...

  8. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  9. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  10. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  11. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  12. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  13. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union... federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative... regcomments@ncua.gov . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Short-term,...

  14. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  15. 46 CFR 308.200 - Insured amount-application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.200 Insured amount—application. An applicant for war risk protection and indemnity insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but such amount shall...

  16. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  17. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  18. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder....

  19. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  20. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  1. 29 CFR 531.38 - Amounts deducted for taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts deducted for taxes. 531.38 Section 531.38 Labor... Employees § 531.38 Amounts deducted for taxes. Taxes which are assessed against the employee and which are... unemployment insurance taxes, as well as other Federal, State, or local taxes, levies, and assessments....

  2. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  3. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  4. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  5. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  6. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  7. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  8. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  9. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  10. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  11. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  12. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may...

  13. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  14. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  15. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  16. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  17. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  18. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount. 203.15 Section 203.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to...

  19. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  20. 42 CFR 410.152 - Amounts of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Amount of payment: Home health services other than durable medical equipment (DME). For home health services other than DME furnished by, or under arrangements made by, a participating HHA, Medicare... services. (d) Amount of payment: DME furnished as a home health service—(1) Basic rule. Except as...

  1. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... Medicare beneficiaries who elected to receive hospice care from that hospice during the cap period. For... election to receive hospice care, in accordance with § 418.24, from the hospice during the......

  2. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  3. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  4. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  5. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  6. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  7. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  10. 45 CFR 2400.52 - Amount of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of stipend. 2400.52 Section 2400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.52 Amount of stipend. Junior and Senior...

  11. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  12. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  13. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  14. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  15. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  16. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  17. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  18. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  19. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  20. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673 Section 35.673 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  1. 40 CFR 35.683 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.683 Section 35.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.683 Annual amount reserved by EPA. EPA shall reserve up to five percent...

  2. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  3. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  4. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  5. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  6. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  7. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  8. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  9. 29 CFR 4.140 - Significance of contract amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Significance of contract amount. 4.140 Section 4.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.140 Significance of contract...

  10. 29 CFR 4.142 - Contracts in an indefinite amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts in an indefinite amount. 4.142 Section 4.142 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.142 Contracts in an...

  11. 29 CFR 4.141 - General criteria for measuring amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General criteria for measuring amount. 4.141 Section 4.141 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.141 General criteria...

  12. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  13. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  14. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  15. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  16. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  17. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  18. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  19. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  20. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  1. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  2. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  3. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  4. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  5. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  6. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  7. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870... beginning on or after October 30, 1998, Option A cannot exceed this amount. Exception: This does not apply... insurance (the first pay period beginning on or after October 30, 1998). (b)(1) Option B coverage comes in...

  8. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  9. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative rates. When an ODS rate in any category is less than zero... negative rate shall be deducted from positive rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e... Subsidy Rates § 252.30 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily rates. Daily ODS rates shall be used...

  10. Acceptable Tolerances for Matching Icing Similarity Parameters in Scaling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews past work and presents new data to evaluate how changes in similarity parameters affect ice shapes and how closely scale values of the parameters should match reference values. Experimental ice shapes presented are from tests by various researchers in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. The parameters reviewed are the modified inertia parameter (which determines the stagnation collection efficiency), accumulation parameter, freezing fraction, Reynolds number, and Weber number. It was demonstrated that a good match of scale and reference ice shapes could sometimes be achieved even when values of the modified inertia parameter did not match precisely. Consequently, there can be some flexibility in setting scale droplet size, which is the test condition determined from the modified inertia parameter. A recommended guideline is that the modified inertia parameter be chosen so that the scale stagnation collection efficiency is within 10 percent of the reference value. The scale accumulation parameter and freezing fraction should also be within 10 percent of their reference values. The Weber number based on droplet size and water properties appears to be a more important scaling parameter than one based on model size and air properties. Scale values of both the Reynolds and Weber numbers need to be in the range of 60 to 160 percent of the corresponding reference values. The effects of variations in other similarity parameters have yet to be established.

  11. A Distance and Angle Similarity Measure Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Korfhage, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses similarity measures that are used in information retrieval to improve precision and recall ratios and presents a combined vector-based distance and angle measure to make similarity measurement more scientific and accurate. Suggests directions for future research. (LRW)

  12. Engineering and Technology: Differences and Similarities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, L. Douglas; King, Michael R.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a survey accumulating data on the qualifications and careers of graduates in engineering technology and engineering programs. Characterizes the students surveyed, employment opportunities, and academic training from students (N=436) graduating from civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering, and from design and graphics,…

  13. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  14. Proteinase Inhibitor I Accumulation in Tomato Suspension Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Simmons, Mary; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1986-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of tomato accumulate proteinase Inhibitor I as the sucrose is depleted from 1% to less than 0.1% in the culture medium. Inhibitor I can be prematurely induced to accumulate in the cells by the addition to the medium of the proteinase inhibitor inducing factor, trigalacturonic acid, ethylene glycol chitin, or chitosan. In cultures grown in 0.6% initial sucrose with no inducers added, a uronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide appears in the medium during growth of the cells. This extracellular polysaccharide apparently contains an `endogenous inducer' of Inhibitor I synthesis. When the partially purified polysaccharide is added to the culture medium, Inhibitor I accumulation is induced. Proteinase inhibitors also accumulate in tobacco and alfalfa suspension-cultured cells as the cell cultures age. As with the tomato cultures, a uronic acid-rich component(s) appears in the media prior to inhibitor accumulation. These data suggest that an endogenous inducer may be activating proteinase inhibitor genes through a similar mechanism in all three types of cells. PMID:16664609

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  16. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  17. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  18. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  19. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha−1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  20. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  1. Deleterious mutation accumulation and the regeneration of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Daniel J.; David, Jacques L.; Bataillon, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations accompanying recurrent regeneration of plant germ plasm was modeled under regeneration conditions characterized by different amounts of selection and genetic drift. Under some regeneration conditions (sample sizes ≥75 individuals and bulk harvesting of seed) mutation accumulation was negligible, but under others (sample sizes <75 individuals or equalization of seed production by individual plants) mutation numbers per genome increased significantly during 25–50 cycles of regeneration. When mutations also are assumed to occur (at elevated rates) during seed storage, significant mutation accumulation and fitness decline occurred in 10 or fewer cycles of regeneration regardless of the regeneration conditions. Calculations also were performed to determine the numbers of deleterious mutations introduced and remaining in the genome of an existing variety after hybridization with a genetic resource and subsequent backcrossing. The results suggest that mutation accumulation has the potential to reduce the viability of materials held in germ plasm collections and to offset gains expected by the introduction of particular genes of interest from genetic resources. PMID:9419386

  2. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  3. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  4. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO(3) already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  5. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by…

  6. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate Reduces Calcium Accumulation in Rat Brain Endoplasmic Reticulum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    low millimolar range. Most Ca2+ is sequestered within organelles , including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, mitochondria , and nucleus (Carafoli...G6P and thapsigargin caused generalized reduction in Ca2+ accumulation in remarkably similar patterns with no apparent gray matter regional...with glucose-6-phosphate (10 mM) or thapsigargin (1 µM), revealed very similar pattern of generalized reduction in 45Ca2+ accumulation in gray and

  8. Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

    2010-12-01

    Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed

  9. Angular-Similarity-Preserving Binary Signatures for Linear Subspaces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianqiu; Li, Jianmin; Tian, Qi; Yan, Shuicheng; Zhang, Bo

    2015-11-01

    We propose a similarity-preserving binary signature method for linear subspaces. In computer vision and pattern recognition, linear subspace is a very important representation for many kinds of data, such as face images, action and gesture videos, and so on. When there is a large amount of subspace data and the ambient dimension is high, the cost of computing the pairwise similarity between the subspaces would be high and it requires a large storage space for storing the subspaces. In this paper, we first define the angular similarity and angular distance between the subspaces. Then, based on this similarity definition, we develop a similarity-preserving binary signature method for linear subspaces, which transforms a linear subspace into a compact binary signature, and the Hamming distance between two signatures provides an unbiased estimate of the angular similarity between the two subspaces. We also provide a lower bound of the signature length sufficient to guarantee uniform distance-preservation between every pair of subspaces in a set. Experiments on face recognition, gesture recognition, and action recognition verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Self-similarity criteria in anisotropic flows with viscosity stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaila, L.; Voivenel, L.; Varea, E.

    2017-02-01

    Variable-viscosity flows exhibit a faster trend towards a fully developed turbulent state since fluctuations are produced at a larger amount. A legitimate expectation is that self-similarity to be tenable earlier than in classical, single-viscosity flows. The question which begs to be answered is: which are the self-similarity criteria for variable-viscosity, density-matched, flows? The similarity assumption, i.e., all scales evolve in a similar fashion in space/time, is applied to the transport equation for one- and two-point statistics of anisotropic, variable-viscosity flows. It is shown that the similarity assumption is valid for regions of the flow where viscosity (mean values and the fluctuations root-mean-square) is uniform. In regions where viscosity gradients are important, such as the sheared region and jet boundaries, similarity is not tenable. Our claims are applicable to any decaying flow, isotropic or anisotropic. Support is provided by experimental data obtained in the near field region of a jet issuing into a more viscous environment. The viscosity ratio is 3.5.

  11. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  12. MYB76 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaowei; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Hai, Jiangbo; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    The MYB family of transcription factors is important in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, their role in regulating fatty acid accumulation in seeds is still largely unclear. Here, we found that MYB76, localized in the nucleus, was predominantly expressed in developing seeds during maturation. The myb76 mutation caused a significant increase in the amounts of total fatty acids and several major fatty acid compositions in mature seeds, suggesting that MYB76 functioned as an important repressor during seed oil biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed remarkable alteration of numerous genes involved in photosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, modification, and degradation, and oil body formation in myb76 seeds at 12 days after pollination. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB76 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of MYB transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:28270825

  13. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  14. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  15. How to avoid unbounded drug accumulation with fractional pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hennion, Maud; Hanert, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that certain drugs follow an anomalous kinetics that can hardly be represented by classical models. Instead, fractional-order pharmacokinetics models have proved to be better suited to represent the time course of these drugs in the body. Unlike classical models, fractional models can represent memory effects and a power-law terminal phase. They give rise to a more complex kinetics that better reflects the complexity of the human body. By doing so, they also spotlight potential issues that were ignored by classical models. Among those issues is the accumulation of drug that carries on indefinitely when the infusion rate is constant and the elimination flux is fractional. Such an unbounded accumulation could have important clinical implications and thus requires a solution to reach a steady state. We have considered a fractional one-compartment model with a continuous intravenous infusion and studied how the infusion rate influences the total amount of drug in the compartment. By taking an infusion rate that decays like a power law, we have been able to stabilize the amount of drug in the compartment. In the case of multiple dosing administration, we propose recurrence relations for the doses and the dosing times that also prevent drug accumulation. By introducing a numerical discretization of the model equations, we have been able to consider a more realistic two-compartment model with both continuous infusion and multiple dosing administration. That numerical model has been applied to amiodarone, a drug known to have an anomalous kinetics. Numerical results suggest that unbounded drug accumulation can again be prevented by using a drug input function that decays as a power law.

  16. Amounts of substrate carbon and nitrogen control the decomposition of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. J. A.; Sun, J.; Finley, B. K.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, mainly caused by rising atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition due to human activities, is postulated to increase energy and nutrient inputs to soils that can accelerate or retard soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, a phenomenon called the priming effect. Yet, the direction and magnitude of priming in response to different amounts of energy and nutrient inputs remain elusive. Here we examined the effects of carbon (C) and N additions on priming, microbial turnover, extracellular enzyme activities, CO2 fluxes, and C accumulation in four different ecosystems. We applied low and high C (13C glucose; 350 and 1000 μg C g-1 wk-1) and C with N (NH4NO3; 35 and 100 μg N g-1 wk-1) for five weeks. We found: 1) high C and high C+N stimulated weekly priming in the first two weeks and then leveled off, indicating soil microorganisms may have a short-term of accelerated growth and activity but quickly adapt to frequent inputs of high substrate amounts, 2) high C induced greater cumulative priming, microbial turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than low C, 3) high C+N had significantly lower cumulative priming, turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than high C, 4) high C and high C+N stimulated greater CO2 fluxes and C accumulations than low substrate inputs. These results suggest that the amount of substrate (energy and nutrient) was a determinant factor in modulating the rate of SOM decomposition, microbial turnover, enzyme activities, and C balance. Overall we demonstrate that increased energy inputs can quickly accelerate SOM decomposition, but concurrent nutrient inputs can suppress such process, which could have a huge impact on terrestrial C storage and global biogeochemical C cycling under climate change.

  17. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  18. Surface-Based Protein Binding Pocket Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2011-01-01

    Protein similarity comparisons may be made on a local or global basis and may consider sequence information or differing levels of structural information. We present a local 3D method that compares protein binding site surfaces in full atomic detail. The approach is based on the morphological similarity method which has been widely applied for global comparison of small molecules. We apply the method to all-by-all comparisons two sets of human protein kinases, a very diverse set of ATP-bound proteins from multiple species, and three heterogeneous benchmark protein binding site data sets. Cases of disagreement between sequence-based similarity and binding site similarity yield informative examples. Where sequence similarity is very low, high pocket similarity can reliably identify important binding motifs. Where sequence similarity is very high, significant differences in pocket similarity are related to ligand binding specificity and similarity. Local protein binding pocket similarity provides qualitatively complementary information to other approaches, and it can yield quantitative information in support of functional annotation. PMID:21769944

  19. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  20. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  1. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  2. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  3. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  4. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculating a reproduction value using construction cost indexes or current costs per square foot for... constituted an approved project (or projects) as the amount of Federal participation bore to the cost of...

  5. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... tax refund offset program. To the extent allowed by law, the FDIC may add the offset fees to the debt....

  6. 26 CFR 301.6334-3 - Determination of exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Taxpayer A completes the task in 10 weeks. The total exempt amount is $1,000 and $500 is subject to levy... situation or a change by operation of law (such as by indexing or otherwise) to the standard deduction...

  7. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  8. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  9. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  10. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  11. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  12. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  13. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  14. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  15. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  16. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal Register. (i) Energy efficient mortgages. The principal amount of energy efficient... prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Editorial...

  17. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Federal Register. (i) Energy efficient mortgages. The principal amount of energy efficient... prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Editorial...

  18. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal Register. (i) Energy efficient mortgages. The principal amount of energy efficient... prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Editorial...

  19. 44 CFR 11.78 - Computation of amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.78 Computation of amount of... depreciated value, immediately prior to the loss or damage, of property lost or damaged beyond...

  20. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  1. 7 CFR 1735.16 - Minimum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1735.16 Minimum loan amount. Recognizing plant costs, the borrower's cost of system design, and RUS's administrative costs, RUS will not consider applications for loans of less than $50,000....

  2. 24 CFR 213.279 - Maximum amount of distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management Housing Insurance and Distributive Shares § 213.279 Maximum amount of distributive share. In no event shall a distributive share of the Participating Reserve Account exceed the aggregate...

  3. 45 CFR 148.312 - Amount of grant payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Grants to States for Operation of Qualified High Risk... by the Secretary through acceptable industry data sources. (c) The amount awarded to each...

  4. 45 CFR 148.312 - Amount of grant payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Grants to States for Operation of Qualified High Risk... by the Secretary through acceptable industry data sources. (c) The amount awarded to each...

  5. 5 CFR 870.1203 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Portability § 870.1203 Amount of insurance. (a... force reduces by 50 percent at the beginning of the 2nd calendar month after the individual reaches...

  6. Sitamaquine Sensitivity in Leishmania Species Is Not Mediated by Drug Accumulation in Acidocalcisomes▿

    PubMed Central

    López-Martín, Carmen; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Carvalho, Luis; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Sitamaquine (WR6026), an 8-aminoquinoline derivative, is a new antileishmanial oral drug. As a lipophilic weak base, it rapidly accumulates in acidic compartments, represented mainly by acidocalcisomes. In this work, we show that the antileishmanial action of sitamaquine is unrelated to its level of accumulation in these acidic vesicles. We have observed significant differences in sitamaquine sensitivity and accumulation between Leishmania species and strains, and interestingly, there is no correlation between them. However, there is a relationship between the levels of accumulation of sitamaquine and acidotropic probes, acidocalcisomes size, and polyphosphate levels. The Leishmania major AP3δ-null mutant line, in which acidocalcisomes are devoid of their usual polyphosphate and proton content, is unable to accumulate sitamaquine; however, both the parental strain and the AP3δ-null mutants showed similar sensitivities to sitamaquine. Our findings provide clear evidence that the antileishmanial action of sitamaquine is unrelated to its accumulation in acidocalcisomes. PMID:18794384

  7. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  8. Variation in sorbitol accumulation and polyol-pathway activity in cultured human proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Flath, M C; Bylander, J E; Sens, D A

    1992-09-01

    The polyol pathway is present in tissues of several organs where its activation may participate in the development of diabetic complications. We measured the accumulation of polyol-pathway intermediates in HPT cells isolated from 21 different human kidneys from nondiabetic individuals. When exposed to 27.5 mM glucose in the growth media, cells isolated from approximately 75% of individuals (accumulators) accumulated sorbitol within 1-4 days, whereas 25% (nonaccumulators) accumulated only negligible amounts, even when the period of exposure was extended to 2 wk. Surprisingly, measurement of the activities of the polyol-pathway enzymes showed no difference in the levels of either AR or SDH between accumulators and nonaccumulators, even when the conversion of galactose to galactitol was used to measure AR activity in intact cells independently of SDH. Measurement of sorbitol in the growth media indicated that nonaccumulators were not releasing sorbitol into the growth media. Fructose levels in the conditioned growth media were 4 times higher in the sorbitol-accumulating cells. Together, these results indicate that the tendency of cells from an individual to accumulate significant amounts of sorbitol may reflect the cells' ability to metabolize sorbitol in steps subsequent to the polyol pathway.

  9. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  10. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  11. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  12. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  13. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-10-14

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  14. Similarity effects in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Lee, Hyejin J; Asaad, Anthony; Remington, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual similarity is an important property of multiple stimuli. Its computation supports a wide range of cognitive functions, including reasoning, categorization, and memory recognition. It is important, therefore, to determine why previous research has found conflicting effects of inter-item similarity on visual working memory. Studies reporting a similarity advantage have used simple stimuli whose similarity varied along a featural continuum. Studies reporting a similarity disadvantage have used complex stimuli from either a single or multiple categories. To elucidate stimulus conditions for similarity effects in visual working memory, we tested memory for complex stimuli (faces) whose similarity varied along a morph continuum. Participants encoded 3 morphs generated from a single face identity in the similar condition, or 3 morphs generated from different face identities in the dissimilar condition. After a brief delay, a test face appeared at one of the encoding locations for participants to make a same/different judgment. Two experiments showed that similarity enhanced memory accuracy without changing the response criterion. These findings support previous computational models that incorporate featural variance as a component of working memory load. They delineate limitations of models that emphasize cortical resources or response decisions.

  15. Accumulation boundaries: codimension-two accumulation of accumulations in phase diagrams of semiconductor lasers, electric circuits, atmospheric and chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason Alfredo Carlson

    2008-02-28

    We report high-resolution phase diagrams for several familiar dynamical systems described by sets of ordinary differential equations: semiconductor lasers; electric circuits; Lorenz-84 low-order atmospheric circulation model; and Rössler and chemical oscillators. All these systems contain chaotic phases with highly complicated and interesting accumulation boundaries, curves where networks of stable islands of regular oscillations with ever-increasing periodicities accumulate systematically. The experimental exploration of such codimension-two boundaries characterized by the presence of infinite accumulation of accumulations is feasible with existing technology for some of these systems.

  16. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  17. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin.

  18. Intracellular accumulation of ethanol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Loueiro, V.; Ferreira, H.G.

    1983-09-01

    Ethanol produced in the course of a batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or added from the outside, affects adversely the specific rate of growth of the yeast population, its viability, its specific rate of fermentation, and the specific rates of the uptake of sugar and amino acids. The underlying mechanisms are many and include irreversible denaturation and hyperbolic noncompetitive inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, the exponential noncompetitive inhibition of glucose, maltose, and ammonium transport, the depression of the optimum and the maximum temperature for growth, the increase of the minimum temperature for growth, and the enhancement of thermal death and petite mutation. Nagodawithana and Steinkraus reported that added ethanol was less toxic for S. cerevisiae than ethanol produced by the yeast. The death rates were lower in the presence of added ethanol than those measured at similar external ethanol concentrations endogenously produced. They proposed that, due to an unbalance between the rates of production and the net outflux of ethanol, there would be an intracellular accumulation of ethanol which in turn would explain the apparently greater inhibitory potency of endogenously produced ethanol present in the medium. This hypothesis was supported by the findings of several authors who reported that the intracellular concentration of ethanol, in the course of batch fermentation, is much higher than its concentration in the extracellular medium. The present work is an attempt to clarify this matter. (Refs. 32).

  19. Mercury accumulation in Devils Lake, North Dakota effects of environmental variation in closed-basin lakes on mercury chronologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, R.M.; Alexander, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from lakes in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota to determine if mercury (Hg) accumulation chronologies from sediment-core data are good indicators of variations in Hg accumulation rates in saline lakes. Sediment cores from Creel Bay and Main Bay, Devils Lake were selected for detailed analysis and interpretation. The maximum Hg concentration in the Creel Bay core was 0.15 micrograms per gram at 8 to 9 centimeters. The maximum Hg concentration in the Main Bay core was 0.07 micrograms per gram at 5 to 7 centimeters. The general decreases in Hg concentrations with depth are attributed to historic variations in atmospheric Hg deposition rate. Hg stratigraphies combined with 210Pb and 137Cs dating analyses yield Hg chronologies that indicate a general increase in Hg accumulation rates in Devils Lake since the middle of the 19th century. Mean modern Hg accumulation rates in Creel Bay were 4.9 nanograms per square centimeter per year, and rates in Main Bay were 1.8 nanograms per square centimeter per year. Mean preindustrial Hg accumulation rates in Creel Bay were 1.2 nanograms per square centimeter per year, and rates in Main Bay were 1.6 nanograms per square centimeter per year. Relatively low Hg concentrations in recent sediments in the Devils Lake Basin, along with similarities in Hg accumulation rates between lakes in the Devils Lake Basin and other lakes in the northern interior of North America, indicate that local sources of Hg are not important sources of Hg. Results of the study indicate that accurate Hg chronologies are discernible in sediment cores collected from saline lakes. However, spatial and temporal variations in lake level and water chemistry common to saline lakes make interpretation of radioisotopic and geochemical chronologies difficult. Hg geochemistry in Devils Lake, and presumably in other saline lakes, is dynamic. The results of this study indicate that the absolute amount of sediment transported to Devils Lake

  20. Relationship Between Land Use and the Amount and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Carbon Exported from Coastal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.

    2004-05-01

    Changes in the amount and biological reactivity of organic C, N, and P were investigated in coastal watersheds along a gradient of land use. Concentrations of inorganic N and P declined from suburbanized and agricultural headwaters to urbanized reaches further downstream. In contrast, concentrations of organic C, N, and P increased along the river network. At the outflow, organic N and organic P comprised 53% and 71% of the total N and P exported to Chesapeake Bay. The biological reactivity of organic C, N, and P varied with land use and season. Across sites and seasons, 0-41% of organic carbon, 0-41% of organic nitrogen, and 0-58% of organic P were biologically available over a time scale of 3 days. The bioavailability of organic carbon typically increased from forested and agricultural headwaters to larger suburban and urban drainages. Activities of esterase and endopeptidase enzymes by stream microbes also followed similar spatial patterns suggesting that both the bioavailability and chemical composition of organic matter were changing en route to the ocean. Measurements of bacterial production and respiration efficiency suggested that growth and metabolism of microbes in urban streams were less limited by organic matter quality and the availability of inorganic nutrients as compared to forested streams. Substantial quantities of bioavailable DOC, DON, and DOP accumulated along flow paths while concentrations of inorganic nutrients declined. The potential role of agricultural, suburban, and urban streams as transformers of inorganic nutrients to reactive organic fractions may need to be considered when predicting changes in oxygen demand and the total export of bioavailable C, N, and P to coastal environments.