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Sample records for accumulated similar amounts

  1. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  2. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  3. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-09-22

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  4. A new correlation between photovoltaic panel's efficiency and amount of sand dust accumulated on their surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Ahmad Y.; Ghoneim, Adel A.

    2005-12-01

    The accumulation of dust particles on the surface of photovoltaic (PV) panel greatly affects its performance especially in the dusty areas. In the present work, an experimental and theoretical study has been carried out to investigate the effect of sand dust concentration on the efficiency of PV panels. A stand-alone PV system is designed to carry out this work. The I V characteristics have been measured simultaneously for both clean and dusty modules. It has been found that the short circuit current and the maximum output power decrease significantly as dust particles start to accumulate on the panel surface up to a concentration of 1g/m2, but the rate of decrease is slower for concentrations beyond that value. The reduction in short circuit current in one sample of study is found to be ˜40%, whereas it is ˜34% in the maximum output power. In contrast, it is stated that the open circuit voltage is not sensitive to sand dust accumulation. A significant degradation in the efficiency of PV modules is observed for sand dust accumulation up to 1g/m2. A linear relation has been proposed to correlate the degradation in efficiency to the amount of sand dust accumulated on the module surface. This relation can help PV system designers to reliably predict the effect of sand dust accumulation on PV module efficiency under real environmental conditions.

  5. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area.

  6. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  7. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25437594

  8. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  9. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  10. The effect of different levels of wheat bran on iron absorption in rats from bread containing similar amounts of phytate.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, S J

    1982-03-01

    1. Iron absorption was studied in weanling rats using balance techniques from semi-synthetic diets containing dried white bread (60.5 g dietary fibre/kg. White & Southgate, unpublished results), brown bread (130.2 g dietary fibre/kg) or wholemeal bread (221.2 g dietary fibre/kg) at a level of 300 g/kg and compared with a control group given a diet containing added FeSO4 at a similar Fe level to that for the bread groups. The dried bread contained 6.2-6.4 g phytate/kg. 2. Absorption of Fe was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the control group (0.45) than in the White (0.28), brown (0.31) or wholemeal (0.24) groups. 3. A second experiment was carried out on 6-week-old rats in which the dried bread was extrinsically labelled with 59Fe and absorption from a single meal measured by both faecal excretion and incorporation of 59Fe into the blood. Control animals were given 59FeSO4 for comparison. 4. The excretion of 59Fe (% of administered dose) was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) in the control group (31) than in the white (48), brown (45) or wholemeal (47) groups. After 10 d the control group had significantly more 59Fe in the blood than the bread groups, but there were no differences between the bread groups. 5. It appears that wheat bran fibre itself has no effect on the retention of Fe from the diet in the rat, when supplied in amounts similar to those found in commercially-available bread.

  11. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing. PMID:25455208

  12. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  13. Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, James A.; Striebel, James F.; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E.; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083

  14. Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James A; Striebel, James F; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083

  15. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources. PMID:25446876

  16. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources.

  17. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  18. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems.

  19. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  20. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH removal

  1. Similar PAH Fate in Anaerobic Digesters Inoculated with Three Microbial Communities Accumulating Either Volatile Fatty Acids or Methane

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10 % to 30 %, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH

  2. Shear-wave Velocity Structure and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in the Up-Dip Region of the Cascadia Subduction Zone: Similarities to Tohoku?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Wei, M.

    2013-12-01

    the measured compliances in this frequency band using a genetic algorithm that solves for the S-wave velocity, P-wave velocity, and density in a layered structure. By including constraints on the Vp distribution from active-source studies, these parameters appear well constrained down to about 4 km depth from our dataset. There is a clear difference in observed compliance values between stations close to the deformation front (~10 km) and those further up the continental slope (~30-40 km) indicating a region of unconsolidated, high-porosity sediment similar to the off-Tohoku region. The low S-wave velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios in the up-dip region correspond to unconsolidated high-porosity sediments. We calculated the effect of this material property contrast on the inter-seismic strain accumulation in the up-dip region of the subduction zone using a finite element model and find that the sediments can increase the amount of inter-seismic strain accumulated in the up-dip region by >100% relative to a homogenous elastic model.

  3. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  4. Small and similar amounts of micromotion in an anatomical stem and a customized cementless femoral stem in regular-shaped femurs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose High primary stability is important for long-term survival of uncemented femoral stems. Different stem designs are currently in use. The ABG-I is a well-documented anatomical stem with a press-fit design. The Unique stem is designed for a tight customized fit to the cortical bone of the upper femur. This implant was initially developed for patients with abnormal anatomy, but the concept can also be used in patients with normal femoral anatomy. We present 5-year radiostereometric analysis (RSA) results from a randomized study comparing the ABG-I anatomical stem with the Unique femoral stem. Patients and methods 100 hips with regular upper femur anatomy were randomized to either the ABG-I stem or the Unique femoral stem. RSA measurements were performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months. Results RSA measurements from 80 hips were available for analysis at the 5-year follow-up. Small amounts of movement were observed for both stems, with no statistically significant differences between the 2 types. Interpretation No improvement in long-term stability was found from using a customized stem design. However, no patients with abnormal geometry of the upper femur were included in this study. PMID:24650024

  5. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation.

  6. Escherichia coli rimM and yjeQ null strains accumulate immature 30S subunits of similar structure and protein complement

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Vivian; Kent, Meredith; Jomaa, Ahmad; Ortega, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    Assembly of the Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits proceeds through multiple parallel pathways. The protein factors RimM, YjeQ, RbfA, and Era work in conjunction to assist at the late stages of the maturation process of the small subunit. However, it is unclear how the functional interplay between these factors occurs in the context of multiple parallel pathways. To understand how these factors work together, we have characterized the immature 30S subunits that accumulate in ΔrimM cells and compared them with immature 30S subunits from a ΔyjeQ strain. The cryo-EM maps obtained from these particles showed that the densities representing helices 44 and 45 in the rRNA were partially missing, suggesting mobility of these motifs. These 30S subunits were also partially depleted in all tertiary ribosomal proteins, particularly those binding in the head domain. Using image classification, we identified four subpopulations of ΔrimM immature 30S subunits differing in the amount of missing density for helices 44 and 45, as well as the amount of density existing in these maps for the underrepresented proteins. The structural defects found in these immature subunits resembled those of the 30S subunits that accumulate in the ΔyjeQ strain. These findings are consistent with an “early convergency model” in which multiple parallel assembly pathways of the 30S subunit converge into a late assembly intermediate, as opposed to the mature state. Functionally related factors will bind to this intermediate to catalyze the last steps of maturation leading to the mature 30S subunit. PMID:23611982

  7. Exploring Effective Strategies for Increasing the Amount of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Children Accumulate during Recess: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Less than half of elementary children meet the physical activity recommendations of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on a daily basis. Recess provides the single biggest opportunity for children to accumulate MVPA. This study explored whether a teacher's social prompting to be active during recess…

  8. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation. PMID:25899033

  9. Where will large amounts of materials accumulated within the economy go?--A material flow analysis of construction minerals for Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seiji; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    For all countries analyzed so far, Material Flow Analysis/Accounting (MFA) studies indicate that the overall stock of materials within the economy is growing. Most are construction minerals such as asphalt, cement, sand and gravel, crushed stone, and other aggregates. In the analyses described in this paper, flows and stocks of construction minerals were estimated for Japan from the past to the future to elucidate: (1) the mechanisms by which construction minerals become waste, and (2) the future supply of and demand for recycled crushed stone. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The amounts of waste construction minerals generated have been and will be at much lower levels than the domestic demand for construction minerals. These differences might indicate consistent growth of the stock of construction minerals, which will become waste in the future. However, certain amounts of materials that we account for as stock can be interpreted already in the environment as dead stock or dissipated waste; such materials can be called "missing stock" or "dissipated stock". Capturing that missing or dissipated stock is very important because it provides information that clarifies the environmental impacts and loss of resources that these materials cause; it allows estimation of appropriate future waste generation. (2) The amount of construction minerals that are recognized as waste was estimated to increase in the future. An imbalance in the supply of and demand for recycled crushed stone will likely occur in the near future if an expected decline in future road construction is considered.

  10. X-Ray induced cataract is preceded by LEC loss, and coincident with accumulation of cortical DNA, and ROS; similarities with age-related cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Zitnik, Galynn; Tsai, Ryan; Wolf, Norman

    2010-01-01

    -eyes were examined for ROS damage to DNA with antibodies specific for 8-OH-G lesions. The frequency of 8-OH-G lesions increased dramatically in lenses from old unirradiated mice over 24 months of age, and similarly in X-irradiated lenses by 9–11 months post irradiation. The accumulation of cortical nuclei was not the result of conversion or invasion by myofibroblasts as tested by antibodies to a marker for such cells, alpha smooth muscle actin. Conclusions X-irradiation damage induces a large decrease in surface LECs over a period of 3–11 months post X-irradiation of young mice. These changes are similar in extent to those seen in 24–29 months-old control mouse lenses with age-related cataracts. In 24+ month-old unirradiated mice the secondary lens fibers are not able to degrade nuclei or nuclear DNA efficiently and accumulate large numbers of cortical nuclei and nuclear fragments as well as ROS and 8-OHG lesions. X-irradiated lenses develop the same abnormalities in a more accelerated fashion. The extensive loss of LECS and accumulation of undegraded nuclei, ROS, and ROS damage may play a causal role in cataract generation in both unirradiated old mice and in previously irradiated young adult mice. PMID:20806081

  11. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and ultraviolet B have similar effects on mRNA accumulation of antioxidant genes in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L.

    SciTech Connect

    Willekens, H.; Van Camp, W.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Langebartels, C.; Sandermann, H. Jr. |

    1994-11-01

    We have studied the expression of antioxidant genes in response to near ambient conditions of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and ultraviolet B (UV-B) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L. The genes analyzed encode four different superoxide dismutases (SODs), three catalases (Cat1, Cat2, and Cat3), the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cyt APx), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The experimental setup for each treatment was essentially the same and caused no visible damage, thus allowing direct comparison of the different stress responses. Our data showed that the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and UV-B on the antioxidant genes are very similar, although the response to SO{sub 2} is generally less pronounced and delayed. The effects of the different stresses are characterized by a decline in Cat1, a moderate increase in Cat3, and a strong increase in Cat2 and GPx. Remarkably, SODs and cyt APx were not affected. Analysis of SOD and APx expression in the ozone-sensitive Nicotiana tabacum L. cv PBD6 revealed that induction of the cytosolic copper/zinc SOD and cyt APx occurs only with the onset of visible damage. It is proposed that alterations in mRNA levels of catalases and GPx, but not of SODs and cyt APx, form part of the initial antioxidant response to O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and UV-B in Nicotiana. 57 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  13. Effects of Dietary Palmitoleic Acid on Plasma Lipoprotein Profile and Aortic Cholesterol Accumulation Are Similar to Those of Other Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the F1B Golden Syrian Hamster 1–3

    PubMed Central

    Matthan, Nirupa R.; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L.; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2008-01-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils. PMID:19106316

  14. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils. PMID:19106316

  15. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  16. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  17. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  18. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  19. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  20. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  1. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  2. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  7. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  8. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  9. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  10. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  11. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  12. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  13. MAGNETIC HELICITY OF SELF-SIMILAR AXISYMMETRIC FORCE-FREE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Mei; Flyer, Natasha; Low, Boon Chye

    2012-08-10

    In this paper, we continue our theoretical studies addressing the possible consequences of magnetic helicity accumulation in the solar corona. Our previous studies suggest that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are natural products of coronal evolution as a consequence of magnetic helicity accumulation and that the triggering of CMEs by surface processes such as flux emergence also have their origin in magnetic helicity accumulation. Here, we use the same mathematical approach to study the magnetic helicity of axisymmetric power-law force-free fields but focus on a family whose surface flux distributions are defined by self-similar force-free fields. The semi-analytical solutions of the axisymmetric self-similar force-free fields enable us to discuss the properties of force-free fields possessing a huge amount of accumulated magnetic helicity. Our study suggests that there may be an absolute upper bound on the total magnetic helicity of all bipolar axisymmetric force-free fields. With the increase of accumulated magnetic helicity, the force-free field approaches being fully opened up with Parker-spiral-like structures present around a current-sheet layer as evidence of magnetic helicity in the interplanetary space. It is also found that among the axisymmetric force-free fields having the same boundary flux distribution, the one that is self-similar is the one possessing the maximum amount of total magnetic helicity. This gives a possible physical reason why self-similar fields are often found in astrophysical bodies, where magnetic helicity accumulation is presumably also taking place.

  14. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris.

  15. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  16. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  17. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  18. Biosimilar Insulins: How Similar is Similar?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the “original” insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  19. Calcium: Some aspects of subcellular accumulation and distribution in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Shappell, N.W.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution and bioavailability of {sup 47}calcium in milk labeled by extrinsic and intrinsic methods was investigated. Milk from Sprague Dawley rats was labeled by both methods, and milk from a cow was labeled by the extrinsic method. Retention of {sup 47}Ca from milks administered to young male Sprague Dawley rats was determined through whole body counting for 6 days after administration of milk. Percent of {sup 47}Ca dose retained was 72% for extrinsically labeled cow milk, 62% for extrinsically labeled rat milk, and 55% for intrinsically labeled rat milk. Samples were fractionated by ultracentrifugation and by gel exclusion chromatography. {sup 47}Calcium distributions in rat milk labeled intrinsically or extrinsically were similar. The majority of {sup 47}Ca was found in a particulate, >30,000 molecular weight fraction. The amount of milk calcium retained by rats appeared to be related to the amount of noncasein micelle-associated calcium. When administered by intraperitoneal injection into rats, {sup 45}Ca specific activity of milk peaked in 60 to 90 minutes. In vitro {sup 45}Ca accumulation was compared in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum from liver and mammary gland of lactating Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs. In the presence of ATP, highest accumulation per unit total fraction protein was found in Golgi apparatus (mammary gland 28% of available {sup 45}Ca, liver 11%) while 8% was accumulated by endoplasmic reticulum fractions.

  20. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  1. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. PMID:16173891

  2. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

  3. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  4. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1441-2 - Amounts subject to withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1441-2 Amounts subject to withholding. (a) In general. For... Instruments” (IRS Publication 1212, available from the IRS Forms Distribution Center) or similar...

  6. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  7. 20 CFR 228.52 - Restored amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restored amount. 228.52 Section 228.52... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.52 Restored amount. (a) General. A restored amount...(er) had ten years of creditable railroad service prior to January 1, 1975. (b) Amount. The amount...

  8. 20 CFR 228.52 - Restored amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restored amount. 228.52 Section 228.52... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.52 Restored amount. (a) General. A restored amount...(er) had ten years of creditable railroad service prior to January 1, 1975. (b) Amount. The amount...

  9. Hybrid coexpression link similarity graph clustering for mining biological modules from multiple gene expression datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in genomic technologies have enabled the accumulation of vast amount of genomic data, including gene expression data for multiple species under various biological and environmental conditions. Integration of these gene expression datasets is a promising strategy to alleviate the challenges of protein functional annotation and biological module discovery based on a single gene expression data, which suffers from spurious coexpression. Results We propose a joint mining algorithm that constructs a weighted hybrid similarity graph whose nodes are the coexpression links. The weight of an edge between two coexpression links in this hybrid graph is a linear combination of the topological similarities and co-appearance similarities of the corresponding two coexpression links. Clustering the weighted hybrid similarity graph yields recurrent coexpression link clusters (modules). Experimental results on Human gene expression datasets show that the reported modules are functionally homogeneous as evident by their enrichment with biological process GO terms and KEGG pathways. PMID:25221624

  10. BLM SUMOylation regulates ssDNA accumulation at stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Karen J; Yagle, Mary K; Matunis, Michael J; Ellis, Nathan A

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks.

  11. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  12. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  13. Multivariate Hypergeometric Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a similarity measure based on the multivariate hypergeometric distribution for the pairwise comparison of images and data vectors. The formulation and performance of the proposed measure are compared with other similarity measures using synthetic data. A method of piecewise approximation is also implemented to facilitate application of the proposed measure to large samples. Example applications of the proposed similarity measure are presented using mass spectrometry imaging data and gene expression microarray data. Results from synthetic and biological data indicate that the proposed measure is capable of providing meaningful discrimination between samples, and that it can be a useful tool for identifying potentially related samples in large-scale biological data sets. PMID:24407308

  14. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  15. Sucrose-Induced Accumulation of β-Amylase Occurs Concomitant with the Accumulation of Starch and Sporamin in Leaf-Petiole Cuttings of Sweet Potato 1

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kenzo; Ohto, Masa-aki; Yoshida, Nobumasa; Nakamura, Kyoko

    1991-01-01

    β-Amylase of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), which constitutes about 5% of the total soluble protein of the tuberous root, is absent or is present in only small amounts in organs other than the tuberous roots of the normal, field-grown plants. However, when leaf-petiole cuttings from such plants were supplied with a solution that contained sucrose, the accumulation of β-amylase was induced in both leaf and petiole portions of the explants. The sucrose-induced accumulation of β-amylase in leaf-petiole cuttings occurred concomitant with the accumulation of starch and of sporamin, the most abundant storage protein of the tuberous root. The accumulation of β-amylase, of sporamin and of starch in the petioles showed similar dependence on the concentration of sucrose, and a 6% solution of sucrose gave the highest levels of induction when assayed after 7 days of treatment. The induction of mRNAs for β-amylase and sporamin in the petiole could be detected after 6 hours of treatment with sucrose, and the accumulation of β-amylase and sporamin polypeptides, as well as that of starch, continued for a further 3 weeks. In addition to sucrose, glucose or fructose, but not mannitol or sorbitol, also induced the accumulation of β-amylase and sporamin, suggesting that metabolic effects of sucrose are important in the mechanism of this induction. Treatment of leaf-petiole cuttings with water under continuous light, but not in darkness, also caused the accumulation of small amounts of these components in the petioles, probably as a result of the endogenous supply of sucrose by photosynthesis. These results suggest that the expression of the gene for β-amylase is under metabolic control which is coupled with the expression of sink function of cells in the sweet potato. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668273

  16. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  17. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  18. Accumulation of protoporphyrin IX from delta-aminolevulinic acid in bovine skin fibroblasts with hereditary erythropoietic protoporphyria. A gene-dosage effect

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Bovine skin fibroblasts accumulated protoporphyrin IX when incubated in culture with the porphyrin-heme precursor, delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Fibroblasts from cattle homozygous for erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and with the clinical symptoms of the disease accumulated approximately sixfold greater amounts of protoporphyrin IX than cells from normal control animals. Cells from obligatory heterozygous animals, which are clinically normal, accumulated an intermediate level of protoporphyrin IX. When these cells were incubated with ALA and CaMg EDTA, all types of cells accumulated approximately the same amount of protoporphyrin IX (approximately 500 nmol/mg protein), suggesting that ferrochelatase activity was equally low after inhibition by treatment with CaMg EDTA in all cells. Thus the ratio of protoporphyrin IX accumulation from ALA in cultures treated with CaMg EDTA compared with controls treated with ALA alone was greatest in normal cells, least in EPP cells, and intermediate in the heterozygote cells. These findings suggest that the amount of protoporphyrin IX accumulation from ALA reflects the extent of deficiency of ferrochelatase and is proportional to the dosage of abnormal EPP gene in cultured fibroblasts. Similarly, stimulation of porphyrin accumulation by CaMg EDTA reflects diminished ferrochelatase activity in these cells. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of estimating protoporphyrin IX formation from ALA for the detection of an EPP gene defect in cultured bovine skin fibroblasts. PMID:6788885

  19. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  20. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  1. 20 CFR 228.51 - Takeback amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Takeback amount. 228.51 Section 228.51... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.51 Takeback amount. (a) The 1983 amendments to the... annuity component be offset from the amount of the tier II annuity. This amount is the takeback...

  2. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount recoverable. 340.2 Section 340.2... RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.2 Amount recoverable. For purposes of this part, an “amount recoverable” is an amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment...

  3. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13....13 Guarantee amount. (a) Under Section 101(a)(1) of the Act, the Board is authorized to enter into... loan amount guaranteed to a single air carrier may not exceed that amount that, in the Board's...

  4. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.243 Exempt amount. Amount payable to the taxpayer... exempt from levy as follows: (a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to: (1) The sum of:...

  5. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.930 Amount. (a) Generally, a 504 loan may not exceed 40..., the Debenture amount will be reduced by the amount that the unused contingency reserve exceeds...

  6. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.930 Amount. (a) Generally, a 504 loan may not exceed 40..., the Debenture amount will be reduced by the amount that the unused contingency reserve exceeds...

  7. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.243 Exempt amount. Amount payable to the taxpayer... exempt from levy as follows: (a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to: (1) The sum of:...

  8. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form of... for less than the maximum amount established by statute, and to limit the number of times a...

  9. 20 CFR 228.51 - Takeback amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Takeback amount. 228.51 Section 228.51... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.51 Takeback amount. (a) The 1983 amendments to the... annuity component be offset from the amount of the tier II annuity. This amount is the takeback...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  15. Metal accumulation by wood-decaying fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, and Pb) in the sporophores of ten wood-decaying macromycete species were related to concentrations in the wood substrates. Manganese, Sr, Ca, and Pb were usually excluded by the fungi; K, Rb, and to a lower degree, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg and Na were accumulated. Accumulation ratios are compared with similar ratios for soil and litter inhabiting species previously studied.

  16. Gene limiting cadmium accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisei; Yamaji, Naoki; Kono, Izumi; Huang, Chao Feng; Ando, Tsuyu; Yano, Masahiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2010-09-21

    Intake of toxic cadmium (Cd) from rice caused Itai-itai disease in the past and it is still a threat for human health. Therefore, control of the accumulation of Cd from soil is an important food-safety issue, but the molecular mechanism for the control is unknown. Herein, we report a gene (OsHMA3) responsible for low Cd accumulation in rice that was isolated from a mapping population derived from a cross between a high and low Cd-accumulating cultivar. The gene encodes a transporter belonging to the P(1B)-type ATPase family, but shares low similarity with other members. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that the transporter from the low-Cd cultivar is functional, but the transporter from the high-Cd cultivar had lost its function, probably because of the single amino acid mutation. The transporter is mainly expressed in the tonoplast of root cells at a similar level in both the low and high Cd-accumulating cultivars. Overexpression of the functional gene from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar selectively decreased accumulation of Cd, but not other micronutrients in the grain. Our results indicated that OsHMA3 from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar limits translocation of Cd from the roots to the above-ground tissues by selectively sequestrating Cd into the root vacuoles.

  17. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-02-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

  18. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  19. Effect of albumin on net copper accumulation by fibroblasts and hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, G.L.; Palida, F.A.; Hadi, M.; Lonergan, P.A.; Ettinger, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The liver accumulates copper rapidly and preferentially from plasma. The effects of albumin on net copper accumulation by fibroblasts and hepatocytes were compared to determine whether preferential uptake involves hepatocyte-specific sequestering of copper. Although albumin inhibits the initial rates (30 s) of copper transport by fibroblasts and hepatocytes similarly, the effects of albumin on net copper accumulation (4 h) by these cell types were strikingly different. Fibroblasts accumulate only approximately 15% as much copper when equimolar albumin is present as from albumin-free media; hepatocytes accumulate about the same amount of copper with or without extracellular albumin present. Copper efflux data show that the special capacity of hepatocytes to accumulate copper in the presence of extracellular albumin is due to greater copper retention by hepatocytes than fibroblasts. The ability of hepatocytes to accumulate copper does not seem to be due to albumin-receptor-mediated uptake, since albumin was not co-transported with copper. The data are consistent with an equilibrium model of copper accumulation in which intracellular and extracellular copper are in equilibrium with intracellular and extracellular ligands. A high-affinity, copper-binding fraction that was previously identified in cytosols from hepatocytes was low or absent in fibroblasts. This may contain a liver-specific protein(s) that helps hepatocytes sequester and retain copper from albumin or serum-containing media. Irrespective of the exact species involved, the data are consistent with rapid, preferential copper uptake by the liver being due in part to a liver-specific, intracellular copper-binding protein(s) with a high binding affinity for copper.

  20. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chan, Christina K; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [(35)S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  1. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH.

  2. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  3. 26 CFR 25.2701-3 - Determination of amount of gift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b)(4). (ii) Reduction for minority or similar discounts. Except as provided in § 25.2701-3(c), if... after application of a minority or similar discount with respect to the transferred interest, the amount... 4 is limited to the amount of any appropriate minority or similar discount. Before the...

  4. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  5. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10... IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property... following maximum loan amounts: (i) Single family property improvement loans—$25,000, except that a loan...

  6. 29 CFR 4302.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4302.3 Section 4302.3 Labor Regulations... PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN MULTIEMPLOYER PLAN NOTICES § 4302.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4302 of ERISA shall be $110....

  7. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  8. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  9. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  10. 29 CFR 4071.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4071.3 Section 4071.3 Labor Regulations... FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN NOTICES OR OTHER MATERIAL INFORMATION § 4071.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4071 of ERISA shall be $1,100....

  11. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used... the amount of $35,000,000. (b) Evidence of financial responsibility established and maintained by...

  12. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of...

  13. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amount. 308.100 Section 308.100 Shipping... and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  14. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used... the amount of $35,000,000. (b) Evidence of financial responsibility established and maintained by...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1006 - Amounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts payable. 838.1006 Section 838... Benefits § 838.1006 Amounts payable. (a) Money held by an executive agency or OPM that may be payable at... payments (refunds), the amount of the lump-sum credit. (3) In cases involving former spouse annuities,...

  16. 29 CFR 4302.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4302.3 Section 4302.3 Labor Regulations... PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN MULTIEMPLOYER PLAN NOTICES § 4302.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4302 of ERISA shall be $110....

  17. 29 CFR 4071.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4071.3 Section 4071.3 Labor Regulations... FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN NOTICES OR OTHER MATERIAL INFORMATION § 4071.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4071 of ERISA shall be $1,100....

  18. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insured amount. 308.100 Section 308.100 Shipping... and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  19. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  20. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insured amounts. 308.403 Section 308.403 Shipping... Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during... 10 percent, all as determined from the builder's records. (b) Postlaunching period. The...

  1. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  2. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  3. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  4. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts. 308.403 Section 308.403 Shipping... Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during... 10 percent, all as determined from the builder's records. (b) Postlaunching period. The...

  5. 12 CFR 1208.75 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 1208.75 Section 1208.75 Banks... Wage Garnishment § 1208.75 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the garnishment order issued under... period the amount of garnishment described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section. (b) Subject...

  6. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of...

  7. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  8. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  9. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  10. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES JOHN HEINZ NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Funding Allocation and Criteria § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form...

  11. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  12. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    PubMed Central

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  13. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  14. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  15. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  16. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

  17. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  18. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  19. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  20. Role of sooty mold fungi in accumulation of fine-particle-associated PAHs and metals on deciduous leaves.

    PubMed

    Jouraeva, Venera A; Johnson, David L; Hassett, John P; Nowak, David J; Shipunova, Natalia A; Barbarossa, Dana

    2006-11-01

    The focus of this research was on elucidation of the role of deciduous tree ecosystems in accumulation of fine-particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals on leaves of deciduous trees. The studied species were Tilia x euchlora (frequently infested by sooty mold fungi) and Pyrus calleryana (unaffected by sooty mold fungi). The selected species have similar leaf morphology and were exposed to identical environmental conditions. Intra-species comparison showed that moldy linden leaves accumulate significantly higher amounts of PAHs and metals than unaffected linden leaves. Inter-species comparison revealed that in the absence of sooty mold fungi, physico-chemical properties of epicuticular waxes, rather than the amounts of waxes, might play an important role in accumulation of particulate matter on leaves. The accumulation and/or degradation of a number of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs on leaves was temperature dependent. The results show that the presence of sooty mold fungi on deciduous leaves alters either the accumulation modes and/or degradation pathways of PAHs on deciduous leaves.

  1. Threshold amounts of organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Thomas, Lashun K.; Bradley, Paul M.; Rectanus, Heather V.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer sediment and groundwater chemistry data from 15 Department of Defense facilities located throughout the United States were collected and analyzed with the goal of estimating the amount of natural organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems. Aquifer sediments were analyzed for hydroxylamine and NaOH-extractable organic carbon, yielding a probable underestimate of potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC). Aquifer sediments were also analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) using an elemental combustion analyzer, yielding a probable overestimate of bioavailable carbon. Concentrations of PBOC correlated linearly with TOC with a slope near one. However, concentrations of PBOC were consistently five to ten times lower than TOC. When mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed at each site were plotted versus PBOC, it showed that anoxic conditions were initiated at approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC. Similarly, the accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products relative to parent compounds increased at a PBOC concentration of approximately 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) in sediments also increased at approximately 200 mg/kg, and bioassays showed that sediment CO2 production correlated positively with THAA. The results of this study provide an estimate for threshold amounts of bioavailable carbon present in aquifer sediments (approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC; approximately 1,000 to 2,000 mg/kg of TOC) needed to support reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems.

  2. Accumulation of storage products in oat during kernel development.

    PubMed

    Banaś, A; Dahlqvist, A; Debski, H; Gummeson, P O; Stymne, S

    2000-12-01

    Lipids, proteins and starch are the main storage products in oat seeds. As a first step in elucidating the regulatory mechanisms behind the deposition of these compounds, two different oat varieties, 'Freja' and 'Matilda', were analysed during kernel development. In both cultivars, the majority of the lipids accumulated at very early stage of development but Matilda accumulated about twice the amount of lipids compared to Freja. Accumulation of proteins and starch started also in the early stage of kernel development but, in contrast to lipids, continued over a considerably longer period. The high-oil variety Matilda also accumulated higher amounts of proteins than Freja. The starch content in Freja kernels was higher than in Matilda kernels and the difference was most pronounced during the early stage of development when oil synthesis was most active. Oleosin accumulation continued during the whole period of kernel development.

  3. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  4. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts withheld. 32.8 Section 32.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8...

  5. 20 CFR 617.45 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7), between such locations... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount. 617.45 Section 617.45 Employees... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.45 Amount. (a) Items allowable. The...

  6. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject to withholding... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 313.95 Section 313.95 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of...

  7. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  8. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  9. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  10. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is...

  11. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is...

  12. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  13. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  14. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  15. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  16. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  17. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  18. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  19. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  20. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  1. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  2. Accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin during brain development and injury in Hyphantria cunea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Ja; Je, Hyun Jeong; Cheon, Hyang Mi; Kong, Sun Young; Han, JikHyun; Yun, Chi Young; Han, Yeon Su; Lee, In Hee; Kang, Young Jin; Seo, Sook Jae

    2005-10-01

    The cDNA corresponding to a novel lipocalin was identified from the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. This lipocalin cDNA encodes a 194 residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kDa. Sequence analyses revealed that the 23 kDa lipocalin cDNA is most similar to Drosophila lazarillo, human apolipoprotein D, and Bombyrin. Northern blot analyses showed that 23 kDa lipocalin transcript is expressed in the whole body only in 4- and 6-day-old pupae. By Western blot analysis it was confirmed that 23 kDa lipocalin is mainly accumulated in brain and subesophageal ganglion, though it is detected in a small amount in fat body and epidermis of Hyphantria cunea. The accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain tissue was upregulated in response to injury. The putative function of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain is discussed.

  3. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stephan R; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg(-1) dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg(-1) dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg.

  4. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  5. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stephan R; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg(-1) dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg(-1) dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. PMID:21621314

  6. Aiming for Efficiency by Detecting Structural Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Judith; Jeliazkov, Nikolay; Kühne, Gerold

    When applying XML-Retrieval in a distributed setting, efficiency issues have to be considered, e.g. reducing the network traffic involved in an swering a given query. The new Efficiency Track of INEX gave us the opportu nity to explore the possibility of improving both effectiveness and efficiency by exploiting structural similarity. We ran some of the track’s highly structured queries on our top-k search engine to analyze the impact of various structural similarity functions. We applied those functions first to the ranking and based on that to the query routing process. Our results indicate that detection of structural similarity can be used in order to re duce the amount of messages sent between distributed nodes and thus lead to more efficiency of the search.

  7. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  8. Transformation and Alignment in Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

  9. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  10. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    PubMed

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated.

  11. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  12. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named "auditory streaming". Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally.

  13. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea).

    PubMed

    Del Valle, José C; Buide, Ma L; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  14. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  15. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  16. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  17. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  18. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  19. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  20. Amount of psychological stress reported by high school volleyball officials.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M J; Ellery, P J

    1996-08-01

    All volleyball officials registered with a state high school activities association in a midwestern state were surveyed at the end of the volleyball season to assess their self-reported, psychological stress. Of 470 officials contacted, 353 (75%) responded by filling out a simple 5 point rating scale. The mean rating of stress was 2.3 (SD = .6) (between "very little" and "a moderate amount") which is similar to past findings for certified, amateur baseball and softball umpires.

  1. Tomato responds to green peach aphid infestation with the activation of trehalose metabolism and starch accumulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-06-01

    The disaccharide trehalose and trehalose-6-phosphate that are present in trace amounts are suggested to have a signaling function in plants. Recently, it was demonstrated that trehalose metabolism contributes to Arabidopsis thaliana defense against the green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae Sülzer), an important insect pest of a large variety of plants. TPS11 (TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE11)-dependent trehalose metabolism was shown to curtail GPA infestation by promoting starch accumulation and expression of the PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) gene, which has important roles in regulating antibiosis and antixenosis against GPA. Here we show that trehalose metabolism is similarly activated in leaves of GPA-infested tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and likely contributes to tomato defense against GPA. GPA-infested leaves of tomato accumulated trehalose, which was accompanied by the transient upregulation of SlTPS11, a homolog of the Arabidopsis TPS11. GPA-infestation was also accompanied by starch accumulation and the upregulation of SlPAD4, the tomato homolog of Arabidopsis PAD4. Furthermore, trehalose application induced SlPAD4 expression and starch accumulation, and curtailed GPA infestation, suggesting that like in Arabidopsis trehalose contributes to tomato defense against GPA.

  2. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  3. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

  4. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region. PMID:27035950

  5. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán, Pedro P.

    2016-01-01

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900–34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth–age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico’s arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region. PMID:27035950

  6. Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  7. Multivariate time series similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  8. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  9. Discuss Similarity Using Visual Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2012-01-01

    The change in size from a smaller shape to a larger similar shape (or vice versa) is created through continuous proportional stretching or shrinking in every direction. Students cannot solve similarity tasks simply by iterating or partitioning a composed unit, strategies typically used on numerical proportional tasks. The transition to thinking…

  10. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  11. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  12. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  13. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  14. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY... actual cost of the project plus any applicable fees and charges authorized at § 201.25(b), up to the... exceed the sum of the following itemized amounts, up to a maximum of $48,600: (i) 130 percent of the...

  15. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fee amounts. 1309.11 Section 1309.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee...

  16. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fee amounts. 1309.11 Section 1309.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee...

  17. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  18. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  19. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  3. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  4. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  5. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  6. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  7. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  8. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  9. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324

  10. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  11. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  12. Spatial Imaging And Speciation of Lead in the Accumulator Plant Sedum Alfredii By Microscopically Focused Synchrotron X-Ray Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, S.; Lu, L.; Yang, X.; Webb, S.M.; Du, Y.; Brown, P.H.; /SLAC

    2012-08-23

    Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae), a species native to China, has been characterized as a Zn/Cd cohyperaccumulator and Pb accumulator though the mechanisms of metal tolerance and accumulation are largely unknown. Here, the spatial distribution and speciation of Pb in tissues of the accumulator plant was investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and powder Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Lead was predominantly restricted to the vascular bundles of both leaf and stem of the accumulator. Micro-XRF analysis revealed that Pb distributed predominantly within the areas of vascular bundles, and a positive correlation between the distribution patterns of S and Pb was observed. The dominant chemical form of Pb (>60%) in tissues of both accumulating (AE) and nonaccumulating ecotype (NAE) S. alfredii was similar to prepared Pb-cell wall compounds. However, the percentage of the Pb-cell wall complex is lower in the stem and leaf of AE, and a small amount of Pb appeared to be associated with SH-compounds. These results suggested a very low mobility of Pb out of vascular bundles, and that the metal is largely retained in the cell walls during transportation in plants of S. alfredii.

  13. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  14. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  15. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  16. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    PubMed

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration.

  17. Accumulation of Reserve Carbohydrate by Rumen Protozoa and Bacteria in Competition for Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Bethany L.; Diese, Leanne E.; Firkins, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration. PMID:25548053

  18. Similarity, invariance, and musical variation.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Matzkin, D

    2001-06-01

    Perceptual similarity underlies a number of important psychological properties of musical materials, including perceptual invariance under transformation, categorization, recognition, and the sense of familiarity. Mental processes involved in the perception of musical similarity may be an integral part of the functional logic of music composition and thus underly important aspects of musical experience. How much and in what ways can musical materials be varied and still be considered as perceptually related or as belonging to the same category? The notions of musical material, musical variation, perceptual similarity and invariance, and form-bearing dimensions are considered in this light. Recent work on similarity perception has demonstrated that the transformation space for a given musical material is limited by several factors ranging from degree of match of the values of auditory attributes of the events composing the sequences to their relations of various levels of abstraction and to the degree that the transformation respects the grammar of the musical system within which the material was composed. These notions and results are considered in the light of future directions of research, particularly concerning the role of similarity and invariance in the understanding of musical form during listening.

  19. Similarity, invariance, and musical variation.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Matzkin, D

    2001-06-01

    Perceptual similarity underlies a number of important psychological properties of musical materials, including perceptual invariance under transformation, categorization, recognition, and the sense of familiarity. Mental processes involved in the perception of musical similarity may be an integral part of the functional logic of music composition and thus underly important aspects of musical experience. How much and in what ways can musical materials be varied and still be considered as perceptually related or as belonging to the same category? The notions of musical material, musical variation, perceptual similarity and invariance, and form-bearing dimensions are considered in this light. Recent work on similarity perception has demonstrated that the transformation space for a given musical material is limited by several factors ranging from degree of match of the values of auditory attributes of the events composing the sequences to their relations of various levels of abstraction and to the degree that the transformation respects the grammar of the musical system within which the material was composed. These notions and results are considered in the light of future directions of research, particularly concerning the role of similarity and invariance in the understanding of musical form during listening. PMID:11458867

  20. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  1. Sibling similarity in family formation.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

    2014-12-01

    Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality.

  2. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  3. Transformation and alignment in similarity.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-10-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one representation into the other. We assess RD by defining a simple coding scheme of psychological transformations for the experimental materials. In two experiments, this "concrete" version of RD provides compelling fits of the data and compares favourably with SA. Finally, stepping back from particular models, we argue that perceptual theory suggests that transformations and alignment processes should generally be viewed as complementary, in contrast to the current distinction in the literature. PMID:19720370

  4. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  5. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  6. A comparative study of aluminium and nutrient concentrations in mistletoes on aluminium-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts.

    PubMed

    Scalon, M C; Haridasan, M; Franco, A C

    2013-09-01

    Mistletoes offer a unique model to study interactions among Al and nutrients in vascular plants, because they grow and reproduce on hosts with distinct Al uptake strategies. We investigated Al distribution and nutrient relations of mistletoes on Al-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts. We hypothesised that mistletoes would exhibit similar leaf nutrient and Al concentrations as their host plants, but a strong compartmentalisation of Al when growing on Al-accumulators. We measured concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn in leaves and Al in leaves, seeds and branches of Phthirusa ovata and Psittacanthus robustus infecting Miconia albicans, an Al-accumulator, and Ph. ovata infecting Byrsonima verbascifolia, a non-Al-accumulator. High leaf concentrations of Al in Ph. ovata only occurred while parasitizing the Al-accumulating host; there was no accumulation in branches or seeds. In P. robustus, large concentrations of Al were found in leaves, branches and seeds. Mistletoe seed viability and leaf nutrient concentrations were not affected by Al accumulation. Passive uptake of Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu in mistletoes was evidenced by significant correlations between mistletoes and host leaf concentrations, but not of N, P and K. Al was retranslocated to different plant organs in P. robustus, whereas it was mostly restricted to leaves in Ph. ovata. We suggest that Al might have some specific function in P. robustus, which only parasitizes Al-accumulator hosts, while the host generalist Ph. ovata can be considered a facultative Al-accumulator.

  7. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart.

  8. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises…

  9. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts. 576.45 Section 576.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  10. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section 4219.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL...

  11. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section 4219.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section 4219.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL...

  13. What causes similarity in catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest issues in hydrology is how to handle the heterogeneity of catchment properties at different scales. But is this really such a big issue? Is this problem not merely the consequence of how we conceptualise and how we model catchments? Is there not far more similarity than we observe. Maybe we are not looking at the right things or at the right scale to see the similarity. The identity of catchments is largely determined by: the landscape, the ecosystem living on the landscape, and the geology, in that order. Soils, which are often seen as a crucial aspect of hydrological behaviour, are far less important, as will be demonstrated. The main determinants of hydrological behaviour are: the landscape composition, the rooting depth and the phenology. These determinants are a consequence of landscape and ecosystem evolution, which, in turn, are the manifestations of entropy production. There are striking similarities between catchments. The different runoff processes from hillslopes are linked and similar in different environments (McDonnell, 2013). Wetlands behave similarly all over the world. The key is to classify landscapes and to link the ecosystems living on them to climate. The ecosystem then is the main controller of hydrological behaviour. Besides phenology, the rooting depth is key in determining runoff behaviour. Both are strongly linked to climate and much less to soil properties. An example is given of how rooting depth is determined by climate, and how rooting depth can be predicted without calibration, providing a strong constraints on the prediction of rainfall partitioning and catchment runoff.

  14. Study of factors causing excess protoporphyrin accumulation in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with protoporphyria.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, J R; Brenner, D A; Mahoney, M J

    1977-01-01

    The activity of heme synthetase, which catalyzes the chelation of ferrous iron to protoporphyrin to form heme, is deficient in sonicates of skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with protoporphyria. During culture in Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, these cells do not accumulate protoporphyrin, however. This may be due to a minimal requirement for heme synthesis, since glycine is incorporated into heme at a low rate which is similar to that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis which catalyzes the formation of ALA from glycine, is normal in lysates of the fibroblasts. Cultured fibroblasts were therefore incubated with ALA in order to bypass the rate-limiting step of heme biosynthesis. In the presence of 25 muM iron, protoporphyrin was detected in protoporphyria cell lines when the concentration of ALA in the medium reached 50 muM, but not in normal lines. As the concentration of ALA was increased above 50 muM, all lines accumulated protoporphyrin. However, the amount was 2-3 times more in cultured fibroblasts from patients with protoporphyria, reflecting their deficiency of heme synthetase activity. When iron was not added to the medium, protoporphyrin accumulated to a similar degree in normal and protoporphyria fibroblasts; this was significantly more than that in the presence of iron. These studies indicate that excessive protoporphyrin accumulation in protoporphyria, which is due principally to deficient heme synthetase activity, may be modified by the rate of ALA formation in heme-producing tissues, and by the availability of iron. PMID:915001

  15. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  16. Accumulation of a 5' proximal subgenomic RNA of Citrus tristeza virus is correlated with encapsidation by the minor coat protein.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Hilf, Mark E; Dawson, William O

    2009-06-20

    During replication, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces large amounts of two unusual subgenomic (sg) RNAs that are positive-stranded and 5' coterminal. Although these RNAs are produced in similar amounts and are similar in size, with LMT1 ( approximately 750 nt) only slightly larger than LMT2 ( approximately 650), we found that the similar sgRNAs are produced differently. We previously showed that the LMT1 RNA is produced by premature termination during genomic RNA synthesis. However, LMT2 production was found to correlate with virion assembly instead of RNA replication. The time course of accumulation of the LMT2 RNA occurred late, coinciding with virion accumulation. The long flexuous virions of CTV contain two coat proteins that encapsidate the virions in a polar manner. The major coat protein encapsidates approximately 97% of the virion, while the minor capsid protein encapsidates the remainder of the genome beginning in the 5' non-translated region with the transition zone at approximately 630 nucleotides from the 5' end. The section of the virion RNA that was encapsidated by CPm was identical in size to the LMT2 RNA, suggesting that the LMT2 RNA represented a portion of the viral RNA protected by CPm encapsidation. Mutations that abrogated encapsidation by CPm also abolished the accumulation of LMT2 RNA. Thus, these two unusual but similar RNAs are produced via different pathways, one from RNA replication and one processed by the virion assembly process. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence of a viral RNA processed by the assembly mechanism. PMID:19446304

  17. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  18. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  19. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  20. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  1. Neutrophil depletion suppresses In-labeled platelet accumulation in infarcted myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, M.; Smith, B.; Pinto, A.; Mullane, K.M.

    1985-09-01

    Platelets and neutrophils accumulate rapidly in infarcted myocardium. Although antineutrophil agents reduce the size of the infarcted area, this is not observed with antiplatelet drugs. The possibility that myocardial ischemia-induced platelet deposition was secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event was assessed by injecting prostacyclin-washed autologous In-labeled platelets and measuring the amount of radioactivity in different regions of the heart following 90-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for periods up to 5 h. Platelet deposition during the reperfusion phase was linear with time and similar to the time course of neutrophil accumulation. There was a transmural distribution of radioactivity across the myocardium where the ''zone'' between infarcted and risk regions, called the ''interface,'' greater than infarct greater than risk greater than normal. Neutropenia, had minimal effects on platelet aggregation ex vivo, but significantly reduced platelet accumulation in the ischemic myocardium following 5-h reperfusion and abolished the transmural platelet distribution. These results suggest that myocardial platelet deposition is secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event in this occlusion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury. Interactions between platelets and neutrophils at the site of tissue damage may influence the process of myocardial ischemic injury.

  2. Sublethal effects of contamination on the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe: metal accumulation and biological responses.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, E; Martí, R; Uriz, J M; Turon, X

    2003-10-01

    The effect of low levels of pollution on the growth, reproduction output, morphology and survival of adult sponges and settlers of the sponge Crambe crambe were examined. We transplanted sponges from a control area to a contaminated site and measured the main environmental variables (chemical and physical) of both sites during the study period. Except some punctual differences in particulate organic matter, silicates, nitrates, and water motion, most environmental variables in the water were similar at both sites during the study months. Mainly copper, lead and OM concentrations in the sediment, and water motion were significantly higher at the polluted site and may be implicated in the biological effects observed: decrease in the percentage of specimens with embryos, increase in shape irregularity and decrease in growth rate. Individuals naturally occurring at the polluted site and those transplanted there for four months accumulated ten times more copper than either untouched or transplant controls. Although lead concentration in sediment did not differ between sites, native specimens from the contaminated site accumulated this metal more than untouched controls. Vanadium concentration also tended to increase in the sponges living at or transplanted to the contaminated site but this difference was not significant. C. crambe is a reliable indicator of metal contamination since it accumulates copper, lead and vanadium in high amounts. At the contaminated site, sponge growth, fecundity and survival were inhibited, whereas sponge irregularity ending in sponge fission was promoted. All these effects may compromise the structure and dynamics of the sponge populations in sheltered, metal-contaminated habitats.

  3. Carbon accumulation rate of peatland in the High Arctic, Svalbard: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Uchida, Masaki; Sasaki, Akiko; Kondo, Miyuki; Yoshitake, Shinpei; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Moss tundra that accumulates a thick peat layer is one of the most important ecosystems in the High Arctic, Svalbard. The importance of this ecosystem for carbon sequestration was estimated from the apparent rates of carbon accumulation based on the 14C age and amount of peat in the active layer. The study site at Stuphallet, Brøgger Peninsula, northwestern Svalbard was covered with a thick peat layer dominated by moss species such as Calliergon richardsonii, Paludella squarrosa, Tomenthypnum nitens, and Warnstorfia exannulata. The average thickness of the active layer (brown moss and peat) was approximately 28 cm in 1 August 2011. The calibrated (cal) age of peat from the bottom of the active layer (20-30 cm below the peatland surface) ranged from 81 to 701 cal yr BP (median value of 2σ range). Based on the total carbon (4.5-9.2 kg C m-2), the apparent rate of carbon accumulation in the active layer was 9.0-19.2 (g C m-2 yr-1), which is similar to or greater than the net ecosystem production or net primary production reported for other vegetation types in this area. Our data suggest that moss tundra plays an important role in carbon sequestration in this area.

  4. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  5. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  6. Phylogenetically related and ecologically similar carnivores harbour similar parasite assemblages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Stephens, Patrick R; Gittleman, John L; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Most parasites infect multiple hosts, but what factors determine the range of hosts a given parasite can infect? Understanding the broad scale determinants of parasite distributions across host lineages is important for predicting pathogen emergence in new hosts and for estimating pathogen diversity in understudied host species. In this study, we used a new data set on 793 parasite species reported from free-ranging populations of 64 carnivore species to examine the factors that influence parasite sharing between host species. Our results showed that parasites are more commonly shared between phylogenetically related host species pairs. Additionally, host species with higher similarity in biological traits and greater geographic range overlap were also more likely to share parasite species. Of three measures of phylogenetic relatedness considered here, the number divergence events that separated host species pairs most strongly influenced the likelihood of parasite sharing. We also showed that viruses and helminths tend to infect carnivore hosts within more restricted phylogenetic ranges than expected by chance. Overall, our results underscore the importance of host evolutionary history in determining parasite host range, even when simultaneously considering other factors such as host ecology and geographic distribution.

  7. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  8. Phonological similarity and orthographic similarity affect probed serial recall of Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lai, Yvonne C; Wu, Denise H

    2015-04-01

    The previous literature on working memory (WM) has indicated that verbal materials are dominantly retained in phonological representations, whereas other linguistic information (e.g., orthography, semantics) only contributes to verbal WM minimally, if not negligibly. Although accumulating evidence has suggested that multiple linguistic components jointly support verbal WM, the visual/orthographic contribution has rarely been addressed in alphabetic languages, possibly due to the difficulty of dissociating the effects of word forms from the effects of their pronunciations in relatively shallow orthography. In the present study, we examined whether the orthographic representations of Chinese characters support the retention of verbal materials in this language of deep orthography. In Experiments 1a and 2, we independently manipulated the phonological and orthographic similarity of horizontal and vertical characters, respectively, and found that participants' accuracy of probed serial recall was reduced by both similar pronunciations and shared phonetic radicals in the to-be-remembered stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 1b showed that only the effect of phonological, but not that of orthographic, similarity was affected by concurrent articulatory suppression. Taken together, the present results indicate the indispensable contribution of orthographic representations to verbal WM of Chinese characters, and suggest that the linguistic characteristics of a specific language not only determine long-term linguistic-processing mechanisms, but also delineate the organization of verbal WM for that language. PMID:25537954

  9. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  10. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  11. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  12. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  13. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware. PMID:24524158

  14. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  15. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment. PMID:25510617

  16. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  17. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks. PMID:26745547

  18. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  19. Low erucic acid canola oil does not induce heart triglyceride accumulation in neonatal pigs fed formula.

    PubMed

    Green, T J; Innis, S M

    2000-06-01

    Canola oil is not approved for use in infant formula largely because of concerns over possible accumulation of triglyceride in heart as a result of the small amounts of erucic acid (22:1n-9) in the oil. Therefore, the concentration and composition of heart triglyceride were determined in piglets fed from birth for 10 (n = 4-6) or 18 (n = 6) d with formula containing about 50% energy fat as 100% canola oil (0.5% 22:1n-9) or 100% soybean oil, or 26% canola oil or soy oil (blend) with palm, high-oleic sunflower and coconut oil, providing amounts of 16:0 and 18:1 closer to milk, or a mix of soy, high-oleic sunflower and flaxseed oils with C16 and C18 fatty acids similar to canola oil but without 22:1. Biochemical analysis found no differences in heart triglyceride concentrations among the groups at 10 or 18 d. Assessment of heart triglycerides using Oil Red O staining in select treatments confirmed no differences between 10-d-old piglets fed formula with 100% canola oil (n = 4), 100% soy oil (n = 4), or the soy oil blend (n = 2). Levels of 22:1n-9 in heart triglyceride and phospholipid, however, were higher (P<0.01) in piglets fed 100% canola oil or the canola oil blend, with higher levels found in triglycerides compared with phospholipids. The modest accumulation of 22:1n-9 associated with feeding canola oil was not associated with biochemical evidence of heart triglyceride accumulation at 10 and 18 d. PMID:10901421

  20. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  1. Premature chromatin condensation upon accumulation of NIMA.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, M J; Norbury, C; Nurse, P

    1994-01-01

    The NIMA protein kinase of Aspergillus nidulans is required for the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Mutants lacking NIMA arrest without morphological characteristics of mitosis, but they do contain an activated p37nimX kinase (the Aspergillus homologue of p34cdc2). To gain a better understanding of NIMA function we have investigated the effects of expressing various NIMA constructs in Aspergillus, fission yeast and human cells. Our experiments have shown that the instability of the NIMA protein requires sequences in the non-catalytic C-terminus of the protein. Removal of this domain results in a stable protein that, once accumulated, promotes a lethal premature condensation of chromatin without any other aspects of mitosis. Similar effects were also observed in fission yeast and human cells accumulating Aspergillus NIMA. This phenotype is independent of cell cycle progression and does not require p34cdc2 kinase activity. As gain of NIMA function by accumulation results in premature chromatin condensation, and loss of NIMA function results in an inability to enter mitosis, we propose that NIMA functions in G2 to promote the condensation of chromatin normally associated with entry into mitosis. Images PMID:7957060

  2. Linear Deterministic Accumulator Models of Simple Choice

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Andrew; Love, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    We examine theories of simple choice as a race among evidence accumulation processes. We focus on the class of deterministic race models, which assume that the effects of fluctuations in the parameters of the accumulation processes between-choice trials (between-choice noise) dominate the effects of fluctuations occurring while making a choice (within-choice noise) in behavioral data (i.e., response times and choices). The latter deterministic approximation, when combined with the assumption that accumulation is linear, leads to a class of models that can be readily applied to simple-choice behavior because they are computationally tractable. We develop a new and mathematically simple exemplar within the class of linear deterministic models, the Lognormal race (LNR). We then examine how the LNR, and another widely applied linear deterministic model, Brown and Heathcote’s (2008) LBA, account for a range of benchmark simple-choice effects in lexical-decision task data reported by Wagenmakers et al. (2008). Our results indicate that the LNR provides an accurate description of this data. Although the LBA model provides a slightly better account, both models support similar psychological conclusions. PMID:22936920

  3. Bioturbo similarity searching: combining chemical and biological similarity to discover structurally diverse bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Glick, Meir

    2013-03-25

    Virtual screening using bioactivity profiles has become an integral part of currently applied hit finding methods in pharmaceutical industry. However, a significant drawback of this approach is that it is only applicable to compounds that have been biologically tested in the past and have sufficient activity annotations for meaningful profile comparisons. Although bioactivity data generated in pharmaceutical institutions are growing on an unprecedented scale, the number of biologically annotated compounds still covers only a minuscule fraction of chemical space. For a newly synthesized compound or an isolated natural product to be biologically characterized across multiple assays, it may take a considerable amount of time. Consequently, this chemical matter will not be included in virtual screening campaigns based on bioactivity profiles. To overcome this problem, we herein introduce bioturbo similarity searching that uses chemical similarity to map molecules without biological annotations into bioactivity space and then searches for biologically similar compounds in this reference system. In benchmark calculations on primary screening data, we demonstrate that our approach generally achieves higher hit rates and identifies structurally more diverse compounds than approaches using chemical information only. Furthermore, our method is able to discover hits with novel modes of inhibition that traditional 2D and 3D similarity approaches are unlikely to discover. Test calculations on a set of natural products reveal the practical utility of the approach for identifying novel and synthetically more accessible chemical matter.

  4. Analysis of Strains Lacking Known Osmolyte Accumulation Mechanisms Reveals Contributions of Osmolytes and Transporters to Protection against Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E.; Deutch, Charles E.; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H.; Plater, Samantha M.; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie

    2014-01-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K+ glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm. PMID:24951793

  5. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  6. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The grant agreement shall set forth the amount of grant assistance. The grant amount may not exceed the amount...

  7. Effect of Resources Similarity on Satisfaction with Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; Foa, Uriel G.

    1975-01-01

    It was predicted that the amount of satisfaction following an interpersonal exchange will be higher when the resource given is similar to the one reciprocated and lower when they are dissimilar. Interpersonal exchange situations were experimentally created in which two independent variables were manipulated. (Author)

  8. Hydrothermal sulfide accumulation along the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, J. W.; Clague, D. A.; Hannington, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide deposits that form on the seafloor are often located by the detection of hydrothermal plumes in the water column, followed by exploration with deep-towed cameras, side-scan sonar imaging, and finally by visual surveys using remotely-operated vehicle or occupied submersible. Hydrothermal plume detection, however, is ineffective for finding hydrothermally-inactive sulfide deposits, which may represent a significant amount of the total sulfide accumulation on the seafloor, even in hydrothermally active settings. Here, we present results from recent high-resolution, autonomous underwater vehicle-based mapping of the hydrothermally-active Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the ridge bathymetry resulted in the location of 581 individual sulfide deposits along 24 km of ridge length. Hydrothermal deposits were distinguished from volcanic and tectonic features based on the characteristics of their surface morphology, such as shape and slope angles. Volume calculations for each deposit results in a total volume of 372,500 m3 of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica material, for an equivalent mass of ∼1.2 Mt of hydrothermal material on the seafloor within the ridge's axial valley, assuming a density of 3.1 g/cm3. Much of this total volume is from previously undocumented inactive deposits outside the main active vent fields. Based on minimum ages of sulfide deposition, the deposits accumulated at a maximum rate of ∼400 t/yr, with a depositional efficiency (proportion of hydrothermal material that accumulates on the seafloor to the total amount hydrothermally mobilized and transported to the seafloor) of ∼5%. The calculated sulfide tonnage represents a four-fold increase over previous sulfide estimates for the Endeavour Segment that were based largely on accumulations from within the active fields. These results suggest that recent global seafloor sulfide resource estimates, which were based mostly

  9. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  10. Ascorbate Biosynthesis during Early Fruit Development Is the Main Reason for Its Accumulation in Kiwi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Liang, Dong; Li, Juan; Wang, Yanlei

    2010-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid (AsA) is a unique antioxidant as well as an enzyme cofactor. Although it has multiple roles in plants, it is unclear how its accumulation is controlled at the expression level, especially in sink tissues. Kiwifruit (Actinidia) is well-known for its high ascorbate content. Our objective was to determine whether AsA accumulates in the fruits primarily through biosynthesis or because it is imported from the foliage. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically investigated AsA levels, biosynthetic capacity, and mRNA expression of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis in kiwi (A. deliciosa cv. Qinmei). Recycling and AsA localization were also monitored during fruit development and among different tissue types. Over time, the amount of AsA, with its capacity for higher biosynthesis and lower recycling, peaked at 30 days after anthesis (DAA), and then decreased markedly up to 60 DAA before declining more slowly. Expression of key genes showed similar patterns of change, except for L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP). However, GPP had good correlation with the rate of AsA accumulation. The expression of these genes could be detected in phloem of stem as well as petiole of leaf and fruit. Additionally, fruit petioles had greater ascorbate amounts, although that was the site of lowest expression by most genes. Fruit microtubule tissues also had higher AsA. However, exogenous applications of AsA to those petioles did not lead to its transport into fruits, and distribution of ascorbate was cell-specific in the fruits, with more accumulation occurring in larger cells. Conclusions These results suggest that AsA biosynthesis in kiwi during early fruit development is the main reason for its accumulation in the fruits. We also postulate here that GPP is a good candidate for regulating AsA biosynthesis whereas GDP-L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphorylase is not. PMID:21151561

  11. Methane fluxes above the Hainich forest by True Eddy Accumulation and Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebicke, Lukas; Gentsch, Lydia; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of forests for the global methane cycle requires quantifying vegetation-atmosphere exchange of methane, however observations of turbulent methane fluxes remain scarce. Here we measured turbulent fluxes of methane (CH4) above a beech-dominated old-growth forest in the Hainich National Park, Germany, and validated three different measurement approaches: True Eddy Accumulation (TEA, closed-path laser spectroscopy), and eddy covariance (EC, open-path and closed-path laser spectroscopy, respectively). The Hainich flux tower is a long-term Fluxnet and ICOS site with turbulent fluxes and ecosystem observations spanning more than 15 years. The current study is likely the first application of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) for the measurement of turbulent exchange of methane and one of the very few studies comparing open-path and closed-path eddy covariance (EC) setups side-by-side. We observed uptake of methane by the forest during the day (a methane sink with a maximum rate of 0.03 μmol m-2 s-1 at noon) and no or small fluxes of methane from the forest to the atmosphere at night (a methane source of typically less than 0.01 μmol m-2 s-1) based on continuous True Eddy Accumulation measurements in September 2015. First results comparing TEA to EC CO2 fluxes suggest that True Eddy Accumulation is a valid option for turbulent flux quantifications using slow response gas analysers (here CRDS laser spectroscopy, other potential techniques include mass spectroscopy). The TEA system was one order of magnitude more energy efficient compared to closed-path eddy covariance. The open-path eddy covariance setup required the least amount of user interaction but is often constrained by low signal-to-noise ratios obtained when measuring methane fluxes over forests. Closed-path eddy covariance showed good signal-to-noise ratios in the lab, however in the field it required significant amounts of user intervention in addition to a high power consumption. We conclude

  12. Effects of harvesting date and storage on the amounts of polyacetylenes in carrots, Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Marie E

    2010-11-24

    The amounts of three main polyacetylenes in carrots; falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol-3-acetate, were determined by HPLC, during three seasons, in carrots harvested several times per season and at different locations in Sweden. The amounts of falcarindiol first decreased from a relatively high level and then increased later in the harvest season. The amounts of falcarindiol-3-acetate showed similar variations, whereas the amounts of falcarinol did not exhibit any significant variation during the harvest season. During storage the amount of polyacetylenes leveled off, increasing in samples initially low and decreasing in samples initially high in polyacetylenes. The amounts of all polyacetylenes varied significantly due to external factors and between stored and fresh samples. This variation opens up possibilities to achieve a chemical composition of polyacetylenes at harvest that minimizes the risk of bitter off-taste and maximizes the positive health effects reported in connection with polyacetylenes in carrots.

  13. [Effects of shading on dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Jin, Li-Bin; Li, Bo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ji-Wang

    2013-11-01

    Taking summer maize cultivars Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) as test materials, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of shading on the dry matter accumulation and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) absorption of summer maize. Four treatments were installed, i. e., shading from flowering stage to maturity stage (S1), shading from six-leaf stage to flowering stage (S2), shading all through the growth season (S3), and no shading (CK). After shading, the grain yield and dry matter accumulation decreased significantly, and the decrement was related to shading period, showing S3 > S1 > S2. The grain yield in treatments S1, S2, and S3 was averagely 61.6%, 25.3%, and 92.8% lower than that of CK, respectively, indicating that the effects of shading after flowering were greater than those of shading before flowering. The responses of different cultivars to shading presented a similar trend. The nutrient absorption of summer maize before flowering stage showed K > N > P, and the nutrient absorption amount of whole plant showed N>K>P. After shading, the N and P absorption decreased significantly. The plant relative N and P absorption in different treatments had somewhat increase, because the decrement of dry matter accumulation after shading was larger than that of N and P absorption, as compared with the control. After shading, the plant K absorption decreased significantly, and the decrement in S2 was larger than that of dry matter accumulation. Shading before flowering stage had larger effects on the plant K absorption than on the N and P absorption.

  14. An Oleaginous Bacterium That Intrinsically Accumulates Long-Chain Free Fatty Acids in its Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Taiki; Kanno, Manabu; Morita, Naoki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Mitani, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Medium- and long-chain fatty acids are present in organisms in esterified forms that serve as cell membrane constituents and storage compounds. A large number of organisms are known to accumulate lipophilic materials as a source of energy and carbon. We found a bacterium, designated GK12, that intrinsically accumulates free fatty acids (FFAs) as intracellular droplets without exhibiting cytotoxicity. GK12 is an obligatory anaerobic, mesophilic lactic acid bacterium that was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that GK12 is affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but is distantly related to type species in this family (less than 92% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Saturated fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 14, 16, 18, and 20 were produced from glucose under stress conditions, including higher-than-optimum temperatures and the presence of organic solvents that affect cell membrane integrity. FFAs were produced at levels corresponding to up to 25% (wt/wt) of the dry cell mass. Our data suggest that FFA accumulation is a result of an imbalance between excess membrane fatty acid biosynthesis due to homeoviscous adaptation and limited β-oxidation activity due to anaerobic growth involving lactic acid fermentation. FFA droplets were not further utilized as an energy and carbon source, even under conditions of starvation. A naturally occurring bacterium that accumulates significant amounts of long-chain FFAs with noncytotoxicity would provide useful strategies for microbial biodiesel production. PMID:24296497

  15. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  16. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription...

  17. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription...

  18. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective... and judicial review at $100 and $1,000, respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals....

  19. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription...

  20. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  1. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  2. 18 CFR 367.1080 - Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. 367.1080 Section 367.1080 Conservation of... Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. (a) This account must be credited with the following: (1) Amounts charged to account 403, Depreciation expense (§ 367.4030), or...

  3. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  4. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  5. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  6. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  7. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  8. Does the amount of school choice matter for student engagement?

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    School choice may increase student engagement by enabling students to attend schools that more closely match their needs and preferences. But this effect on engagement may depend on the characteristics of the choices available. Therefore, we consider how the amount of educational choice of different types in a local educational marketplace affects student engagement using a large, national population of 8th grade students. We find that more choice of regular public schools in the elementary and middle school years is associated with a lower likelihood that students will be severely disengaged in eighth grade, and more choices of public schools of choice has a similar effect but only in urban areas. In contrast, more private sector choice does not have such a general beneficial effect. PMID:23682202

  9. Ultrasonic gas accumulation detection and evaluation in nuclear cooling pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Lin, Bin; Shin, Yong-June; Wang, Jingjiang; Tian, Zhenhua

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasonic guided wave based inspection methodology for detecting and evaluating gas accumulation in nuclear cooling pipe system. The sensing is in-situ by means of low-profile permanently installed piezoelectric wafer sensors to excite interrogating guided waves and to receive the propagating waves in the pipe structure. Detection and evaluation is established through advanced cross time-frequency analysis to extract the phase change in the sensed signal when the gas is accumulating. A correlation between the phase change and the gas amount has been established to provide regulatory prediction capability based on measured sensory data.

  10. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  11. Accumulation and lactational transfer of PCBs and pesticides in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Hans; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2004-02-01

    The harbor seal population on Svalbard, the northernmost breeding site for this species, appears to have a truncated age distribution with older animals being largely absent. PCBs and pesticides were measured in harbor seal males, females, milk and pups from Svalbard to explore whether contaminant exposure or accumulation is a possible cause of premature death for these animals. The levels and patterns of these contaminants were assessed. In addition, transfer of these compounds from females to their pups during lactation was assessed. Both PCB and pesticide levels were low compared to more southern harbor seal populations. Animals from Svalbard contained 5-10 times lower contaminant levels, compared to seals from the Norwegian mainland, and 30 times lower concentrations than those of harbor seals from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in eastern Canada. Ringed seals from Svalbard have contaminant levels that are comparable to the harbor seals, probably because the diet, as well as the metabolic capacity, of the two species is similar at this location. The findings of this study indicate that the early mortality observed for harbor seals on Svalbard, is not likely to be due to contaminant exposure. Female harbor seals transfer a modified contaminant mixture to their pups compared to that found within their own tissues; compounds with higher log Kow, such as some penta-chlorinated PCBs, were selectively transferred into milk. As a result, the contaminant pattern between males and females differed, with penta-chlorinated PCBs more abundant in males than in females. In addition, pups receive a relatively high amount of the less lipophylic compounds and a low amount of the more lipophylic compounds. The similar contaminant pattern in milk and pups suggested that they are probably unable to metabolize contaminants and consequently, accumulate all ingested chemicals.

  12. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Accumulation and beta-Adrenergic Binding in Unweighted and Denervated Rat Soleus Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Woolridge, Dale; Tischler, Marc E.

    1992-01-01

    Unweighting, but not denervation, of muscle reportedly "spares" insulin receptors, increasing insulin sensitivity. Unweighting also increases beta-adrenergic responses of carbohydrate metabolism. These differential characteristics were studied further by comparing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and beta-adrenergic binding in normal and 3-day unweighted or denervated soleus muscle. Submaximal amounts of isoproterenol, a p-agonist, increased cAMP accumulation in vitro and in vivo (by intramuscular (IM) injection) to a greater degree (P less than .05) in unweighted muscles. Forskolin or maximal isoproterenol had similar in vitro effects in all muscles, suggesting increased beta-adrenergic sensitivity following unweighting. Increased sensitivity was confirmed by a greater receptor density (B(sub max)) for iodo-125(-)-pindolol in particulate preparations of unweighted (420 x 10(exp -18) mol/mg muscle) than of control or denervated muscles (285 x 10(exp-18) mol/mg muscle). The three dissociation constant (Kd) values were similar (20.3 to 25.8 pmol/L). Total binding capacity (11.4 fmol/muscle) did not change during 3 days of unweighting, but diminished by 30% with denervation. This result illustrates the "sparing" and loss of receptors, respectively, in these two atrophy models. In diabetic animals, IM injection of insulin diminished CAMP accumulation in the presence of theophylline in unweighted muscle (-66% +/- 2%) more than in controls (-42% +'- 6%, P less than .001). These results show that insulin affects CAMP formation in muscle, and support a greater in vivo insulin response following unweighting atrophy. These various data support a role for lysosomal proteolysis in denervation, but not in unweighting, atrophy.

  13. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  14. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  15. Mass versus molar doses, similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, A; Lamparczyk, H

    2008-11-01

    Generally, they are two systems expressing the amounts of active substance in a given drug product, i.e. mass and molar dose. Currently, the dose system based on the mass is widely used in which doses are expressed in grams or milligrams. On the other hand, the molar dose system is in direct relation to the number of molecules. Hence, the objective of this work was to compare both systems in order to find their advantages and disadvantages. Active substances belonging to the groups of antibiotics, nootropic agents, beta-blockers, vitamins, GABA-analog, COX-2 inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, lipid-modifying agents (fibrates), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (profens), estrogens, neuroleptics, analgesics and benzodiazepines were considered. Moreover, products containing two active substances were also taken into account. These are mixtures of hydrochlorothiazide with active substances influencing the renin-angiotensin system and combined oral contraceptives. For each active substance, belonging to the groups mentioned above molar doses were calculated from mass doses and molar mass. Hence, groups of drugs with a single active substance, drugs with similar pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical alternatives, and drugs with a single active ingredient manufactured in different doses were compared in order to find which dose system describes more adequately differences between and within the groups mentioned above. Comparisons were supported by a number of equations, which theoretically justify the data, and relationships derived from calculations. PMID:19069248

  16. Accelerated mutation accumulation in asexual lineages of a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T; Logsdon, John M; Taylor, Douglas R

    2010-04-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction.

  17. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  18. Flavonoid Accumulation Patterns of Transparent Testa Mutants of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Wendy Ann; Brown, Dana E.; Tague, Brian W.; Muday, Gloria K.; Taiz, Lincoln; Murphy, Angus S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells. PMID:11402185

  19. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  20. Forms and accumulation of soil P in natural and recently restored peatlands - Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, S.A.; Craft, C.B.; McCormick, P.V.; Aldous, A.

    2005-01-01

    Forms, amounts, and accumulation of soil phosphorus (P) were measured in natural and recently restored marshes surrounding Upper Klamath Lake located in south-central Oregon, USA to determine rates of P accumulation in natural marshes and to assess changes in P pools caused by long-term drainage in recently restored marshes. Soil cores were collected from three natural marshes and radiometrically dated to determine recent (l37Cs-based) and long-term (210Pb-based) rates of peat accretion and P accumulation. A second set of soil cores collected from the three natural marshes and from three recently restored marshes was analyzed using a modification of the Hedley procedure to determine the forms and amounts of soil P. Total P in the recently restored marshes (222 to 311 ??g cm-3) was 2-3 times greater than in the natural marshes (103 to 117 ??g cm-3), primarily due to greater bulk density caused by soil subsidence, a consequence of long-term marsh drainage. Occluded Fe- and Al-bound Pi, calcium-bound Pi and residual P were 4 times, 22 times, and 5 times greater, respectively, in the recently restored marshes. More than 67% of the P pool in both the natural and recently restored marshes was present in recalcitrant forms (humic-acid P o and residual P) that provide long-term P storage in peat. Phosphorus accumulation in the natural marshes averaged 0.45 g m-2 yr-1 (137Cs) and 0.40 g m-2 yr-1 (210Pb), providing a benchmark for optimizing P sequestration in the recently restored marshes. Effective P sequestration in the recently restored marshes, however, will depend on re-establishing equilibrium between the P-enriched soils and the P concentration of floodwaters and a hydrologie regime similar to the natural marshes. ?? 2005, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  1. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of...

  2. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... direct project costs plus an additional amount for indirect costs, if any, which will be calculated...

  3. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount... this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair...

  4. 19 CFR 191.106 - Amount of drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of drawback. 191.106 Section 191.106... Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.106 Amount of drawback. (a... be limited to the difference between the amount of tax paid and the amount of domestic...

  5. 24 CFR 2700.205 - Emergency assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency assistance amount. 2700... DEVELOPMENT EMERGENCY HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Emergency Assistance § 2700.205 Emergency assistance amount. (a) Emergency assistance to an eligible homeowner may be made available in an amount up to the amount of...

  6. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum loan amount. 232.565... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.565 Maximum loan amount. The principal amount... equipment, including the cost of installation, or the amount supported by the residual income, which is...

  7. 24 CFR 92.218 - Amount of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of matching contribution. 92... Requirement § 92.218 Amount of matching contribution. (a) General. Each participating jurisdiction must make... paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Shortfall amount from State or local resources. Amounts made...

  8. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  9. 24 CFR 232.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A... subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the...

  10. 5 CFR 1655.6 - Amount of loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of loan. 1655.6 Section 1655.6 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.6 Amount of loan. (a) Minimum amount. The initial principal amount of any loan may not be less than $1,000. (b) Maximum...

  11. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount... this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair...

  12. 38 CFR 8a.2 - Maximum amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum amount of... MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.2 Maximum amount of insurance. (a) Each eligible veteran is authorized up to a... amount of insurance in force as provided for in § 8a.4(a) the amount of VMLI thereafter available...

  13. 29 CFR 102.172 - Minimum referral amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum referral amount. 102.172 Section 102.172 Labor... Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.172 Minimum referral amount. The minimum amount of a... business debtors. The amount referred may include the principal portion of the debt, as well as any...

  14. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of grant. 51c.106 Section 51c.106 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... direct project costs plus an additional amount for indirect costs, if any, which will be calculated...

  15. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks... CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount of... organization means the amount which is to be paid in at the time the bank commences business. 4 Capital...

  16. 26 CFR 1.468A-3 - Ruling amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ruling amount. 1.468A-3 Section 1.468A-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468A-3 Ruling amount. (a) In general... schedule of ruling amounts for the nuclear decommissioning fund that includes a ruling amount for...

  17. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  18. 29 CFR 20.105 - Minimum referral amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum referral amount. 20.105 Section 20.105 Labor Office... referral amount. The IRS annually establishes the minimum amount for debts otherwise eligible for referral. Minimum referral amounts are established separately for individual debts and business debts, as set...

  19. 5 CFR 1655.6 - Amount of loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of loan. 1655.6 Section 1655.6 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.6 Amount of loan. (a) Minimum amount. The initial principal amount of any loan may not be less than $1,000. (b) Maximum...

  20. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 149.100 Section 149.100... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price...

  1. 38 CFR 8a.2 - Maximum amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum amount of... MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.2 Maximum amount of insurance. (a) Each eligible veteran is authorized up to a... amount of insurance in force as provided for in § 8a.4(a) the amount of VMLI thereafter available...

  2. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount required. 28.102-2... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.102-2 Amount required. (a) Definition... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance...

  3. 30 CFR 735.15 - Amount of grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of grants. 735.15 Section 735.15 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.15 Amount of grants. (a) Amount of program development grants. (1) For the first...). (b) Amount of administration and enforcement grants. (1) If no program development grant has...

  4. 29 CFR 4.144 - Contract modifications affecting amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract modifications affecting amount. 4.144 Section 4... modifications affecting amount. Where a contract that was originally issued in an amount not in excess of $2,500 is later modified so that its amount may exceed that figure, all the provisions of section 2(a)...

  5. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  6. 24 CFR 242.92 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 242... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.92 Minimum principal loan amount. A..., that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee....

  7. 48 CFR 32.304-4 - Guarantee amount and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guarantee amount and... Guarantee amount and maturity. The agency may change the guarantee amount or maturity date, within the... guarantee amount or maturity date to meet any significant increase in financing need. (b) If the...

  8. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  9. 21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum penalty amounts. 17.2 Section 17.2 Food... PENALTIES HEARINGS § 17.2 Maximum penalty amounts. The following table shows maximum civil monetary... Penalty Amounts U.S.C. Section Former Maximum Penalty Amount (in dollars) Assessment Method Date of...

  10. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount and terms of financing. 891... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.525 Amount and terms of financing. (a) The amount of financing approved... financing provided shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) The dollar amounts stated in paragraphs (b)...

  11. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount and terms of financing. 891... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.525 Amount and terms of financing. (a) The amount of financing approved... financing provided shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) The dollar amounts stated in paragraphs (b)...

  12. 2 CFR 200.45 - Fixed amount awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed amount awards. 200.45 Section 200.45... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.45 Fixed amount awards. Fixed amount... primarily on performance and results. See §§ 200.201 Use of grant agreements (including fixed amount...

  13. 20 CFR 416.503 - Minimum monthly benefit amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly benefit amount. If you receive an SSI benefit that does not include a State supplement the minimum monthly SSI benefit amount payable is $1. When an SSI benefit amount of less than $1 is payable, the benefit amount will be increased to $1. If you receive an SSI benefit that does include a State...

  14. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum primary insurance amounts. Regardless of the method we use...

  15. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum primary insurance amounts. Regardless of the method we use...

  16. 5 CFR 870.904 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life Insurance § 870.904 Amount of insurance. The amount of insurance is the amount of the insured individual's Basic insurance, plus any... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance. 870.904 Section...

  17. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  18. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  19. PiZ Mouse Liver Accumulates Polyubiquitin Conjugates That Associate with Catalytically Active 26S Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher J.; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gautam, Madhav; James, Jared; Mielcarska, Joanna; Gogol, Edward; Teckman, Jeffrey; Skowyra, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome

  20. PiZ mouse liver accumulates polyubiquitin conjugates that associate with catalytically active 26S proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Christopher J; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gautam, Madhav; James, Jared; Mielcarska, Joanna; Gogol, Edward; Teckman, Jeffrey; Skowyra, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome

  1. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  2. 42 CFR 489.65 - Amount of the bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of the bond. 489.65 Section 489.65 Public... § 489.65 Amount of the bond. (a) Basic rule. The amount of the surety bond must be $50,000 or 15 percent... current fiscal year differ from such an amount by more than 25 percent, then the amount of the bond is...

  3. Similarity metrics for ligands reflecting the similarity of the target proteins.

    PubMed

    Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Floersheim, Philipp; Acklin, Pierre; Jacoby, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    In this study we evaluate how far the scope of similarity searching can be extended to identify not only ligands binding to the same target as the reference ligand(s) but also ligands of other homologous targets without initially known ligands. This "homology-based similarity searching" requires molecular representations reflecting the ability of a molecule to interact with target proteins. The Similog keys, which are introduced here as a new molecular representation, were designed to fulfill such requirements. They are based only on the molecular constitution and are counts of atom triplets. Each triplet is characterized by the graph distances and the types of its atoms. The atom-typing scheme classifies each atom by its function as H-bond donor or acceptor and by its electronegativity and bulkiness. In this study the Similog keys are investigated in retrospective in silico screening experiments and compared with other conformation independent molecular representations. Studied were molecules of the MDDR database for which the activity data was augmented by standardized target classification information from public protein classification databases. The MDDR molecule set was split randomly into two halves. The first half formed the candidate set. Ligands of four targets (dopamine D2 receptor, opioid delta-receptor, factor Xa serine protease, and progesterone receptor) were taken from the second half to form the respective reference sets. Different similarity calculation methods are used to rank the molecules of the candidate set by their similarity to each of the four reference sets. The accumulated counts of molecules binding to the reference target and groups of targets with decreasing homology to it were examined as a function of the similarity rank for each reference set and similarity method. In summary, similarity searching based on Unity 2D-fingerprints or Similog keys are found to be equally effective in the identification of molecules binding to the same

  4. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  5. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  6. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. PMID:26334198

  7. Dependency Similarity, Attraction and Perceived Happiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Janak

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were asked to evaluate either a similar personality or a dissimilar personality. Subjects rated similar others more positively than dissimilar others and, additionally, perceived similar others as more helpful and sympathetic than dissimilar others. (Author)

  8. Structural and analytical studies of silica accumulations in Equisetum hyemale.

    PubMed

    Sapei, Lanny; Gierlinger, Notburga; Hartmann, Jürgen; Nöske, Robert; Strauch, Peter; Paris, Oskar

    2007-10-01

    Horsetail (Equisetum spp.) is known as one of the strongest accumulators of silicon among higher terrestrial plants. We use the combination of position-resolved analytical techniques, namely microtomography, energy-dispersive X-Ray elemental mapping, Raman microscopy, as well as small-angle and wide-angle scattering of X-rays, to study the type, distribution and nanostructure of silica in the internodes of Equisetum hyemale. The predominant silicification pattern is a thin continuous layer on the entire outer epidermis with the highest density in particular knob regions of the long epidermal cells. The knob tips contain up to 33 wt% silicon in the form of pure hydrated amorphous silica, while the silica content is lower in the inner part of the knobs and on the continuous layer. In contrast to the knob tips, the silica in these regions lacks silanol groups and is proposed to be in close association with polysaccharides. No mentionable amount of crystalline silica is detected by wide-angle X-ray scattering. The small-angle X-ray scattering data are consistent with the presence of colloidal, sheet-like silica agglomerates with a thickness of about 2 nm. From these results we conclude that there are at least two distinct forms of silica in E. hyemale which may have different functions. The close association of silica with cell wall polymers suggests that they may act as a polymeric template that controls the shape and size of the colloidal silica particles similar to many other biominerals and mineralised tissues. We propose that owing to its specific distribution in E. hyemale, a protective role and possibly also an important biomechanical role are among the most likely functions of silica in these plants.

  9. The root-hairless barley mutant brb used as model for assessment of role of root hairs in iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zuchi, Sabrina; Cesco, Stefano; Gottardi, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto; Römheld, Volker; Astolfi, Stefania

    2011-05-01

    Main components of Strategy II mechanism for Fe uptake are secretion of chelating compounds, phytosiderophores, and specific uptake of Fe(III)-phytosiderophores complex. Since the amount of phytosiderophores secreted correlates positively with plant ability to cope with Fe shortage, a role of root hairs in enhancing root capability to store phytosiderophores under Fe stress might be envisaged. In this study the root-hairless mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) brb (bald root barley) and the wild-type genotype (cv. Pallas) were compared with respect to their capacity to respond to Fe shortage in nutrient solution. Plants were grown with Fe(III)-EDTA at 0, 0.02 and 0.08 mM, in order to reproduce severe or moderate Fe deficiency, and adequate Fe nutritional status, respectively. Analysis was performed after 11 and 14 days considering leaf Fe content, phytosiderophores release and accumulation in root tips, and ⁵⁹Fe uptake. Biomass accumulation and chlorophyll content were not reduced in mutant plants as compared to wild-type ones; leaf Fe content was similar in both genotypes after 14 days of growth. Accumulation and release of phytosiderophores showed a similar trend in both genotypes when subjected to Fe limitation. Furthermore, no significant difference between the two genotypes was observed when ⁵⁹Fe uptake was measured. Results seem to support the idea that the presence of root hairs and their increased production in response to low-Fe availability, while causing major modifications of root geometry, did not necessarily lead neither to an effect on growth nor on Fe uptake and accumulation in barley plants.

  10. [Distribution and accumulation characteristics of nutrients in solar greenhouse soil in Ji'nan, Shandong Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Li, Li-Bin; Sun, Yu-Liang; Sun, Xiao-Lei; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Taking the solar greenhouses with different cultivating years and vegetables in Ji'nan as test objects, this paper studied the amounts and frequency distribution of soil nutrients and the relationships between cultivating years and soil nutrients accumulation characteristics, and analyzed the factors causing soil salinization and acidification by fitting soil nutrients contents with cultivating years and vegetables. In the greenhouses, the contents of soil alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter, and electrical conductivity were significantly higher than those in the open field, with an increment of 135.3%, 475.2%, 290.1%, 97.7%, and 188.7%, respectively, but the soil pH value was 0.31 lower than that of open field. The frequency distribution of soil nutrients presented a normal curve. Differences were observed in the soil nutrients contents in the greenhouses with different cultivating vegetables. The soil alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen content and electrical conductivity were in the order of tomato > cucumber > sweet pepper, soil organic matter content and pH value were cucumber > sweet pepper > tomato, soil available phosphorus content was cucumber > tomato > sweet pepper, and soil available potassium content was tomato > cucumber > sweet pepper. There was a mild tendency of soil acidification in soil alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen and available potassium. The decrease of soil pH was closely related to the accumulation of alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen. The soil nutrients accumulation in the greenhouses had the similar patterns, i. e. , rapid accumulation in the first two cultivating years, slowed down in the third and fourth year, and kept stable later, demonstrating a dynamic balance on the whole. All the nutrients contents were positively accumulated, while soil pH presented negatively. In the greenhouses with different cultivating vegetables, there was a significant correlation between soil nutrients and cultivating

  11. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants.

  12. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants. PMID

  13. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  14. Effects of weather, time, and pollution level on the amount of particulate matter deposited on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g · m(-2)) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28-48% of PM) and strong winds (27-36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  15. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  16. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  17. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  18. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning... extent to which the accumulation distribution is considered to consist of undistributed net income. In... undistributed net income. An accumulation distribution made in a taxable year beginning before January 1,...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before... undistributed net income for the preceding 5 years. For this purpose, an accumulation distribution made in any... distribution is deemed to have been made from the most recently accumulated income of the trust. (2) If...

  1. Cooperative nutrient accumulation sustains growth of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Sungmin; Stevens, Mark M; Chao, Hui Xiao; Thoreen, Carson; Hosios, Aaron M; Schweitzer, Lawrence D; Weng, Yaochung; Wood, Kris; Sabatini, David; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Manalis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of metabolic processes to allow increased nutrient uptake and utilization for macromolecular synthesis is central for cell growth. Although studies of bulk cell populations have revealed important metabolic and signaling requirements that impact cell growth on long time scales, whether the same regulation influences short-term cell growth remains an open question. Here we investigate cell growth by monitoring mass accumulation of mammalian cells while rapidly depleting particular nutrients. Within minutes following the depletion of glucose or glutamine, we observe a growth reduction that is larger than the mass accumulation rate of the nutrient. This indicates that if one particular nutrient is depleted, the cell rapidly adjusts the amount that other nutrients are accumulated, which is consistent with cooperative nutrient accumulation. Population measurements of nutrient sensing pathways involving mTOR, AKT, ERK, PKA, MST1, or AMPK, or pro-survival pathways involving autophagy suggest that they do not mediate this growth reduction. Furthermore, the protein synthesis rate does not change proportionally to the mass accumulation rate over these time scales, suggesting that intracellular metabolic pools buffer the growth response. Our findings demonstrate that cell growth can be regulated over much shorter time scales than previously appreciated. PMID:26620632

  2. Bacterial Swimming and Accumulation at the Fluid Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Micro-organisms often reside and thrive at the fluid boundaries. The tendency of accumulation is particularly strong for flagellated bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Vibro alginolyticus, and Caulobacter crescentus. We measured the distribution of a forward swimming strain of Caulobacter crescentus near a solid surface using a three-dimensional tracking technique based on darkfield microscopy and found that the swimming bacteria accumulate heavily within micrometers from the surface, even though individual swimmers are not trapped long enough to display circular trajectories. We attributed this accumulation to frequent collisions of the swimming cells with the surface, causing them to align parallel to the surface as they continually move forward. The extent of accumulation at the steady state is accounted for by balancing alignment caused by these collisions with the rotational Brownian motion of the micrometer-sized bacteria. We performed simulations based on this model, which reproduces the measured results. Additional simulations demonstrate the dependence of accumulation on swimming speed and cell size, showing that longer and faster cells accumulate more near a surface than shorter and slower ones do. Our ongoing experimental effort also includes observation of similar phenomena at the interfaces of either water-oil or water-air, noting even stronger trapping of the swimming bacteria than near a solid surface. These studies reveal a rich range of fluid physics for further analysis.

  3. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration "tipping point" between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  4. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl− transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl− cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl− in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  5. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  6. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject.... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be...

  7. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject.... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be...

  8. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject.... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be...

  9. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Pro rata reductions. In the event that the total amount of funds available to SBA for purposes of... in the amounts described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, SBA will make pro rata...

  10. 42 CFR 402.105 - Amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... beneficiaries, for purchased diagnostic tests, any amount other than the payment amount specified in section... credits for Medicare supplemental policies as required by section 1882(r)(1)(B) (§ 402.1(c)(28)). (7)...

  11. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  12. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  13. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  14. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  15. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  16. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  17. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of aid payable. 17.197 Section 17.197 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of...

  18. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  19. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  20. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  1. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks... CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount of subscription. The total subscription of a member bank (other than a mutual savings bank) shall equal...

  2. 5 CFR 831.2004 - Amount of lump-sums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of lump-sums. 831.2004 Section 831.2004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2004 Amount of lump-sums. If applicable, the amount of...

  3. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  4. 45 CFR 602.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... overdue debt in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 602.52 Section 602.52... Requirements § 602.52 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount...

  5. 2 CFR 215.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal awarding agency shall charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of amounts due. 215.73 Section... amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the recipient is...

  6. 45 CFR 1174.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from which interest is computed is not... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 1174.52 Section 1174.52... amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount to which the grantee is...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6044-3 - Amounts subject to reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts subject to reporting. 1.6044-3 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6044-3 Amounts subject to reporting. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the amounts subject to reporting under §...

  8. 36 CFR 1210.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims Collection Standards.” ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of amounts due... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust... had the following amounts of undistributed net income: Year Undistributed net income—portion of...

  10. 45 CFR 30.36 - Minimum amount of referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum amount of referrals. 30.36 Section 30.36... to the Department of Justice § 30.36 Minimum amount of referrals. (a) Except as in paragraph (b) of... such other amount as the Attorney General may prescribe, shall not be referred for litigation. (b)...

  11. 24 CFR 203.18d - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 203... Mortgages § 203.18d Minimum principal loan amount. A mortgagee may not require, as a condition of providing a loan secured by a mortgage insured under this part, that the principal amount of the...

  12. 45 CFR 148.312 - Amount of grant payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of grant payment. 148.312 Section 148.312... Pools § 148.312 Amount of grant payment. (a) An eligible State may receive a grant to fund up to 100... which it is applying or a lesser amount based on the limits of the allotment under the formula....

  13. 7 CFR 1427.8 - Amount of loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of loan. 1427.8 Section 1427.8 Agriculture... § 1427.8 Amount of loan. (a) The loan rates for crops of upland cotton and ELS cotton will be determined... of more than 600 pounds, the weight to be used in determining the amount of the loan on the...

  14. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.457 - Determination of claim amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of claim amount. 3565.457 Section 3565....457 Determination of claim amount. In all liquidation cases, final settlement will be made with the...) The estimated loss payment shall be applied as of the date of such payment. The total amount of...

  16. 24 CFR 241.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 241... Security Instruments § 241.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A mortgagee may not require, as a condition of providing a loan insured under this subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed...

  17. 36 CFR 1210.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims Collection Standards.” ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the...

  18. 45 CFR 1183.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from which interest is computed is not... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 1183.52 Section 1183.52... amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount to which the grantee is...

  19. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may... the amount for each item or service wrongfully claimed prior to January 1, 1997; and (2) Three...

  20. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  1. 45 CFR 92.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... overdue debt in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 92.52 Section 92.52... Requirements § 92.52 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount...

  2. 34 CFR 74.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II—Federal Claims Collection Standards... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 74.73 Section 74.73... § 74.73 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to...

  3. 76 FR 71554 - Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjusted maximum civil penalty amounts. SUMMARY: In 1990, Congress enacted statutory amendments that provided for periodic adjustments to the maximum civil penalty amounts authorized under...

  4. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this part, the organization must have a minimum net worth amount, as determined under paragraph (c) of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.669(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.669(a)-1A Section 1.669(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. After a trust has... preceding taxable year is the amount of undistributed capital gain for that preceding taxable year....

  6. 7 CFR 3550.63 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum loan amount. 3550.63 Section 3550.63... amount. Total secured indebtedness must not exceed the area loan limit or market value limitations specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, whichever is lower. Any loan amount for the...

  7. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of aid payable. 17.197 Section 17.197 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of...

  8. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to insurance... written statement, in a form satisfactory to the Commissioner, setting forth the amount of the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-1 - Character of amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Character of amounts. 1.652(b)-1 Section 1.652(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Trusts Which Distribute Current Income Only § 1.652(b)-1 Character of amounts. In determining the gross income of a beneficiary, the amounts includible under § 1.652(a)-1 have the...

  10. 24 CFR 236.520 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of payments. 236.520 Section... INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Interest Reduction Payments § 236.520 Amount of payments. (a) The interest reduction payment to the mortgagee shall be in an amount not exceeding...

  11. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed...

  12. 7 CFR 3019.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims Collection... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of amounts due. 3019.73 Section 3019.73... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the...

  13. 34 CFR 80.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from which interest is... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 80.52 Section 80.52... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount to which the grantee...

  14. 15 CFR 2301.6 - Amount of Federal funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of Federal funding. 2301.6... TELECOMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.6 Amount of Federal funding. (a) Planning... telecommunications facility may not exceed seventy-five (75) percent of the amount determined by the Agency to be...

  15. 9 CFR 54.6 - Amount of indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of indemnity payments. 54.6... Indemnification Program § 54.6 Amount of indemnity payments. (a) Indemnity paid for sheep in accordance with § 54... to 24 months in determining the indemnity amount, but the indemnity shall not exceed the...

  16. 75 FR 62135 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal... amount for Small Project Grants to State and local governments and private nonprofit facilities for...), 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made...

  17. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of amounts collected. 313.128... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS will transmit amounts collected for past-due, legally enforceable debts, less fees charged under...

  18. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this part, the organization must have a minimum net worth amount, as determined under paragraph (c) of...

  19. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  20. 2 CFR 200.332 - Fixed amount subawards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed amount subawards. 200.332 Section 200....332 Fixed amount subawards. With prior written approval from the Federal awarding agency, a pass-through entity may provide subawards based on fixed amounts up to the Simplified Acquisition...

  1. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  2. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  3. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  4. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  5. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  6. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  7. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  8. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  9. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  10. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  11. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  12. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  13. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  14. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  15. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  16. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  17. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  18. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  19. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  20. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  1. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  2. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  3. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  4. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  5. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  6. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  7. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  8. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount of Basic insurance an annuitant or compensationer can... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance....

  9. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  10. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  11. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  12. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  13. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  14. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  15. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  16. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  17. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  18. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  19. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  20. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will...

  1. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  2. Similarity and confidence in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Tunney, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relationship between similarity ratings and confidence ratings in artificial grammar learning. In Experiment 1 participants rated the similarity of test items to study exemplars. Regression analyses revealed these to be related to some of the objective measures of similarity that have previously been implicated in categorization decisions. In Experiment 2 participants made grammaticality decisions and rated either their confidence in the accuracy of their decisions or the similarity of the test items to the study items. Regression analyses showed that the grammaticality decisions were predicted by the similarity ratings obtained in Experiment 1. Points on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the similarity and confidence ratings were closely matched. These data suggest that meta-cognitive judgments of confidence are predicated on structural knowledge of similarity. Experiment 3 confirmed this by showing that confidence ratings to median similarity probe items changed according to the similarity of preceding items.

  3. The induction of free proline accumulation by endogenous ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana during drought

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.L.; Bray, E.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and free proline increase in response to drought stress. Exogenous ABA has been shown to induce proline accumulation, suggesting that ABA triggers the amino acid response. To determine if endogenous ABA induces free proline accumulation, increases in ABA and proline during drought stress were compared between wild type (WT), ABA-insensitive (abi) and ABA-deficient (aba) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. If elevated levels of endogenous ABA signal the proline response, then the mutants would not be expected to accumulate proline during stress. abi should be unable to respond to increased levels of endogenous ABA, while aba should be unable to accumulate sufficient ABA to elicit a proline response. Drought-stressed three week old shoots of WT, abi, and aba exhibited different patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation, but similar patterns of proline accumulation over 24 hours. Although the patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation differed, maximum levels were similar in WT and abi, but aba produced approximately 25% less. However, free proline accumulated in all three plant lines. abi exhibited a greater, more rapid increase in free proline over that in either WT or aba. aba, however, showed the same pattern and levels of accumulation as that in WT. Since free proline accumulated to at least similar levels in both WT and mutants, regardless of the levels of ABA accumulation, it may be that only a small endogenous ABA accumulation is required for proline accumulation. Alternatively, endogenous ABA may not be the direct signal for the proline response during drought stress.

  4. Visual similarity effects in categorical search.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Robert G; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2011-07-14

    We asked how visual similarity relationships affect search guidance to categorically defined targets (no visual preview). Experiment 1 used a web-based task to collect visual similarity rankings between two target categories, teddy bears and butterflies, and random-category objects, from which we created search displays in Experiment 2 having either high-similarity distractors, low-similarity distractors, or "mixed" displays with high-, medium-, and low-similarity distractors. Analysis of target-absent trials revealed faster manual responses and fewer fixated distractors on low-similarity displays compared to high-similarity displays. On mixed displays, first fixations were more frequent on high-similarity distractors (bear = 49%; butterfly = 58%) than on low-similarity distractors (bear = 9%; butterfly = 12%). Experiment 3 used the same high/low/mixed conditions, but now these conditions were created using similarity estimates from a computer vision model that ranked objects in terms of color, texture, and shape similarity. The same patterns were found, suggesting that categorical search can indeed be guided by purely visual similarity. Experiment 4 compared cases where the model and human rankings differed and when they agreed. We found that similarity effects were best predicted by cases where the two sets of rankings agreed, suggesting that both human visual similarity rankings and the computer vision model captured features important for guiding search to categorical targets.

  5. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    overestimation of the overall accumulation of iron-reducing bacteria, as well as the rate and extent of iron reduction. Surprisingly, the model predicts that the total amount of uranium being reduced in the heterogeneous 2D system was similar to that in the 1D homogeneous system, suggesting that the overall uranium bioremediation efficacy may not be significantly affected by the heterogeneities of Fe(III) content in the down-gradient regions. Rather, the characteristics close to the vicinity of the injection wells might be crucial in determining the overall efficacy of uranium bioremediation. These findings have important implications not only for uranium bioremediation at the Rifle site and for bioremediation of other redox sensitive contaminants at sites with similar characteristics, but also for the development of optimal amendment delivery strategies in other settings.

  6. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    overestimation of the overall accumulation of iron-reducing bacteria, as well as the rate and extent of iron reduction. Surprisingly, the model predicts that the total amount of uranium being reduced in the heterogeneous 2D system was similar to that in the 1D homogeneous system, suggesting that the overall uranium bioremediation efficacy may not be significantly affected by the heterogeneities of Fe(III) content in the down-gradient regions. Rather, the characteristics close to the vicinity of the injection wells might be crucial in determining the overall efficacy of uranium bioremediation. These findings have important implications not only for uranium bioremediation at the Rifle site and for bioremediation of other redox sensitive contaminants at sites with similar characteristics, but also for the development of optimal amendment delivery strategies in other settings. PMID:20036028

  7. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2010-03-01

    overestimation of the overall accumulation of iron-reducing bacteria, as well as the rate and extent of iron reduction. Surprisingly, the model predicts that the total amount of uranium being reduced in the heterogeneous 2D system was similar to that in the 1D homogeneous system, suggesting that the overall uranium bioremediation efficacy may not be significantly affected by the heterogeneities of Fe(III) content in the down-gradient regions. Rather, the characteristics close to the vicinity of the injection wells might be crucial in determining the overall efficacy of uranium bioremediation. These findings have important implications not only for uranium bioremediation at the Rifle site and for bioremediation of other redox sensitive contaminants at sites with similar characteristics, but also for the development of optimal amendment delivery strategies in other settings.

  8. 40 CFR 27.31 - Determining the amount of penalties and assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determining the amount of penalties and assessments. 27.31 Section 27.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM... in similar transactions; (15) Whether the defendant has been found, in any criminal, civil,...

  9. 40 CFR 27.31 - Determining the amount of penalties and assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining the amount of penalties and assessments. 27.31 Section 27.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM... in similar transactions; (15) Whether the defendant has been found, in any criminal, civil,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.179-2 - Limitations on amount subject to section 179 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitations on amount subject to section 179... ending December 31, 1992. (4) S Corporations. Rules similar to those contained in paragraph (b)(3) of... December 31. For AB's taxable year ending January 31, 1992, AB has taxable income from the active...

  11. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  12. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  13. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  14. [Study on biomass dynamic changes of Codnopsis pilosula under the planting density and fertilizing amount].

    PubMed

    He, Chunyu; Zhang, Yanhong; Lin, Haiming

    2005-09-01

    Study on the biomass dynamic changes of Codnopsis pilosula (Franch.) Naff. under the different planting density and fertilizing amount of the four levels respectively via the random methods have showed out: the best combination for the stems and leaves are 1.05 million plant/hm2 and 240 kg fertilizer/hm2. Its biomass accumulation can achieve 652 mg/d; That for the root are 0.6 million plant/hm2 and 240 kg fertilizer/hm2 and the weight of every fresh root achieved 14. 88g. The results will be helpful to cultivating and fertilizing of Codnopsis pilosula.

  15. 26 CFR 1.665(b)-2 - Exclusions from accumulation distributions in the case of trusts (other than a foreign trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... specified ages. The third exclusion from the definition of an accumulation distribution is for amounts... 21. (i) The first exception to the definition of an accumulation distribution is for amounts paid, credited, or required to be distributed to a beneficiary who was under 21 years of age or unborn when...

  16. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    MedlinePlus

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... you could have asthma, or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because ...

  17. Acceptable Tolerances for Matching Icing Similarity Parameters in Scaling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews past work and presents new data to evaluate how changes in similarity parameters affect ice shapes and how closely scale values of the parameters should match reference values. Experimental ice shapes presented are from tests by various researchers in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. The parameters reviewed are the modified inertia parameter (which determines the stagnation collection efficiency), accumulation parameter, freezing fraction, Reynolds number, and Weber number. It was demonstrated that a good match of scale and reference ice shapes could sometimes be achieved even when values of the modified inertia parameter did not match precisely. Consequently, there can be some flexibility in setting scale droplet size, which is the test condition determined from the modified inertia parameter. A recommended guideline is that the modified inertia parameter be chosen so that the scale stagnation collection efficiency is within 10 percent of the reference value. The scale accumulation parameter and freezing fraction should also be within 10 percent of their reference values. The Weber number based on droplet size and water properties appears to be a more important scaling parameter than one based on model size and air properties. Scale values of both the Reynolds and Weber numbers need to be in the range of 60 to 160 percent of the corresponding reference values. The effects of variations in other similarity parameters have yet to be established.

  18. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  19. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution.

  20. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to A during her life. The balance of the income is to be accumulated during the minority of her son... 1954, a pro rata portion of the taxes imposed on the trust for that year are also deemed distributed...

  1. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to A during her life. The balance of the income is to be accumulated during the minority of her son... 1954, a pro rata portion of the taxes imposed on the trust for that year are also deemed distributed...

  2. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to A during her life. The balance of the income is to be accumulated during the minority of her son... 1954, a pro rata portion of the taxes imposed on the trust for that year are also deemed distributed...

  3. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-3 - Excluded amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to A during her life. The balance of the income is to be accumulated during the minority of her son... 1954, a pro rata portion of the taxes imposed on the trust for that year are also deemed distributed...

  4. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  5. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  6. The absence of numbers to express the amount may affect delay discounting with humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Huerta, Hugo E; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2016-09-01

    Human delay discounting is usually studied with experimental protocols that use symbols to express delay and amount. In order to further understand discounting, we evaluated whether the absence of numbers to represent reward amounts affects discount rate in general, and whether the magnitude effect is generalized to nonsymbolic situations in particular. In Experiment 1, human participants were exposed to a delay-discounting task in which rewards were presented using dots to represent monetary rewards (nonsymbolic); under this condition the magnitude effect did not occur. Nevertheless, the magnitude effect was observed when equivalent reward amounts were presented using numbers (symbolic). Moreover, in estimation tasks, magnitude increments produced underestimation of large amounts. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed only to the nonsymbolic discounting task and were required to estimate reward amounts in each trial. Consistent with Experiment 1, the absence of numbers representing reward amounts produced similar discount rates of small and large rewards. These results suggest that value of nonsymbolic rewards is a nonlinear function of amount and that value attribution depends on perceived difference between the immediate and the delayed nonsymbolic rewards.

  7. Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect of amount was not due to changes in the rate parameter of the discounting function, but rather was due to increases in the exponent. These results stand in contrast to those observed with the discounting of delayed monetary rewards, in which the degree of discounting decreases with reward amount due to amount-dependent decreases in the rate parameter. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that delay and probability discounting reflect different underlying mechanisms. That is, the fact that the exponent in the delay discounting function is independent of amount is consistent with a psychophysical scaling interpretation, whereas the finding that the exponent of the probability-discounting function is amount-dependent is inconsistent with such an interpretation. Instead, the present results are consistent with the idea that the probability-discounting function is itself the product of a value function and a weighting function. This idea was first suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), although their prospect theory does not predict amount effects like those observed. The effect of amount on probability discounting was parsimoniously incorporated into our hyperboloid discounting function by assuming that the exponent was proportional to the amount raised to a power. The amount-dependent exponent of the probability-discounting function may be viewed as reflecting the effect of amount on the weighting of the probability with which the reward will be received.

  8. Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

    2010-12-01

    Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed

  9. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  11. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Sensitizes To Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Impairing Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Baulies, Anna; Ribas, Vicent; Núñez, Susana; Torres, Sandra; Alarcón-Vila, Cristina; Martínez, Laura; Suda, Jo; Ybanez, Maria D.; Kaplowitz, Neil; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, Jose C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of lysosomes in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the impact of genetic and drug-induced lysosomal cholesterol (LC) accumulation in APAP hepatotoxicity. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase)−/− mice exhibit LC accumulation and higher mortality after APAP overdose compared to ASMase+/+ littermates. ASMase−/− hepatocytes display lower threshold for APAP-induced cell death and defective fusion of mitochondria-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes, which decreased mitochondrial quality control. LC accumulation in ASMase+/+ hepatocytes caused by U18666A reproduces the susceptibility of ASMase−/− hepatocytes to APAP and the impairment in the formation of mitochondria-containing autolysosomes. LC extraction by 25-hydroxycholesterol increased APAP-mediated mitophagy and protected ASMase−/− mice and hepatocytes against APAP hepatotoxicity, effects that were reversed by chloroquine to disrupt autophagy. The regulation of LC by U18666A or 25-hydroxycholesterol did not affect total cellular sphingomyelin content or its lysosomal distribution. Of relevance, amitriptyline-induced ASMase inhibition in human hepatocytes caused LC accumulation, impaired mitophagy and increased susceptibility to APAP. Similar results were observed upon glucocerebrosidase inhibition by conduritol β-epoxide, a cellular model of Gaucher disease. These findings indicate that LC accumulation determines susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity by modulating mitophagy, and imply that genetic or drug-mediated ASMase disruption sensitizes to APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:26657973

  12. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Sensitizes To Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Impairing Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Baulies, Anna; Ribas, Vicent; Núñez, Susana; Torres, Sandra; Alarcón-Vila, Cristina; Martínez, Laura; Suda, Jo; Ybanez, Maria D; Kaplowitz, Neil; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, Jose C

    2015-12-11

    The role of lysosomes in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the impact of genetic and drug-induced lysosomal cholesterol (LC) accumulation in APAP hepatotoxicity. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase)(-/-) mice exhibit LC accumulation and higher mortality after APAP overdose compared to ASMase(+/+) littermates. ASMase(-/-) hepatocytes display lower threshold for APAP-induced cell death and defective fusion of mitochondria-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes, which decreased mitochondrial quality control. LC accumulation in ASMase(+/+) hepatocytes caused by U18666A reproduces the susceptibility of ASMase(-/-) hepatocytes to APAP and the impairment in the formation of mitochondria-containing autolysosomes. LC extraction by 25-hydroxycholesterol increased APAP-mediated mitophagy and protected ASMase(-/-) mice and hepatocytes against APAP hepatotoxicity, effects that were reversed by chloroquine to disrupt autophagy. The regulation of LC by U18666A or 25-hydroxycholesterol did not affect total cellular sphingomyelin content or its lysosomal distribution. Of relevance, amitriptyline-induced ASMase inhibition in human hepatocytes caused LC accumulation, impaired mitophagy and increased susceptibility to APAP. Similar results were observed upon glucocerebrosidase inhibition by conduritol β-epoxide, a cellular model of Gaucher disease. These findings indicate that LC accumulation determines susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity by modulating mitophagy, and imply that genetic or drug-mediated ASMase disruption sensitizes to APAP-induced liver injury.

  13. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that....665(e)-1A(a)(1)(ii) as those beginning after December 31, 1968) according to the amount...

  14. 29 CFR 95.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... law, DOL shall charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 95.73 Section 95.73 Labor Office... Requirements § 95.73 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount...

  15. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  16. Noncontiguous atom matching structural similarity function.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana L; Falcao, Andre O

    2013-10-28

    Measuring similarity between molecules is a fundamental problem in cheminformatics. Given that similar molecules tend to have similar physical, chemical, and biological properties, the notion of molecular similarity plays an important role in the exploration of molecular data sets, query-retrieval in molecular databases, and in structure-property/activity modeling. Various methods to define structural similarity between molecules are available in the literature, but so far none has been used with consistent and reliable results for all situations. We propose a new similarity method based on atom alignment for the analysis of structural similarity between molecules. This method is based on the comparison of the bonding profiles of atoms on comparable molecules, including features that are seldom found in other structural or graph matching approaches like chirality or double bond stereoisomerism. The similarity measure is then defined on the annotated molecular graph, based on an iterative directed graph similarity procedure and optimal atom alignment between atoms using a pairwise matching algorithm. With the proposed approach the similarities detected are more intuitively understood because similar atoms in the molecules are explicitly shown. This noncontiguous atom matching structural similarity method (NAMS) was tested and compared with one of the most widely used similarity methods (fingerprint-based similarity) using three difficult data sets with different characteristics. Despite having a higher computational cost, the method performed well being able to distinguish either different or very similar hydrocarbons that were indistinguishable using a fingerprint-based approach. NAMS also verified the similarity principle using a data set of structurally similar steroids with differences in the binding affinity to the corticosteroid binding globulin receptor by showing that pairs of steroids with a high degree of similarity (>80%) tend to have smaller differences

  17. First Nuclear DNA Amounts in more than 300 Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    ZONNEVELD, B. J. M.; LEITCH, I. J.; BENNETT, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genome size (DNA C-value) data are key biodiversity characters of fundamental significance used in a wide variety of biological fields. Since 1976, Bennett and colleagues have made scattered published and unpublished genome size data more widely accessible by assembling them into user-friendly compilations. Initially these were published as hard copy lists, but since 1997 they have also been made available electronically (see the Plant DNA C-values database www.kew.org/cval/homepage.html). Nevertheless, at the Second Plant Genome Size Meeting in 2003, Bennett noted that as many as 1000 DNA C-value estimates were still unpublished and hence unavailable. Scientists were strongly encouraged to communicate such unpublished data. The present work combines the databasing experience of the Kew-based authors with the unpublished C-values produced by Zonneveld to make a large body of valuable genome size data available to the scientific community. • Methods C-values for angiosperm species, selected primarily for their horticultural interest, were estimated by flow cytometry using the fluorochrome propidium iodide. The data were compiled into a table whose form is similar to previously published lists of DNA amounts by Bennett and colleagues. • Key Results and Conclusions The present work contains C-values for 411 taxa including first values for 308 species not listed previously by Bennett and colleagues. Based on a recent estimate of the global published output of angiosperm DNA C-value data (i.e. 200 first C-value estimates per annum) the present work equals 1·5 years of average global published output; and constitutes over 12 % of the latest 5-year global target set by the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop (see www.kew.org/cval/workshopreport.html). Hopefully, the present example will encourage others to unveil further valuable data which otherwise may lie forever unpublished and unavailable for comparative analyses. PMID:15905300

  18. Sample amount alternatives for data adjustment in comparative cyanobacterial metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Huege, Jan; Krall, Leonard; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Giavalisco, Patrick; Rippka, Rosmarie; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole; Steinhauser, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    Here we describe an integrative protocol for metabolite extraction and the measurement of three cellular constituents, chlorophyll a, total protein, and glycogen from the same small volume of cyanobacterial cultures that can be used as alternative sample amount parameters for data adjustment in comparative metabolome studies. We conducted recovery experiments to assess the robustness and reproducibility of the measurements obtained for the cellular constituents. Also, we have chosen three profile-intrinsic parameters derived from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data in order to test their utility for spectral data adjustment. To demonstrate the relevance of these six parameters, we analyzed three cyanobacteria with greatly different morphologies, comprising a unicellular, a filamentous, and a filamentous biofilm-forming strain. Comparative analysis of GC/MS data from cultures grown under standardized conditions indicated that adjustment of the corresponding metabolite profiles by any of the measured cellular constituents or chosen intrinsic parameters led to similar results with respect to sample cohesion and strain separation. Twenty-one metabolites significantly enriched for the carbohydrate and amine superclasses are mainly responsible for strain separation, with a majority of the remaining metabolites contributing to sample group cohesion. Therefore, we conclude that any of the parameters tested in this study can be used for spectral data adjustment of cyanobacterial strains grown under controlled conditions. However, their use for the differentiation between different stresses or physiological states within a strain remains to be shown. Interestingly, both the adjustment approaches and statistical tests applied effected the detection of metabolic differences and their patterns among the analyzed strains.

  19. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  20. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha−1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032