Science.gov

Sample records for accumulated state assessment

  1. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  2. Rainfall Accumulation over the United States for December 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the accumulation of rainfall over the United States during December 2015, from the IMERG precipitation dataset. The black outline indicates the Mississippi-Missouri River basin...

  3. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  5. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m{sup 3}/day (147 ft{sup 3}/day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ``burps,`` that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m{sup 3} (21,400 to 36,700 ft{sup 3}); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m{sup 3} (6,800 to 11,600 ft{sup 3}). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m{sup 3} (14,600 to 25,100 ft{sup 3}).

  6. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  7. Systems for State Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Bertenthal, Meryl W., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), "Systems for State Science Assessment" explores the ideas and tools that are needed to assess science learning at the state level. This book provides a detailed examination of K-12 science assessment: looking specifically at what should be measured and how to measure it. Along with…

  8. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  9. Eprinomectin accumulation in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: Pharmacokinetic and efficacy assessment.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, A; Nava, S; Mangold, A; Imperiale, F; Ballent, M; Canevari, J; Lanusse, C

    2016-01-15

    Eprinomectin (EPM) is a macrocyclic lactone used against endo-ectoparasites without withdrawal time in milk and meat after its pour-on administration at 0.5mg/kg. Previous experiments evaluated the efficacy of EPM against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in cattle. This study assessed EPM efficacy against R. (B.) microplus after topical administration at two dose rates and investigated the relationship between EPM systemic exposure in the host and drug concentrations accumulated in ticks recovered from treated animals. A standardized pharmaco-parasitological study was performed in two phases. In phase 1 eighteen Braford cattle naturally infected with R. (B.) microplus were divided into three experimental groups with a similar level of infestation (Kruskal-Wallis test, P>0.05): control group and treated groups with EPM pour-on (1 and 1.5mg/kg). Samples of heparinized blood and ticks at different life stages were taken between 0 and 21 days (d) post-administration to measure EPM concentrations by HPLC. The efficacy trial (phase 2) included eighteen Braford calves naturally infected with R. (B.) microplus divided into control group and 1mg/kg and 1.5mg/kg EPM treated groups. Female ticks (4.5-8mm) on cattle were counted between 1 and 23 days post-treatment to evaluate the efficacy of EPM. The reproductive efficiency index (REI) and the fertility efficiency index (FEI) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of EPM showed a linear relationship with the level of dose rate administered. Peak plasma concentrations were within a range between 13.8 and 90ng/ml, which guarantee milk drug concentrations below the maximum residues level. High EPM concentrations were detected in ticks. EPM concentrations in R. (B.) microplus were correlated to plasma concentrations between 1.25 days and 21 days post-administration (r 0.84; P<0.05). EPM efficacy calculated using the Henderson-Tilton formula was 98.9% and 99.1% (7 days post-administration) and 100% (23 days post

  10. Accumulating and Visualising Tacit Knowledge of Teachers on Educational Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzone-I.; Su, Chien-Yuan; Hsieh, Tung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Assessments, embedded with teachers' implicit (i.e. tacit) domain knowledge, play an important role in evaluating "comprehension of a subject". The knowledge on the importance of both the concepts and their relationships of a subject, if captured, made explicit, and shared around, may greatly help teachers construct more effective assessments.…

  11. Assessing the State of State Assessments: Perspectives on Assessing Young Children. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SERVE: SouthEastern Regional Vision for Education, Greensboro, NC.

    A number of preschool and kindergarten assessment systems are being put into place across the nation, with a variety of purposes and collection methods. The "Assessing the State of State Assessments" symposium was convened to provide an opportunity for persons working most closely with state assessment systems to identify common challenges and…

  12. State Standards and Assessment Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    High-quality state assessment systems are the cornerstone of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), making it possible for school systems to collect data on student achievement to diagnose where students are doing well and where they are doing poorly. This provides information that teachers, administrators, and policymakers can use to customize and improve…

  13. State Energy Data Needs Assessment

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to Section 805(d) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-140, requiring the Energy Information Administration to assess State-level energy data needs and submit to Congress a plan to address those needs.

  14. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  15. Quantized Electron Accumulation States in Indium Nitride Studied by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colakerol, Leyla; Veal, T. D.; Jeong, Hae-Kyung; Plucinski, Lukasz; Demasi, Alex; Learmonth, Timothy; Glans, Per-Anders; Wang, Shancai; Zhang, Yufeng; Piper, L. F. J.; Jefferson, P. H.; Fedorov, Alexei; Chen, Tai-Chou; Moustakas, T. D.; McConville, C. F.; Smith, Kevin E.

    2006-12-01

    Electron accumulation states in InN have been measured using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The electrons in the accumulation layer have been discovered to reside in quantum well states. ARPES was also used to measure the Fermi surface of these quantum well states, as well as their constant binding energy contours below the Fermi level EF. The energy of the Fermi level and the size of the Fermi surface for these quantum well states could be controlled by varying the method of surface preparation. This is the first unambiguous observation that electrons in the InN accumulation layer are quantized and the first time the Fermi surface associated with such states has been measured.

  16. States Mull Best Way to Assess Their Students for Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Texas, which has helped shape key tenets of the standards and accountability movement, is on the brink of revamping the way it assesses high school students for graduation. Instead of testing knowledge that students accumulate over several years, the state would test what students learn in each course. A bill passed by the Texas Senate last month…

  17. NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for Hawaii. Trial State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…

  18. DISTRIBUTION, TYPE, ACCUMULATION AND SOURCE OF MARINE DEBRIS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1989-93

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distribution, type, accumulation, & source of marine debris on coastal beaches and in harbors of the United States were examined from 1989 to 1993. nformation was compiled from annual beach cleanups coordinated by the Center for marine Conservation, quarterly beach surveys at eig...

  19. English Language Learners and State Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    All states are addressing the problems of accommodations for English Language Learners (ELL's) in state assessment systems, but Massachusetts is noteworthy for the way in which it handles this problem. Since the early 1980s, over 40 states have created a statewide assessment program. Testing in these states is typically modeled on the National…

  20. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  1. New Assessments: A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    States face a critical decision in the next year: how to assess student learning against new college- and career-ready standards. This decision has important ramifications, because testing and assessment have long had a powerful influence on instructional practice. Thus the assessment that states choose will affect teaching and learning in…

  2. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr-1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr-1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr-1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr-1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr-1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  3. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation. PMID:25614123

  4. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  5. Examining the influence of formative assessment on conceptual accumulation and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Miki K.

    This study explored the effect of formative assessment on student achievement in science. Research in science education has shown that students enter science classrooms with previously formed explanatory models of the natural world; these naive "mental models" have a substantial influence on their learning of scientific conceptions. In general, conceptual change describes the pathway from pre-instructional or prior conceptions to a post-instructional or desired conception. Conceptual change involves a fundamental restructuring of a network of concepts rather than fitting new concepts into an existing conceptual network or structure. Research has shown that conceptual change is difficult to promote; for example, students may accumulate multiple conceptions over the course of instruction, including both new misconceptions and more scientifically-sound conceptions. Hellden and Solomon (2004) found that although students tended to evoke the same, less-scientific conceptions over time, they could produce more scientifically-sound conceptions during interviews with appropriate prompting; thus, students undergo conceptual accumulation rather than conceptual change. Students can recall scientifically-sound conceptions they have learned and may use them to reason, but they do so in partnership or hybridization with their less-scientific prior conceptions. Formative assessment, which focuses on providing immediate feedback by acting upon student understanding during the course of instruction, and conceptual change have both been linked to increased student achievement. Formative assessment is an instructional strategy that helps teachers to assess students' current understanding, identify the gap between current understanding and expected understanding, and provide immediate and useful feedback to students on how to close the gap. Formative assessment ranges from formal (e.g. embedded, planned-for interactions between teacher and entire class) to informal (e.g. on

  6. Accumulation of organic carbon in chernozems (Mollisols) under shelterbelts in Russia and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chendev, Yu. G.; Sauer, T. J.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Novykh, L. L.; Petin, A. N.; Petina, V. I.; Zazdravnykh, E. A.; Burras, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Shelterbelts that were created in place of meadow and meadow-steppe landscapes of the forest-steppe zone of northern continents serve as areas of carbon accumulation and participate in the formation of soil organic matter. In the Great Plains of the United States (in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska) and on the Central Russian Upland (Belgorod, Voronezh, and Kursk oblasts), a general tendency toward an increase in the Corg pool in the topsoil (0-30 cm) from the marginal parts of the shelterbelts toward their central parts by about 3.5-10.0 t per each 10 m has been identified. In 55 years of the existence of shelterbelts on chernozems in the European part of Russia, the mean annual rate of the organic carbon accumulation in the upper meter has been varying within 0.7-1.5 t/ha. In 19 years of the existence of a shelterbelt in the area of Huron (South Dakota), the mean annual rate of the organic carbon accumulation in the 1-m-thick layer of the Bonilla soil series (Haplustolls) has reached 1.9 t/ha.

  7. Evaluating Score Equity Assessment for State NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Baldwin, Su; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Karatonis, Ana; Jirka, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Score equity assessment is an important analysis to ensure inferences drawn from test scores are comparable across subgroups of examinees. The purpose of the present evaluation was to assess the extent to which the Grade 8 NAEP Math and Reading assessments for 2005 were equivalent across selected states. More specifically, the present study…

  8. South Dakota's State Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The South Dakota Assessment System provides information for schools to use in evaluating their teaching and curriculum as well as allowing parents to monitor their child's progress. All public schools in South Dakota test students according to South Dakota Codified Law 13-3-55, which was adopted in January 1997 and amended in January 2003. This…

  9. State Systems Improvement Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document was developed by the Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC) and is designed to be used as an assessment of State systems by State Part B and Part C staff and their stakeholders. It provides a detailed process for State Education Agencies (SEA) and Lead Agencies (LA) to follow that will guide improvement efforts relative to the…

  10. Impact assessment of various rearing systems on fish health using multibiomarker response and metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Deviller, G; Palluel, O; Aliaume, C; Asanthi, H; Sanchez, W; Franco Nava, M A; Blancheton, J-P; Casellas, C

    2005-05-01

    European sea bass were reared in three different systems: one flow-through (FTS), one recirculating (RAS), and one recirculating with a high-rate algae pond (RAS + HRAP). After 1 year of rearing, the final fish weight was 15% lower in the RAS compared to the FTS. The accumulation of a growth-inhibiting substance in the RAS is the main hypothesis explaining this difference. As in environmental risk assessment, fish bioaccumulation markers and biomarkers were used to demonstrate exposure to and effects of the rearing water in the three rearing systems. Thirty fish per system were sacrificed before their condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI) were calculated. Nine biomarkers, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were measured in liver and twelve metals including As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn, for which there are regulations regarding human consumption, were measured in liver and muscle. In all systems, CF and LSI were not significantly different and no correlation was found with biomarker activity or metal concentration. EROD and SOD activities were significantly increased in RAS. Accumulation of seven and four metals in muscle and liver, respectively, was significantly higher in the RAS relative to FTS. The HRAP prevented metal accumulation except for chromium and arsenic. Eight metal concentrations were significantly higher in liver than in muscle. Concentrations of toxic metals were similar to reported values and below FAO/WHO recommended values for human consumption. PMID:15814314

  11. Comprehensive Assessment of Transcriptional Regulation Facilitates Metabolic Engineering of Isoprenoid Accumulation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Iris; Poirier, Brenton C.; Herron, Blake K.; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, two spatially separated pathways provide the precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines with modulated levels of expression of each individual gene involved in the cytosolic/peroxisomal mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways. By assessing the correlation of transgene expression levels with isoprenoid marker metabolites (gene-to-metabolite correlation), we determined the relative importance of transcriptional control at each individual step of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. The accumulation patterns of metabolic intermediates (metabolite-to-gene correlation) were then used to infer flux bottlenecks in the sterol pathway. The extent of metabolic cross talk, the exchange of isoprenoid intermediates between compartmentalized pathways, was assessed by a combination of gene-to-metabolite and metabolite-to-metabolite correlation analyses. This strategy allowed the selection of genes to be modulated by metabolic engineering, and we demonstrate that the overexpression of predictable combinations of genes can be used to significantly enhance flux toward specific end products of the sterol pathway. Transgenic plants accumulating increased amounts of sterols are characterized by significantly elevated biomass, which can be a desirable trait in crop and biofuel plants. PMID:26282236

  12. The Oversight of State Standards and Assessment Programs: Perspectives from a Former State Assessment Director

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Pasquale J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information and insight into how state assessment programs are governed, how individual state and state-consortium assessment programs actually operate, and how key policy and technical decisions on these programs are made. To address these issues, this paper is divided into three sections: First, the New…

  13. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  14. State Educational Assessment Programs. 1973 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This publication has two major parts. The first is a paper by Joan Beers, Pennsylvania Department of Education, and Paul Campbell, Educational Testing Service, which describes, analyzes and interprets the most significant portions of data collected in a second survey of the status of state educational assessment programs. The second part is a…

  15. The California State University Early Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Ruth E.; Zitzer-Comfort, Carol; Quirk, Matthew; Alexander, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) requires entering freshmen to be proficient in English reading and writing, as demonstrated on proficiency measures. Currently, approximately 46 percent of incoming college freshmen need remediation in English reading and writing. To assist these students, CSU instituted an Early Assessment Program (EAP),…

  16. Rainfall Accumulation Across the United States (1/1/2015 - 7/16/2015)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The accumulated precipitation product visualized here begins on Jan. 1, 2015, and runs through July 16, 2015. This visualization shows the heavy rainfall throughout Northern Texas and across Oklaho...

  17. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7–9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIMCT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  18. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7-9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIM-CT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  19. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  20. Geothermal resource assessment of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Geothermal resource assessment is the broadly based appraisal of the quantities of heat that might be extracted from the earth and used economically at some reasonable future time. In the United States, the Geological Survey is responsible for preparing geothermal assessments based on the best available data and interpretations. Updates are required every few years owing to increasing knowledge, enlarging data base, improving technology, and changing economics. Because geothermal understanding is incomplete and rapidly evolving, the USGS complements its assessments with a broad program of geothermal research that includes (1) study of geothermal processes on crustal and local scales, (2) regional evaluations, (3) intensive study of type systems before and during exploitation (4) improvement of exploration techniques, and (5) investigation of geoenvironmental constraints. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  1. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  2. Imbalanced Learning for Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of several imbalanced learning techniques applied to operator functional state assessment where the data is highly imbalanced, i.e., some function states (majority classes) have much more training samples than other states (minority classes). Conventional machine learning techniques usually tend to classify all data samples into majority classes and perform poorly for minority classes. In this study, we implemented five imbalanced learning techniques, including random undersampling, random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), borderline-SMOTE and adaptive synthetic sampling (ADASYN) to solve this problem. Experimental results on a benchmark driving lest dataset show thai accuracies for minority classes could be improved dramatically with a cost of slight performance degradations for majority classes,

  3. Income Class and the Accumulation of Net Worth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Kim, Jeounghee; Joo, Myungkook

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential rates of accumulating net worth among low- and high-income households. To achieve this objective, the authors, using a sample drawn from the 1998 Survey of Consumer Finances, investigated the degree of elasticity of household net worth (or wealth) to household income among five income…

  4. Accumulation of trace metals in sediments in a Mediterranean Lagoon: Usefulness of metal sediment fractionation and elutriate toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaaboub, Noureddine; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Dhib, Amel; Béjaoui, Béchir; Galgani, François; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    The authors investigated sediment quality in Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) focusing on geochemical characteristics, metal sediment fractionation and elutriate toxicity assessment. Nickel, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd partitioning in sediments was studied; accumulation and bioavailability were elucidated using enrichment factors, sequential extractions, redox potential, acid volatile sulfide and biotest procedures in toxicity evaluation. Results revealed an accumulation for Pb and Zn, reaching 99 and 460 mg kg(-1) respectively. In addition, the acid volatile sulfide values were high in both eastern and western lagoon areas, thus affecting metal availability. Mean enrichment factor values for Pb and Zn were 4.8 and 4.9, respectively, with these elements as the main contributors to the lagoon's moderate enrichment level. Toxicity levels were influenced by accumulation of Zn in different surface sediment areas. Core sediments were investigated in areas with the highest metal concentrations; metal fractionation and biotest confirmed that Zn contributes to sediment toxicity. PMID:26412262

  5. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  6. Assessing accumulation and sublethal effects of lead in a unionid mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Shea, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of the environment remains a global problem. Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb deposited onto roadside sediments from the past use of leaded gasoline in vehicles may be mobilized into rivers and streams, thereby resulting in exposure to aquatic biota. The aims of this study were to conduct a 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata; family Unionidae) mussels to determine uptake kinetics and to assess several potential non-lethal biomarkers of Pb exposure. Mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a control and eight concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 251 µg/L, as a static renewal test. There were five replicates per treatment with one mussel per replicate. The hemolymph of mussels from four of the replicates was repeatedly sampled (days 7, 14, 21, and 28) for analysis of Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations. The mussels in the fifth replicate per treatment were only sampled on day 28 and served as a comparison to the repeatedly sampled mussels. The accumulation of Pb in mussel tissue was also evaluated during the study. No mussels died during the test. We found that measured concentrations of Pb in mussel hemolymph suggested regulation of the heavy metal up to 66 μg/L by day 14, whereas concentrations in tissue proved to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.0001) throughout the 28-day exposure, displaying concentration dependent uptake. The concentration of Pb in mussel hemolymph, which can be sampled and measured non-lethally, is a suitable marker of recent Pb exposure in mussels. In contrast, none of the ion concentrations measured in the hemolymph from the repeatedly sampled mussels was significantly changed with increasing concentrations of Pb, whereas the mussels from the fifth replicate sampled only on day 28 showed altered calcium concentrations. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

  7. Temporal assessment of nanoparticle accumulation after experimental brain injury: Effect of particle size

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Vimala N.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Adelson, P. David; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) based therapeutic and theranostic agents have been developed for various diseases, yet application to neural disease/injury is restricted by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a host of pathological alterations, including transient breakdown of the BBB, thus opening a window for NP delivery to the injured brain tissue. This study focused on investigating the spatiotemporal accumulation of different sized NPs after TBI. Specifically, animal cohorts sustaining a controlled cortical impact injury received an intravenous injection of PEGylated NP cocktail (20, 40, 100, and 500 nm, each with a unique fluorophore) immediately (0 h), 2 h, 5 h, 12 h, or 23 h after injury. NPs were allowed to circulate for 1 h before perfusion and brain harvest. Confocal microscopy demonstrated peak NP accumulation within the injury penumbra 1 h post-injury. An inverse relationship was found between NP size and their continued accumulation within the penumbra. NP accumulation preferentially occurred in the primary motor and somatosensory areas of the injury penumbra as compared to the parietal association and visual area. Thus, we characterized the accumulation of particles up to 500 nm at different times acutely after injury, indicating the potential of NP-based TBI theranostics in the acute period after injury. PMID:27444615

  8. Assessment of seasonal variation for air pollutant accumulation by Zizyphus tree under washing treatment.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Mohamed Abdulraheem; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy Saad; Almehmadi, Fahd Mosallam; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Al-Shareef, Abdulmohsin Rajeh

    2016-06-01

    A field study was carried out near Jeddah Industrial Zone to estimate the leaf impairment, physiological disorders, and air pollutant accumulation potential of Ziziphus tree. The experiment was triplicated in RCBD design with factorial arrangement having seasonality as the main plot and washing as subplot treatments along with the control. Accumulation of heavy metals and micronutrients in plant foliage varied significantly under the influence of seasons and washing treatments. The maximum accumulation of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were perceived in summer season while the minimum was observed in winter. Contrarily, a greater acquisition of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was observed in autumn. Washing significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb by 58, 90, 80, and 96 %, while Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn by 89, 37, 60, and 93 %, respectively. Leaf protein and nitrogen content illustrated a greater adjustment for pollutants by presenting a minimum variation (14-18 % and 2-3 %) to seasonality. In contrast, leaf area and stomatal aperture were significantly disturbed and resulted in minimum recovery under washing. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger negative interaction of heavy metal accumulation to leaf features while non-significant interaction was perceived for microelements. In conclusion, planting of Ziziphus trees along industrial areas may impede potential threats of toxic pollutants to human and ecosystem. PMID:27170355

  9. Temporal assessment of nanoparticle accumulation after experimental brain injury: Effect of particle size.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Vimala N; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Adelson, P David; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) based therapeutic and theranostic agents have been developed for various diseases, yet application to neural disease/injury is restricted by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a host of pathological alterations, including transient breakdown of the BBB, thus opening a window for NP delivery to the injured brain tissue. This study focused on investigating the spatiotemporal accumulation of different sized NPs after TBI. Specifically, animal cohorts sustaining a controlled cortical impact injury received an intravenous injection of PEGylated NP cocktail (20, 40, 100, and 500 nm, each with a unique fluorophore) immediately (0 h), 2 h, 5 h, 12 h, or 23 h after injury. NPs were allowed to circulate for 1 h before perfusion and brain harvest. Confocal microscopy demonstrated peak NP accumulation within the injury penumbra 1 h post-injury. An inverse relationship was found between NP size and their continued accumulation within the penumbra. NP accumulation preferentially occurred in the primary motor and somatosensory areas of the injury penumbra as compared to the parietal association and visual area. Thus, we characterized the accumulation of particles up to 500 nm at different times acutely after injury, indicating the potential of NP-based TBI theranostics in the acute period after injury. PMID:27444615

  10. Dynamics of peat accumulation and marl flat formation in a calcareous fen, midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, J.J.; Ketterling, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The age and sequence of peat accumulation were investigated at a calcareous fen in northeastern Illinois, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify the processes that form and sustain marl flats, which are areas of marl or tufa substrate within the fen that contain numerous rare plant species. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiocarbon evidence was used to establish the processes and chronology of peat accumulation and erosion adjacent to each marl flat. The age of the base of the peat deposit varies greatly throughout the fen, ranging from 14,679 calibrated years before present (cal. years BP) to nearly modern, indicating that colonization of the sand and gravel substrate by peat occurred throughout the period from the Late Pleistocene to present. Adjacent to one marl flat, trends in basal peat age and thickness show that peat accumulation has progressed laterally inward from both sides, suggesting that the marl flat has been infilling with peat progressively by accumulation at the margins since at least 5,370 cal. years BP or longer. A second marl flat in the fen is surrounded by older, thick peat of differing ages on either edge and is bounded by fresh scarps, indicating that the marl flat currently is expanding laterally by erosion into the preexisting peat blanket. These two examples suggest a continuously repeating process, where erosion of the accumulated peat blanket forms a marl flat, which is later covered by peat accumulation. Trends in basal peat age elsewhere in the fen suggest that other marl flats may have existed in the past that have been completely infilled with peat. This study suggests that marl flat formation is a natural process that has been occurring for millennia, continuously creating habitat for the rare plant species that occupy marl flats. There is no evidence that the marl flats at this site are indicative of anthropogenic disturbance, so that management options for these areas are limited to maintaining the quality and quantity

  11. Assessing the risk of metal mixtures in contaminated sediments on Chironomus riparius based on cytosolic accumulation.

    PubMed

    Péry, Alexandre R R; Geffard, Alain; Conrad, Arnaud; Mons, Raphaël; Garric, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    Sediments usually contain mixtures of trace metals introduced via natural geochemical processes and anthropogenic activities. Kinetics and effects of these metals are strongly dependent both on the composition of the mixture and on the physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment. Relating effects to metal concentration may consequently be advised. However, total accumulation may be a poor predictor of metal toxicity for Chironomus riparius exposed to contaminated field sediments. As an alternative, we proposed to relate effects on Chironomus growth with cytosolic metal accumulation, measured in larvae after a short exposure period. Dose-response relationships were derived for zinc, copper, and cadmium through single-metal exposure data analysed with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics models. They permitted, on the basis of cytosolic accumulation measures, to predict successfully the effects of mixtures of cadmium, zinc, and copper on the growth of larvae exposed to spiked sediments, as well as to field sediments in which zinc and copper were assumed to be predominant. PMID:18514899

  12. Assessment of Bathymetry and Sediment Accumulation of Walker Lake, PA with Multiple Frequency GPR Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Booterbaugh, A.; Beren, M.

    2012-12-01

    Silting within all man-made reservoirs, can be a major problem. Exploring bathymetry with electromagnetic prospection tools is one way to identify the magnitude of sediment accumulation in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, the bathymetry and sediment accumulation of Walker Lake, PA was explored via multi-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. Walker Lake is located on the North Branch Middle Creek, which is a tributary to Middle Creek within the Susquehanna River basin. The technique developed in this study included two antennas positioned on a medium size inflatable boat towed by a 14' flat-bottom Jon Boat. Both 400 and 100 MHz antennas were deployed and sediment thickness and distribution throughout the lake were identified. A total of eighteen transects were taken along the entire length of the lake. A new method with multiple approaches including RADAN 7, GPR Viewer, SAS 9.1.3 and MATLAB was developed to generate three-Dimensional and contour surface of the pre-1971 Topography and bathymetry based on GPR reflection readings. As a result, depth, accumulation and rate of sedimentation in the lake were successfully measured. The lake was found to vary between 0.5 to 9 meters in depth. Sediment accumulation and distribution were calculated from the difference between the surveyed bathymetry and the 1971 pre-existent landscape topography. Sediment was found to accumulate thickest within the old channel of Middle Creek however, the bulk of the sediment volume lied outside this channel. Sediment deposition accumulates mainly upstream near the inlet to the lake and gradually decreases toward the dam inversely proportional to the depth of the lake.

  13. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.)] SEEDLINGS FOR BERYLLIUM ACCUMULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hydroponic study was conducted to determine the uptake of Beryllium (Be) by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Var. Perron] seedlings and its effect on biomass and nutrient accumulation in roots and shoots. Three weeks old soybean plants previously grown on perlite for two weeks and additional seven days ...

  14. Assessment of Sugar Components and Genes Involved in the Regulation of Sucrose Accumulation in Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Hongyu; Peng, Qian; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Huiliang; Fang, Ting; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; He, Huaping; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-09-01

    Soluble sugar contents in mature fruits of 45 peach accessions were quantified using gas chromatography analysis. Sucrose is the predominant sugar in mature fruit, followed by glucose and fructose, which have similar concentrations. Overall, sucrose metabolism and accumulation are crucial determinants of sugar content in peach fruit, and there is a wide range of sucrose concentrations among peach genotypes. To understand the mechanisms regulating sucrose accumulation in peach fruit, expression profiles of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and transport were compared among four genotypes. Two sucrose-cleaving enzyme genes (SUS4 and NINV8), one gene involved in sucrose resynthesis (SPS3), and three sugar transporter genes (SUT2, SUT4, and TMT2) were prevalently expressed in peach fruit, and their expression levels are significantly correlated with sucrose accumulation. In contrast, the VAINV genes responsible for sucrose cleavage in the vacuole were weakly expressed in mature fruit, suggesting that the sucrose-cleaving reaction is not active in the vacuole of sink cells of mature peach fruit. This study suggests that sucrose accumulation in peach fruit involves the coordinated interaction of genes related to sucrose cleavage, resynthesis, and transport, which could be helpful for future peach breeding. PMID:27537219

  15. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  16. Acoustic Prediction State of the Art Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction both for systems and components. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. System level results are shown for both aircraft and engines. Component level results are shown for a landing gear prototype, for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a subsonic round nozzle, and for propulsion airframe aeroacoustic interactions. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  17. Steady-state model of biota sediment accumulation factor for metals in two marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.; Mahony, J.D.; Mueller, R.

    1995-11-01

    A model of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) is developed to relate the ratio of metal concentrations in two marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mytilus edulis) to sediment metal concentration. A generalized metal BSAF can be approximated by a simple relationship that is a function of sediment to water column partitioning, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), the depuration rate, the metal assimilation efficiency from food, the bivalve feeding rate, and the growth rate. Analyses of Mussel Watch data indicate that the medium BSAF across stations varies by about three orders of magnitude from Zn, Cd, and Cu at the highest levels of BSAF = 1 to 10, while Cr has the lowest BSAF at 0.01. Total Hg is about 1.0 and Ni and Pb are approximately 0.1. Calibration of the model indicates that the food route of metal accumulation is significant for all metals but specially for Zn, Cd, Cu, and Hg where virtually all of the observed BSAF is calculated to be due to ingestion of metal from food in the overlying water. These results indicate a potential significance of the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which results in relatively high binding of metal and resulting low depuration rates.

  18. State of the States Policy Snapshot: State Early Childhood Assessment Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane; Carolan, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood stakeholders in state departments of education are interested in knowing what child assessment measures are being used in state-funded pre-kindergarten and in kindergarten classrooms. To address this need, the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) performed a secondary analysis of data in the National Institute for…

  19. 34 CFR 200.3 - Designing State Academic Assessment Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designing State Academic Assessment Systems. 200.3... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED... State Academic Assessment Systems. (a)(1) For each grade and subject assessed, a State's...

  20. 34 CFR 200.3 - Designing State Academic Assessment Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designing State Academic Assessment Systems. 200.3... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED... State Academic Assessment Systems. (a)(1) For each grade and subject assessed, a State's...

  1. Bioavailability assessment and accumulation by five garden flower species grown in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chun; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted on phytoextraction; however, non-native hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for the natural environment of Taiwan in many cases. Drawing upon previous results, the growth and heavy metal accumulation in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils were compared for five local garden flower species. The treatments included a control (CK), 9.73 +/- 0.05 mg kg(-1) (Cd-10), and 17.6 +/- 0.8 mg kg(-1) (Cd-20). All plants were harvested at 35 days after transplanting and analyzed for Cd content. Cd accumulation in the shoot of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.) grown in Cd-20 treatment were 66.3 +/- 6.5 and 100 +/- 11 mg kg(-1), which equated to a removal of 0.80 +/- 0.11 and 0.60 +/- 0.37 mg Cd plant(-1), respectively. The maximum Cd accumulation of Impatiens reached the threshold value (100 mg kg(-1)) characteristic of a Cd hyperaccumulator and its bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were greater than one. Impatiens therefore has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd from Cd-contaminated soils. With the exception of Garden verbena, significant relationships were found between Cd concentrations in soil extracted by 0.05 M EDTA, 0.005 M DTPA, and 0.01 M CaCl2 and the concentration of Cd in the shoots of the tested garden flowers. PMID:21166288

  2. Can a Teacher-Led State Assessment System Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandalos, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent implementation of Nebraska's Standards-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS) introduced a unique opportunity to examine the benefits and drawbacks of a teacher-led state assessment system. STARS is unique among state assessment systems in that statewide tests are replaced by locally developed assessments designed by…

  3. NAEP 1992 Reading State Report for Hawaii. The Trial State Assessment at Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1992, the NAEP Program included an expanded TSA in fourth-grade reading. The 1992 reading assessment considered students' performance in situations that…

  4. NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for South Carolina. Trial State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…

  5. The State of Mathematics Achievement in Hawaii: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…

  6. Assessment of UF6 Equation of State

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P; Chand, K; Warren, D; Vandersall, J

    2009-02-11

    A common assumption in the mathematical analysis of flows of compressible fluids is to treat the fluid as a perfect gas. This is an approximation, as no real fluid obeys the perfect gas relationships over all temperature and pressure conditions. An assessment of the validity of treating the UF{sub 6} gas flow field within a gas centrifuge with perfect gas relationships has been conducted. The definition of a perfect gas is commonly stated in two parts: (1) the gas obeys the thermal equation of state, p = {rho}RT (thermally perfect), and, (2) the gas specific heats are constant (calorically perfect). Analysis indicates the thermally perfect assumption is valid for all flow conditions within the gas centrifuge, including shock fields. The low operating gas pressure is the primary factor in the suitability of the thermally perfect equation of state for gas centrifuge computations. UF{sub 6} is not calorically perfect, as the specific heats vary as a function of temperature. This effect is insignificant within the bulk of the centrifuge gas field, as gas temperatures vary over a narrow range. The exception is in the vicinity of shock fields, where temperature, pressure, and density gradients are large, and the variation of specific heats with temperature should be included in the technically detailed analyses. Results from a normal shock analysis incorporating variable specific heats is included herein, presented in the conventional form of shock parameters as a function of inlet Mach Number. The error introduced by assuming constant specific heats is small for a nominal UF{sub 6} shock field, such that calorically perfect shock relationships can be used for scaling and initial analyses. The more rigorous imperfect gas analysis should be used for detailed analyses.

  7. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  8. Optimization of erythritol and glycerol accumulation in conidia of Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation, using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tarocco, Federico; Lecuona, Roberto E; Couto, Alicia S; Arcas, Jorge A

    2005-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely produced for use as mycoinsecticides. Therefore, improvement of the shelf life of fungal propagules under good and adverse conditions should be a pre-requisite of their production. In order to improve conidial physiology as well as mycoinsecticide efficiency, culture conditions may be varied. The Doehlert design was used to generate response surfaces with an estimation of the parameters of the quadratic model allowing the study of three different factors at a different number of levels. This experimental design was applied to optimize water activity (aw), pH, and fermentation time for Beauveria bassiana conidial production and accumulation of polyols in solid-state fermentation. Thus, it was possible to identify the region in the experimental range in which the optimum values of these parameters were simultaneously achieved. Maximal conidia production was achieved at pH 5-6 and aw=0.999. Under these conditions, polyol accumulation was 3 mg erythritol/g conidia and 29.6 mg glycerol/g conidia. However, maximal polyol accumulation was achieved at pH 4.5 and aw 0.950; erythritol production increased 33-fold and glycerol production 4.5-fold. Under these conditions conidia production was 1,000 times lower. The possibilities of increasing the quality of the biocontrol agent without neglecting yield are discussed. PMID:15731900

  9. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  10. Elevated Accumulation of Parabens and their Metabolites in Marine Mammals from the United States Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchuan; Sasaki, Nozomi; Elangovan, Madhavan; Diamond, Guthrie; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-20

    The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well-known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05), which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in marine mammals. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were found in the livers of polar bears from the Chuckchi Sea and Beaufort Sea, which suggested widespread distribution of MeP and 4-HB in the oceanic environment. PMID:26379094

  11. The Road Ahead for State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report includes three papers that address critical "next generation" issues in assessment policy that can help to guide the choices made about system design: computer adaptive assessments, assessment of English learners and assessing science. None of these topics has received the attention that it deserves in the current debate on assessment…

  12. Assessment of damage accumulation in thermal barrier coatings using a fluorescent dye infiltration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, B.; Jordan, E.; Gell, M.; Geary, A.

    1999-03-01

    Thermal barrier coatings, used extensively on hot section gas turbine engine components, weaken and spall after repeated thermal exposure during normal engine operation. A new technique has been developed, involving the use of vacuum impregnation of the porous ceramic with a mixture of epoxy and fluorescent dye (rhodamine-B) and the ASTM C 633 79 direct pull test, to preserve and reveal incipient damage and accumulated damage prior to spallation in thermal barrier coatings. Excellent definition of damage is provided by the dye in electron beam physical vapor deposited coatings, but the damage is more difficult to distinguish in the highly porous plasma coatings. Image processing is used to quantify the area fraction of debonding. For the electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia coating evaluated, a local area fraction of debonding of up to 20% was observed at 80% of spallation life.

  13. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    SciTech Connect

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-07-07

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  14. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  15. Portability of State Assessments in a Geographically Mobile Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Most states do not offer reciprocity for other state assessment tests. That practice has an adverse effect on school-aged, dependent children of military service members. President Clinton's 1997 solution was a national standardized assessment test for public school students. Critics stated it would cost $96,000,000 to deliver the test. Florida…

  16. An Analysis of State Alternate Assessment Participation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musson, Jane E.; Thomas, Megan K.; Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kearns, Jacqueline F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine all states' participation guidelines for alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) and to analyze these guidelines for common and contrasting themes. State alternate assessment participation guidelines were found for all 50 states. Participation guidelines were coded, and 12…

  17. NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for Hawaii. The Trial State Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to shift to standards-based reporting of National…

  18. NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for South Carolina. The Trial State Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics to shift to standards-based reporting of National…

  19. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square

  20. Spatially-explicit model of mercury accumulation in the forest floor of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Zimmerman, P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospherically-deposited Hg has a strong affinity for soil organic matter. The Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects soil samples from forested areas across the United States as part of its sampling program, and annual soils inventories are underway or completed in 46 of the 50 states (Alaska, Hawaii, New Mexico, and Oklahoma have yet to be sampled). Our objective is to describe the spatial distribution of forest floor Hg for a transect running across the United States, from Arizona in the southwest to Maine in the northeast. The collection of forest floor samples was accomplished as part of the standard FIA Phase 3 Soil Quality Indicator program. Field protocols include the measurement of the thickness of the forest floor and the collection of the entire forest floor found within a 30-cm diameter sampling frame. We removed approximately 0.1 g of the sample for plots in our region of interest, and these were sent to two different laboratories for Hg analysis by cold-vapor atomic absorption. The two laboratories calibrated their instruments against common Hg standards. We found good agreement between samples analyzed at both laboratories. Observations of mercury concentrations were joined with the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database and other geospatial databases to assign basic location information and associated inventory data. Ecoprovince and forest-type group are significant predictors of Hg storage; conifer species tend to store more mercury than hardwood species. Additionally, models created using spatially-explicit techniques yield distinct patterns of Hg storage that vary across forest-type groups.

  1. Mercury Accumulation in the Forest Floor of the North Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Amacher, M. C.; Cannon, W. F.; Kolka, R. K.; Woodruff, L. G.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospherically-deposited Hg has a strong affinity for soil organic matter. Fluxes of Hg in soil water of upland watersheds are generally small, but Hg stored in soil organic matter may be released when the forest floor is consumed by fire. The contribution of Hg from forest fires relative to other anthropogenic sources is an important unknown. The Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects soil samples from forested areas across the United States as part of its Phase 3 sampling, and annual soils inventories are underway or completed in 45 of the 50 states (Alaska, Hawaii, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Oklahoma have yet to be sampled). Our objective here is to inventory and model the spatial distribution of forest floor Hg for a transect running across the north central United States. The collection of forest floor samples was accomplished as part of the standard FIA Phase 3 Soil Quality Indicator program. Field protocols include the measurement of the thickness of the forest floor and the collection of the entire forest floor found within a sampling frame having a diameter of 30 cm. We removed approximately 0.1 g of the sample for plots in our region of interest, and these were sent for Hg analysis by cold-vapor atomic absorption. Observations of mercury concentrations were joined with the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database to assign basic location information and associated inventory data. Mean plot-level values of Hg storage were tested against ecoprovince, forest type group, latitude, and longitude using analysis of variance and geographically weighted regression. Ecoprovince and forest type group were both significant predictors of mercury storage; conifer species tend to store more mercury than hardwood species. Different forest type groups store different amounts of forest floor Hg and in widely dispersed locations.

  2. Mercury and lead: assessing the toxic effects on growth and metal accumulation by Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Dirilgen, Neylan

    2011-01-01

    Lemna minor L. was used to investigate the toxic effects of Pb and Hg either alone or in various binary mixtures under the static test conditions. A full-strength Jacob culture medium was used for the long-term cultivation of duckweeds and the experiments. Tests were run for 4 and 7 days. The EC(50) values for Pb was estimated as 6.8 ± 0.2 mg L(-1) and 5.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) for a 4 and a 7-day test periods, respectively. Hg was much more toxic than Pb with the EC(50) of 0.64 ± 0.03 mg L(-1) (4 days) and 0.48 ± 0.02 mg L(-1) (7 days). The amounts of Pb uptake by the plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The cold vapor AAS-technique (CV-AAS) was used for Hg determination. The interactive effect between Pb and Hg on growth was evaluated as additive on the basis of statistical data analysis. However, an antagonistic interaction was observed on the metal accumulation efficiency. PMID:20951433

  3. The State of Learning Outcomes Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; Ewell, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, economic and other factors are pressing institutions of higher education to assess student learning to insure that graduates acquire the skills and competencies demanded in the 21st century. This paper summarises the status of undergraduate student learning outcomes assessment at accredited colleges and universities in the United…

  4. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1

    PubMed Central

    Anning, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  5. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Herbivory on Plant Silica Accumulation across a Global Network of Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, K.

    2015-12-01

    Plants, especially grasses, have a profound impact on the biogeochemical cycling of silicon. Silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in soil water is absorbed by plant roots, transported via the transpiration stream, and deposited as solid silica (SiO2) phytoliths in leaf tissue. Evidence indicates that plant phytolith accumulation may have evolved as an anti-herbivore strategy, and modern studies reveal that these silica particles are abrasive to animal mouthparts and can interfere with digestion. Furthermore, several studies have shown that grasses have the ability to respond to insect and mammal herbivory by modifying the amount of silicon they absorb from soil, a property known as inducible defense. However, herbivory studies remain largely limited to a laboratory setting, and research in natural systems has only been conducted at a regional spatial scale. To address whether these localized patterns persist at the global scale, we utilized data from a network of 40 grassland sites occurring on six continents. Vegetation samples including grasses, forbs, and litter, were collected in and out of 6m x 6m herbivore exclosures by a team of collaborating scientists for an on-going research effort known as the Nutrient Network (NutNet). We utilized near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to create a calibration for plant silica which allowed for the rapid analysis of more than 1000 samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that silica content of grasses was higher outside of exclosures, where herbivores had access to vegetation. Our data reveal that herbivores play a significant role in modifying plant silicon uptake, and hence, the rates of silicon cycling in grasslands across the globe.

  7. Generalized assessment of heat-storage accumulators based on energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hemzal, K.; Wurm, J.

    1994-09-01

    The analytical and experimental work described in this paper has to do with the development of a new and practical method for designing and rating heat-storage systems operating on a heat-capacity duty cycle of several days. It was carried out as part of a broader project evaluating equipment for exploiting solar energy and heat produced by animals on animal farms. Water-type heat accumulators were found to be an essential component of these systems; however, no generalized or specialized criteria were available for their effective design. Therefore, design optimization was carried out analytically, and the resulting approach was experimentally verified. This process led to the development of generalized criteria for rating the efficiency of stored heat utilization and to the development of reservoir design guidelines that, for practical design purposes, eliminated the need for knowing storage temperature histograms. The analysis is based on defining the storage quality as the degree of perfection ({zeta}{sub e}) in terms of the initial and final exergy (available energy) ratios of the stored heat during the storage period. This function was determined analytically, experimentally verified for four design cases (with and without insulation), and related to the normalized design parameters, rate of temperature degradation, and fluid properties by time-dependent Fourier similarity number Fo. The resulting relationship of the form -- {zeta}{sub e} = k log Fo + q was correlated with the measurements. For a specified storage, the ``degree of perfection`` ({zeta}{sub e}) can then be optimized and the desirable dimensions of a reservoir selected by calculating the characteristic (or normalized) dimension from the Fourier number (Fo).

  8. Self-control assessments of capuchin monkeys with the rotating tray task and the accumulation task.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Rossettie, Mattea S; James, Brielle T; Whitham, Will; Walker, Bradlyn; Futch, Sara E; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of delay of gratification in capuchin monkeys using a rotating tray (RT) task have shown improved self-control performance in these animals in comparison to the accumulation (AC) task. In this study, we investigated whether this improvement resulted from the difference in methods between the rotating tray task and previous tests, or whether it was the result of greater overall experience with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 1 produced similar performance levels by capuchins monkeys in the RT and AC tasks when identical reward and temporal parameters were used. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar result using reward amounts that were more similar to previous AC experiments with these monkeys. In Experiment 3, monkeys performed multiple versions of the AC task with varied reward and temporal parameters. Their self-control behavior was found to be dependent on the overall delay to reward consumption, rather than the overall reward amount ultimately consumed. These findings indicate that these capuchin monkeys' self-control capacities were more likely to have improved across studies because of the greater experience they had with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 4 and Experiment 5 tested new, task-naïve monkeys on both tasks, finding more limited evidence of self-control, and no evidence that one task was more beneficial than the other in promoting self-control. The results of this study suggest that future testing of this kind should focus on temporal parameters and reward magnitude parameters to establish accurate measures of delay of gratification capacity and development in this species and perhaps others. PMID:27298233

  9. Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Tord

    1979-01-01

    Studies were carried out in Japan, United States, and Sweden regarding comparability of analytical methods for cadmium, daily intake of cadmium via food, daily amount of cadmium in feces, concentrations of cadmium in different tissues and the body burden of cadmium, urinary excretion of cadmium and cadmium concentrations in blood. It was found that the cadmium intake via food among adults is about 35 μg/day in Japan (Tokyo) and about 17 μg/day in the U.S. (Dallas) and Sweden (Stockholm). It varies with age in a way similar to calorie intake. Body burden increases rapidly with age. The half-time of cadmium is longer in muscles than in liver or kidneys. In the cross-sectional population samples studied (smokers and nonsmokers mixed) the average cadmium body burden at age 45 was about 21 mg in Japan, 9 mg in the U.S., and 6 mg in Sweden. Among nonsmokers in the U.S. and Sweden the body burden at age 45 was about 5–6 mg. The difference in average body burden for smokers and nonsmokers is explained by differences in smoking habits. Cadmium excretion in urine was closely correlated with body burden and about 0.005–0.01% of body burden is excreted daily in urine. Cadmium concentration in the blood was a good indicator of average recent intake over a 3-month period. Neither blood cadmium nor urine cadmium changed immediately after an increase of exposure level. PMID:226355

  10. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  11. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

  12. Assessing the Legacy of Red Mud Pollution in a Shallow Freshwater Lake: Arsenic Accumulation and Speciation in Macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Justyna P; Meharg, Andrew A; Heal, Kate V; Carey, Manus; Gunn, Iain D M; Searle, Kate R; Winfield, Ian J; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about long-term ecological responses in lakes following red mud pollution. Among red mud contaminants, arsenic (As) is of considerable concern. Determination of the species of As accumulated in aquatic organisms provides important information about the biogeochemical cycling of the element and transfer through the aquatic food-web to higher organisms. We used coupled ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess As speciation in tissues of five macrophyte taxa in Kinghorn Loch, U.K., 30 years following the diversion of red mud pollution from the lake. Toxic inorganic As was the dominant species in the studied macrophytes, with As species concentrations varying with macrophyte taxon and tissue type. The highest As content measured in roots of Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray (87.2 mg kg(-1)) greatly exceeded the 3-10 mg kg(-1) range suggested as a potential phytotoxic level. Accumulation of toxic As species by plants suggested toxicological risk to higher organisms known to utilize macrophytes as a food source. PMID:27415607

  13. Who Takes the Alternate Assessment? State Criteria. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlick, Ken; Olsen, Ken

    This paper discusses the new Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1997 amendments that require states or local education agencies to develop guidelines for participation in alternate assessments for those children with disabilities who cannot participate in state and district-wide assessment programs. The policies and guidelines of 12…

  14. Common Core State Standards Assessments: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were created in response to the shortcomings of No Child Left Behind era standards and assessments. Among those failings were the poor quality of content standards and assessments and the variability in content expectations and proficiency targets across states, as well as concerns related to the economic…

  15. Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-10-31

    This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Fatigue Damage Accumulation in Wavy Slip Metals from Acoustic Harmonic Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive, analytical treatment is presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of a stress perturbation with dislocation substructures (veins and persistent slip bands) and cracks that evolve during high-cycle fatigue of wavy slip metals. The nonlinear interaction is quantified by a material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contribution to beta from the substructures is obtained from the analysis of Cantrell [Cantrell, J. H., 2004, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 460, 757]. The contribution to beta from cracks is obtained by applying the Paris law for crack propagation to the Nazarov-Sutin crack nonlinearity equation [Nazarov, V. E., and Sutin, A. M., 1997, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 3349]. The nonlinearity parameter resulting from the two contributions is predicted to increase monotonically by hundreds of percent during fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. The increase in beta during the first 80-90 percent of fatigue life is dominated by the evolution of dislocation substructures, while the last 10-20 percent is dominated by crack growth. The model is applied to the fatigue of aluminium alloy 2024-T4 in stress-controlled loading at 276MPa for which experimental data are reported. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.

  17. The Political Structuration of Assessment: Negotiating State Power and Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Examines the national educational assessment systems of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay to explore the role of politics and state-polity relations in shaping the design, implementation, and impact of national assessment systems. Discusses the rapid global diffusion of national assessment systems and the impact of centralized versus decentralized…

  18. Science Assessments for All: Integrating Science Simulations into Balanced State Science Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.; Buckley, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the collaboration of six states to study how simulation-based science assessments can become transformative components of multi-level, balanced state science assessment systems. The project studied the psychometric quality, feasibility, and utility of simulation-based science assessments designed to serve formative purposes…

  19. Strength in Numbers: State Spending on K-12 Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    In the coming years, states will need to make the most significant changes to their assessment systems in a decade as they implement the Common Core State Standards, a common framework for what students are expected to know that will replace existing standards in 45 states and the District of Columbia. The Common Core effort has prompted concerns…

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYCHLOROPRENE. STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from polychloroprene manufacture. The composition, quality, and rate of emissions, and their environmental effects are described. Polychloroprene is produced by the emulsion polymerization of 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene (chlo...

  1. Physiological measures and mental-state assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, John A.

    1988-01-01

    General considerations regarding monitoring of operators for alertness are discussed, including who should be monitored and what information should be collected. Measures that have been used to ascertain more general and persistent states of alertness are outlined, including cardiac activity, peripheral vascular activity, skin conductance, electroencephalography, pupillography, oculomotor activity, and body movements.

  2. State Standards, Assessments and Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher; Wilson, Michael

    This digest describes a program used by two New Jersey educators to help teachers improve instruction through a deeper understanding of state standards and test specifications. Understanding how standards-based tests are constructed is the first step in being able to use them to guide and improve instruction. This digest recommends, as the route…

  3. Accumulation and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments and zoobenthos (Bellamya aeruginosa and Corbicula fluminea) from Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ming; Hang, Xiaoshuai; Wang, Longmian; Yin, Hongbin; Zhang, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation and risk assessment of metals in sediments and zoobenthos (Bellamya aeruginosa and Corbicula fluminea) from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that metal (Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) concentrations in Lake Taihu varied greatly, and Cd in the Zhushan Bay showed higher bioavailability compared to the other metals studied. The spatial distribution of metals in B. aeruginosa and C. fluminea was similar to that in sediments. Zn and Cu exhibited the higher mean concentration in B. aeruginosa and C. fluminea, which was in good accordance with its higher content in surrounding sediment. Labile fractions (i.e., acid-soluble (F1), reducible (F2) and F1+F2) of Cu and Zn in sediments showed a significant positive correlation with them in B. aeruginosa (P<0.01); no correlation relationship was found for metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) between in the tissue of C. fluminea and in sediments. The results of ecological risk assessment showed that Zhushan Bay was seriously contaminated by metal Cd, as it made the main contribution of all the metals. Total target hazard quotients indicated that adults and children both had potential health risk through consuming C. fluminea. Hazard index values suggested that adults and children might experience adverse health effects through consuming B. aeruginosa and C. fluminea. PMID:26744952

  4. Timeline and Approach to Standards and Assessments. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The following profiles address the basic decisions and actions that state education policy-makers--in the state departments of education, unless otherwise noted--are taking to foster successful statewide implementation of the new standards and aligned assessments in 15 states. These profiles provide a descriptive overview of each state's…

  5. Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2013-07-31

    This paper presents a parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned gradient algorithm and an orthogonal decomposition-based algorithm. The preliminary tests against a commercial Energy Management System (EMS) State Estimation (SE) tool using real-world data are performed. The results show that while the precondition gradient algorithm can solve the SE problem quicker with the help of parallel computing techniques, it might not be good for real-world data due to the large condition number of gain matrix introduced by the wide range of measurement weights. With the help of PETSc package and considering one iteration of the SE process, the orthogonal decomposition-based PSE algorithm can achieve 5-20 times speedup comparing against the commercial EMS tool. It is very promising that the developed PSE can solve the SE problem for large power systems at the SCADA rate, to improve grid reliability.

  6. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  7. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    PubMed

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics. PMID:23415340

  8. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  9. United States Regional GIC Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, J. L.; Trichtchenko, L.; Fernberg, P.

    2012-12-01

    Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GICs) are driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. These disturbances result in ground-level, time varying magnetic fields, which, when large, can create induced currents that may interfere with electric transmission systems. We present a first step towards a regional GIC hazard assessment map by considering the spatial distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon for specific physiographic regions. The analysis is based on 1D models of Earth conductivity that were compiled and interpreted from past conductivity measurements and specified levels of the change of magnetic field with time (dB/dt), representing different levels of geomagnetic storm conditions. In addition, we compare the estimated electric field values with derived indices often used as proxies for geomagnetic disturbance, including the realtime USGS-K index and local magnetic disturbance values calculated from magnetic field data at US Geological Survey magnetic observatories.

  10. Corpora and Language Assessment: The State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the current state of and recent developments in the use of corpora for language assessment and considers future directions with a special focus on computational methodology. Because corpora began to make inroads into language assessment in the 1990s, test developers have increasingly used them as a reference resource to…

  11. State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations, 2001. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thompson, Sandra; Robey, Jennifer

    This report presents findings of an analysis of state policies on student participation in assessments and accommodations for 2001. Major findings include: (1) participation options beyond the usual three (participation without accommodations, participation with accommodations, alternate assessment) have become more evident and include partial…

  12. Proficiency Guidance on New State Summative Assessments from NWEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) computer adaptive interim assessments serve many purposes, from informing instruction to identifying students for intervention to projecting proficiency on state accountability assessments. To make sure its flagship product does the latter, Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) routinely conducts studies…

  13. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...-quality, yearly student academic assessments that includes, at a minimum, academic assessments in... also measure the achievement of students in other academic subjects in which the State has...

  14. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...-quality, yearly student academic assessments that includes, at a minimum, academic assessments in... also measure the achievement of students in other academic subjects in which the State has...

  15. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  16. How States Define Alternate Assessments for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Flowers, Claudia; Karvonen, Meagan; Spooner, Fred; Algozzine, Robert

    Since the passage of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, inclusion of all students with disabilities in accountability systems has been mandatory. By 2001, school personnel began to understand that alternate assessment needed to focus on students' performance on state standards, and nearly all states had created…

  17. The Next Generation of State Assessment and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert; Marion, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot program in New Hampshire models innovative ways creating and applying state assessments and educator accountability. A study of New Hampshire's new system, which has already received approval by the U.S. Department of Education under a waiver from NCLB, finds some positive results and also suggests challenges states might face in putting…

  18. An Analysis of State Autism Educational Assessment Practices and Requirements.

    PubMed

    Barton, Erin E; Harris, Bryn; Leech, Nancy; Stiff, Lillian; Choi, Gounah; Joel, Tiffany

    2016-03-01

    States differ in the procedures and criteria used to identify ASD. These differences are likely to impact the prevalence and age of identification for children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specific state variations in ASD identification and eligibility criteria requirements. We examined variations by state in autism assessment practices and the proportion of children eligible for special education services under the autism category. Overall, our findings suggest that ASD identification practices vary across states, but most states use federal guidelines, at least in part, to set their requirements. Implications and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:26363913

  19. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    PubMed

    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide

  20. Accumulation of policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface litter and soils in four forests in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Perlinger, J. A.; Zielinska, B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic material, both from natural or anthropogenic sources. Once emitted, they can be transported across thousands of kilometers impacting remote environments. Here, we characterize the distribution of 23 PAHs and 9 oxygenated PAHs (Σ32PAH) in litter and soils in four remote forests in the United States. Concentrations of Σ32PAH in fresh surface litter (Oi layers) showed very low levels in three of the four forests (mixed coniferous forest in Maine, deciduous blue oak forest in California, and a coniferous forest in Washington State), with PAHs levels much lower than those reported in previous studies from Europe. The analysis showed that PAHs represented a mix of regional background sources. Highest PAH levels were observed in a coniferous forest floor in Florida, attributable to frequent prescribed burning of understory vegetation at this site, and supported by high contributions of retene (>7%; compared to <1% at other sites). Σ32PAH increased in deeper, more decomposed organic litter layers, increasing from 57±19 ng g-1 (in Oi layer) to 511± 285 ng g-1 in decomposed, humidified litter layers (Oe and Oa horizons). In mineral soils, Σ32PAH were over an order of magnitude lower (average 37±8 ng g-1), which was attributed to higher bulk densities of mineral soils. However, standardized per unit of organic carbon (OC), Σ32PAH:OC ratios in mineral soils also were below levels observed in overlying litter, indicating a strong sorption capacity of organic horizons for atmospheric deposition. Within mineral soils, Σ32PAH:OC ratios increased with depth (Ah horizons: 750±198 ng g-1; B horizons: 1,202±97 ng g-1), indicating that vertical transfer in mineral soils leads to significant accumulation of PAH in subsoils. ΣPAH:OC increases observed in deeper soil layers may be attributed to slower mineralization rates of PAHs compared to OC, plus

  1. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  2. [Expressive behaviour to assess the emotional states in horses].

    PubMed

    Bohnet, W

    2007-03-01

    The emotional states such as feelings and emotions are not easy to assess by objective methods in animals as well as in humans. Beside measuring physiological variables an aid to assess the emotional states is the analysis of expressive behaviour of an individual respecting the relating context. Especially developed in mammals, which live in obligatory social i.e. in stable permanent social communities, are facial expression and gesture. Also horses display a differentiated expressive behaviour, which can be observed and analysed by humans. Moreover it could be demonstrated, that in situations of stress the display shown by horses (gesture, facial expression, posture) correlate with corresponding physiological reactions. Thus the expressive behaviour is suitable to assess the emotional states of horses depending on the situation. PMID:17419541

  3. Volcanic ashfall accumulation and loading on gutters and pitched roofs from laboratory empirical experiments: Implications for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, S. J.; Cole, J. W.; Wilson, G.; Wilson, T. M.; Broom, S.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanic ash load is dependent on the migration and accumulation of ash on roofing surfaces and guttering, of which limited research has been conducted. This study investigates this knowledge gap through the empirical experimental testing of volcanic ash on variably pitched metal sheet roofs with modern PVC gutter systems, highlighting the relative importance of accumulation, migration, remobilization, saturation, and subsequent load. A testing rig delivered ash onto variably pitched roofs (pitches 15°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 45°) with two 45° tests involving a wet surface with subsequent ashfall, and the second of ashfall with periods of wetting, followed by wetting until failure. In testing, dry ash on a dry roof accumulates at pitches up to 35°, above this pitch the percentage of ash accumulating reduces with greater percentages infilling guttering and or lost to the ground. With the introduction of a wet roof surface at 45° pitch, adherence of dry ash greatly increases, increasing accumulated ash thickness as compared to dry tests from 8% to 38%. For testing involving periods of wetting at 45° roof pitch, accumulation percentages further increased to 50%. Ash migrating from the roof surface filled guttering more rapidly at greater pitches, which once full resulted in further migrating ash to spill over the front or back gutter lips. Collapse of guttering did not occur during testing, but deformation and bracket detachment did occur at loads > 1 kPa. This study provides data on load calculations on roofing and PVC guttering through the quantification and utilization of relationships between ash fate, pitch, and the influence of water, in the development of two scenarios for both roof and gutter. These two scenarios then enable the estimation of ash accumulation and thus the load and collapse thresholds for roof and gutter at different roof pitch, which could be adopted for volcanic risk modeling or risk management.

  4. Clofazimine Biocrystal Accumulation in Macrophages Upregulates Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Production To Induce a Systemic Anti-Inflammatory State.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gi S; Keswani, Rahul K; Sud, Sudha; Rzeczycki, Phillip M; Murashov, Mikhail D; Koehn, Tony A; Standiford, Theodore J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Rosania, Gus R

    2016-06-01

    Clofazimine (CFZ) is a poorly soluble antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of leprosy. In spite of its therapeutic value, CFZ therapy is accompanied by the formation of drug biocrystals that accumulate within resident tissue macrophages, without obvious toxicological manifestations. Therefore, to specifically elucidate the off-target consequences of drug bioaccumulation in macrophages, we compared the level of inflammasome activation in CFZ-accumulating organs (spleen, liver and lung) in mice after 2 and 8 weeks of CFZ treatment when the drug exists in soluble and insoluble (biocrystalline) forms, respectively. Surprisingly, the results showed a drastic reduction in caspase 1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) cleavage in the livers of mice treated with CFZ for 8 weeks (8-week-CFZ-treated mice) compared to 2-week-CFZ-treated and control mice, which was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in hepatic IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) production and a 21-fold increase in serum IL-1RA levels. In the lung and spleen, IL-1β cleavage and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression were unaffected by soluble or biocrystal CFZ forms. Functionally, there was a drastic reduction of carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the footpads and lungs, respectively, of 8-week-CFZ-treated mice. This immunomodulatory activity of CFZ biocrystal accumulation was attributable to the upregulation of IL-1RA, since CFZ accumulation had minimal effect in IL-1RA knockout mice or 2-week-CFZ-treated mice. In conclusion, CFZ accumulation and biocrystal formation in resident tissue macrophages profoundly altered the host's immune system and prompted an IL-1RA-dependent, systemic anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27021320

  5. Implementing Common Core State Standards and Assessments: A Workbook for State and District Leaders. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex; Rodriguez, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Achieve and the U.S. Education Delivery Institute have developed a practical Common Core Implementation Workbook for all states in the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). This workbook uses a proven performance management methodology known as "delivery" to lay out clear action steps for states and districts. It…

  6. Implementing Common Core State Standards and Assessments: A Workbook for State and District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex; Rodriguez, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Achieve and the U.S. Education Delivery Institute have developed a practical Common Core Implementation Workbook for all states in the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). This workbook uses a proven performance management methodology known as "delivery" to lay out clear action steps for states and districts. It…

  7. The effects of temperature and nitrogen and sulfur additions on carbon accumulation in a nutrient-poor boreal mire: Decadal effects assessed using 210Pb peat chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olid, Carolina; Nilsson, Mats B.; Eriksson, Tobias; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2014-03-01

    Boreal peatlands are a major long-term reservoir of atmospheric carbon (C) and play an important role in the global C cycle. It is unclear how C accumulation in peatlands responds to changing temperatures and nutrients (specifically, nitrogen and sulfur). In this study, we assessed how the C input rate and C accumulation rate in decadal old peat layers respond to increased air temperatures (+3.6°C) during the growing season and the annual additions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) (30 and 20 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively) over 12 years of field treatments in a boreal mire. An empirical mass balance model was applied to 210Pb-dated peat cores to evaluate changes in C inputs, C mass loss, and net C accumulation rates in response to the treatments. We found that (i) none of the treatments generated a significant effect on peat mass loss decay rates, (ii) C input rates were positively affected by N additions and negatively affected by S additions, (iii) the C accumulation rate in the uppermost (10 to 12 cm) peat was increased by N additions and decreased by S additions, and (iv) only air temperature significantly affected the main effects induced by N and S additions. Based on our findings, we argue that C accumulation rates in surface peat layers of nutrient-poor boreal mires can increase despite the predicted rise in air temperatures as long as N loads increase and acid atmospheric S remains low.

  8. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources; results, methodology, and supporting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, G.L.; Takahashi, K.I.; Varnes, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the Minerals Management Service. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  9. 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Varnes, Katharine L.

    1996-01-01

    This revised CD-ROM summarizes the results, released in 1995, of the 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. Minor errors in the original DDS-30 (listed in DDS-35 and DDS-36) are corrected in this revised version and in the data files now released in DDS-35 and DDS-36. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  10. Accumulation of as, pb, and cu associated with the recent sedimentary processes in the colorado delta, South of the United States-Mexico boundary.

    PubMed

    Daesslé, L W; Lugo-Ibarra, K C; Tobschall, H J; Melo, M; Gutiérrez-Galindo, E A; García-Hernández, J; Alvarez, L G

    2009-05-01

    Sediment cores from the Colorado River (CR) remnant delta were used to assess the changing sedimentation and pollutant deposition processes in response to extensive human manipulation of the river. The cores are formed of alternating layers of clays and silts, with isolated sandy horizons. The clayey units are interpreted as periods of flood flows into this low gradient and meandering estuary after dam construction in the United States. The geochemistry of these sediments is particular because of the association of MnO with CaO rather than with the Fe(2)O(3)-rich clays. Past pollution of the CR delta by As, and probably also Pb and Cu, is recorded in some cores. Enrichment factors (EFs) >1 for these elements and their statistical association suggest anthropogenic inputs. The most likely sources for these element enrichments (especially As) are the arsenate-based pesticides used intensively in the area during the first half of the 20th century. The transport of these elements from the nearby agricultural lands into the present river reaches appears to have been driven in part by flooding events of the CR. Flushing by river and tide flows appear to be responsible of a lower pollutant deposition in the CR compared to the adjacent Hardy River (HR). Arsenic in the buried clay units of the HR has concentrations above the probable toxic effect level (PEL) for dwelling organisms, with maximum concentrations of 30 microg g(-1). Excess (210)Pb activities ((210)Pb(xs)) indicate that fluxes of this unsupported atmospheric isotope were not constant in this estuarine environment. However, the presence of (210)Pb(xs) does indicate that these sediments accumulated during the last ~100 years. Aproximate sediment ages were estimated from the correlation of historic flooding events with the interpretation of the stratigraphic record. They are in fair agreement with the reported onset of DDT metabolites at the bottom of one core. PMID:18797954

  11. Assessing Outside the Bubble: Performance Assessment for Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jesica M.; Bristow, Lora J.; Coriell, Bryn P.; Jensen, Mark E.; Johnson, Leif E.; Luring, Sara R.; Lyons-Tinsley, Mary Ann; Mefford, Megan M.; Neu, Gwen L.; Samulski, Emerson T.; Warner, Timothy D.; White, Mathew F.

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of Common Core State Standards has increased the need for assessments capable of measuring more performance-based outcomes. This monograph brings together the current literature and resources for the development and implementation of performance assessment. The text was written as part of a project-based graduate course and has…

  12. Student Outcomes Assessment: What Makes it Work? Assessment Practices & Experiences in the California State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Inst. for Teaching and Learning.

    This monograph is a collection of papers that emerged from a project evaluating the implementation of college outcomes assessment at the campuses of the California State University (CSU) system. Fifteen pilot projects integrated their outcomes assessment in the academic majors and in general education from 1986 to 1990 and the projects were then…

  13. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING: A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state-of-the-art review of exposure assessment modeling describes currently available models that simulate the environmental fate of substances, the exposure to such substances, and the effects of such exposure. The focus is first on exposure and effects, where relatively lit...

  14. Accommodation Practices for English Language Learners in States' Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny C.; Rivera, Nichole M.; Chang, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Testing accommodations have been widely utilized as a way of increasing the validity of content assessments for English language learner (ELL) students. However, concerns have also arisen regarding the appropriateness of accommodation use, including the accessibility and fairness of accommodations. While many states have…

  15. Students' Perceptions of a Maryland State Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Lane, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to provide empirical evidence of students' views about a state performance assessment and its effects in science and social studies classrooms in Maryland. We developed 2 student questionnaires, 1 for each subject, and administered them to a statewide, stratified random sample of students in…

  16. State Needs Assessments, Title II EESA: A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Royce; And Others

    The Education for Economic Security Act requires state education agencies to submit comprehensive needs assessments in order to receive the funding provided by Title II of the Act for improvements in mathematics, science, computer learning, and foreign language instruction. Areas of need covered in this summary include: the qualifications of…

  17. State Writing Assessment: Inclusion of Motivational Factors in Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Zheng, Jinjie; Morlock, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated large-scale state writing assessments for the inclusion of motivational characteristics in the writing task and written prompt. We identified 6 motivational variables from the authentic activity literature: time allocation, audience specification, audience intimacy, definition of task, allowance for multiple perspectives, and…

  18. Examining Alignment between State Performance Assessment and Mathematics Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Lane, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe research on the extent to which mathematics classroom activities in Maryland were aligned with Maryland learning outcomes and the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP; Maryland State Department of Education, 1995, 2000). The study was part of a larger research project (S. Lane, C. S. Parke, & C. A. Stone,…

  19. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State responsibilities for assessment. 200.2 Section 200.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by...

  20. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State responsibilities for assessment. 200.2 Section 200.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by...

  1. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State responsibilities for assessment. 200.2 Section 200.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by...

  2. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  3. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  4. Assessing Compliance with United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no exceptions or special considerations for CubeSats in the United States Government (USG) Orbital Debris (OD) Mitigation Guidelines. For all objects launched into space the 2010 United States Space Policy requires that any failure to comply with the USG OD Mitigation Guidelines requires approval by the head of the launching agency. In addition it requires that the US Secretary of State be notified of any non-compliance. For these reasons it is important that missions consider these policies during their design phase. This paper will discuss methods to assess compliance with USG OD mitigation guidelines as they apply to CubeSat missions using tools such as the NASA Debris Assessment Software (DAS).

  5. Assessment of epidemiology capacity in state health departments - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Lampkins, Rebecca; Lemmings, Jennifer; Lichtenstein, Meredith; Huang, Monica; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-04-17

    Since 2001, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) periodically has conducted a standardized national assessment of state health departments' core epidemiology capacity (1-4). During August-September 2013, CSTE sent a web-based questionnaire to state epidemiologists in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The questionnaire inquired into workforce capacity and technology advancements to support public health surveillance. Measures of capacity included the total number of epidemiologists, a self-assessment of the state's ability to carry out four of the 10 essential public health services* most relevant to epidemiologists, and program-specific epidemiology capacity. This report summarizes the results, which indicated that in 2013, most of these measures were at their highest level since assessments began in 2001, including the number of epidemiologists, the percentage of state health departments with substantial-to-full (>50%) capacity for three of the 10 essential public health services, and the percentage with substantial-to-full epidemiology capacity for eight of 10 program areas. However, >50% of states reported minimal-to-no (<25%) epidemiology capacity for four of 10 program areas, including occupational health (55%), oral health (59%), substance abuse (73%), and mental health (80%). Federal, state, and local agencies should work together to develop a strategy to address continued outstanding gaps in epidemiology capacity. PMID:25879899

  6. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  7. Effectiveness of Repeat Angiographic Assessment in Patients Designated for Radioembolization Using Yttrium-90 Microspheres With Initial Extrahepatic Accumulation of Technitium-99m Macroaggregated Albumin: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dudeck, Oliver Wilhelmsen, Skadi; Ulrich, Gerhard; Loewenthal, David; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a workflow consisting of repeat assessment in patients planned for yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization in case of nontarget visceral technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) accumulation despite initial prophylactic coil embolization of nonhepatic arteries. Materials and Methods: In 341 patients with primary and secondary liver cancer, pretreatment hepatic angiograms, as well as single-photon emission computed tomography coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans, were obtained. Extrahepatic tracer deposition was identified in 33 patients (9.7%) necessitating repeat assessment. Images were reviewed to correlate the site of MAA accumulation with causative gastrointestinal vessels, and repeat angiograms served as reference standard. Results: At repeat angiography, the source of extrahepatic flow was identified and eliminated in 31 of 33 patients (93.9%). In 20 patients (60.6%), successful embolization of nontarget vessels was achieved, in 13 patients (39.4%), MAA was administered more distally. Afterward, extrahepatic MAA deposition was eliminated in 30 patients (90.9%). Conclusion: The algorithm of repeat assessment in case of extrahepatic MAA accumulation has proven highly effective to eliminate extrahepatic shunting, thus decreasing the risk of postradioembolization complications due to inadvertent visceral microsphere deposition.

  8. Assessment and application of a snowblow modelling approach for identifying enhanced snow accumulation in areas of former glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Smith, Michael; Le Brocq, Anne; Ardakova, Ekaterina; Hillier, John; Boston, Clare

    2016-04-01

    The redistribution of snow by wind can play an important role in providing additional mass to the surface of glaciers and can, therefore, have an impact on the glacier's surface mass balance. In areas of marginal glaciation, this local topo-climatic effect may be prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers, whilst it can also increase heterogeneity in the distribution of snow on ice caps and ice sheets. We present a newly developed snowblow model which calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography. We apply this model to areas of former marginal glaciation in the Brecon Beacons, Wales and an area of former plateau icefield glaciation in the Monadhliath, Scotland. We can then determine whether redistribution by snow can help explain variations in the estimated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) of these former glaciers. Specifically, we compare the areas where snow is modelled as accumulating, to the reconstructed glacier surface, which is based on mapped moraines believed to be of Younger Dryas age. The model is applied to 30 m resolution DEMs and potential snow accumulation is simulated from different wind directions in order to determine the most likely contributing sector. Total snow accumulation in sub-set areas is then calculated and compared to the reconstructed glacier area. The results suggest that areas with larger amounts of snow accumulation often correspond with those where the ELA is lower than surrounding glaciers and vice versa, in both the marginal and icefield setting, suggesting that the role of snowblow in supplying additional mass to the surface of glaciers is significant.

  9. Integrated Land Surface Water State Indicators for Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, B. T.; McDonald, K. C.; Steiner, N.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Schroeder, R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate characterization of seasonal freeze/thaw transition timing coupled with accompanying characterization of snowpack water content, surface inundation, and radiation balance give the potential for an unambiguous indication of climate change. Earth remote sensing data sources have demonstrated utility for determining these surface and radiation balance state variables. NASA's Climate Indicators Team seeks to develop and test potential climate indicators that employ NASA capabilities to support the National Climate Assessemnt and are useful to decision makers. We present development of a set of climate indicators built upon remote sensing measures of surface water state variables: Landscape freeze/thaw (FT), Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), Surface inundation fraction (Fw), and radiative flux. Indicators based on and derived from these parameters may be assembled from integrated remote sensing datasets and provide key information in assessment of climate state. Combined, these state variables provide unique insight into linkages and feedbacks in terrestrial energy, water and carbon cycles and allow examination to the response of the integrated system to climate drivers. Assembled from existing remote sensing datasets, these deliverables will represent the first broad-scale observationally-based, comprehensive measures of surface water state and distribution coupled to atmospheric radiation for use in climate change assessment.

  10. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  11. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  12. Accumulation and Endocrine Disrupting Effects of the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster® 550 in Rats: An Exploratory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Roberts, Simon C.; Mabrey, Natalie; McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Gear, Robin B.; Braun, Joe; Belcher, Scott M.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate accumulation, metabolism and endocrine disrupting effects of FM 550 in rats exposed to 100 or 1000 μg/day across gestation and lactation. FM 550 components accumulated in tissues of exposed dams and offspring and induced phenotypic hallmarks associated with metabolic syndrome in the offspring. Effects included increased serum thyroxine levels and reduced hepatic carboxylesterease activity in dams, and advanced female puberty, weight gain, male cardiac hypertrophy, and altered exploratory behaviors in offspring. Results of this study are the first to implicate FM 550 as an endocrine disruptor and an obesogen at environmentally relevant levels. PMID:23139171

  13. State trends in ecological risk assessment and standard setting

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M R; Fowler, K M; Bilyard, G R

    1993-02-01

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to identify key states' activities and plans related to setting cleanup standards using the ecological risk assessment process, and (2) to discuss the impacts these actions may have on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental restoration program. This report is prepared as part of a larger task, the purpose of which is to identify and assess state regulatory trends and legal developments that may impact DOE's environmental restoration program. Results of this task are intended to provide DOE with advance notice of potentially significant regulatory developments so as to enhance DOE's ability to influence these developments and to incorporate possible regulatory and policy changes into its planning process.

  14. [Analysis and assessment of atmospheric pollution based on accumulation characterization of heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Run

    2014-03-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Huainan City. We measured and clustered the accumulation of six heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves in 20 sampling fields with six types of environmental conditions, and analyzed the EF value of heavy metal enrichment in the leaves. The results showed that the accumulations in Platanus acerifolia leaves varied according to different types of metals, following the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Environmental conditions also had great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. Cd and Cu were mostly found in cement plant and mine, respectively, and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were significant higher in main road, compared with other environmental conditions. The average values of EF for all the metals expect Cr in scenic and village area were over 1. The average values of EF for all the metals in mine, power plant, main road and cement plant were above 3. The overall pollution condition of heavy metals in Huainan City followed the order of Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr. PMID:24881368

  15. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Hawaii. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  16. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for West Virginia. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  17. Assessment Opt-Out Policies: State Responses to Parent Pushback. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie; Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    With new state assessments kicking into full swing across the country, schools are seeing more and more parents wanting to opt out their children. Determining whether states allow assessment opt-outs can be complex and is constantly evolving. In some states the answer is clear: State policies either allow or prohibit state assessment opt-outs, or…

  18. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    PubMed

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors. PMID:27266020

  19. Automatic Severity Assessment of Dysarthria using State-Specific Vectors.

    PubMed

    Sriranjani, R; Umesh, S; Reddy, M Ramasubba

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to assess the severity of the dysarthria using state-specific vector (SSV) of phone-cluster adaptive training (phone-CAT) acoustic modeling technique is proposed. The dominant component of the SSV represents the actual pronunciations of a speaker. Comparing the dominant component for unimpaired and each dysarthric speaker, a phone confusion matrix is formed. The diagonal elements of the matrix capture the number of correct pronunciations for each dysarthric speaker. As the degree of impairment increases, the number of phones correctly pronounced by the speaker decreases. Thus the trace of the confusion matrix can be used as objective cue to assess di?erent severity levels of dysarthria based on a threshold rule. Our proposed objective measure correlates with the standard Frenchay dysarthric assessment scores by 74 % on Nemours database. The measure also correlates with the intelligibility scores by 82 % on universal access dysarthric speech database. PMID:25996705

  20. Natural Hazard Assessment and Communication in the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Lynch, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the central United States, natural hazards, such as floods, tornados, ice storms, droughts, and earthquakes, result in significant damages and losses of life every year. For example, the February 5-6, 2008 tornado touched down in nine states (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee), killing 57, injuring 350, and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. The January 2009 ice storm struck Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia, killing 36 and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. It is a great challenge for the society to develop an effective policy for mitigating these natural hazards in the central United States. However, the development of an effective policy starts with a good assessment of the natural hazards. Scientists play a key role in assessing the natural hazards. Therefore, scientists play an important role in the development of an effective policy for the natural hazard mitigation. It is critical for scientists to clearly define, quantify, and communicate the hazard assessments, including the associated uncertainties which are a key factor in policy decision making, to end-users. Otherwise, end-users will have difficulty understanding and using the information provided. For example, ground motion hazard maps with 2, 5, and 10 percent probabilities of exceedance (PE) in 50 years in the central United States have been produced for seismic hazard mitigation purpose. End-users have difficulty understanding and using the maps, however, which has led to either indecision or ineffective policy for seismic hazard mitigation in many communities in the central United States.

  1. Comparison of two probability distributions used to model sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations: Does the tail wag the assessment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Undiscovered oil and gas assessments are commonly reported as aggregate estimates of hydrocarbon volumes. Potential commercial value and discovery costs are, however, determined by accumulation size, so engineers, economists, decision makers, and sometimes policy analysts are most interested in projected discovery sizes. The lognormal and Pareto distributions have been used to model exploration target sizes. This note contrasts the outcomes of applying these alternative distributions to the play level assessments of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Oil and Gas Assessment. Using the same numbers of undiscovered accumulations and the same minimum, medium, and maximum size estimates, substitution of the shifted truncated lognormal distribution for the shifted truncated Pareto distribution reduced assessed undiscovered oil by 16% and gas by 15%. Nearly all of the volume differences resulted because the lognormal had fewer larger fields relative to the Pareto. The lognormal also resulted in a smaller number of small fields relative to the Pareto. For the Permian Basin case study presented here, reserve addition costs were 20% higher with the lognormal size assumption. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Toxicological assessment of heavy metals accumulated in vegetables and fruits grown in Ginfel river near Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Abraha; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Hadera, Amanual; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables resulting from irrigation with contaminated water obtained from industrial effluents may create a potential public health risk. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb) in soil, vegetables and the water used for irrigation at two sites (Laelay Wukro and Tahtay Wukro) around Wukro Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. The concentrations of heavy metals in irrigation water measured during this study were lower than permissible limits of heavy metals allowed for irrigation water. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in irrigated soil samples obtained from Tahtay Wukro were higher for Mn, Zn, Cr, and Cu. The overall results of soil samples ranged 2.62-827, 1.4-51.6, 25.5-33.6, 23.5-28.2, 2.52-25.1, 15-17.8, 3-4, 2.5-40.49 and 0.7-0.8 mg/kg for Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Fe and Cd, respectively. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were also observed in vegetable samples from Tahtay Wukro. Pb was found to accumulate the most in all vegetable samples. It was observed that green pepper and lettuce accumulate high amounts of Cu and Zn; Swiss chard accumulates excessive amounts of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Co; lettuce and tomato higher amounts of Cd; and green pepper, tomato and onion a higher concentration of Pb. Significant differences in the elemental concentrations between the vegetables analyzed from Laelay and Tahtay Wukro were observed. This was attributed in part to the geological nature of the study area and the discharges from the town and from a tannery. The results also indicate that Fe, Pb and Cd have high transfer factor values (mean values: 42.89, 0.84 and 0.37, respectively). The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe>Pb>Cd>Mn>Cu>Zn>Ni>Zn>Cr=Co. The heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Tahtay Wukro, located downstream of the tannery, may pose increased health risks in the future to the local population

  3. Assessment of published literature pertaining to the uptake/accumulation, translocation, adhesion and biotransformation of organic chemicals by vascular plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.; Fletcher, J.S. . Dept. of Botany and Microbiology)

    1993-11-01

    Information in the UTAB data base was used to determine the general makeup of published data pertaining to how vascular plants influence organic chemicals in the environment. UTAB contains information on the uptake-accumulation, translocation, adhesion, and biotransformation of xenobiotic organic chemicals by vascular plants. The percentage distribution of data in UTAB among four important fate processes was 58, 16, 7, and 19 for uptake/accumulation, translocation, adhesion, and biotransformation, respectively. The tabulated data show the 30 most frequently reported chemicals, the 30 plants most often studied, and the frequency of examining plants maintained under different experimental conditions (contaminated site, controlled environments, etc.). Sixty-five percent of the 1,047 chemicals in the data base are pesticides, and data pertaining to these compounds account for 90% of the information in the data base. Crop species account for 33% of the plants and 77% of the data in UTAB. These summary values illustrate the imbalance of attention given to agrichemicals vs. industrial and municipal waste compounds, and emphasize the need for additional research addressing influence of plants on environmental pollutants with special attention given to industrial pollutants and native plants.

  4. State-Level Cancer Quality Assessment and Research

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Joseph; Gillespie, Theresa W.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the Institute of Medicine called for a national cancer data system in the United States to support quality-of-care assessment and improvement, including research on effective interventions. Although considerable progress has been achieved in cancer quality measurement and effectiveness research, the nation still lacks a population-based data infrastructure for accurately identifying cancer patients and tracking services and outcomes over time. For compelling reasons, the most effective pathway forward may be the development of state-level cancer data systems, in which central registry data are linked to multiple public and private secondary sources. These would include administrative/claims files from Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers. Moreover, such a state-level system would promote rapid learning by encouraging adoption of near-real-time reporting and feedback systems, such as the Commission on Cancer’s new Rapid Quality Reporting System. The groundwork for such a system is being laid in the state of Georgia, and similar work is advancing in other states. The pace of progress depends on the successful resolution of issues related to the application of information technology, financing, and governance. PMID:21799333

  5. Heavy Metals Accumulation by Talinum triangulare grown on Waste Dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, G. A.; Etuk, H. S.; Johnson, A. S.

    The accumulation of some heavy metals by Talinum triangulare grown on waste dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis was studied using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results obtained indicated the following ranges for the metals in dumpsite soil: Cd: 1.85-8.65 mg kg-1; Pb: 42.05-60.85 mg kg-1; Ni: 11.05-20.55 mg kg-1; Fe: 183.00-237.20 mg kg-1 and Zn: 11.35-119.30 mg kg-1, while the ranges in Talinum triangure were Cd: 0.10-0.30 mg kg-1; Pb: 0.33-1.55 mg kg-1; Ni:0.05-0.45 mg kg-1; Fe: 223.43-260.00 mg kg-1 and Zn: 2.20-29.95 mg kg-1. These results indicated higher levels of the metals in soils and plants from dumpsites than the values recorded in the Control samples. In the dumpsite soil and plant samples, Fe recorded the highest mean concentrations in both samples while Cd and Ni concentrations were the lowest in soil and plant respectively. Although, the ranges obtained for the metals in plant and soil were within the recommended limits except for Cd in soil and Fe in plant, it maybe risky to consume water leaf grown on dumpsites since it can accumulate much of these toxic metals. The results obtained also revealed that apart from Cd, the concentrations of other metals analyzed for in plant and soil correlated positively at p = 0.05. The transfer Ratio between dumpsite soil and plant samples indicated the following trend: Fe> Zn> Cd> Pb> Ni showing that the rate of metal uptake by T. triangulare was greatest with Fe, while the rate of Ni uptake was the least. Relative standard deviations in the distribution of the metals in plant and soil samples from one dumpsite to the other were also studied; results obtained showed a high degree of variability in the distributions of the metals in both samples with the locations.

  6. National Assessment of Educational Progress and State Assessments: What Do the Data Really Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Gordon, William R., II

    2011-01-01

    A high school principal and faculty celebrated after hearing that their students in each of the quartiles had improved in both reading and mathematics on the state accountability assessment. Because of the percent of increases in achievement levels on the test, the Florida Department of Education awarded the school an A for 2011. Shortly…

  7. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Condition in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustini, John M.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2009-09-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, later amended by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977, it tasked the newly created U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the states, with periodically assessing the quality of U.S. waters and reporting on progress toward meeting the goals of the CWA. In subsequent decades, reviews by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations consistently have found available water quality data and reporting to be inadequate to evaluate the nation's progress [Shapiro et al., 2008]. In response to these concerns, in 1989 EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to develop and demonstrate scientific tools to monitor the status of, and trends in, U.S. aquatic resources and environmental stressors affecting them. Recent EPA-led efforts involve monitoring wadeable perennial streams (streams or rivers shallow enough to be wadeable during seasonal low flows), which make up an estimated 90% of the total length of all perennial flowing waters in the United States [EPA, 2006]. Selected results from the first national survey of these streams, the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) [EPA, 2006; Paulsen et al., 2008], illustrate how such surveys can provide critical information to guide management of this important resource. Nonmonitoring applications of data from the WSA and earlier regional surveys show the wide-ranging applicability of these rich data sets.

  8. Assessment of visual fixation in vegetative and minimally conscious states

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visual fixation plays a key role in the differentiation between vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness (VS/UWS) syndrome and minimally conscious state (MCS). However, the use of different stimuli changes the frequency of visual fixation occured in patients, thereby possibly affecting the accuracy of the diagnosis. In order to establish a standardized assessment of visual fixation in patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC), we compared the frequency of visual fixation elicited by mirror,a ball and a light. Method Visual fixation was assessed in eighty-one post-comatose patients diagnosed with a MCS or VS/UWS. Occurrence of fixation to different stimuli was analysis used Chi-square testing. Result 40 (49%) out of the 81 patients showed fixation to visual stimuli. Among those, significantly more patients (39, 48%) had visual fixation elicited by mirror compared to a ball (23, 28%) and mirror compared to a light (20, 25%). Conclusion The use of a mirror during the assessment of visual fixation showed higher positive response rate, compared to other stimuli in eliciting a visual fixating response. Therefore, fixation elicited by a mirror can be a very sensitive and accurate test to differentiate the two disorders of consciousness. PMID:25027769

  9. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  10. The Effects of Finite Sampling Corrections on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies (NVS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    States participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress State Assessment program (state NAEP) are required to sample at least 2,500 students from at least 100 schools per subject assessed. In this ideal situation, 25 students are assessed for a subject in each school selected for that subject. Two problems have arisen: some states…

  11. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  12. 7 CFR 3550.11 - State Director assessment of homeowner education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State Director assessment of homeowner education... State Director assessment of homeowner education. (a) State Director's will make an assessment of the... Council (NAIHC); or (5) The State Housing Finance Agency or other qualified organization approved by...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.11 - State Director assessment of homeowner education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State Director assessment of homeowner education... State Director assessment of homeowner education. (a) State Director's will make an assessment of the... Council (NAIHC); or (5) The State Housing Finance Agency or other qualified organization approved by...

  14. 7 CFR 3550.11 - State Director assessment of homeowner education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State Director assessment of homeowner education... State Director assessment of homeowner education. (a) State Director's will make an assessment of the... Council (NAIHC); or (5) The State Housing Finance Agency or other qualified organization approved by...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.11 - State Director assessment of homeowner education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State Director assessment of homeowner education... State Director assessment of homeowner education. (a) State Director's will make an assessment of the... Council (NAIHC); or (5) The State Housing Finance Agency or other qualified organization approved by...

  16. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  17. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Wannaz, Eduardo D; Carreras, Hebe A; Pérez, Carlos A; Pignata, María L

    2006-05-15

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n=38) were chosen in the province of Córdoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies. PMID:16364408

  18. Assessment of PCB and chlorinated pesticide accumulation in mussels at Kaštela Bay (Eastern Adriatic).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Grgas, Dijana; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka

    2016-08-15

    The biological response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, resident and transplanted to cages, to contamination with anthropogenic pollutants from Kaštela Bay, located in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to trace the accumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (HCB, lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-DDTs) as a direct measure of potential contaminant availability to organisms, in a period from 2000 to 2011. In order to do so, cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the same size and age were transplanted from the unpolluted Mali Ston Bay to the Kaštela Bay. Sampling was performed bimonthly, and the level of target contaminants in whole soft tissue was determined. After two months of exposure, the concentration of PCBs in transplanted mussels increased on average 6.5-times, and of DDTs 2-times, while the intensity of changes for HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin was negligible. Seasonal variation of pesticide content was similar without a significant change throughout the experimental period, while that of PCBs was somewhat different showing increased accumulation in summer. Seasonal and spatial variation of organochlorines in the Kaštela Bay was likely the result of prevailing environmental rather than biological parameters. In accordance with prevailing hydrodynamic cycling, contaminant concentration decreased in acyclonic direction towards the exit of the Bay. Measurement of target contaminants in resident mussels sampled from the most contaminated area of the Bay exhibited decreasing concentrations of lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDTs. However, PCBs exhibited statistically significant increasing concentrations in relation to the slightly increasing concentrations of HCB. With regard to human health, organochlorine (OC) levels in the mussel tissue were below prescribed limits for human consumption. PMID:27096632

  19. Effects of aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina: assessment of nanoparticle aggregation, accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic stability and impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 10-30 nm) was investigated using Artemia salina. Acute exposure was conducted on nauplii (larvae) and adults in seawater in a concentration range from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Rapid aggregation occurred in all suspensions of TiO2 NPs to form micrometer size particles. Yet, both nauplii and adults accumulated the aggregates significantly. Average TiO2 content in nauplii ranged from 0.47 to 3.19 mg/g and from 1.29 to 4.43 mg/g in 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Accumulation in adults was higher ranging from 2.30 to 4.19 mg/g and from 4.38 to 6.20 mg/g in 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Phase contrast microscopy images revealed that Artemia were unable to excrete the particles. Thus, the TiO2 aggregates filled inside the guts. No significant mortality or toxicity occurred within 24 h at any dose. Lipid peroxidation levels characterized with malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were not statistically different from those of the controls (p>0.05). These results suggested that suspensions of the TiO2 NPs were nontoxic to Artemia, most likely due to the formation of benign TiO2 aggregates in water. In contrast, both mortality and lipid peroxidation increased in extended exposure to 96 h. Highest mortality occurred in 100 mg/L TiO2 NP suspensions; 18% for nauplii and 14% for adults (LC50 > 100 mg/L). These effects were attributed to the particle loading inside the guts leading to oxidative stress as a result of impaired food uptake for a long period of time. PMID:22810381

  20. A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures with emphasis towards the applications in aeronautics and space is presented. It is felt that since this technology area is growing at such a rapid pace in many different disciplines, it is not feasible to cover all of the current research but only the relevant work as relates to aeronautics and space. Research in smart actuation materials, smart sensors, and control of smart/intelligent structures is covered. In smart actuation materials, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory, electrorheological, and electrostrictive materials are covered. For sensory materials, fiber optics, dielectric loss, and piezoelectric sensors are examined. Applications of embedded sensors and smart sensors are discussed.

  1. Assessment of voice quality: Current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Barsties, Ben; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Voice quality is not clearly defined but it can be concluded that it is a multidimensional perceived construct. Therefore, there are broadly two approaches to measure voice quality: (1) subjective measurements to score a client's voice that reflects his or her judgment of the voice and (2) objective measurements by applying specific algorithm to quantify certain aspects of a correlate of vocal production. This paper proposes a collection and discusses a number of critical issues of the current state-of-the-art in voice quality assessments of auditory-perceptual judgment, objective-acoustic analysis and aerodynamic measurements in clinical practice and research that maybe helpful for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25440411

  2. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  3. A program for assessing pilot mental state in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, A. T.; Bowles, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A program to apply proposed measures of pilot mental state in the simulator flight deck environment has been undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center. Literature survey identified a promising subset of methods for assessing workload, attention and vigilance, and task-related stress, and revealed a need for improved analytical techniques in the physiological area. An effort to apply functional modelling techniques has been initiated. A psychophysiological laboratory has been designed for simulator application. The program is designed to develop improved techniques for evaluating simulator cue fidelity and for imposing realistic workload and attentional demands on the simulator pilot.

  4. A Dynamic Bayesian Network for Mt. Etna Volcano State Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Cassisi, Carmelo; Aliotta, Marco; Cannata, Andrea; Montalto, Placido; Prestifilippo, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the real-time monitoring of Mt. Etna volcano is mostly delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret the data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Among their duties, the evaluation of the volcano state is one of the most critical task for civil protection purposes. Unfortunately, the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the 24h control room. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano monitoring, here we present an expert system approach based on Bayesian networks to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. A Bayesian network is a static probabilistic graphical model that represents a set of random variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. We consider model variables both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano. In order to include the time in the model, we use a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) which relates variables to each other over adjacent time steps. The model output consists of an estimation of the probability distribution of the feasible volcano states. We build the model by considering the long record of data from 2011 to 2014 and we cross-validate it by considering 3 years for parameter estimation and 1 year for testing in simulated real-time mode.

  5. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  6. Molecular assessment of disease states in kidney transplant biopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Philip F; Famulski, Konrad S; Reeve, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Progress in renal transplantation requires improved understanding and assessment of rejection and injury. Study of the relationship between gene expression and clinical phenotypes in kidney transplant biopsy samples has led to the development of a system that enables diagnoses of specific disease states on the basis of messenger RNA levels in the biopsy sample. Using this system we have defined the molecular landscape of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), acute kidney injury (AKI), and tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. TCMR and ABMR share IFNγ-mediated effects and TCMR has emerged as a cognate T cell-antigen presenting cell process in the interstitium, whereas ABMR is a natural-killer-cell-mediated process that occurs in the microcirculation. The specific features of these different processes have led to the creation of classifiers to test for TCMR and ABMR, and revealed that ABMR is the principal cause of kidney transplant deterioration. The molecular changes associated with renal injury are often more extensive than suggested by histology and indicate that the progression to graft failure is caused by continuing nephron injury, rather than fibrogenesis. In summary, advances in the molecular assessment of disease states in biopsy samples has improved understanding of specific processes involved in kidney graft outcomes. PMID:27345248

  7. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  8. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Sahi, S. V.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  9. Geodiversity of Ceará State (Brazil): assessment and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The results on the geodiversity assessment of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil) are presented. The assessment was performed using a methodology based on the counting of occurrences of geodiversity with cartographical data and GIS procedures. This work is part of the methodological approaches applied in other large territories in Brazil and Portugal considering geodiversity as the diversity of rocks, fossils, lanforms, soils, water resources, and mineral and energy sources occurrences. Therefore, the geodiversity index resulted from the sum of the six partial indices: i) lithological; ii) paleontological; iii) geomorphological; iv) pedological; vi) hydrological; vi) mineral occurrences. The Geodiversity Index score of each grid square is the sum of all partial indices. Hydrological partial index was an upgrade to the previous five-partial indices methodological proposal, considering both surface water resources and ground water as essential components of geodiversity. Furthermore, the traditional cell grid used to operate the counting of geodiversity elements was substituted by a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins. Vector cartographical data were obtained from official Brazilian institutions and treated with GIS software to generate the six partial indices. According to the type of occurences these indices may have very different ranges thus values were normalized to a maximum of 5 points each. The sum of partial indices in each drainage sub-basin resulted in a quantitative map of geodiversity with values from 4 to 26. Subsequently the values were interpolated using the Kriging method delivering the geodiversity map of the Ceará State. Geodiversity index was here defined with qualitative values ranging from "very low" to "very high". The regions Noroeste Cearense and Sul Cearense have the highest geodiversity in the state while the region Sertões Cearenses has the lowest. The use of specific GIS procedures increases the mapping options and

  10. State Policies for Assessing and Supporting Kinship Foster Parents. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Bess, Roseana; Geen, Rob

    This study provides updated information about states' kinship care policies for children in foster care based on a survey conducted in 1999. Almost all states give preference to and seek out kin when placing a child in foster care. However, states vary in the way that they assess and support kinship care. Most states assess kin differently than…

  11. The use of aerospace methods for forest state assessment.

    PubMed

    Isaev, A S

    1988-01-01

    Siberian forests occupy a significant part of the Asian continent. Their role as an essential component of the Earth's surface, biomass and oxygen producer is increasing annually. Expanded reproduction of taiga forests necessitated by the intensive development of Siberian productive forces, results in an evergrowing need of forest productivity constancy and increase. Proper forest exploitation is a crucial part of the solution of such important problems as the rational use of land and water resources, stable crop yields, and the creation of favourable conditions for human life.To solve these important economic problems, the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences has devised a long-term programme of ecological monitoring of Siberian forest resources using aerospace techniques. The programme provides for the establishment and improvement of ecogeographical and physicotechnological principles of the remote sensing of forests and the development of fundamental forest-biological research based on new methodologies, the results of which are used to solve urgent forestry and nature protection problems. The research is carried out in the following major directions: studying spectral characteristics of forest vegetation for forest-state indication; thematic mapping of taiga territories; assessing biological productivity of natural complexes; environmental state monitoring; fire protection of forests; pest and disease control; developin instruments and methods for automatized aerospace data processing for real-time use.We consider forest-state monitoring to be one of the crucial tools in providing the optimum use of forest ecosystems for resource and ecological functions. PMID:24248966

  12. Lake states regional forest resources assessments: Technical papers. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, H.H.; Vasievich, J.M.

    1997-07-23

    Contains 21 technical working papers prepared for the Lake States regional forest resources assessment, Lake States Forestry Alliance 1995. They represent significant contributions from many individuals and organizations and form the technical background for the Assessment.

  13. Distribution and transport of radionuclides in a boreal mire--assessing past, present and future accumulation of uranium, thorium and radium.

    PubMed

    Lidman, Fredrik; Ramebäck, Henrik; Bengtsson, Åsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distribution of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and the daughters of (232)Th, (228)Ra and (228)Th, were measured in a small mire in northern Sweden. High activity concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th (up to 41 Bq (238)U kg(-1)) were observed in parts of the mire with a historical or current inflow of groundwater from the surrounding till soils, but the activities declined rapidly further out in the mire. Near the outlet and in the central parts of the mire the activity concentrations were low, indicating that uranium and thorium are immobilized rapidly upon their entering the peat. The (226)Ra was found to be more mobile with high activity concentrations further out into the mire (up to 24 Bq kg(-1)), although the central parts and the area near the outlet of the mire still had low activity concentrations. Based on the fluxes to and from the mire, it was estimated that approximately 60-70% of the uranium and thorium entering the mire currently is retained within it. The current accumulation rates were found to be consistent with the historical accumulation, but possibly lower. Since much of the accumulation still is concentrated to the edges of the mire and the activities are low compared to other measurements of these radionuclides in peat, there are no indications that the mire will be saturated with respect to radionuclides like uranium, thorium and radium in the foreseen future. On the contrary, normal peat growth rates for the region suggest that the average activity concentrations of the peat currently may be decreasing, since peat growth may be faster than the accumulation of radionuclides. In order to assess the total potential for accumulation of radionuclides more thoroughly it would, however, be necessary to also investigate the behaviour of other organophilic elements like aluminium, which are likely to compete for binding sites on the organic material. Measurements of the redox potential and other redox indicators demonstrate that uranium possibly

  14. Assessing accumulation and biliary excretion of naphthenic acids in yellow perch exposed to oil sands-affected waters.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hogan, Natacha S; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Berrue, Fabrice; Young, Rozlyn F; Arens, Collin J; Kerr, Russell G; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30 km north of Fort McMurray Alberta: the Demonstration Pond, containing oil sands tailings capped with natural surface water, and the South Bison Pond, integrating lean oil sands. Yellow perch were also sampled from three lakes: Mildred Lake that receives water from the Athabasca River, Sucker Lake, at the edge of oil sands extraction activity, and Kimowin Lake, a distant reference site. Naphthenic acids were measured in perch muscle tissue using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bile metabolites were measured by GC-MS techniques and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection at phenanthrene wavelengths. A method was developed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to evaluate naphthenic acids in bile. Tissue analysis did not show a pattern of naphthenic acids accumulation in muscle tissue consistent with known concentrations in exposed waters. Bile fluorescence and LC-HRMS methods were capable of statistically distinguishing samples originating from oil sands-influenced waters versus reference lakes. Although the GC-MS and HPLC fluorescence methods were correlated, there were no significant correlations of these methods and the LC-HRMS method. In yellow perch, naphthenic acids from oil sands sources do not concentrate in tissue at a measurable amount and are excreted through a biliary route. LC-HRMS was shown to be a highly sensitive, selective and promising technique as an indicator of exposure of biota to oil sands-derived naphthenic acids. PMID:24182406

  15. A comprehensive risk assessment for tephra accumulation using easily accessible data: the example of Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biass, Sébastien; Frischknecht, Corine; Dell'Oro, Luca; Senegas, Olivier; Bonadonna, Costanza

    2010-05-01

    In order to answer the needs of contingency planning, we present a GIS-based method for risk assessment of tephra deposits, which is flexible enough to work with datasets of variable precision and resolution depending on data availabilty. Due to the constant increase of population density around volcanoes and the large dispersal of tephra from volcanic plumes, a wide range of threats such as roof collapses, destruction of crops, blockage of vital lifelines and health problems concern even remote communities. In the field of disaster management, there is a general agreement that a global and incomplete method, subject to revision and improvements, is better than no information at all. In this framework, our method is able to provide fast and rough insights on possible eruptive scenarios and their potential consequences on surrounding populations with only few available data, which can easily be refined later. Therefore, the knowledge of both the expected hazard (frequency and magnitude) and the vulnerability of elements at risk are required by planners in order to produce efficient emergency planning prior to a crisis. The Cotopaxi volcano, one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes, was used to develop and test this method. Cotopaxi volcano is located 60 km south of Quito and threatens a highly populated valley. Based on field data, historical reports and the Smithsonian catalogue, our hazard assessment was carried out using the numerical model TEPHRA2. We first applied a deterministic approach that evolved towards a fully probabilistic method in order to account for the most likely eruptive scenarios as well as the variability of atmospheric conditions. In parallel, we carried out a vulnerability assessment of the physical (crops and roofs), social (populations) and systemic elements-at-risk by using mainly free and easily accessible data. Both hazard and vulnerability assessments were compiled with GIS tools to draw comprehensive and tangible thematic risk maps

  16. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  17. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  18. Mercury accumulation in sediment cores from three Washington state lakes: evidence for local deposition from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Furl, Chad V; Meredith, Callie A

    2011-01-01

    Mercury accumulation rates measured in age-dated sediment cores were compared at three Washington state lakes. Offutt Lake and Lake St. Clair are located immediately downwind (18 and 28 km, respectively) of a coal-fired power plant and Lake Sammamish is located outside of the immediate area of the plant (110 km). The sites immediately downwind of the power plant were expected to receive increased mercury deposition from particulate and reactive mercury not deposited at Lake Sammamish. Mercury accumulation in cores was corrected for variable sedimentation, background, and sediment focusing to estimate the anthropogenic contribution (Hg(A,F)). Results indicated lakes immediately downwind of the power plant contained elevated Hg(A,F) levels with respect to the reference lake. Estimated fluxes to Lake Sammamish were compared to measured values from a nearby mercury wet deposition collector to gauge the efficacy of the core deconstruction techniques. Total deposition calculated through the sediment core (20.7 μg/m²/year) fell just outside of the upper estimate (18.9 μg/m²/year) of total deposition approximated from the wet deposition collector. PMID:20437040

  19. 7 CFR 3550.11 - State Director assessment of homeowner education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Director assessment of homeowner education. 3550.11 Section 3550.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... State Director assessment of homeowner education. (a) State Director's will make an assessment of...

  20. Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2008. Synthesis Report 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Cormier, Damien

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, Federal No Child Left Behind regulations were finalized that provided states with additional flexibility for assessing some students with disabilities. The regulations allowed states to offer another assessment option, alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). States are not required to have…

  1. State Higher Education Assessment Policy: Research Findings from Second and Third Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Cole, John J. K.

    This review of state higher education assessment policies sought to test assumptions and conclusions reached during an initial phase of the study, to explore the dynamics of the process by which assessment becomes a state-level issue or concern, and to better understand the multifaceted relationship between state assessment policy and the…

  2. Towards a joint national and state partnership in aquatic resource assessment monitoring survey design

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is currently conducting national assessments of all aquatic resources in the United States. Prior national assessments were completed for coastal waters and wadeable streams. National assessments are now underway for lakes, rivers and streams, coastal waters, and wetl...

  3. The Current State of Assessment in Literature. Report Series 3.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Pamela; And Others

    A study examined state-mandated literature assessment procedures and undertook a content analysis of tests produced by proprietary testing companies and textbook producers in order to ascertain how literature achievement is assessed in the United States. Results indicated that 61% of the school systems assess literature as part of an assessment of…

  4. Comprehensive seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; Sil, Arjun

    2014-06-01

    Northeast India is one of the most highly seismically active regions in the world with more than seven earthquakes on an average per year of magnitude 5.0 and above. Reliable seismic hazard assessment could provide the necessary design inputs for earthquake resistant design of structures in this region. In this study, deterministic as well as probabilistic methods have been attempted for seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states at bedrock level condition. An updated earthquake catalogue was collected from various national and international seismological agencies for the period from 1731 to 2011. The homogenization, declustering and data completeness analysis of events have been carried out before hazard evaluation. Seismicity parameters have been estimated using G-R relationship for each source zone. Based on the seismicity, tectonic features and fault rupture mechanism, this region was divided into six major subzones. Region specific correlations were used for magnitude conversion for homogenization of earthquake size. Ground motion equations (Atkinson and Boore 2003; Gupta 2010) were validated with the observed PGA (peak ground acceleration) values before use in the hazard evaluation. In this study, the hazard is estimated using linear sources, identified in and around the study area. Results are presented in the form of PGA using both DSHA (deterministic seismic hazard analysis) and PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, and spectral acceleration (T = 0. 2 s, 1.0 s) for both the states (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years). The results are important to provide inputs for planning risk reduction strategies, for developing risk acceptance criteria and financial analysis for possible damages in the study area with a comprehensive analysis and higher resolution hazard mapping.

  5. Reduction of electron accumulation at InN(0001) surfaces via saturation of surface states by potassium and oxygen as donor- or acceptor-type adsorbates

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhardt, A.; Reiß, S.; Krischok, S. Himmerlich, M.

    2014-01-28

    The influence of selected donor- and acceptor-type adsorbates on the electronic properties of InN(0001) surfaces is investigated implementing in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in work function, surface band alignment, and chemical bond configurations are characterized during deposition of potassium and exposure to oxygen. Although an expected opponent charge transfer characteristic is observed with potassium donating its free electron to InN, while dissociated oxygen species extract partial charge from the substrate, a reduction of the surface electron accumulation occurs in both cases. This observation can be explained by adsorbate-induced saturation of free dangling bonds at the InN resulting in the disappearance of surface states, which initially pin the Fermi level and induce downward band bending.

  6. An assessment of radon in groundwater in New York state.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Stephen B; Eckhardt, David A V

    2012-09-01

    A set of 317 samples collected from wells throughout New York State (excluding Long Island) from 2003 through 2008 was used to assess the distribution of radon gas in drinking water. Previous studies have documented high concentrations of radon in groundwater from granitic and metamorphic bedrock, but there have been only limited characterizations of radon in water from sedimentary rock and unconsolidated sand-and-gravel deposits in New York. Approximately 8% of the samples from bedrock wells exceed 89 Bq L (eight times the proposed regulatory limit), but only 2% of samples from sand-and-gravel wells exceed 44 Bq L. Specific metamorphic and sedimentary rock formations in New York are associated with the high radon concentrations, indicating that specific areas of New York could be targeted with efforts to reduce the risk of exposure to radon in groundwater. Additionally, radon in groundwater from the sand-and-gravel aquifers was found to be directly correlated to radon in indoor air when assessed by county. PMID:22850237

  7. An assessment of radon in groundwater in New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A set of 317 samples collected from wells throughout New York State (excluding Long Island) from 2003 through 2008 was used to assess the distribution of radon gas in drinking water. Previous studies have documented high concentrations of radon in groundwater from granitic and metamorphic bedrock, but there have been only limited characterizations of radon in water from sedimentary rock and unconsolidated sand-and-gravel deposits in New York. Approximately 8% of the samples from bedrock wells exceed 89 Bq L-1 (eight times the proposed regulatory limit), but only 2% of samples from sand-and-gravel wells exceed 44 Bq L-1. Specific metamorphic and sedimentary rock formations in New York are associated with the high radon concentrations, indicating that specific areas of New York could be targeted with efforts to reduce the risk of exposure to radon in groundwater. Additionally, radon in groundwater from the sand-and-gravel aquifers was found to be directly correlated to radon in indoor air when assessed by county.

  8. [Accumulation of Mercury in Soil-maize System of Non-ferrous Metals Smelting Area and Its Related Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Na; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2015-10-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution, especially the mercury pollution, has been widespread concern in non-ferrous metallurgical area. This study focused on the content, distribution and pollution status of Hg in maize soil of Huludao city. Meanwhile, Hg contents in the various organs of maize were analyzed. Hg concentration in soil ranged from 0.25 to 3.49 mg x kg(-1) with the average content of 1.78 mg x kg(-1), which was 48 times as high as the background value of Liaoning soil. Around 2-3m range of zinc plant, the pattern of spatial distribution showed that the content of Hg was gradually increased with the increase of the distance to Huludao zinc plant. The result of geoaccumulation index reflected that Hg pollution is up to moderate pollution level on the whole. 54. 6% of the total sample were belonged to the serious pollution level. The potential ecological risk index of Hakanson was applied to assess the ecological risk of Hg. The target hazard quotient method (THQ) was used to assess the health risk for human, the results revealed that there was no significant health risk by consumption corn. Mercury is very difficult to transport in soil-maize system, and there is no obvious health risks to adults. But the risk coefficient of children, which is up to 0.056. is much higher than adults. PMID:26841621

  9. Assessment of the local stress state through macroscopic variables.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Robert P

    2003-05-15

    Macroscopic quantities beyond effective elastic tensors are presented that can be used to assess the local state of stress within a composite in the linear elastic regime. These are presented in a general homogenization context. It is shown that the gradient of the effective elastic property can be used to develop a lower bound on the maximum pointwise equivalent stress in the fine-scale limit. Upper bounds are more sensitive and are correlated with the distribution of states of the equivalent stress in the finescale limit. The upper bounds are given in terms of the macrostress modulation function. This function gauges the magnitude of the actual stress. For 1

  10. Assessing pigmented pericarp of maize kernels as possible source of resistance to fusarium ear rot, Fusarium spp. infection and fumonisin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Giovanni; Babazadeh, Laleh; Casati, Paola; Pilu, Roberto; Salomoni, Daiana; Toffolatti, Silvia L

    2016-06-16

    One of the purposes of maize genetic improvement is the research of genotypes resistant to fusarium ear rot (FER) and fumonisin accumulation. Flavonoids in the pericarp of the kernels are considered particularly able to reduce the fumonisin accumulation (FUM). The aim of this field study was to assess the effect of flavonoids, associated with anti-insect protection and Fusarium verticillioides inoculation, on FER symptoms and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels. Two isogenic hybrids, one having pigmentation in the pericarp (P1-rr) and the other without it (P1-wr), were compared. P1-rr showed lower values of FER symptoms and FUM contamination than P1-wr only if the anti-insect protection and the F. verticillioides inoculations were applied in combination. Fusarium spp. kernel infection was not influenced by the presence of flavonoids in the pericarp. Artificial F. verticillioides inoculation was more effective than anti-insect protection in enhancing the inhibition activity of flavonoids toward FUM contamination. The interactions between FUM contamination levels and FER ratings were better modeled in the pigmented hybrid than in the unpigmented one. The variable role that the pigment played in kernel defense against FER and FUM indicates that flavonoids alone may not be completely effective in the resistance of fumonisin contamination in maize. PMID:27071055

  11. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish and assessment of dietary exposure: a study in Hyderabad City, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M Noor; Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Vemula, Sudershan Rao; Sivaperumal, P; Vasudev, K; Ashu, Shaik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Bhatnagar, V

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in different fish species collected from fish outlets in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. The samples of fish extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 45 congeners) were determined by gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-μECD) method. The intake of individual PCB congeners through fish, toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), hazardous quotient, quantitative assessment, and risk evaluations was estimated in the Indian population. Daily dietary intakes of PCBs at the 95th-percentile-measured concentrations were twice the values of the 50th-percentile-measured concentrations in all socio-economic groups. The dietary intakes of PCBs through fish consumption in middle-income group, low-income group, and industrial laborers (0.023 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), the high-income group (0.031 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), and slum dwellers (0.039 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) exceeded the reference dose. The observed estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of our study for all socio-economic sections (0.0087 μg/kg/day) crossed the cancer benchmark concentration of 0.0003 μg/kg/day. In slum dwellers, the ingestion of fish from freshwater and marine water results in the highest lifetime cancer risks of 4.7 in 100,000 and 7.8 in 100,000, respectively. Ultimately, the concentrations of PCBs were determined high in all of the fish species collected. Risk assessment showed that the fish were highly contaminated with PCBs and may pose health threats to consumers in the city of Hyderabad as well as a lifetime cancer risk. PMID:26780413

  12. The Relationship of State Funding of Education to Student Performance on State Mandated Assessments in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joel Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the relationship of state funding to student performance on state mandated assessments in South Dakota between the years of 2003-2009. A cohort group of 40 school districts between 200 ADM and 600 ADM who had not reorganized were selected. Data was collected using the Dakota STEP assessment portal on the South Dakota…

  13. Using State Assessments to Impute Achievement of Students Absent from NAEP: An Empirical Study in Four States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Donald H.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Stancavage, Frances B.; Blankenship, Charles D.

    2005-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to explore the potential of state assessment scores to improve adjustments for nonparticipation (McLaughlin, Gallagher, and Stancavage, 2004). That study found that state assessment scores could potentially be more effective than demographic information in removing the bias related to absences. The present study…

  14. Assessment of chemical species of lead accumulated in tidemarks of human articular cartilage by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meirer, Florian; Pemmer, Bernhard; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Zoeger, Norbert; Wobrauschek, Peter; Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna; Goettlicher, Joerg; Steininger, Ralph; Mangold, Stefan; Roschger, Paul; Berzlanovich, Andrea; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Streli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    A highly specific accumulation of the toxic element lead was recently measured in the transition zone between non-calcified and calcified normal human articular cartilage. This transition zone, the so-called ‘tidemark’, is considered to be an active calcification front of great clinical importance. However, little is known about the mechanisms of accumulation and the chemical form of Pb in calcified cartilage and bone. Using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (µ-XANES) at the Pb L 3-edge, the chemical state of Pb in the osteochondral region was investigated. The feasibility of the µ-XANES set-up at the SUL-X beamline (ANKA synchrotron light source) was tested and confirmed by comparing XANES spectra of bulk Pb-reference compounds recorded at both the XAS and the SUL-X beamline at ANKA. The µ-XANES set-up was then used to investigate the tidemark region of human bone (two patella samples and one femoral head sample). The spectra recorded at the tidemark and at the trabecular bone were found to be highly correlated with the spectra of synthetic Pb-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite, suggesting that in both of these very different tissues Pb is incorporated into the hydroxyapatite structure. PMID:21335911

  15. Assessment of mercury emissions inventories for the Great Lakes states.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Holmes, S A Stacie A

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) air emissions for the eight Great Lakes states in 1999-2000 were evaluated by analyzing three inventories. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) had the most complete coverage for all states, and total Hg emissions ranged from 4226 lb in Minnesota to 15,828 lb in Pennsylvania. Coal-fired electric utilities accounted for 52.7% of the region's Hg emissions, varying from 20.2% of the total in New York to 67.5% in Ohio. Other important contributors to regional emissions included municipal waste combustion (5.6%), mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants and hazardous-waste incinerators (4% each), stationary internal combustion engines (ICEs) (3.5%), industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers (3.3%), and lime manufacturing (3.0%). Although medical waste incineration accounted for just over 1% of regional emissions using the original classifications, the inclusion of health care facilities that may have been inappropriately identified with other sectors would increase the sector to 4.5% of regional emissions (and decrease the stationary ICE sector to 1.4% of the regional total). There were substantial differences for some sectors between the NEI and the Great Lakes Regional Air Toxics Emissions Inventory (GLEI), as well as unexplained differences within inventories between states (particularly for the cement, lime, and asphalt industries, and for lamp breakage). Toxics Release Inventory data for 2000 mainly covered electric utilities, and differences from the NEI were significant for several states. An independent assessment indicates the possibility of underestimated Hg emissions by about twofold for ICI boilers, although data for the sector (in particular concerning fuel oil emissions) are highly uncertain. Limited data indicate the likelihood of significant underestimates of electric arc furnace mercury emissions in the NEI and GLEI inventories. Several measures are here identified for improving

  16. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities on State English Language Proficiency Assessments: A Review of 2011 State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…

  17. Assessing the ecological state and managing Armenia's farmlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Asmaryan, Shushanik; Muradyan, Vahagn; Tepanosyan, Garegin; Minasyan, Lilit

    2014-05-01

    The territory of the Republic of Armenia (RA) occupies an area 29.8 sq. km, the major part of which - 2077 hectares - falls on farmlands located at a height 400-3200m a.s.l. Such a variation in altitude complicates development of territories especially in the case they have an extensive character stemmed from the Soviet era: land plough-up on sites lying at a very steep angle of decline - >20 grade, unregulated grazing and so on. A long-term, unplanned and unregulated use of farmlands entailed intense washout of upper soil horizon, which subsequently provoked intense development of erosion and degradation of lands. A practicable solution to this problem is a scientifically and methodically grounded assessment of ecological state of farmlands and economically 'competent' planning and management of agricultural resources. With the view of developing animal husbandry and managing pastures/hayfields, in 2011-2012 the Government of the Republic of Armenia under support of the World Bank implemented a Farm Resources Management and Competitiveness Program. The goal of the Program is ceasing a trend to overgrazing and degradation of close-to-village sites, using remote pastures/hayfields in the best effective manner, improving feed production and animal feeding networks, and promoting a growth in animal feed production volumes. To achieve that, the following works were planned and implemented successfully in 23 rural communities of 6 marzes of the RA, which was done by 3 stages. In preparatory stage • Accessible web resources - programs and sites (Google Earth, www.landcocer.org) with a view of identifying information to support implementation of the planned activities, were explored and evaluated. • Cartographic material (topographic maps sc.1:10000, landscape maps, panchromatic and multi-spectral high- and medium - resolution satellite images /LANDSAT ETM, QuickBird/ and other thematic cartographic and archival material) required for subsequent treatment of

  18. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of the Chiapas State (SE Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lomelí, Anabel Georgina; García-Mayordomo, Julián

    2015-04-01

    The Chiapas State, in southeastern Mexico, is a very active seismic region due to the interaction of three tectonic plates: Northamerica, Cocos and Caribe. We present a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) specifically performed to evaluate seismic hazard in the Chiapas state. The PSHA was based on a composited seismic catalogue homogenized to Mw and was used a logic tree procedure for the consideration of different seismogenic source models and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). The results were obtained in terms of peak ground acceleration as well as spectral accelerations. The earthquake catalogue was compiled from the International Seismological Center and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional de México sources. Two different seismogenic source zones (SSZ) models were devised based on a revision of the tectonics of the region and the available geomorphological and geological maps. The SSZ were finally defined by the analysis of geophysical data, resulting two main different SSZ models. The Gutenberg-Richter parameters for each SSZ were calculated from the declustered and homogenized catalogue, while the maximum expected earthquake was assessed from both the catalogue and geological criteria. Several worldwide and regional GMPEs for subduction and crustal zones were revised. For each SSZ model we considered four possible combinations of GMPEs. Finally, hazard was calculated in terms of PGA and SA for 500-, 1000-, and 2500-years return periods for each branch of the logic tree using the CRISIS2007 software. The final hazard maps represent the mean values obtained from the two seismogenic and four attenuation models considered in the logic tree. For the three return periods analyzed, the maps locate the most hazardous areas in the Chiapas Central Pacific Zone, the Pacific Coastal Plain and in the Motagua and Polochic Fault Zone; intermediate hazard values in the Chiapas Batholith Zone and in the Strike-Slip Faults Province. The hazard decreases

  19. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward, (Edited By); Williams, David L.

    1975-01-01

    This assessment of geothermal resources of the United States consists of two major parts: (1) estimates of total heat in the ground to a depth of 10 km and (2) estimates of the part of this total heat that is recoverable with present technology, regardless of price. No attempt has been made to consider most aspects of the legal, environmental, and institutional limitations in exploiting these resouces. In general, the average heat content of rocks is considerably higher in the Western United States than in the East. This also helps to explain why the most favorable hydrothermal convection systems and the hot young igneous systems occur in the West. Resources of the most attractive identified convection systems (excluding national parks) with predicted reservoir temperatures above 150 deg C have an estimated electrical production potential of about 8,000 megawatt century, or about 26,000 megawatt for 30 years. Assumptions in this conversion are: (1) one-half of the volume of the heat reservoirs is porous and permeable, (2) one-half of the heat of the porous, permeable parts is recoverable in fluids at the wellheads, and (3) the conversion efficiency of heat in wellhead fluids to electricity ranges from about 8 to 20 percent , depending on temperature and kind of fluid (hot water or steam). The estimated overall efficiency of conversion of heat in the ground to electrical energy generally ranges from less than 2 to 5 percent, depending on type of system and reservoir temperature. (See also W77-07477) (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Recent advances in soil quality assessment in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality is a concept that is useful as an educational and assessment tool. A number of assessment tools have been developed including: the Soil Conditioning Index (SCI), the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF), the AgroEcosystem Performance Assessment Tool (AEPAT), and the new Cornell “...

  1. Assessment of particulate accumulation climatology under inversions in Glacier Bay for the 2008 tourist season using WRF/Chem data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirhalla, Michael A.

    micrometers) concentrations from cruise ships, but the absence of aerosol monitoring sites does not allow us to confirm the results. However, no simulated particulates ever exceed the daily average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 150 micrograms per cubic meter. The high variability of particle concentrations in Glacier Bay suggests the need for an air quality observational network to further assess local air quality issues.

  2. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-08-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997.

  3. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  4. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  5. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, M.'n.

    1994-11-01

    Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

  6. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  7. Interim Report on the Evaluation of the 1990 NAEP Trial State Assessment. April 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Education, Washington, DC.

    In 1988, whether the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)--the "Nation's Report Card"--could become a report card for the states was studied. A trial assessment program was authorized to determine whether state assessments following the NAEP format could produce reliable and useful estimates of educational progress. This interim…

  8. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  9. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  10. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  11. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  12. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  13. Lessons Learned from a Tryout of Spanish and English Versions of a State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Kahl, Stuart R.

    The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) is the new Massachusetts state assessment program that is being implemented in response to state education reform legislation. The paper describes the early efforts of the state Department of Education (MDOE), its prime contractor for development of the MCAS (Advanced Systems in Measurement…

  14. Comparing State High School Assessments to Standards for Success in Entry-Level University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard S.; Conley, David T.

    2007-01-01

    States have moved rapidly over the past 20 years to institute systems of standards and assessments. State assessments in particular take on added importance at the high school level as they are required for graduation by an increasing number of states. Federal legislation mandating testing in high school also serves to increase the stakes and…

  15. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  16. The Impact of Teacher Training on State Alternate Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; Karvonen, Meagan; Davis, Stephanie; Fallin, Kathy; Courtade-Little, Ginevra

    2005-01-01

    With the passage of No Child Left Behind and the start of the high-stakes accountability movement, it has become increasingly important that teachers are able to appropriately assess all students, including those who qualify for alternate assessments. If suitable assessment is occurring, teachers can use these data to help improve student…

  17. MN State Profile. Minnesota: Graduation Required Assessments for Diploma (GRAD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Minnesota's Graduation Required Assessments for Diploma (GRAD), comprehensive proficiency assessments of the skills and knowledge in mathematics, reading, and writing that are necessary for graduation. The Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments, Series II, into which the GRAD tests are embedded, measure…

  18. Air pollution: assessing total exposure in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.R.

    1988-10-01

    In recent years air pollution science has been undergoing two revolutions as the result of shifts of perception in the volumetric scale on which important adverse impacts occur. One revolution has come about because of the realization that some pollutants produce impacts at an extremely large scale. The second revolution is the result of the growing realization that the health impacts of many pollutants can only be understood through careful consideration of such microenvironments as those inside homes, vehicles, and work places. In both cases, the traditional focus of air pollution monitoring and regulation, which has been principally at the intermediate scale of urban outdoor air quality, is no longer adequate. The shift in perception has revealed a whole new set of sources and control needs along with impacts what far-reaching consequences for human well-being. Important changes in perspective result from the shift in focus to air pollution on a small scale. Not only does another set of impacts become apparent but also a new ordering of priorities for affected populations is revealed. A symptom of this second revolution that has frequently come to public attention in recent years is the growing concern with indoor air pollution. The revolution is due to the realization that health-damaging pollutants must be measured where the people are. Part 1 of this series explains the total exposure assessment revolution as it has occurred in the United States. Part 2 extends the discussion to other countries. Attention is focused on benzene, tetrachloroethylene, p-dichlorobenzene, limonene, and particulates.

  19. Social validity assessments: is current practice state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, I S; Baer, D M

    1991-01-01

    The use of evaluative feedback from consumers to guide program planning and evaluation is often referred to as the assessment of social validity. Differing views of its role and value in applied behavior analysis have emerged, and increasingly stereotyped assessments of social validity are becoming commonplace. This paper argues that current applications of social validity assessments are straying from the point originally proposed for them. Thus, several suggestions for improving current social validity assessment are proposed, including (a) expanding the definition of consumers to acknowledge the variety of community members able and likely to affect a program's survival, (b) increasing the psychometric rigor of social validity assessments, (c) extending assessment to heretofore underrepresented populations, (d) implementing widespread application of well-designed social validity assessments, (e) increasing meaningful consumer involvement in the planning and evaluation of behavioral programs, and (f) educating consumers to make better informed programming decisions. PMID:1890040

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PLASTICS PROCESSING, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from plants that manufacture marketable products via plastics processing. The composition, quantity, rate of emissions, and control technology are described. The plastics processing industry in the United States produced...

  1. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  2. 34 CFR 668.143 - Approval of State tests or assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and assessments, its passing scores on those tests and assessments, and the educational standards... appropriate in light of the State's educational standards; and (3) Provide the Secretary with an...

  3. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific metho...

  4. The Small State in Higher Education: A Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the large number of small sovereign states, there have been limited attempts at mainstreaming the study of the small as a small state in higher education. This paper reviews the context and development of both the category of, and research on small states; it then reviews the challenges involved in implementing any of the four broad…

  5. An Analysis of State Autism Educational Assessment Practices and Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Harris, Bryn; Leech, Nancy; Stiff, Lillian; Choi, Gounah; Joel, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    States differ in the procedures and criteria used to identify ASD. These differences are likely to impact the prevalence and age of identification for children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specific state variations in ASD identification and eligibility criteria requirements. We examined variations by state in…

  6. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS--1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from state and local agencies (SLAMS) during 1988 are analyzed. ooled site variances and average biases which are relevant quantities to both precision and accuracy determinations are statistically compared within and between states to assess ...

  7. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Greer, Colleen D; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Refined risk assessments for birds exposed to flowable and granular formulations ofCPY were conducted for a range of current use patterns in the United States. Overall,the collective evidence from the modeling and field study lines of evidence indicate that flowable and granular CPY do not pose significant risks to the bird communities foraging in agro-ecosystems in the United States. The available information indicates that avian incidents resulting from the legal, registered uses of CPY have been very infrequent since 2002 (see SI Appendix 3). The small number of recent incidents suggests that the current labels for CPY are generally protective of birds.However, incident data are uncertain because of the difficulties associated with finding dead birds in the field and linking any mortality observed to CPY.Plowable CPY is registered for a variety of crops in the United States including alfalfa, brassica vegetables, citrus, corn, cotton, grape, mint, onion, peanut, pome and stone fruits, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet potato, tree nuts, and wheat under the trade name Lorsban Advanced. The major routes of exposure for birds to flowable CPY were consumption of treated dietary items and drinking water. The Liquid Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (Liquid PARAM) was used to simulate avian ingestion of CPY by these routes of exposure. For acute exposure,Liquid PARAM estimated the maximum retained dose in each of 20 birds on each of1,000 fields that were treated with CPY over the 60-d period following initial application.The model used a 1-h time step. For species lacking acceptable acute oral toxicity data (all focal species except northern bobwhite (C. virginianus) and redwinged blackbird (A. phoeniceus)), a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach was used to generate hypothetical dose-response curves assuming high, median and low sensitivity to CPY. For acute risk, risk curves were generated for each use pattern and exposure scenario. The risk

  8. Dislocation Modeling and Comparison With GPS Data to Assess Possible Elastic Strain Accumulation in the Central Lesser Antilles: New Constraints From the NSF REU Site in Dominica Between 2001 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staisch, L.; Styron, R. H.; James, S.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C. L.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Murphy, R.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Caribbean, North and South American plates are converging at a rate of 2 cm/yr in the central region of the Lesser Antilles arc. Here we report high-precision GPS data in concert with forward modeling of a simplified subduction zone geometry to assess strain accumulation for the Lesser Antilles trench. We are able to constrain both vertical and horizontal surface deformation from campaign and continuous GPS observations from 28 geodetic benchmarks located in Guadeloupe, Dominica and Aves Island. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASIS II using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Surface displacements for each site were estimated over 2-7 years. CAR-fixed velocities are projected onto a 500 kilometer transect from the LA trench to Aves Island and compared to calculated displacements for 88 different subduction models. Finite dislocations within an elastic half-space with variable parameters such as angle of the subducting slab, the downdip extent of the locked zone, and percentage of plate interface locking were investigated. Other parameters, such as trench length and slip remained constant. Using a chi-squared, best-fit statistical criterion, the GPS data constrain the subduction interface to a 75 kilometer downdip extent, a 10° dip angle, and near 50% locking. This implies that the subduction zone offshore Dominica is in an interseismic state, thus accumulating strain and causing small westward and upward displacement of the Lesser Antilles relative to the stable Caribbean interior.

  9. The State of the Art in Needs Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    Recent needs assessment studies are reviewed, with emphasis on the needs of adult learners and of needs assessors. Three general purposes of needs assessment are described: (1) providers of educational services are interested in what their market (adult population) wants; (2) public agencies are interested in whether or not all segments of the…

  10. Reshaping the College Transition: Early College Readiness Assessments and Transition Curricula in Four States. A State Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Fay, Maggie P.; Trimble, Madeline Joy; Pheatt, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Based largely on interviews with stakeholders in California, New York, Tennessee, and West Virginia, this report describes how these states have established initiatives related to early college readiness assessments and transition curricula. It then compares the development of these interventions across states and identifies factors that have…

  11. Using State Assessments for Teaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, John

    2012-01-01

    Populations of minority students the United States have increased steadily over the past few decades to 42 percent of public school enrollment (Echevarria, 2011). English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing population of students enrolled in public schools across the United States. Nationally, if an ELL speaks English with difficulty,…

  12. State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Shelby

    2010-01-01

    Since 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, has been studying state high school exit examinations--tests students must pass to receive a high school diploma. This is CEP's ninth annual report on exit exams. The information in this report comes from several sources: CEP's survey of states that have…

  13. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  14. Establishing a State Consortium for Assessment: A Discussion of Factors to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePascale, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Unparalleled demands on state assessment programs and conditions associated with the availability of federal monies, particularly the $350 million portion of the $4 billion Race to the Top funds set aside for assessment, have led to a renewed interest in the establishment of state consortia for the development and administration of assessment…

  15. The Effects of Finite Sampling on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    This study addressed statistical techniques that might ameliorate some of the sampling problems currently facing states with small populations participating in State National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. The study explored how the application of finite population correction factors to the between-school component of…

  16. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  17. The Assessment of Thoughtful Literacy in NAEP: Why the States Aren't Measuring Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty; McGeehan, Catherine M.; Pinto, Catherine M.; Kong, Ailing

    2009-01-01

    The disparity between the results of state accountability tests in reading and the fourth-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has left many educators dismayed and concerned. In this article the authors describe a comparison of assessment approaches evident in NAEP to the approaches taken in a sample of state tests. The authors…

  18. Two Models for Evaluating Alignment of State Standards and Assessments: Competing or Complementary Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…

  19. Balancing Autonomy and Comparability: State Approaches to Assessment Selection for Student Learning Objectives. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    States take a wide range of approaches to Student Learning Objectives (SLO) assessment selection. This "Ask the Team" brief helps states consider the trade-offs between approaches that offer more teacher choice and those that offer better comparability across SLOs. The brief identifies four common approaches to selecting SLO assessments:…

  20. Information and Resources on Developing State Policy on Kindergarten Entry Assessment (KEA). CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) was asked to provide information on how other states are approaching the development and implementation of Kindergarten Entry Assessment (KEA) as part of a comprehensive assessment system. Specifically, the request asked for information about KEA measures used by other states, the processes…

  1. Performance of Special Education Students: Implications for Common State Assessments. NCEO Brief. Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The performance of special education students on state assessments has been the subject of much discussion and concern. A common belief is that all special education students perform poorly on state assessments. There are many misperceptions about the performance of students with disabilities. It is important for the Race-to-the-Top Assessment…

  2. Assessing the State of Substitution Models Describing Noncoding RNA Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James E.; Whelan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is widely used to investigate the relationships between homologous sequences. RNA molecules have played a key role in these studies because they are present throughout life and tend to evolve slowly. Phylogenetic inference has been shown to be dependent on the substitution model used. A wide range of models have been developed to describe RNA evolution, either with 16 states describing all possible canonical base pairs or with 7 states where the 10 mismatched nucleotides are reduced to a single state. Formal model selection has become a standard practice for choosing an inferential model and works well for comparing models of a specific type, such as comparisons within nucleotide models or within amino acid models. Model selection cannot function across different sized state spaces because the likelihoods are conditioned on different data. Here, we introduce statistical state-space projection methods that allow the direct comparison of likelihoods between nucleotide models and 7-state and 16-state RNA models. To demonstrate the general applicability of our new methods, we extract 287 RNA families from genomic alignments and perform model selection. We find that in 281/287 families, RNA models are selected in preference to nucleotide models, with simple 7-state RNA models selected for more conserved families with shorter stems and more complex 16-state RNA models selected for more divergent families with longer stems. Other factors, such as the function of the RNA molecule or the GC-content, have limited impact on model selection. Our models and model selection methods are freely available in the open-source PHASE 3.0 software. PMID:24391153

  3. Support evidence statistics for operation reliability assessment using running state information and its application to rolling bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wenrong; Cheng, Wei; Zi, Yanyang; Zhao, Chenlu; Sun, Chuang; Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Jinglong; He, Zhengjia

    2015-08-01

    Traditional reliability evaluation method generally requires a large amount of previous data and information on historical lifetime. For an individual mechanical device without historical lifetime data, it is difficult to carry out the reliability assessment by using the traditional method. To attempt exploring this difficult problem, support evidence statistics (SES) as an approach to operation reliability assessment is presented in this paper. Moreover, this presented method is also expected to indicate the physical state changes of the individual mechanical device. Since in scientific research, evidence usually goes towards supporting or rejecting a hypothesis. For a running device, evidences derived from the running state information should consistently demonstrate its current sole-running-state within a given short time interval. In practice, due to the interference of environmental noises, these evidences lose the consistency. Accordingly, they can be classified into two classes: the firm evidences and the flimsy evidences. Analogous to the support vector data description (SVDD), these firm evidences which show remarkable consistency can form a support evidence space (SESP) through one-class classification. Suppose that a SESP is obtained by using the evidences accumulated from the normal running state, the device operation reliability at any time of unknown running state can be evaluated through the statistical comparison between the normal SESP and the unknown SESP. This reliability evaluation process is named as SES. The most fundamental distinction between the proposed method and the traditional method lies in different statistical objects. The traditional methods are to analyze lifetime data while the proposed methods are to analyze running state data. Obviously, the evidence feature optimization plays a crucial role in the presented method. The maximum correlation and minimum redundancy (MCMR) method is improved by principal component analysis (PCA) to

  4. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHARCOAL MANUFACTURING, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from charcoal manufacture. The composition, quality, and rate of emissions, and their environmental effects are described. Charcoal is the solid material remaining after the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials, primarily...

  5. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body. PMID:26712210

  6. NAEP 1996 Mathematics State Report for Hawaii. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Clyde M.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various academic subjects. The 1996 NAEP in mathematics assessed the current level of mathematical achievement as a mechanism for informing education reform. In 1996, 44…

  7. Video-Based Teacher Performance Assessment: Innovations in New York State Teacher Certification Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestro, John R.; And Others

    The New York State Education Department is currently developing an innovative and comprehensive system for teacher certification assessment. One component is the Assessment of Teaching Skills-Performance (ATS-P), a video-based performance assessment for which teachers would prepare and submit a videotape of their instruction for evaluation by…

  8. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alaska's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  9. Test Coordinator's Guide for Federal and State Assessments, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide for testing coordinators includes information regarding: (1) Idaho statewide testing (both state and federal requirements); (2) testing dates; (3) Idaho Reading indicator (IRI); (4) Direct Mathematics Assessment (DMA); (5) Direct Writing Assessment (DEA); (6) Idaho Alternative Assessment (IAA); (7) Idaho Standards Achievement Test…

  10. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Minnesota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  11. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Florida's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  12. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Georgia's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  13. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  14. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  15. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on California's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  16. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alabama's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  17. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Arkansas' college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  18. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Tennessee's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  19. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  20. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on West Virginia's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  1. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  2. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  3. Glycosidase inhibition: assessing mimicry of the transition state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond in di-, oligo- and polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates, are ubiquitous in Nature and fundamental to existence. The extreme stability of the glycosidic bond has meant these enzymes have evolved into highly proficient catalysts, with an estimated 1017 fold rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction. Such rate enhancements mean that enzymes bind the substrate at the transition state with extraordinary affinity; the dissociation constant for the transition state is predicted to be 10–22 M. Inhibition of glycoside hydrolases has widespread application in the treatment of viral infections, such as influenza and HIV, lysosomal storage disorders, cancer and diabetes. If inhibitors are designed to mimic the transition state, it should be possible to harness some of the transition state affinity, resulting in highly potent and specific drugs. Here we examine a number of glycosidase inhibitors which have been developed over the past half century, either by Nature or synthetically by man. A number of criteria have been proposed to ascertain which of these inhibitors are true transition state mimics, but these features have only be critically investigated in a very few cases. PMID:20066263

  4. Seismic risk assessment and application in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk is a somewhat subjective, but important, concept in earthquake engineering and other related decision-making. Another important concept that is closely related to seismic risk is seismic hazard. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different: seismic hazard describes the natural phenomenon or physical property of an earthquake, whereas seismic risk describes the probability of loss or damage that could be caused by a seismic hazard. The distinction between seismic hazard and seismic risk is of practical significance because measures for seismic hazard mitigation may differ from those for seismic risk reduction. Seismic risk assessment is a complicated process and starts with seismic hazard assessment. Although probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the most widely used method for seismic hazard assessment, recent studies have found that PSHA is not scientifically valid. Use of PSHA will lead to (1) artifact estimates of seismic risk, (2) misleading use of the annual probability of exccedance (i.e., the probability of exceedance in one year) as a frequency (per year), and (3) numerical creation of extremely high ground motion. An alternative approach, which is similar to those used for flood and wind hazard assessments, has been proposed. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  5. MA State Profile. Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), a comprehensive standards-based test. The purpose of the test is to: (1) Inform and improve classroom instruction; (2) Evaluate student, school, and district performance according to Massachusetts Curriculum Framework content standards and MCAS performance…

  6. Teacher Assessment and Nonverbal Communication: The State of the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Tom H.

    Assuming that teacher effectiveness and nonverbal communication are interrelated, an analysis of nonverbal communication and teacher assessment of nonverbal action is appropriate. A review of the literature indicates that nonverbal behaviors may be examined by the impressionistic and the quantitative methods. Each of these methods generates…

  7. NJ State Profile. New Jersey: High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about New Jersey's High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA). The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of selected content and overview foundation skills in math and literacy; (2) Encourage districts and schools to identify and serve students at risk of academic…

  8. Federal Research Impact Assessment: State-of-the-Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoff, Ronald N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the practice of federal evaluation of research impact through three approaches: retrospective methods; qualitative methods, including peer review; and quantitative methods. Recommended areas for study in federal research impact assessment are suggested, including predictive reliability, comparative studies, time and cost estimates,…

  9. Assessment of Undergraduate Teacher Education Saginaw Valley State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David

    A description is given of an assessment model for undergraduate preservice teacher education students. Sequentially, it begins at the point of the student's entry into the teacher education program and continues through the student's entry into the profession. The model is constructed for the four-year baccalaureate teacher preparation program…

  10. State Capacity for Leadership: Ensuring Meaningful Higher Education Involvement in State Implementation of New Assessments Aligned with the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and assessments aligned to them represent a significant milestone in public education reform in the U.S. Developed with consultation from higher education, the rigorous new standards and the assessments now being drafted by two consortia promise to help students reach higher levels of academic achievement and…

  11. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…

  12. From the States: Show Me--Missouri's Experience with the Collegiate Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2005-01-01

    Last fall, the National Center for Public Policy in Higher Education published the results of a five-state demonstration project aimed at developing common state-level benchmarks for student learning for its fifty-state report card, "Measuring Up." One of the instruments used in this Pew-funded project was the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA),…

  13. Common Core State Standards in 2014: District Implementation of Consortia-Developed Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Later this school year, states that have adopted the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are scheduled to begin testing students' progress in learning the content of the standards in mathematics and English language arts (ELA). Many of these states belong to one of two consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and the…

  14. The Evaluation of Principals: What and How Do States and Urban Districts Assess Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Cravens, Xiu Chen; Murphy, Joseph; Porter, Andrew C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Carson, Becca

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present results of a comprehensive review of principal leadership assessment practices in the United States. Our analyses of both the general content and the usage of 65 instruments, 56 at the district level and 9 at the state level, provided an in-depth look at what and how districts and states evaluate principals. Using the…

  15. Timeline and Approach to Standards and Assessments. State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The following profiles address decisions and actions that state education policy-makers--in the state departments of education, unless otherwise noted--are taking to foster successful statewide implementation of their states' new college- and career-readiness standards and aligned assessments. These profiles provide a descriptive overview of each…

  16. Year 3 of Implementing the Common Core State Standards: States Prepare for Common Core Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark

    2013-01-01

    With the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS), states have sought to establish clear, high expectations that are consistent across participating states and that signal what K-12 students should learn in mathematics and English language arts (ELA) to be prepared for college and careers. As of July 2013, the CCSS have been adopted by 45…

  17. Annual Performance Report: 2007-2008 State Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Jason; Thurlow, Martha; Vang, Mai

    2010-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports (APRs) and Section 618 Table 6 data together to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before February 1, 2009. These reports may have been modified during the following few months,…

  18. Career Readiness Assessments across States: A Summary of Survey Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Frizzell, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The notion of what it means for a student to be "career-ready" is changing as a result of the recent push by the federal and state governments to ensure that all students are prepared for college and careers by the time they graduate from high school. While much attention has been paid to the "college-ready" aspect of college…

  19. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RECLAIMING OF WASTE SOLVENTS, STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from the reclaiming of waste solvents. The composition, quantity, and rate of emissions are described. Waste solvents are organic dissolving agents which are contaminated with suspended and dissolved solids, organics, wa...

  20. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes in United States Government Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champney, Leonard; Edleman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study employs the Solomon Four-Group Design to measure student knowledge of the United States government and student knowledge of current events at the beginning of a U.S. government course and at the end. In both areas, knowledge improves significantly. Regarding knowledge of the U.S. government, both males and females improve at similar…

  1. Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Tongans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Moy, Karen; Dinger, Mary K.; Williams, Daniel P.; Harbour, Vanessa J.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, health statistics data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) in the United States were almost nonexistent, due to their being historically aggregated into one homogenous group with Asian Americans. However, recent studies on U.S. NHPI highlight a multitude of obesity-related health disparities indicating the necessity…

  2. Random Vibrations: Assessment of the State of the Art

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L.

    1999-02-23

    Random vibration is the phenomenon wherein random excitation applied to a mechanical system induces random response. We summarize the state of the art in random vibration analysis and testing, commenting on history, linear and nonlinear analysis, the analysis of large-scale systems, and probabilistic structural testing.

  3. 1:1 Technology and Computerized State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    American students in the 21st century are growing up with Internet accessible technology available at their fingertips. Considering this and the continued pressure to compete in a global society, The United States' Department of Education's National Education Technology Plan (NETP) (2010) calls for educators to leverage technology in order to…

  4. A multivariate analysis of the accumulation and fractionation of major and trace elements in agricultural soils in Hidalgo State, Mexico irrigated with raw wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lucho-Constantino, Carlos A; Alvarez-Suárez, Miriam; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I; Prieto-García, Francisco; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2005-04-01

    We evaluated the accumulation and distribution of major and trace elements in agricultural soils of District 03 (DR03) in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, irrigated with raw wastewaters for an average of 20 years. Samples of topsoils (0-30 cm depth) were extracted using a modified Tessier method. Total concentrations of the species tested were in the ranges of 675-1176 mg K kg(-1), 277.9-1001 mg Na kg(-1), 6,708-81,854 mg Ca kg(-1), 23,800-106,974 mg Mg kg(-1), 9.2-123.8 mg B kg(-1), 0.6-1.9 mg Cd kg(-1), 11.6-27.4 mg Cr kg(-1), 3.9-47.0 mg Pb kg(-1). Concentrations of As and Hg were very low. Concentrations of total Cd, Cr and Pb were generally below the maximum permissible levels set by the regulations of the European Union except for cadmium, which was in the middle of the maximum European range allowed for two soils. Regarding lead, one soil (S5) could reach the maximum permissible level of the EU in 6 more years of continued irrigation. On the other hand, contents of Pb in the most mobile fractions ("e" in this work) were significant (range: 3-28%). This distribution translated into concentrations of soluble plus exchangeable lead of approximately 2 mg Pb kg(-1) in three of six soils, significantly higher than the Swiss tolerance limit of 1.0 mg Pb kg(-1) for mobile fractions of lead in soils. Multivariate analysis of the data (Pearson correlation and principal component analysis) quantitatively confirmed that: (i) there is a strong covariance between boron contents and several variables representing the salinity of soils (electrolytic conductivity, a variety of alkaline and alkaline-earth total and fraction concentrations). It appears that there is a problem with high boron content in soils, although the salinity is high only for one of the soils (S3); (ii) a significant correlation among irrigation time, lead content (total, fraction easily exchangeable and bound to organic matter and sulfides) and organic carbon in soils was found; (iii) another association

  5. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  6. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure. PMID:22054526

  7. An assessment of liquid propulsion in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, John P.; Murphy, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the status of liquid propulsion capability and technology in the U.S. today versus where it needs to be to satisfy proposed near and long term goals. Attention is given to four areas of liquid propulsion: earth-to-orbit propulsion, orbital transfer propulsion, on-orbit and planetary propulsion, and advanced propulsion. Recommendations on improving the state of liquid propulsion in the U.S. are presented.

  8. Silver solid-state bonding: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.

    1986-07-07

    Silver solid-state bonding is a joining process which has been largely developed at Rocky Flats and used successfully in a number of programs. The implementation of this technology has generally been successful, but significant problems have been encountered in 316 stainless steel-to-1100 aluminum transition joints. In this paper, the known information about the effect of variables in the various steps in the bonding process on final bond strength is reviewed. On the basis of this information, processing steps or variables with the greatest potential for causing large reductions in the final bond strength are identified. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. State Laws Regarding Education Reform, Assessment, and Accountability in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Terry; Kanikeberg, Ken; Butts, Robert

    This document combines in one place the provisions of Washington State law that provide the legal framework for "education reform." Due to the nature in which Washington State laws are "codified" in statute and to the comprehensiveness of education reform, the laws regarding education reform are scattered throughout the Revised Code of Washington.…

  10. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  11. Performance assessment of a commonly used "accumulation and wash-off" model from long-term continuous road runoff turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Bonhomme, Céline; Al Ali, Saja; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    The suitability of a commonly used accumulation and wash-off model for continuous modelling of urban runoff contamination was evaluated based on 11-month turbidity and flow-rate records from an urban street. Calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed using a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling method for both suspended solids loads (discharge rates) and concentration modelling. Selected models failed at replicating suspended solids concentration over the complete monitoring period. The studied dataset indeed suggests that the accumulation process is rather unpredictable and cannot be satisfactorily represented with usual accumulation models unless short periods are considered. Regarding suspended solid loads modelling, noticeably better performance was achieved, but similar results could as well be obtained with much simpler constant concentration models. Unless providing very accurate estimates of concentrations in runoff, accounting for their temporal variability during rain events may therefore not always be necessary for pollutant loads modelling, as loads are in fact mostly explained by runoff volumes. PMID:25909578

  12. Assessing Information Literacy Skills in the California State University: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Describes an information literacy skills assessment project by California State University as part of an accountability process. Highlights include information competence; a qualitative study using information scenarios; capturing what students do when they search for information; and ethnographic data. (LRW)

  13. National assessment of the consequences of climate change for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M. C., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is initiating a national assessment of the consequences of climate change and climate variability for the United States and the significance of these consequences for its people.

  14. The State of the Environment In OECD Countries: A First Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of the state of the environment in selected nations is presented. Criteria such as water, land, noise, chemicals, and wildlife were considered in arriving at conclusions concerning world trends in environmental quality. (RE)

  15. Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

  16. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  17. Assessing the state of the art in edge detection: 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Kim L.; Sarkar, S.

    1992-03-01

    Hoping the reader will not find the title overly pompous, we offer a brief and decidedly informal view of the state of the edge detection art, as we see it, in early 1992. We make no claim to clairvoyance, nor even to being especially insightful. But we have looked over the recent literature and made some attempt to evaluate where we are as a community with respect to this most ubiquitous problem and where we should be headed. We also briefly summarize the work of this session and our own recent contributions to compare the spectrum of philosophies represented to the community at large. This paper should be taken in the spirit in which it was written, which is to say not too seriously. Our aim is by no means frivolous, but we did try to have a little fun while dabbling as futurists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to stimulate some interesting interchange not so much on the `how to' of edge detection as on the `what next.'

  18. Electroslag processing: State-of-the-art assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.C.

    1987-10-01

    Electroslag processing is the remelting of an electrode in which the molten material falls in droplets through a molten slag pool. The melting is by direct electric current and the mold can be round or rectangular for ingots (electroslag remelting, ESR) or shaped for finished components (electroslag casting, ESC). Advantages of ESR and ESC are improved cleanliness and homogeneity over air melting and a lower cost than vacuum melting. ESC offers the additional advantage of bypassing investment in forging. Electroslag remelting is widely used in this country for the production of tool steels and some high-quality carbon and alloy steels. Electroslag casting has had only very limited use in the United States, mainly for the production of rolling mill rolls. In this report, the development and use of electroslag processes on a worldwide basis are presented along with their possible impact on Western market economies. Information about the status of US producers is also presented along with how the electroslag process relates to their business. Also discussed is the development of the process in the US; and how it relates to competitive methods.

  19. The pheromone-induced nuclear accumulation of the Fus3 MAPK in yeast depends on its phosphorylation state and on Dig1 and Dig2

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Ernest; Kim, Hye-Jin N; Stone, David E

    2007-01-01

    Background Like mammalian MAP kinases, the mating-specific Fus3 MAPK of yeast accumulates in the nuclei of stimulated cells. Because Fus3 does not appear to be subjected to active nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, it is not clear how its activation by mating pheromone effects the observed change in its localization. One possibility is that the activation of Fus3 changes its affinity for nuclear and cytoplasmic tethers. Results Dig1, Dig2, and Ste12 are nuclear proteins that interact with Fus3. We found that the pheromone-induced nuclear accumulation of a Fus3-GFP reporter is reduced in cells lacking Dig1 or Dig2, whereas Fus3T180AY182A-GFP localization was unaffected by the absence of these proteins. This suggests that Dig1 and Dig2 contribute to the retention of phosphorylated Fus3 in the nucleus. Moreover, overexpression of Ste12 caused the hyper-accumulation of Fus3-GFP (but not Fus3T180AY182A-GFP) in the nuclei of pheromone-treated cells, suggesting that Ste12 also plays a role in the nuclear retention of phosphorylated Fus3, either by directly interacting with it or by transcribing genes whose protein products are Fus3 tethers. We have previously reported that overexpression of the Msg5 phosphatase inhibits the nuclear localization of Fus3. Here we show that this effect depends on the phosphatase activity of Msg5, and provide evidence that both nuclear and cytoplasmic Msg5 can affect the localization of Fus3. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which the pheromone-induced phosphorylation of Fus3 increases its affinity for nuclear tethers, which contributes to its nuclear accumulation and is antagonized by Msg5. PMID:17963515

  20. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  1. Putting Civics to the Test: The Impact of State-Level Civics Assessments on Civic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing national debate over the efficacy of state-level exams and whether assessments in civics enhances democratic education. This paper uses a large 2012 national survey of 18-24-year-olds to examine the potential effect of civics assessments on civic outcomes. In doing so, it attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do civics…

  2. Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000: Analysis of Questionnaire Data from United States Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) is an International Examination that was developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to assess the reading, mathematics, and science literacy of students in participating countries, including the United States. PISA is a two-hour paper-and-pencil…

  3. Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

  4. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  5. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  6. Teacher Compliance and Accuracy in State Assessment of Student Motor Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tina J.; Hicklin, Lori K.; French, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher compliance with state mandated assessment protocols and teacher accuracy in assessing student motor skill performance. Method: Middle school teachers (N = 116) submitted eighth grade student motor skill performance data from 318 physical education classes to a trained monitoring…

  7. The 2% Transition: Supporting Access to State Assessments for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Most students with disabilities participate in state assessments with or without accommodations [based on each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP)]. A small number of students with the most severe or profound intellectual disabilities participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). Until…

  8. An Assessment of HIV Issues among Inmates at a State Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonio, Michael E.; And Others

    The rapid spread of the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) throughout correctional facilities in the United States indicates that educational reforms are needed to combat this problem. But inmates' actual needs must be assessed before any program can be implemented. To assess this need, a historical overview of the problem, along with the…

  9. A Massachusetts and Multi-State Approach to Statewide Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pat; Orcutt, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes efforts in Massachusetts and the Multi-State Collaborative to Advance Learning Outcomes Assessment (MSC) to develop a statewide system for learning outcomes assessment that does not rely on standardized testing and that is designed to transcend the traditional tensions and boundaries between campus-based formative and…

  10. A National Assessment of Forest Fragmentation Change for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of land-cover change is important for ecological assessments and environmental planning. We used national land-cover change data, resolved at 0.09 ha per pixel, to assess change in forest fragmentation for the conterminous United States. Temporal change in fragmen...

  11. States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2007. Synthesis Report 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Christensen, Laurene L.; Cormier, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Federal legislation requires that all students, including students with disabilities, be included in all state and district-level accountability systems. Many students can take the regular assessment with or without accommodations, but some students with disabilities need alternate ways to access assessments. For the past several years, states…

  12. Challenges in the Development of State Assessment Programs that Support Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Linda A.

    This paper addresses the educational, technical, legal, and practical challenges states must confront as they consider the content of the assessment, its technical quality, the capacity of educators and the public to use the results of the assessment, the benefits and additional complications of performance testing, and the overall tension betwen…

  13. U.S. states and territories national tsunami hazard assessment, historic record and sources for waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Weaver, C.

    2007-12-01

    In 2005, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) released a joint report by the sub-committee on Disaster Reduction and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations titled Tsunami Risk Reduction for the United States: A Framework for Action (Framework). The Framework outlines the President's&pstrategy for reducing the United States tsunami risk. The first specific action called for in the Framework is to "Develop standardized and coordinated tsunami hazard and risk assessments for all coastal regions of the United States and its territories." Since NOAA is the lead agency for providing tsunami forecasts and warnings and NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) catalogs information on global historic tsunamis, NOAA/NGDC was asked to take the lead in conducting the first national tsunami hazard assessment. Earthquakes or earthquake-generated landslides caused more than 85% of the tsunamis in the NGDC tsunami database. Since the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research on earthquake hazards facing all of the United States and its territories, NGDC and USGS partnered together to conduct the first tsunami hazard assessment for the United States and its territories. A complete tsunami hazard and risk assessment consists of a hazard assessment, exposure and vulnerability assessment of buildings and people, and loss assessment. This report is an interim step towards a tsunami risk assessment. The goal of this report is provide a qualitative assessment of the United States tsunami hazard at the national level. Two different methods are used to assess the U.S. tsunami hazard. The first method involves a careful examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database. This resulted in a qualitative national tsunami hazard assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths found in the NGDC database search were compared with the

  14. Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2011-01-01

    The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…

  15. Teaching Performance Assessment: A Comparative Study of Implementation and Impact amongst California State University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guaglianone, Curtis L.; Payne, Maggie; Kinsey, Gary W.; Chiero, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on the perceptions of California State University administrators and provides a comparative study of the challenges and benefits resulting from the implementation of the teaching performance assessment requirement of SB 2042 standards 19-21 on the California State University (CSU) campuses. With 23 campuses and almost 450,000…

  16. Impact of Design Effects in Large-Scale District and State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that sampling design effects have potentially huge unrecognized impacts on the results reported by large-scale district and state assessments in the United States. When design effects are unrecognized and unaccounted for they lead to underestimating the sampling error in item and test statistics. Underestimating the sampling…

  17. 45 CFR 2550.85 - How will the State Plan be assessed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the State Plan be assessed? 2550.85 Section 2550.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE COMMISSIONS AND ALTERNATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE ENTITIES § 2550.85 How will the...

  18. State Special Education Laws for Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive search identified 31 state statutes and regulations specific to functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and behavior intervention plans (BIP) in the special education context. A systematic tabulation of the state law provisions that exceed the rather narrow foundation requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act…

  19. Addressing Two Commonly Unrecognized Sources of Score Instability in Annual State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doorey, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The work reported in this paper reflects a collaborative effort of many individuals representing multiple organizations. It began during a session at the October 2008 meeting of TILSA when a representative of a member state asked the group if any of their programs had experienced unexpected fluctuations in the annual state assessment scores, and…

  20. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…

  1. Best Practices in State Assessment Policies for Accommodating English Language Learners: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Barbara D.; Rivera, Charlene; Willner, Lynn Shafer

    2008-01-01

    Charged by the U.S. Department of Education, The George Washington University Center for Equity and Excellence in Education (GW-CEEE) developed a Guide for state education agencies (SEAs) to use to improve state assessment policies for accommodating English language learners (ELLs). As a foundation for the Guide, GW-CEEE designed two studies, the…

  2. Assessment of Social Media Utilization and Study Habit of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olutola, Adekunle Thomas; Olatoye, Olufunke Omotoke; Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated assessment of social media utilization and study habits of students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students' of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. Researchers'-designed…

  3. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  4. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  5. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  6. Teaching Early Childhood Assessment Online: A State-Wide Multi-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.; McDonald, Angie; York, Marti A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an online early childhood assessment course that was developed through a multi-university collaboration with support from a state improvement grant. Collaborators from three universities developed the course to address a new early childhood unified license (birth to age 8, regular and special education) in the state of Kansas.…

  7. An assessment of state-and-transition models: Perceptions following two decades of development and implementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    State and transition models (STMs) are being developed for many areas in the United States and represent an important tool for assessing and managing public and private rangelands. Substantial resources have been invested in model development, yet minimal efforts have been made to evaluate the utili...

  8. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…

  9. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards. The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the CCSS; each…

  10. Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Potential for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Defne, Z.; Jiang, L.; Fritz, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    Tidal streams are high velocity sea currents created by periodic horizontal movement of the tides, often magnified by local topographical features such as headlands, inlets to inland lagoons, and straits. Tidal stream energy extraction is derived from the kinetic energy of the moving flow; analogous to the way a wind turbine operates in air, and as such differs from tidal barrages, which relies on providing a head of water for energy extraction. With the constantly increasing effort in promoting alternative energy, tidal streams have become promising energy sources due to their continuous, predictable and concentrated characteristics. However, the present lack of a full spatial-temporal assessment of tidal currents for the U.S. coastline down to the scale of individual devices is a barrier to the comprehensive development of tidal current energy technology. A methodology for creating a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology has been developed. The tidal flows are simulated using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is calibrated and validated using observations and tidal predictions. The calibration includes adjustments to model parameters such as bottom friction coefficient, changed land/water masks, or increased grid resolutions. A systematic validation process has been developed after defining various parameters to quantify the validation results. In order to determine the total tidal stream power resource, a common method frequently proposed is to estimate it as a fraction of the total kinetic energy flux passing through a vertical section; however, this now has been shown to generally underestimate the total available resource. The total tidal energy flux includes not just the kinetic energy but also the energy flux due to the work done by the pressure force associated with the tidal motion on the water column as well

  11. The use of LANDSAT by the states for water quality assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT for water resources applications in U.S. state demonstration projects is reviewed. The most common single application undertaken between 1976 and 1981 was found to be water condition assessment. The majority of projects, however, fell into the general category of watershed hydrology. Some of the states are attempting to use LANDSAT data in an operational mode for water quality assessment. Two of these state projects from Vermont and Wisconsin are described in brief. The basic information requirements of Section 314 of the U.S. Pollution Control Act are given with the type of input LANDSAT data could potentially provide toward those requirements. Surveys were performed to determine: (1) how its states were responding in 1980 to 1981 to the federal and state water quality laws; and (2) the status of LANDSAT analysis capabilities of each state.

  12. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    PubMed

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P; Hooker, Christine I

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST)--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability. PMID:24244736

  13. Using Fiction to Assess Mental State Understanding: A New Task for Assessing Theory of Mind in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P.; Hooker, Christine I.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others – an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task – the Short Story Task (SST) - intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters’ mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability. PMID:24244736

  14. The reliability of self-assessment of affective state in different phases of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2014-05-01

    Some studies have indicated that the capacity of self-assessment of affective state is more compromised during mania than during depression. In the present study, we investigated whether the reliability of self-assessment in bipolar disorder varies as a function of actual affective state (i.e., euthymia, mania, or depression). Sixty-five patients with a diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar disorder were evaluated with regard to the occurrence of an affective syndrome using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. In parallel, we applied the Analog Visual Mood Scale, a self-assessment tool to evaluate mood changes. The same individual prospectively completed the self-assessment scale in different affective states. During depression, the patients' evaluation was significantly different from when they were in manic or euthymic mood states. However, when in mania, the patients evaluated their mood state similarly to when they were euthymic. The bipolar patients in mania but not in depression did not reliably evaluate themselves with regard to their affective state. PMID:24727726

  15. Changing perceptions of United States natural-gas resources as shown by successive U. S. Department of the Interior assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in four successive estimates of United States technically recoverable natural gas resources are examined in this report. The effective dates of these assessments were January 1 of 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1994. The 1994 estimate of the U.S. total gas endowment increased significantly over the previous three estimates, indicating that the technically recoverable endowment of gas is not an absolute volume, but rather is a quantity that can increase through time in response to advances in technology and in geologic understanding. Much of this increase was in the category of reserve growth. Reserve growth refers to additions to the estimated ultimate recovery of fields that typically occur as discovered fields are developed and produced. The potential for U.S. reserve growth, rather than being rapidly used up, appears to be sustainable for many years by intensive engineering efforts coupled with improving technology. Potential additions to reserves in continuous (unconventional) accumulations also represent a type of reserve growth, and were estimated (for the first time) in the 1994 assessment at 358 trillion cubic feet of gas. This resource category provides a significant new contribution to the estimated U.S. total gas endowment.

  16. Rhode Island State Assessment Program District and School Testing Coordinators Handbook: K-1 Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This handbook will assist principals and school testing coordinators in implementing the spring 2007 administration of the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA). Information regarding administration timeline, reporting, process, online tools and contact personnel is discussed. Contents include: (1) Scheduling; (2) Identify Primary Test…

  17. Prediction of State Mandated Assessment Mathematics Scores from Computer Based Mathematics and Reading Preview Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Guerra, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to understand whether MAPs computer based assessment of math and language skills using MAPs reading scores can predict student scores on the NMSBA. A key question was whether or not the prediction can be improved by including student language skill scores. The study explored the effectiveness of computer based preview assessments…

  18. Accommodations, Modifications, and Alternates for Instruction and Assessment. State Assessment Series, Maryland/Kentucky Report 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, John

    This report addresses issues on the use of accommodations, modifications, or alternatives for students with disabilities in large-scale educational assessment programs. First, a set of definitions from current literature and the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are offered. The importance of agreement between instructional and…

  19. Annual Sea Level Variability Induced by Changes in Sea Ice Extent and Accumulation on Ice Sheets: An Assessment Based on Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Giovinetto, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes of mean annual net accumulation at the surface on the grounded ice sheets of East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and Greenland in response to variations in sea ice extent are estimated using grid-point values 100 km apart. The data bases are assembled principally by bilinear interpolation of remotely sensed brightness temperature (Nimbus-5 ESMR, Nimbus-7 SMMR), surface temperature (Nimbus-7 THIR), and surface elevation (ERS-1 radar altimeter). These data, complemented by field data where remotely sensed data are not available, are used in multivariate analyses in which mean annual accumulation (derived from firn emissivity) is the dependent variable; the independent variables are latitude, surface elevation, mean annual surface temperature, and mean annual distance to open ocean (as a source of energy and moisture). The last is the shortest distance measured between a grid point and the mean annual position of the 10% sea ice concentration boundary, and is used as an index of changes in sea ice extent as well as of mean concentration. Stepwise correlation analyses indicate that variations in sea ice extent of +/-50 km would lead to changes in accumulation inversely of +/-4% on East Antarctica, +/- 10% on West Antarctica, and +4% on Greenland. These results are compared with those obtained in a previous study using visually interpolated values from contoured compilations of field data; they substantiate the findings for the Antarctic ice sheets (+/-4% on East Antarctica, +/-9% in West Antarctica), and suggest a reduction by one half of the probable change of accumulation on Greenland (from +/-8%). The results also suggest a reduction of the combined contribution to sea level variability to +/- 0.19 mm/a (from +/- 0.22 mm/a).

  20. X ray attenuation measurements for high-temperature materials characterization and in-situ monitoring of damage accumulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of this dissertation is to develop and apply x ray attenuation measurement systems that are capable of: (1) characterizing density variations in high-temperature materials, e.g., monolithic ceramics, ceramic and intermetallic matrix composites, and (2) noninvasively monitoring damage accumulation and failure sequences in ceramic matrix composites under room temperature tensile testing. This dissertation results in the development of: (1) a point scan digital radiography system, and (2) an in-situ x ray material testing system. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading shows the effect of preexisting volume flaws on the fracture behavior of composites. Results show that x ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulation during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber matrix debonding, fiber bridging, and fiber pullout are imaged throughout the tensile loading of the specimens. Further in-situ radiography is found to be a practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the silicon carbide fibers and the reaction bonded silicon nitride matrix. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post test x ray imaging can provide for greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior.

  1. Is State Assessment a Viable Tool for Reflection of Classroom Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tony; Newsome, Kolouia

    North Carolina uses Dimensions of Thinking (Marzano et al., 1988) as a framework to incorporate higher order thinking in their End-of- Course exams. The goal of this research was to explore whether this effort could also help facilitate the inclusion of higher order thinking in the classroom. Based on reviewing state EOC-related documents and…

  2. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  3. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": Guidance for States and State Assessment Consortia in Defining and Addressing Policy and Technical Issues and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    States participating in the four federally-funded assessment consortia are required to establish a "common definition of English Learner." This includes the two Race to the Top academic assessment consortia and the two Enhanced Assessment Grant English language proficiency (ELP) assessment consortia. This paper provides guidance that…

  4. A novel manifold-manifold distance index applied to looseness state assessment of viscoelastic sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; Guo, Ting; Luo, Xue; Qu, Jinxiu; Zhang, Chenxuan; Cheng, Wei; Li, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Viscoelastic sandwich structures (VSS) are widely used in mechanical equipment; their state assessment is necessary to detect structural states and to keep equipment running with high reliability. This paper proposes a novel manifold-manifold distance-based assessment (M2DBA) method for assessing the looseness state in VSSs. In the M2DBA method, a manifold-manifold distance is viewed as a health index. To design the index, response signals from the structure are firstly acquired by condition monitoring technology and a Hankel matrix is constructed by using the response signals to describe state patterns of the VSS. Thereafter, a subspace analysis method, that is, principal component analysis (PCA), is performed to extract the condition subspace hidden in the Hankel matrix. From the subspace, pattern changes in dynamic structural properties are characterized. Further, a Grassmann manifold (GM) is formed by organizing a set of subspaces. The manifold is mapped to a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), where support vector data description (SVDD) is used to model the manifold as a hypersphere. Finally, a health index is defined as the cosine of the angle between the hypersphere centers corresponding to the structural baseline state and the looseness state. The defined health index contains similarity information existing in the two structural states, so structural looseness states can be effectively identified. Moreover, the health index is derived by analysis of the global properties of subspace sets, which is different from traditional subspace analysis methods. The effectiveness of the health index for state assessment is validated by test data collected from a VSS subjected to different degrees of looseness. The results show that the health index is a very effective metric for detecting the occurrence and extension of structural looseness. Comparison results indicate that the defined index outperforms some existing state-of-the-art ones.

  5. QUASAR's QStates cognitive gauge performance in the cognitive state assessment competition 2011.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Neil J; Soussou, Walid

    2011-01-01

    The Cognitive State Assessment Competition 2011 was organized by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to compare the performance of real-time cognitive state classification software. This paper presents results for QUASAR's data classification module, QStates, which is a software package for real-time (and off-line) analysis of physiologic data collected during cognitive-specific tasks. The classifier's methodology can be generalized to any particular cognitive state; QStates identifies the most salient features extracted from EEG signals recorded during different cognitive states or loads. PMID:22255838

  6. Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Levis, J W; Barlaz, M A; Themelis, N J; Ulloa, P

    2010-01-01

    Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic wastes (SSO). The objective of this study was to characterize the state-of-the-practice of food waste treatment alternatives in the US and Canada. Site visits were conducted to aerobic composting and two anaerobic digestion facilities, in addition to meetings with officials that are responsible for program implementation and financing. The technology to produce useful products from either aerobic or anaerobic treatment of SSO is in place. However, there are a number of implementation issues that must be addressed, principally project economics and feedstock purity. Project economics varied by region based on landfill disposal fees. Feedstock purity can be obtained by enforcement of contaminant standards and/or manual or mechanical sorting of the feedstock prior to and after treatment. Future SSO diversion will be governed by economics and policy incentives, including landfill organics bans and climate change mitigation policies. PMID:20171867

  7. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    To select suitable tree species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated area, we measured the AMF status and heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues in a lead-zinc mine area, Northwest China. All 15 tree species were colonized by AM fungi in our investigation. The mycorrhizal frequency (F%), mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and spore density (SP) reduced concomitantly with increasing Pb and Zn levels; however, positive correlations were found between arbuscule density (A%) and soil total/DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in plant samples were 168.21, 96.61, 41.06, and 0.79 mg/kg, respectively. Populus purdomii Rehd. accumulated the highest concentrations of Zn (432.08 mg/kg) and Cu (140.85 mg/kg) in its leaves. Considerable amount of Pb (712.37 mg/kg) and Cd (3.86 mg/kg) were concentrated in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Populus simonii Carr., respectively. Plants developed different strategies to survive in HM stress environment: translocating more essential metals (Zn and Cu) into the aerial parts, while retaining more toxic heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the roots to protect the above-ground parts from damage. According to the translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), growth rate and biomass production, five tree species (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Cotinus coggygria Scop., P. simonii, P. purdomii, and R. pseudoacacia) were considered to be the most suitable candidates for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization purposes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants. PMID:25929455

  8. Assessments of chromium (and other metals) in vegetables and potential bio-accumulations in humans living in areas affected by tannery wastes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hualin; Arocena, Joselito M; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Zhou, Jiangmin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (Cr) commonly enters the food chain through uptake by vegetables. However, accurate prediction of plant uptake of Cr (and other metals) still remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated 5 indices of availability for Cr (and other metals) to identify reliable predictors of metal transfer from soils to garlic, onion, bokchoy, radish and celery grown in soils impacted by tannery wastes. The potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans was calculated from the Cr content of vegetable predicted by the best bio-availability index, amounts of vegetable consumed and recommended daily doses for Cr. Our results show that soil total Cr is the best predictor of Cr transfer from soils to onion (Cr in onion=8.51+0.005 Total Cr) while Cr extractable by Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure at pH 5 correlates very well with Cr uptake by bokchoy (Cr bokchoy=5.86+7.32 SPLP-5 Cr) and garlic (Cr garlic=7.63+2.36 SPLP-5 Cr). The uptake of Cr by radish and celery could not be reliably estimated by any of the 5 indices of availability tested in this study. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans (BA-Cr) increases from soils with low Cr (BA-Cr=11.5) to soil with high total Cr (BA-Cr=31.3). Due to numerous soil factors affecting the behavior of Cr in soils and the physiological differences among vegetables, we suggest that the prediction of the transfer of Cr (and other metals) from soils to plants should be specific to site, metal and vegetable. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans can be derived from a transfer function of Cr from soils to plants and the human consumption of vegetables. PMID:25048934

  9. State Transition to High-Quality, College/Career-Ready Assessments: A Workbook for State Action on Key Policy, Legal, and Technical Issues. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Over the next few years, states will be transitioning to new, high-quality assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) or other state college- and career-ready (CCR) standards. States are committed to making this transition in a manner that is determined and thoughtful--to help transform teaching and learning, advance CCR…

  10. Assessment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P.

    2012-12-12

    This report describes the methodology and results of the most rigorous assessment to date of the riverine hydrokinetic energy resource in the contiguous 48 states and Alaska, excluding tidal waters. The assessment provides estimates of the gross, naturally available resource, termed the theoretical resource, as well as estimates, termed the technically recoverable resource, that account for selected technological factors affecting capture and conversion of the theoretical resource. The technically recoverable resource does not account for all technical constraints on energy capture and conversion.

  11. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  12. A novel multisensor traffic state assessment system based on incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system. PMID:25162055

  13. What States Can Learn about State Standards and Assessment Systems from No Child Left Behind Documents and Interviews with Central Region Assessment Directors. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 036

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elisabeth A.; Barley, Zoe A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the No Child Left Behind requirements for state standards and assessment systems. It examined official documents and peer review decision letters and included interviews with state assessment directors in the Central Region to highlight the challenges states face in developing and implementing approved…

  14. Field study on the uptake, accumulation, translocation and risk assessment of PAHs in a soil-wheat system with amendments of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Ma, Yibing

    2016-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the uptake and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by wheat plants following sewage sludge application. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40t/ha/year) were investigated. The contents of 16 PAHs in soils, wheat roots and straws increased as the rate of sewage sludge application increased and were in the range of 20.7 to 241, 166 to 700, and 110 to 260ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Meanwhile, for the PAH contents in grains (81.2-95.2ng/g dw), no statistically significant differences were observed among different treatments. A single application of a large quantity of sewage sludge would likely increase the accumulation of PAHs in soil as well as their subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. Profile analysis indicated that the transfer and accumulation of lower weight PAHs in wheat plants were greater. Regarding PAHs, sewage sludge application at 40t/ha/year for 6years did not significantly increase the risks of intake by wheat grain grown on sludge-amended soils. PMID:27093123

  15. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected. PMID:26894493

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND POLICIES AFFECTING SOIL CARBON IN AGROECOSYSTEMS OF THE CENTRAL UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the U.S. EPA BIOME Agroecosystems Assessment Project is to evaluate the degree to which agroecosystems can be technically managed, on a sustainable basis, to conserve and sequester carbon, reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and provide refere...

  17. Comparison between NAEP and State Mathematics Assessment Results: 2003. Volume 2. Research and Development Report. NCES 2008-475

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Don; Bandeira de Mello, Victor; Blankenship, Charles; Chaney, Kassandra; Esra, Phil; Hikawa, Hiro; Rojas, Daniela; William, Paul; Wolman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In late January through early March of 2003, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 4 and 8 reading and mathematics assessments were administered to representative samples of students in approximately 100 public schools in each state. The results of these assessments were announced in November 2003. Each state also carried…

  18. Report to Congress: Summary Report of the Assessment of Current State Practices in Title XX Funded Day Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In 1980 the federal government mandated that assistance be given states to conduct systematic assessment of current practices in Title XX funded day care programs and that a summary report of this assessment be provided to Congress. Assessment findings are given in this document. Overall, provider practices exceeded state licensing standards and…

  19. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources Team; Biewick, Laura R. H., (compiler)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  20. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris

    2001-11-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous United States, and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the United States where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data are used to calibrate model parameters and to determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern United States and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western United States. Crop yields typically increase, except for winter wheat in the southern United States and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and in direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher

  1. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools. PMID:25809961

  2. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  3. Assessment of physiological and biochemical responses, metal tolerance and accumulation in two eucalypt hybrid clones for phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Pietrini, Fabrizio; Iori, Valentina; Bianconi, Daniele; Mughini, Giovanni; Massacci, Angelo; Zacchini, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Eucalyptus is a promising species for ecological restoration but plant performances under environmental constraints need to be better investigated. In particular, the toxic effects of metals on this plant species are poorly described in the literature. In this work, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses to cadmium were analysed in two eucalypt genotypes (hybrid clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis × Eucalyptus globulus ssp. bicostata J.B. Kirkp named Velino ex 7 and Viglio ex 358) exposed for 3 weeks to 50 μM CdSO4 under hydroponics. The two eucalypt clones showed a different sensitivity to the metal. The growth reduction caused by cadmium was less than 30% in clone Velino and about 50% in clone Viglio. Cadmium mostly accumulated in plant roots and, to a lesser extent, in stem, as highlighted by the low translocation factor (Tf) measured in both clones. Net photosynthesis measurement, chlorophyll fluorescence images, transpiration values and chlorophyll content revealed a cadmium-induced impairment of physiological processes at the leaf level, which was more evident in clone Viglio. Metal binding and antioxidative compound content was differentially affected by cadmium exposure in the two eucalypt clones. Particularly, the content of thiols like cysteine and glutathione, organic acids like oxalate and citrate, and polyamines were markedly modulated in plant organs by metal treatment and highlighted different defence responses between the clones. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation ability of the eucalypt clones were evaluated and the potential of E. camaldulensis for the reclamation of metal polluted-waters is discussed. PMID:26253590

  4. Quantifying ecosystem services from pastureland in the United States: The conservation effects assessment project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands of the United States. Society for Range Management members are familiar with the rangeland CEAP effort but may know...

  5. Evaluation of Student Engagement Assessment in Colorado State University's Warner College of Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a participatory program evaluation of student engagement assessment in Colorado State University's (CSU) Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR). The college requested the evaluation after completing two pilot studies of undergraduate engagement which led them to consider establishing the…

  6. Chemistry Students' Assessment of Their Teachers' Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Benue State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduloju, M. O.; Obinne, A. D. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the assessment of chemistry teachers' effectiveness by chemistry students. A survey research design was used. Two hundred students were sampled for the study from Benue State. The result showed that students agreed that their teachers cover a large part of the syllabus before the examination. Findings also revealed that there…

  7. NONINDIGENOUS PATHOGENIC SHRIMP VIRUS INTRODUCTIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous Pathogenic Shrimp Virus Introductions into the United States: Developing a Qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment. Austin, R.K.; van der Schalie, W.R.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Menzie, C.; Menzie-Cura and Associates, Chelmsford, MA; Fair...

  8. Graduation Policies for Students with Disabilities Who Participate in States' General Assessments. Synthesis Report 98

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Albus, Debra A.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Graduation requirements and diploma options for students with disabilities who participate in the general assessment has been a topic of interest for many years. The recent push for all students, including those with disabilities, to leave school ready for college and career has heightened the importance of understanding what states are requiring…

  9. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  10. Postsecondary Preparation and Remediation: Examining the Effect of the Early Assessment Program at California State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jessica S.; Kurlaender, Michal; Grodsky, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how participation in the Early Assessment Program, which provides California high school juniors with information about their academic readiness for college-level work at California State University campuses, affects their college-going behavior and need for remediation in college. Using administrative records from…

  11. Literacy Curricula and Assessment: A Survey of Early Childhood Educators in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gischlar, Karen L.; Vesay, Joanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of early literacy instruction, as these skills are the developmental precursors to conventional reading. In this study, 215 early childhood educators in two states responded to a survey regarding early literacy curricula and assessment. Results indicated that most teachers used either a…

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as par...

  13. The Definition, Assessment, and Mitigation of State Boredom within Educational Settings: A Comprehensive Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Fiorella, Logan; Carper, Teresa; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating the situational factors that give rise to state boredom is a consistent challenge facing educators. Despite the growing amount of literature devoted to the construct, the field has yet to arrive at a consensus regarding a clear theoretical or operational definition. Subsequently, inconsistencies exist in the assessment methodologies,…

  14. Descriptive Study of State Assessment Policies for Accommodating English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Lynn Shafer; Rivera, Charlene; Acosta, Barbara D.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a study of the U.S. Department of Education's (ED)'s efforts to support states in meeting the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (Ashby, 2006). The study found the requirement to include all students, including English language learners (ELLs) in standards and assessment systems, a…

  15. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  16. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN THE LAKES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES USING SEDIMENT DIATOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatom assemblages were selected as indicators of lake condition and to assess historical lake water quality changes in 257 lakes in the northeastern United States. The "top" (surface sediments, present-day) and "bottom" (generally from >30 cm deep, representing historical condit...

  17. Using State Assessments for Predicting Student Success in Dual-Enrollment College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal M.; Anderson, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    Scores on state standards-based assessments are readily available and may be an appropriate alternative to traditional placement tests for assigning or accepting students into particular courses. Many community colleges do not require test scores for admissions purposes but do require some kind of placement scores for first-year English and math…

  18. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  19. State & District-Wide Assessments of School Achievement. Issues in Education. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovations in Special Education, Columbia, MO.

    This bulletin provides guidelines to Missouri educators concerning inclusion of students with disabilities in state and district-wide assessments of school achievement as required under Missouri's Outstanding Schools Act and the reauthorization of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997. It stresses the greater focus on…

  20. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…

  1. Dangerous Liaisons: Reflections on a Pilot Project for State-Mandated Outcomes Assessment of Written Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Harry C.

    2008-01-01

    This study details the development and results of a campus-based writing assessment plan that was mandated by a state-wide university system in order to explore the ''value-added'' from a writing program curriculum to undergraduate students' competence with written expression. Four writing samples (two timed essays and two conventional essays)…

  2. The Rise, Fall, and Rise of State Assessment in California, 1993-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Mazzeo, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    The California Learning Assessment System (CLAS) was developed in 1991 to align the state's testing system to curriculum content and improve measurement of student, school, and district performance. CLAS was discontinued because of tension between political and technical factors, key stakeholders' divergent priorities and goals, and virulent…

  3. Assessment of Intraindividual Variability in Positive and Negative Affect Using Latent State-Trait Model Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lawrenz, Cathy; Whitlock, Rod Van; Lubin, Bernard; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2004-01-01

    Intraindividual variability in positive and negative affect was assessed by the positive affect (Contentment, Joy, Vigor, Love, and Excitement) and negative affect (Depression, Hostility, Anxiety, Agitation, and Social Anxiety) subscales of the state version of the Comprehensive Personality and Affect Scales (COPAS) during a 3-week period. Using…

  4. MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STATE OF THE FLOWING WATERS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment serves the purpose of a report card on the state of streams and rivers in the Mid-Atlantic region. It combines data from two sample surveys of flowing waters conducted in the region by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during the period 1993-98. Two unique...

  5. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  6. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND FUTURE DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Environmental Exposures and Future Disease States

    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Hongzu Ren, Judith E. Schmid, Jessica Stapelfeldt, Lillian F. Strader, Kary E. Thompson, Douglas B. T...

  7. 34 CFR 361.29 - Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and progress reports. 361.29 Section 361.29 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND...

  8. 34 CFR 361.29 - Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and progress reports. 361.29 Section 361.29 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND...

  9. 34 CFR 361.29 - Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and progress reports. 361.29 Section 361.29 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  10. 34 CFR 361.29 - Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and progress reports. 361.29 Section 361.29 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND...

  11. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…

  12. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  13. Evaluability Assessment of the Title II Basic Skills Improvement Program: Implications for State-Level Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Aurelia C.; Bourexis, Patricia S.

    The implications of the lessons learned through an evaluability assessment (EA) of the Title II Basic Skills Improvement Program (BSIP) for State Education Agency (SEA) support of model demonstration programs are discussed. The purposes, methodology and uses of the EA process are presented. Also included is a discussion of the details of the…

  14. Assessment of temporal state-dependent interactions between auditory fMRI responses to desired and undesired acoustic sources.

    PubMed

    Olulade, O; Hu, S; Gonzalez-Castillo, J; Tamer, G G; Luh, W-M; Ulmer, J L; Talavage, T M

    2011-07-01

    A confounding factor in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is the presence of the acoustic noise inherently associated with the echo planar imaging acquisition technique. Previous studies have demonstrated that this noise can induce unwanted neuronal responses that can mask stimulus-induced responses. Similarly, activation accumulated over multiple stimuli has been demonstrated to elevate the baseline, thus reducing the dynamic range available for subsequent responses. To best evaluate responses to auditory stimuli, it is necessary to account for the presence of all recent acoustic stimulation, beginning with an understanding of the attenuating effects brought about by interaction between and among induced unwanted neuronal responses, and responses to desired auditory stimuli. This study focuses on the characterization of the duration of this temporal memory and qualitative assessment of the associated response attenuation. Two experimental parameters--inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and repetition time (TR)--were varied during an fMRI experiment in which participants were asked to passively attend to an auditory stimulus. Results present evidence of a state-dependent interaction between induced responses. As expected, attenuating effects of these interactions become less significant as TR and ISI increase and in contrast to previous work, persist up to 18s after a stimulus presentation. PMID:21426929

  15. U.S. Department of Energy State Coupled Resource Assessment Program Final Report for FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Duncan

    1983-02-01

    During FY 1982, ESL/UURI tasks under the DOE State Coupled Program included: 2.1 Technical Assistance--Provide assistance to DOE through communicating program objectives, acting as liason among state contractors and other program participants, and writing periodic status reports. promote coordination of this program with other federal geothermal programs. 2.2 Technical Services--Provide geological, geochemical, and geophysical expertise and support as requested by state teams and other program participants to the extent made possible by funding. 2.3 Publications--Document and publish technical aspects of this program that are otherwise not documented in state contractor or other reports, provide DOE with semi-annual technical and status reports. This status report summarizes activities under 2.1 and 2.3. Technical services provided by ESL/UURI to individual state resource assessment teams are summarized in a separate technical support memorandum.

  16. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2012-12-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the same time, a survey of faculty indicates that other concepts, such as the application of genetics to society or the environment, are viewed as equally or even more important than foundation concepts. This disconnect suggests a need for more explicit goal setting prior to curriculum development. We also review the relationship between concept inventories, multiple-choice tests measuring conceptual understanding, and curricular goals. Existing concept inventories offer a strong foundation on which to build community-developed concept assessments of genetics knowledge. Concept assessments such as these would allow the genetics education community to test hypotheses of curricular change.

  17. Psychiatric workforce needs and recommendations for the community mental health system: a state needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Berry, Frank W; Citron, Tod; Fitzgerald, Judy; Rapaport, Mark H; Stephens, Bryan; Druss, Benjamin G

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other states, Georgia is facing workforce challenges within its community mental health system. These issues may be exacerbated as implementation of the Affordable Care Act expands demand for behavioral health services. Georgia's Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities commissioned a needs assessment to examine the shortage of prescribing providers (psychiatrists, advanced practice registered nurses, and physician assistants) in the state's public mental health system. A unique partnership of key stakeholders developed and conducted the mixed-methods needs assessment at six of Georgia's 27 community mental health centers serving more than 40,000 patients annually. The assessment documented challenges in recruiting and retaining psychiatrists and workforce shortages for all prescriber groups. The authors describe opportunities for optimizing the psychiatric workforce and training the next generation of community psychiatrists. PMID:25642608

  18. Assessing student reasoning in upper-division electricity and magnetism at Oregon State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Justyna; Manogue, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    Standardized assessment tests that allow researchers to compare the performance of students under various curricula are highly desirable. There are several research-based conceptual tests that serve as instruments to assess and identify students' difficulties in lower-division courses. At the upper-division level, however, assessing students' difficulties is a more challenging task. Although several research groups are currently working on such tests, their reliability and validity are still under investigation. We analyze the results of the Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics diagnostic from Oregon State University and compare it with data from University of Colorado. In particular, we show potential shortcomings in the Oregon State University curriculum regarding separation of variables and boundary conditions. Our work complements and extends the previous findings from the University of Colorado by highlighting important differences in student learning that may be related to the curriculum, illuminating difficulties with the rubric for certain problems and verifying decay in post-test results over time.

  19. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    PubMed

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  20. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners: a missing component in state workforce assessments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Perri; Strand De Oliveira, Justine; Short, Nancy M

    2011-07-01

    Due to current or predicted health workforce shortages, policy makers worldwide are addressing issues of task allocation, skill mix, and role substitution. This article presents an example of this process in the United States (US). Health workforce analysts recommend that US physician workforce planning account for the impact of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs). We examined 40 state workforce assessments in order to identify best practices for including PAs/NPs. Most assessments (about 60%) did not include PAs/NPs in provider counts, workforce projections or recommendations. Only 35% enumerated PAs/NPs. Best practices included use of an accurate data source, such as state licensing data, and combined workforce planning for PAs, NPs, and physicians. Our findings suggest that interprofessional medical workforce planning is not the norm among the states in the US. The best practices that we identify may be instructive to states as they develop methods for assessing workforce adequacy. Our discussion of potential barriers to interprofessional workforce planning may be useful to policy makers worldwide as they confront issues related to professional boundaries and interprofessional workforce planning. PMID:21043554

  1. Review article: Assessing the costs of natural hazards - state of the art and knowledge gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.; Thieken, A. H.; Viavattene, C.

    2013-05-01

    Efficiently reducing natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards. Current methods to assess these costs employ a variety of terminologies and approaches for different types of natural hazards and different impacted sectors. This may impede efforts to ascertain comprehensive and comparable cost figures. In order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management, a review of existing cost assessment approaches was undertaken. This review considers droughts, floods, coastal and Alpine hazards, and examines different cost types, namely direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and the costs of risk mitigation. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art cost assessment approaches and discusses key knowledge gaps. It shows that the application of cost assessments in practice is often incomplete and biased, as direct costs receive a relatively large amount of attention, while intangible and indirect effects are rarely considered. Furthermore, all parts of cost assessment entail considerable uncertainties due to insufficient or highly aggregated data sources, along with a lack of knowledge about the processes leading to damage and thus the appropriate models required. Recommendations are provided on how to reduce or handle these uncertainties by improving data sources and cost assessment methods. Further recommendations address how risk dynamics due to climate and socio-economic change can be better considered, how costs are distributed and risks transferred, and in what ways cost assessment can function as part of decision support.

  2. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  3. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": A Brief Defining Policy and Technical Issues and Opportunities for State Assessment Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (USED) requires states participating in either of the two Race to the Top assessment consortia (Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers [PARCC]), as well as those participating in either of the two Enhanced Assessment Grant (EAG) English language…

  4. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  5. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  6. Moving Forward with Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Efforts: A Position Paper of the Early Childhood Education State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eboni C.

    2011-01-01

    As more states have become engaged in kindergarten assessment efforts, early childhood educators and assessment experts have recommended developing such efforts within a coordinated assessment system that provides data about children's progress over time, (pre-k through grade 12), and is designed to address both educational policy and practice…

  7. Relation of technetium-99m pyrophosphate accumulation to time interval after onset of acute myocardial infarction as assessed by a tomographic acquisition technique.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Kasper, W; Zeiher, A; Schuemichen, C; Moser, E

    1991-12-15

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 110 clinically stable patients with acute or healed acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Tomography was performed 12 hours to 7 days (group A), 7 to 30 days (Group B), 1 to 6 months (Group C) and after greater than 6 months (group D) after AMI. All 40 patients in group A, 9 of 31 in group B, 1 of 22 in group C, and no patient (0 of 17) in group D had a pathologic Tc-99m PYP tomogram. Relative Tc-99m PYP accumulation within the area of infarction was measured as infarct zone to blood pool ratio, which decreased significantly (p less than 0.001) from group A (1.54 +/- 0.39) to group B (0.89 +/- 0.24), group C (0.8 +/- 0.19) and group D (0.76 +/- 0.13). These data were confirmed by sequential scintigraphy in 17 patients. It is concluded that a persisting Tc-99m PYP uptake is rarely found greater than 1 month after AMI using tomographic imaging techniques in clinically stable patients with coronary artery disease. Positive results on Tc-99m PYP tomography are a reliable indicator of AMI. Thus, Tc-99m PYP tomography is not only a sensitive but also a specific imaging technique for AMI, which might be especially useful for diagnosis of reinfarction. PMID:1836101

  8. The Non-native Helical Intermediate State May Accumulate at Low pH in the Folding and Aggregation Landscape of the Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Sarkar-Banerjee, Suparna; Chowdhury, Sourav; Paul, Simanta Sarani; Dutta, Debashis; Ghosh, Anisa; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2016-08-16

    There has been widespread interest in studying early intermediate states and their roles in protein folding. The interest in intermediate states has been further emphasized in the recent literature because of their implications for protein aggregation. Unfortunately, direct kinetic characterization of intermediates has been difficult because of the limited time resolutions offered by the kinetic techniques and the heterogeneity of the folding and aggregation landscape. Even in equilibrium experiments, the characterization of intermediate states could be difficult because (a) their populations in equilibrium could be low and/or (b) they lack any specific biochemical or biophysical signatures for their identification. In this paper, we have used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study the nature of a low-pH intermediate state of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein, a small protein with predominantly β-sheet structure. Our results have shown that the pH 3 intermediate diffuses faster than the folded protein and has strong helix forming propensity. These behaviors support Lim's hypothesis according to which even an entirely β-sheet protein would form helical bundles at the early stage. Using dynamic light scattering and thioflavin T binding measurements, we have observed that the pH 3 intermediate is prone to aggregation. We believe that early helix formation is the result of a local effect, which originates from the interaction of the neighboring amino acids around the hydrophobic core residues. This early intermediate reorganizes subsequently, and this structural reorganization is initiated by the destabilizing interactions induced by the distant residues, unfavorable entropic costs, and steric constraints of the hydrophobic side chains. Mutational analyses show further that the increase in the hydrophobicity in the hydrophobic core region increases the population of the α-helical intermediate, enhancing the aggregation propensity of the protein

  9. Assessing the Sensitivity of Satellite-Derived Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance to Regional Climate Model Simulations of Snow Accumulation and Firn Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.; Shepherd, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.; Nagler, T.; Wuite, J.; Muir, A.; Gilbert, L.; Mouginot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are fundamental for assessing and understanding ice sheet mass trends. Mass budget and altimetry assessments rely on RCMs both directly for estimates of the SMB contribution to the total mass trend, and indirectly for ancillary data in the form of firn compaction corrections. As such, mass balance assessments can be highly sensitive to RCM outputs and therefore their accuracy. Here we assess the extent to which geodetic measurements of mass balance are sensitive to RCM model outputs at different resolutions. We achieve this by comparing SMB dependent estimates of mass balance from the mass budget method and altimetry, with those from satellite gravimetry that are independent of SMB estimates. Using the outputs of the RACMO/ANT 2.3 model at 5.5 km and 27 km horizontal spatial resolution, we generate estimates of mass balance using the mass budget method and altimetry for the Western Palmer Land region of the Antarctic Peninsula between 2003 and 2014. We find a 19% increase in the long-term (1980 to 2014) mean annual SMB for the region when enhancing the model resolution to 5.5 km. This translates into an approximate 50% reduction in the total mass loss from 2003 to 2014 calculated with the mass budget method and a 15% increase in the altimetry estimate. The use of the enhanced resolution product leads to consistency between the estimates of mass loss from the altimetry and the mass budget method that is not observed with the coarser resolution product, in which estimates of cumulative mass fall beyond the relative errors. Critically, when using the 5.5 km product, we find excellent agreement, both in pattern and magnitude, with the independent estimate derived from gravimetry. Our results point toward the crucial need for high resolution SMB products from RCMs for mass balance assessments, particularly in regions of high mass turnover and complex terrain as found over the Antarctic Peninsula.

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap for Economically Disadvantaged Students? Analyzing Change since No Child Left Behind Using State Assessments and the National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.

    2011-01-01

    A critical state-level indicator of progress in public education is student achievement annual performance and change over time. The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) has been very active in tracking and reporting on student achievement results and using state assessment scores and other data to analyze achievement trends. A central…

  11. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  12. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hung, C L H; Xu, Y; Lam, J C W; Connell, D W; Lam, M H W; Nicholson, S; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S

    2006-11-01

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. PMID:16516360

  13. How Does the Hawaii High School Assessment Measure Up? A Comparison of the 2005 Grade 10 Hawaii State Assessment in Reading and Mathematics with High School Graduation Exams from Other States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    At the request of the Hawaii Department of Education, Achieve conducted a study of Hawaii's 2005 grade 10 State Assessment in reading and mathematics. The study compared the content, rigor and passing (meets proficiency) scores on Hawaii's assessment with those of the six states that participated in Achieve's earlier study, "Do Graduation Tests…

  14. Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

    2010-04-16

    A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

  15. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  16. Illness Progression as a Function of Independent and Accumulating Poor Prognosis Factors in Outpatients With Bipolar Disorder in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Rowe, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with bipolar disorder in the United States experience a deteriorating course of illness despite naturalistic treatment in the community. We examined a variety of factors associated with this pattern of illness progression. Method: From 1995 to 2002, we studied 634 adult outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age of 40 years) emanating from 4 sites in the United States. Patients gave informed consent and completed a detailed questionnaire about demographic, vulnerability, and course-of-illness factors and indicated whether their illness had shown a pattern of increasing frequency or severity of manic or depressive episodes. Fifteen factors previously linked in the literature to a poor outcome were examined for their relationship to illness progression using Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a 2-sample Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann-Whitney) test, χ2, and logistical regression. Results: All of the putative poor prognosis factors occurred with a high incidence, and, with the exception of obesity, were significantly (P < .05) associated with illness progression. These factors included indicators of genetic and psychosocial risk and loss of social support, early onset, long delay to first treatment, anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling in any year, and the occurrence of more than 20 prior episodes prior to entering the network. A greater number of factors were linearly associated with the likelihood of a progressively worsening course. Conclusions: Multiple genetic, psychosocial, and illness factors were associated with a deteriorating course of bipolar disorder from onset to study entry in adulthood. The identification of these factors provides important targets for earlier and more effective therapeutic intervention in the hope of achieving a more benign course of bipolar disorder. PMID:25834764

  17. The 20 GHz solid state transmitter design, impatt diode development and reliability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picone, S.; Cho, Y.; Asmus, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A single drift gallium arsenide (GaAs) Schottky barrier IMPATT diode and related components were developed. The IMPATT diode reliability was assessed. A proof of concept solid state transmitter design and a technology assessment study were performed. The transmitter design utilizes technology which, upon implementation, will demonstrate readiness for development of a POC model within the 1982 time frame and will provide an information base for flight hardware capable of deployment in a 1985 to 1990 demonstrational 30/20 GHz satellite communication system. Life test data for Schottky barrier GaAs diodes and grown junction GaAs diodes are described. The results demonstrate the viability of GaAs IMPATTs as high performance, reliable RF power sources which, based on the recommendation made herein, will surpass device reliability requirements consistent with a ten year spaceborne solid state power amplifier mission.

  18. IonWorks Barracuda Assay for Assessment of State-Dependent Sodium Channel Modulators.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Rok; Wakulchik, Mark; Krambis, Michael J; Burris, Kevin D; Priest, Birgit T

    2016-03-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels represent important drug targets. The implementation of higher throughput electrophysiology assays is necessary to characterize the interaction of test compounds with several conformational states of the channel, but has presented significant challenges. We describe a novel high throughput approach to assess the effects of test agents on voltage-gated sodium currents. The multiple protocol mode of the automated electrophysiology instrument IonWorks Barracuda was used to control the level of inactivation and monitor current stability. Good temporal stability of currents and spatial uniformity of inactivation were obtained by optimizing the experimental conditions. The resulting assay allowed for robust assessment of state-dependent effects of test agents and enabled direct comparison of compound potency across several sodium channel subtypes at equivalent levels of inactivation. PMID:26844665

  19. How information resources are used by state agencies in risk assessment applications - Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.S.

    1990-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Illinois (Illinois EPA) has programs in water, air, and land pollution and water supplies paralleling those of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The organization is part of a tripartite arrangement in which the Pollution Control Board is the judicial arm, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources is the research arm, and the Illinois EPA is the enforcement arm. Other state agencies are also concerned with various aspects of the environment and may do risk assessments for chemicals. Although there are various risk assessment activities, both formal and informal, in our agency and in others, this paper will discuss only recent initiatives in water quality criteria.

  20. Rapid condition assessment of structural condition after a blast using state-space identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae

    2015-04-01

    After a blast event, it is important to quickly quantify the structural damage for emergency operations. In order improve the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of condition assessments after a blast, the authors have previously performed work to develop a methodology for rapid assessment of the structural condition of a building after a blast. The method involved determining a post-event equivalent stiffness matrix using vibration measurements and a finite element (FE) model. A structural model was built for the damaged structure based on the equivalent stiffness, and inter-story drifts from the blast are determined using numerical simulations, with forces determined from the blast parameters. The inter-story drifts are then compared to blast design conditions to assess the structures damage. This method still involved engineering judgment in terms of determining significant frequencies, which can lead to error, especially with noisy measurements. In an effort to improve accuracy and automate the process, this paper will look into a similar method of rapid condition assessment using subspace state-space identification. The accuracy of the method will be tested using a benchmark structural model, as well as experimental testing. The blast damage assessments will be validated using pressure-impulse (P-I) diagrams, which present the condition limits across blast parameters. Comparisons between P-I diagrams generated using the true system parameters and equivalent parameters will show the accuracy of the rapid condition based blast assessments.

  1. Heat pipes for spacecraft temperature control: An assessment of the state-of-the-art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Groll, M.

    1976-01-01

    Various heat pipe temperature control techniques are critically evaluated using characteristic features and properties, including heat transport capability, volume and mass requirements, complexity and ease of fabrication, reliability, and control characteristics. Advantages and disadvantages of specific approaches are derived and discussed. Using four development levels, the state of-the-art of the various heat pipe temperature control techniques is assessed. The need for further research and development is discussed and suggested future efforts are projected.

  2. Assessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Gosseries, O; Thibaut, A; Boly, M; Rosanova, M; Massimini, M; Laureys, S

    2014-02-01

    Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging population. We will here review the different altered states of consciousness occurring after severe brain damage, and explain the difficulties associated with behavioral assessment of consciousness. We will then describe a non-invasive technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with high-density electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), which has allowed us to detect the presence or absence of consciousness in different physiological, pathological and pharmacological states. Some potential underlying mechanisms of the loss of consciousness will then be discussed. In conclusion, TMS-EEG is highly promising in identifying markers of consciousness at the individual level and might be of great value for clinicians in the assessment of consciousness. PMID:24393302

  3. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

  4. State Perspectives on Implementing, or Choosing Not to Implement, an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Porter W.

    2009-01-01

    Since Federal regulations have given states the option to implement alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS) as part of their accountability systems for a small group of students with disabilities, a number of states have made decisions about whether or not to develop and implement such an assessment.…

  5. Continuing to Hold the Test Maker Accountable: The ISLLC Standards and the New York State School District Leadership Licensure Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markson, Craig; Inserra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of school leadership candidates' perceptions of their level of training in the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards (ISLLC) with their scores on Parts I and II of the New York State School District Leader (SDL) licensure assessments. The New York State assessments were…

  6. 34 CFR 200.10 - Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of a State's academic assessments to... TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Standards and Assessments § 200.10 Applicability of a State's...

  7. 34 CFR 200.10 - Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of a State's academic assessments to... TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Standards and Assessments § 200.10 Applicability of a State's...

  8. Developing Statistical Models to Assess Transplant Outcomes Using National Registries: The Process in the United States.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jon J; Salkowski, Nicholas; Kim, S Joseph; Zaun, David; Xiong, Hui; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bertram L

    2016-02-01

    Created by the US National Organ Transplant Act in 1984, the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) is obligated to publicly report data on transplant program and organ procurement organization performance in the United States. These reports include risk-adjusted assessments of graft and patient survival, and programs performing worse or better than expected are identified. The SRTR currently maintains 43 risk adjustment models for assessing posttransplant patient and graft survival and, in collaboration with the SRTR Technical Advisory Committee, has developed and implemented a new systematic process for model evaluation and revision. Patient cohorts for the risk adjustment models are identified, and single-organ and multiorgan transplants are defined, then each risk adjustment model is developed following a prespecified set of steps. Model performance is assessed, the model is refit to a more recent cohort before each evaluation cycle, and then it is applied to the evaluation cohort. The field of solid organ transplantation is unique in the breadth of the standardized data that are collected. These data allow for quality assessment across all transplant providers in the United States. A standardized process of risk model development using data from national registries may enhance the field. PMID:26814440

  9. Present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere 1990: An assessment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. T.; Kurylo, M. J.; Prather, M. J.; Ormond, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is charged with the responsibility to report on the state of the knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part 1 of this report, issued earlier this year, summarized the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program during the last two years. New findings since the last report to Congress was issued in 1988 are presented. Several scientific assessments of the current understanding of the chemical composition and physical structure of the stratosphere are included, in particular how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. These reviews include: a summary of the most recent international assessment of stratospheric ozone; a study of future chlorine and bromine loading of the atmosphere; a review of the photochemical and chemical kinetics data that are used as input parameters for the atmospheric models; a new assessment of the impact of Space Shuttle launches on the stratosphere; a summary of the environmental issues and needed research to evaluate the impact of the newly re-proposed fleet of stratospheric supersonic civil aircraft; and a list of the contributors to this report and the science assessments which have formed our present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere and ozone depletion.

  10. Enhancing the interpretation of stated choice analysis through the application of a verbal protocol assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, K.L.; Marion, J.L.; Lawson, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    A stated choice survey was employed to evaluate the relative importance of resource, social, and management attributes by asking visitors to select preferred configurations of these attributes. A verbal protocol assessment was added to consider how respondents interpret and respond to stated choice questions applied to hikers of a popular trail at Acadia National Park. Results suggest that visitors are sensitive to changes in public access to the trail and its ecological conditions, with level of encounters least important. Verbal protocol results identified considnations made by respondents that provide insight to their evaluations of alternative recreation setting configurations. These insights help clarify issues important to visitors that stated choice results on their own do not provide.

  11. Assessing clogging processes caused by biofilm growth and organic particle accumulation in constructed wetlands using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Himi; Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Rivero, Lluís; Font, Xavier; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Constructed wetlands for removing pollutants from wastewater in small communities are growing rapidly in many regions of the world. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems, where land availability is not a limiting factor, are low energy requirements, easy operation and maintenance, low sludge production and cost-effectivity. Nevertheless, with time the cleaning process can result in gradual clogging of the porous layer by suspended solids, bacterial film, chemical precipitates and compaction. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. As the investment involved in reversing clogging can represent a substantial fraction of the cost of a new system it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. Since there is a lack of experiences for monitoring the functionality of constructed wetlands time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography studies have been conducted at horizontal sub-surface flow municipal wastewater treatment wetlands of Catalonia (Spain). The results of this research show that electrical resistivity tomography can be a very useful technique for assessing the extent of silting up processes that clog the subsurface flow constructed wetlands through the gravel layer. In the unsaturated zone, the electrical resistivity is greater at the end of the filter, since the pores contains air which is dielectric, while at the beginning of the filter the resistivity is lower because the electrical conduction of organic matter around the mineral grains. Conversely, in the saturated zone, the electrical resistivity is lower at the end of the filter, since pores contain a higher proportion of high ionic conductivity wastewater, while at the beginning of the filter the electrical resistivity is higher because of the lower porosity due to the clogging process.

  12. Proceedings of the State Advisory Committee on the Assessment of Educational Quality (1st, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, February, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    Proceedings of the first meeting of the State Advisory Committee for the Pennsylvania Bureau of Quality Education Assessment are provided. The proceedings are comprised of the following: Superintendent's Message; Charge to the Committee; The Plan for Assessing Educational Quality in Pennsylvania; What Will Quality Education Assessment Measure?;…

  13. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  14. The Financial Assessment of Colleges and Universities and Its Implication for State Policy. [Working] Papers in Education Finance, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, W. John

    Important issues and technical problems related to assessing the financial health of colleges and universities are described, along with implications of financial health assessment for state policy-making. It is proposed that a distinction be made between the assessments of financial health and program success. Other issues that should be…

  15. Observing the Academic Performance and Student Graduation Rates of Grade 8 Students Who Failed Texas State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govan, Charlenta Joy

    2013-01-01

    High-stakes assessments have been a major factor in education reform and student success in the 21st century. Assessments are used to measure a student's ability to transfer classroom learning to formalized assessments. In the state of Texas, legislative policy was implemented to ensure that all fifth and eighth graders are prepared for proceeding…

  16. [Assessment system for watershed ecological health in the United States: development and application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-07-01

    To meet the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act, the environmental agencies in the United States (U.S.) have developed a comprehensive ecological assessment system of watershed health in the last two decades. The system employs a watershed approach, and includes a large set of hydrological, chemical, and biological indices, having become an essential part of the watershed water quality management system in the U.S. and provided strong support for the protection of water environment and the restoration of aquatic system. In this paper, the development and application of the ecological assessment system of watershed health by the U.S. environmental regulators, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were overviewed from the aspects of related laws and regulations, ecosystem function analysis, ecological health indicators, comprehensive assessment system, and monitoring and data management systems, and the health assessment systems for the rivers, lakes, estuaries, coasts, and wetlands adopted by the National$t1-1-1 Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) were introduced. Some suggestions for the future development of the scientific ecological assessment system of watershed health in China were put forward based on the understanding of the protection and remediation practices of our water environment. PMID:24175541

  17. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  18. Size fraction effect on phthalate esters accumulation, bioaccessibility and in vitro cytotoxicity of indoor/outdoor dust, and risk assessment of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Fu-Yong; Huang, Min-Juan; Kang, Yuan; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-15

    Indoor and outdoor dusts from two urban centers in the Pearl River Delta, China, were analyzed and phthalate esters varied from 4.95 to 2,220 μg g(-1) in indoor dust, significantly higher than outdoor dust (1.70-869 μg g(-1)). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the dominant phthalate found and the highest distribution factor (DF) (1.56 ± 0.41) was noted in the <63 μm fraction (p<0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity of dust extract on human T cell lymphoblast leukemic cell line (CCRF-CEM) indicated by Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) decreased with particle size. The power model was found as a better fit for explaining the relationship between LC50 and phthalates (R(2)=0.46, p<0.01). Bioaccessibility of phthalates in dust varied with different particle sizes, with the greatest bioaccessible fraction (2.49-38.6%) obtained in <63 μm. Risk assessment indicated that indoor dust ingestion accounted for the major source for DEHP exposure (81.4-96.4% of non-dietary exposure and 36.5% of total exposure), especially for toddlers. The cancer risks associated with DEHP via home dust were high (10(-6)-10(-4)), with 10% of houses estimated with unacceptable risks (>10(-4)). After corrected with the bioaccessibility of phthalates, the cancer risks of dust exposure were moderate (10(-7)-10(-5)). PMID:23755845

  19. [Heavy metal accumulation during last hundred years and its assessment of potential ecological risk in the coastal wetland of Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-jun; Ye, Xiang; Li, Tuan-jie; Huang, Cai-bin

    2011-05-01

    The processes of fine sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in estuarine environments. Grain size analysis of the sediment core collected from coastal wetland of Qi'ao Island in the Pearl River Estuary of China show that the sediment is mainly composed by clayey silt, and the mean grain size, contents of clay and silt increase upward gradually. Chronology analysis show that the sedimentation rate above 59 cm is about 4.15 cm x a(-1), and 0.97 cm x a(-1) beneath 59 cm. Heavy metal analysis indicate that the contents of the each heavy metal increased slowly with a slight intensity of potential ecological risk; however, from 1966 to 1992, the heavy metal contents increased obviously because of the quick social-economy development around the Pearl River Estuary area, and the order of polluting degree of these heavy metals in core sediment is Cd > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The potential ecological risk intensity of Cd increased from slight risk before 1966 to strong risk since 1992, and the potential ecological risk intensities other heavy metal are slight risk; the potential ecological risk index is weak level. The variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessments along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and intent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Pearl River Estuary and the catchments. PMID:21780584

  20. Competency-Based Teacher Certification in the United States. A Working Paper of the Pennsylvania Competency-Assessment Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Wallace M., Ed.

    With the exception of Vermont, all state educational agencies responded to a survey questionnaire designed to ascertain the current status of competency assessment teacher certification (CAC). Only 19 states presently award certificates through CAC. This can be explained partially by the fact that state educational agencies can attain the goal of…

  1. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  2. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2016-01-01

    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal's emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research. PMID:27375454

  3. Multi-State Physics Models of Aging Passive Components in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2011-03-13

    Multi-state Markov modeling has proved to be a promising approach to estimating the reliability of passive components - particularly metallic pipe components - in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). These models consider the progressive degradation of a component through a series of observable discrete states, such as detectable flaw, leak and rupture. Service data then generally provides the basis for estimating the state transition rates. Research in materials science is producing a growing understanding of the physical phenomena that govern the aging degradation of passive pipe components. As a result, there is an emerging opportunity to incorporate these insights into PRA. This paper describes research conducted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. A state transition model is described that addresses aging behavior associated with stress corrosion cracking in ASME Class 1 dissimilar metal welds – a component type relevant to LOCA analysis. The state transition rate estimates are based on physics models of weld degradation rather than service data. The resultant model is found to be non-Markov in that the transition rates are time-inhomogeneous and stochastic. Numerical solutions to the model provide insight into the effect of aging on component reliability.

  4. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2016-01-01

    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal’s emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research. PMID:27375454

  5. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  6. The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

    2010-12-01

    Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda

  7. Community, state, and federal approaches to cumulative risk assessment: challenges and opportunities for integration.

    PubMed

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Wilson, Sacoby; Wilson, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) risk analysis and ranking, and (3) risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels. PMID:25918910

  8. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    PubMed Central

    Barzyk, Timothy M.; Wilson, Sacoby; Wilson, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) risk analysis and ranking, and (3) risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels. PMID:25918910

  9. Assessing student reasoning in upper-division electricity and magnetism at Oregon State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Justyna P.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Standardized assessment tests that allow researchers to compare the performance of students under various curricula are highly desirable. There are several research-based conceptual tests that serve as instruments to assess and identify students' difficulties in lower-division courses. At the upper-division level assessing students' difficulties is a more challenging task. Although several research groups are currently working on such tests, their reliability and validity are still under investigation. We analyze the results of the Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics diagnostic from Oregon State University and compare it with data from the University of Colorado. In particular, we show potential shortcomings in the Oregon State University curriculum regarding separation of variables and boundary conditions, as well as uncover weaknesses of the rubric to the free-response version of the diagnostic. We also demonstrate how the diagnostic can be used to obtain information about student learning during a gap in instruction. Our work complements and extends the previous findings from the University of Colorado by highlighting important differences in student learning that may be related to the curriculum, illuminating difficulties with the rubric for certain problems and verifying decay in post-test results over time.

  10. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  11. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Parvez, Imtiyaz

    2016-04-01

    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kutch and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2°×0.2° (i) in terms of design ground acceleration (DGA) based on the neo-deterministic approach, (ii) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration (PGA) by GSHAP, and (iii) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on 2011 census data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  12. The importance of individual protein molecule dynamics in developing and assessing solid state protein preparations.

    PubMed

    Hill, John J; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Zografi, George

    2014-09-01

    Processing protein solutions into the solid state is a common approach for generating stable amorphous protein mixtures that are suitable for long-term storage. Great care is typically given to protecting the protein native structure during the various drying steps that render it into the amorphous solid state. However, many studies illustrate that chemical and physical degradations still occur in spite of this amorphous material having good glassy properties and it being stored at temperatures below its glass transition temperature (Tg). Because of these persistent issues and recent biophysical studies that have refined the debate ascribing meaning to the molecular dynamical transition temperature and Tg of protein molecules, we provide an updated discussion on the impact of assessing and managing localized, individual protein molecule nondiffusive motions in the context of proteins being prepared into bulk amorphous mixtures. Our aim is to bridge the pharmaceutical studies addressing bulk amorphous preparations and their glassy behavior, with the biophysical studies historically focused on the nondiffusive internal protein dynamics and a protein's activity, along with their combined efforts in assessing the impact of solvent hydrogen-bonding networks on local stability. We also provide recommendations for future research efforts in solid-state formulation approaches. PMID:24867196

  13. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Chilenski, Sarah M; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness-that is, contextual factors and capacity-influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition context include community problems, community leadership style, and sense of community. Measures of coalition capacity include the existence of collaborative partnerships and coalition champions. The assessment was completed by 195 members of 9 coalitions in Mexico and 139 members of 7 coalitions in the United States. Psychometric analyses indicate the measures have moderate to strong internal consistency, along with good convergent and discriminant validity in both settings. Results indicate that members of Mexican coalitions perceive substantially more serious community problems, especially with respect to education, law enforcement, and access to alcohol and drugs. Compared to respondents in the United States, Mexican respondents perceive sense of community to be weaker and that prevention efforts are not as valued by the population where the coalitions are located. The Mexican coalitions appear to be operating in a substantially more challenging environment for the prevention of violence and substance use. Their ability to manage these challenges will likely play a large role in determining whether they are successful in their prevention efforts. The context and capacity assessment is a valuable tool that coalitions can use in order to identify and address initial barriers to success. PMID:26205249

  14. A digital atlas of hydrocarbon accumulations within and adjacent to the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Naresh; Bird, Kenneth J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Grow, John A.; Evans, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has initiated a project to reassess the hydrocarbon potential of the NPRA. Although exploration for hydrocarbons in the NPRA was initiated in 1944, it has taken fifty years for the first commercial discovery to be made. That discovery, the Alpine field (projected recoverable reserves of 430 million barrels), was made in 1994 along the eastern boundary of the NPRA. This field produces from a formation heretofore considered to be mostly a source rock. The Alpine discovery made such a reassessment necessary. As part of this assessment, we have compiled stratigraphic, structural, petrophysical, and seismic data related to nineteen accumulations within and nearby the NPRA. The goal is to provide basic documentation and a set of analog accumulations for the new assessment. The first two displays of this atlas consist of a location map and a stratigraphic column showing the stratigraphic settings for the primary reservoir and source rocks for these accumulations. The third display is a table listing each accumulation and providing the hydrocarbon fluid type, reservoir, operator, status, and discovery well and date for each. Compilation of basic information for each individual accumulation follows these displays. A typical compilation includes a structurecontour map on or near the reservoir horizon, a log display of the discovery well with reservoir characteristics along with figures for recoverable volumes, and one or two seismic lines across or near the accumulation.

  15. Assessment and measurement of head and neck lymphedema: state-of-the-science and future directions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Aulino, Joseph M; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Currently, assessment and measurement of lymphedema in head and neck cancer patients is difficult. The aims of this report are to examine the current state of science regarding available measurement of head and neck lymphedema, to identify gaps in clinical evaluation of head and neck lymphedema, and to propose future research directions for advancing the assessment of head and neck lymphedema. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review based on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1989 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, head and/or neck and/or face, lymphedema, edema, swelling, fibrosis, measurement, assessment, and evaluation. The authors also reviewed information from the Oncology Nursing Society, National Lymphedema Network, National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and other related healthcare professional association web sites. Based on the nature/characteristics of measurement reported in the literature, methods for assessment of head and neck lymphedema can be categorized into: (1) patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (e.g., symptom tool), (2) clinician-reported outcome (CRO) measures based on clinical grading criteria via a clinical exam (external lymphedema evaluation by physical examination and internal edema examination via endoscopy), and (3) technical capacity/measurement techniques (e.g., imaging techniques). Although a number of measures have been reported in the literature, clinically useful PRO and CRO measures, and reliable and sensitive measurement techniques need to be validated to address gaps in assessment of head and neck lymphedema, and to be easily used in early identification of lymphedema and assessment of treatment/interventional effects. PMID:25703799

  16. U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical record and sources for waves – Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunbar, Paula K.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    The first U.S. Tsunami Hazard Assessment (Dunbar and Weaver, 2008) was prepared at the request of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). The NTHMP is a partnership formed between federal and state agencies to reduce the impact of tsunamis through hazard assessment, warning guidance, and mitigation. The assessment was conducted in response to a 2005 joint report by the Sub-Committee on Disaster Reduction and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations entitled Tsunami Risk Reduction for the United States: A Framework for Action. The first specific action called for in the Framework was to “develop standardized and coordinated tsunami hazard and risk assessments for all coastal regions of the United States and its territories.” Since the first assessment, there have been a number of very significant tsunamis, including the 2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile, and 2011 Japan tsunamis. As a result, the NTHMP requested an update of the U.S. tsunami hazard assessment.

  17. Groundwater source assessment program for the state of Hawaii, USA: methodology and example application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittier, Robert B.; Rotzoll, Kolja; Dhal, Sushant; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Ray, Chittaranjan; Chang, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The 1996 reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act required that each state in the US addresses the protection of public drinking water sources, including the development and implementation of a source-water assessment program. Such a program includes delineating source-water assessment areas, inventorying potential contaminant sources within this area, and determining the water system's susceptibility to contamination. The public was also involved in various phases of the program. Hawaii’s groundwater source assessment program is presented, along with an approach for implementation, which is consistent with federal requirements. The approach integrates groundwater models, aquifer databases, and a geographic information system. Source assessment areas were delineated by using numerical groundwater-flow models that used site-specific data to their fullest availability. The proposed approach is flexible enough to allow easy future updates as more sources are identified or as new information becomes available. The final product includes numerical scores that quantify the relative source susceptibility to contamination. Aquifer models developed in this study are potentially useful for future site-specific protection efforts or for other modeling purposes.

  18. Measurement of Lipid Accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via Flow Cytometry and Liquid-State ¹H NMR Spectroscopy for Development of an NMR-Traceable Flow Cytometry Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bono Jr., Michael S.; Garcia, Ravi D.; Sri-Jayantha, Dylan V.; Ahner, Beth A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride) content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols. PMID:26267664

  19. Automatic assessment of the motor state of the Parkinson's disease patient--a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology in which the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) data processed with a rule-based decision algorithm is used to predict the state of the Parkinson's Disease patients. The research was carried out to investigate whether the advancement of the Parkinson's Disease can be automatically assessed. For this purpose, past and current UPDRS data from 47 subjects were examined. The results show that, among other classifiers, the rough set-based decision algorithm turned out to be most suitable for such automatic assessment. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1563339375633634. PMID:22340508

  20. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  1. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  2. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  3. Improving State Health Policy Assessment: An Agenda for Measurement and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Diana

    2012-01-01

    We examine the scope of inquiry into the measurement and assessment of the state public health policy environment. We argue that there are gains to be made by looking systematically at policies both within and across health domains. We draw from the public health and public policy literature to develop the concepts of interdomain and intradomain policy comprehensiveness and illustrate how these concepts can be used to enhance surveillance of the current public health policy environment, improve understanding of the adoption of new policies, and enhance evaluations of the impact of such policies on health outcomes. PMID:22813417

  4. A fuel cycle assessment guide for utility and state energy planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This guide, one in a series of documents designed to help assess fuel cycles, is a framework for setting parameters, collecting data, and analyzing fuel cycles for supply-side and demand-side management. It provides an automated tool for entering comparative fuel cycle data that are meaningful to state and utility integrated resource planning, collaborative, and regional energy planning activities. It outlines an extensive range of energy technology characteristics and environmental, social, and economic considerations within each stage of a fuel cycle. The guide permits users to focus on specific stages or effects that are relevant to the technology being evaluated and that meet the user`s planning requirements.

  5. An assessment of the state of the art in predicting the failure of ceramics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boulet, J.A.M.

    1988-03-01

    The greatest weakness in existing design strategies for brittle fracture is in the narrow range of conditions for which the strategies are adequate. The primary reason for this weakness is the use of simplistic mechanical models of fracture processes and unverified statistical models of materials. To improve the design methodology, the models must first be improved. Specifically recommended research goals are: to develop models of cracks with realistic geometry under arbitrary stress states; to identify and model the most important relationships between fracture processes and microstructural features; to assess the technology available for acquiring statistical data on microstructure and flaw populations, and to establish the amount of data required for verification of statistical models; and to establish a computer-based fracture simulation that can incorporate a wide variety of mechanical and statistical models and crack geometries, as well as arbitrary stress states. 204 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Limit states for the damage assessment of bridges supported on LRB bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara, M.; Gómez, C.; Jara, J. M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    There is now a common awareness that excessive strength is neither essential nor a synonymous of good performance in strong earthquakes. It is widely recognized that the design process should put more emphasis on predicting structural damage, according to the performance -based design philosophy. This paper presents an approach for assessing the damage level of lead rubber isolation devices and reinforced concrete piers, according to the performance-based design framework. The proposed performance limit states are based on the control of the materials strain, by means of the shear displacement of the bearing and the hinge rotation of the pier. The performance of the piers of different types of bridges is evaluated with the proposed methodology considering four different limit states.

  7. Assessing the near-term risk of climate uncertainty : interdependencies among the U.S. states.

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-04-01

    Policy makers will most likely need to make decisions about climate policy before climate scientists have resolved all relevant uncertainties about the impacts of climate change. This study demonstrates a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. We estimate the impacts of climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity from 2010 to 2050. To understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions to mitigate the course of climate change, we focus on precipitation, one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change. We use results of the climate-model ensemble from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) as a proxy for representing climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, map the simulated weather from the climate models hydrologically to the county level to determine the physical consequences on economic activity at the state level, and perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. We determine the industry-level contribution to the gross domestic product and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effects on personal income, and consequences for the U.S. trade balance. We show that the mean or average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs.

  8. Physiological cognitive state assessment: applications for designing effective human-machine systems.

    PubMed

    Estepp, Justin R; Christensen, James C

    2011-01-01

    Significant growth in the field of neuroscience has occurred over the last decade such that new application areas for basic research techniques are opening up to practitioners in many other areas. Of particular interest to many is the principle of neuroergonomics, by which the traditional work in neuroscience and its related topics can be applied to non-traditional areas such as human-machine system design. While work in neuroergonomics certainly predates the use of the term in the literature (previously identified by others as applied neuroscience, operational neuroscience, etc.), there is great promise in the larger framework that is represented by the general context of the terminology. Here, we focus on the very specific concept that principles in brain-computer interfaces, neural prosthetics and the larger realm of machine learning using physiological inputs can be applied directly to the design and implementation of augmented human-machine systems. Indeed, work in this area has been ongoing for more than 25 years with very little cross-talk and collaboration between clinical and applied researchers. We propose that, given increased interest in augmented human-machine systems based on cognitive state, further progress will require research in the same vein as that being done in the aforementioned communities, and that all researchers with a vested interest in physiologically-based machine learning techniques can benefit from increased collaboration. We thereby seek to describe the current state of cognitive state assessment in human-machine systems, the problems and challenges faced, and the tightly-coupled relationship with other research areas. This supports the larger work of the Cognitive State Assessment 2011 Competition by setting the stage for the purpose of the session by showing the need to increase research in the machine learning techniques used by practitioners of augmented human-machine system design. PMID:22255837

  9. Assessing the near-term risk of climate uncertainty : interdependencies among the U.S. States.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, Rhonda K.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Robinson, David B.; Backus, George A.; Fogelman, William; Cutler, Laura; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick; Finely, Ray; Siirola, John; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Mitchiner, John Lovorn; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Strickland, James Hassler; Weddington, Anna Neila; Warren, Drake E.; Taylor, Mark A.; Loose, Verne W.; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Horschel, Daniel S.; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Snyder, Lillian Annabelle; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reno, Marissa Devan; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Baker, Arnold Barry; Adams, Brian M.

    2010-08-01

    Policy makers will most likely need to make decisions about climate policy before climate scientists have resolved all relevant uncertainties about the impacts of climate change. This study demonstrates a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. We estimate the impacts from responses to climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity from 2010 to 2050. To understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions to mitigate the course of climate change, we focus on precipitation, one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change. We use results of the climate-model ensemble from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) as a proxy for representing climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, map the simulated weather from the climate models hydrologically to the county level to determine the physical consequences on economic activity at the state level, and perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. We determine the industry-level contribution to the gross domestic product and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effects on personal income, and consequences for the U.S. trade balance. We show that the mean or average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs.

  10. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  11. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  12. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  13. A look at state-level risk assessment in the United States: making decisions in the absence of federal risk values.

    PubMed

    Effio, Diana G; Kroner, Oliver; Maier, Andrew; Hayes, William; Willis, Alison; Strawson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    State environmental agencies in the United States are charged with making risk management decisions that protect public health and the environment while managing limited technical, financial, and human resources. Meanwhile, the federal risk assessment community that provides risk assessment guidance to state agencies is challenged by the rapid growth of the global chemical inventory. When chemical toxicity profiles are unavailable on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System or other federal resources, each state agency must act independently to identify and select appropriate chemical risk values for application in human health risk assessment. This practice can lead to broad interstate variation in the toxicity values selected for any one chemical. Within this context, this article describes the decision-making process and resources used by the federal government and individual U.S. states. The risk management of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the United States is presented as a case study to demonstrate the need for a collaborative approach among U.S. states toward identification and selection of chemical risk values while awaiting federal risk values to be set. The regulatory experience with TCE is contrasted with collaborative risk science models, such as the European Union's efforts in risk assessment harmonization. Finally, we introduce State Environmental Agency Risk Collaboration for Harmonization, a free online interactive tool designed to help to create a collaborative network among state agencies to provide a vehicle for efficiently sharing information and resources, and for the advancement of harmonization in risk values used among U.S. states when federal guidance is unavailable. PMID:22650987

  14. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  15. 1998 Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Resource Assessment Team

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 1998 National Mineral Resource Assessment that estimated the gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in undiscovered deposits in the United States. This project also estimated the identified resources and past production of these five metals. Assessment results include the following: (1) It is estimated that 18,000 metric tons (t) of gold, 460,000 t of silver, 290,000 kilotons (kt) of copper, 85,000 kt of lead, and 210,000 kt of zinc are in undiscovered deposits minable with existing technology. (2) In addition, it is estimated that 15,000 t of gold, 160,000 t of silver, 260,000 kt of copper, 51,000 kt of lead, and 55,000 kt of zinc remain in identified resources. (3) Past production from the largest identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc is estimated to be 12,000 t of gold, 170,000 t of silver, 91,000 kt of copper, 41,000 kt of lead, and 44,000 kt of zinc. These deposits account for about 99 percent of cumulative domestic production in the United States.

  16. Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstine, L.G.; Smith, S.E.; Brandt, L.A.; Allen, C.R.; Kitchens, W.M.; Stenberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Gap (FI-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute 'gaps' in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of FI-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and auxiliary data such as the national wetlands inventory (NWI), soils maps, aerial imagery, existing land use/land cover maps, and on-the-ground surveys, Wildlife distribution models were produced by identifying suitable habitat for each species within that species' range, Mammalian models also assessed a minimum critical area required for sustainability of the species' population. Wildlife species richness was summarized against land stewardship ranked by an area's mandates for conservation protection. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive Models of Resting State Networks for Assessment of Altered Functional Connectivity in MCI

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Zhang, Tuo; Shen, Dinggang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Due to the difficulties in establishing accurate correspondences of brain network nodes across individual subjects, systematic elucidation of possible functional connectivity (FC) alterations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared with normal controls (NC) is a challenging problem. To address this challenge, in this paper, we develop and apply novel predictive models of resting state networks (RSNs) learned from multimodal resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and DTI data to assess large-scale FC alterations in MCI. Our rationale is that some RSNs in MCI are substantially altered and can hardly be directly compared with those in NC. Instead, structural landmarks derived from DTI data are much more consistent and correspondent across MCI/NC brains, and therefore can be employed to encode RSNs in NC and serve as the predictive models of RSNs for MCI. To derive these predictive models, RSNs in NC are constructed by group-wise ICA clustering and employed to functionally annotate corresponding structural landmarks. Afterwards, these functionally-annotated structural landmarks are predicted in MCI based on DTI data and used to assess FC alterations in MCI. Experimental results demonstrated that the predictive models of RSNs are effective and can comprehensively reveal widespread FC alterations in MCI. PMID:24579199

  18. Predictive Models of Resting State Networks for Assessment of Altered Functional Connectivity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Zhang, Tuo; Wang, Lihong; Shen, Dinggang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Due to the difficulties in establishing correspondences between functional regions across individuals and populations, systematic elucidation of functional connectivity alterations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison with normal controls (NC) is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we assessed the functional connectivity alterations in MCI via novel, alternative predictive models of resting state networks (RSNs) learned from multimodal resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. First, ICA-clustering was used to construct RSNs from R-fMRI data in NC group. Second, since the RSNs in MCI are already altered and can hardly be constructed directly from R-fMRI data, structural landmarks derived from DTI data were employed as the predictive models of RSNs for MCI. Third, given that the landmarks are structurally consistent and correspondent across NC and MCI, functional connectivities in MCI were assessed based on the predicted RSNs and compared with those in NC. Experimental results demonstrated that the predictive models of RSNs based on multimodal R-fMRI and DTI data systematically and comprehensively revealed widespread functional connectivity alterations in MCI in comparison with NC. PMID:24293138

  19. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook.

  20. Present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere 1988: An assessment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. T.; Prather, M. J.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    This document was issued in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Public Law 95-95, mandating that NASA and other key agencies submit biennial reports to Congress and EPA. NASA is to report on the state of our knowledge of the upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. This is the sixth ozone assessment report submitted to Congress and the concerned regulatory agencies. Part 1 contains an outline of the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program and summaries of the research efforts supported during the last two years. An assessment is presented of the state of knowledge as of March 15, 1988 when the Ozone Trends Panel, organized by NASA and co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization, NOAA, FAA and the United Nations Environment Program released an executive summary of its findings from a critical in-depth study involving over 100 scientists from 12 countries. Chapter summaries of the International Ozone Trends Panel Report form the major part of this report. Two other sections are Model Predictions of Future Ozone Change and Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling. Each of these sections and the report in its entirety were peer reviewed.