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Sample records for accumulated state assessment

  1. Copper and cobalt accumulation in plants: a critical assessment of the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bastien; van der Ent, Antony; Baker, Alan John Martin; Echevarria, Guillaume; Mahy, Grégory; Malaisse, François; Meerts, Pierre; Pourret, Olivier; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This review synthesizes contemporary understanding of copper-cobalt (Cu-Co) tolerance and accumulation in plants. Accumulation of foliar Cu and Co to > 300 μg g(-1) is exceptionally rare globally, and known principally from the Copperbelt of Central Africa. Cobalt accumulation is also observed in a limited number of nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator plants occurring on ultramafic soils around the world. None of the putative Cu or Co hyperaccumulator plants appears to comply with the fundamental principle of hyperaccumulation, as foliar Cu-Co accumulation is strongly dose-dependent. Abnormally high plant tissue Cu concentrations occur only when plants are exposed to high soil Cu with a low root to shoot translocation factor. Most Cu-tolerant plants are Excluders sensu Baker and therefore setting nominal threshold values for Cu hyperaccumulation is not informative. Abnormal accumulation of Co occurs under similar circumstances in the Copperbelt of Central Africa as well as sporadically in Ni hyperaccumulator plants on ultramafic soils; however, Co-tolerant plants behave physiologically as Indicators sensu Baker. Practical application of Cu-Co accumulator plants in phytomining is limited due to their dose-dependent accumulation characteristics, although for Co field trials may be warranted on highly Co-contaminated mineral wastes because of its relatively high metal value.

  2. Assessment of changes in nutrient and sediment delivery to and carbon accumulation in coastal oceans of the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J. S.; Sohl, T. L.; Sleeter, B. M.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Land-use and land-cover distributions are primary determinants of terrestrial fluxes of sediments and nutrients to coastal oceans. Sediment and nutrient delivery to coastal waters have already been significantly altered by changes in population and land use, resulting in modified patterns of coastal production and carbon storage. Continued population growth and increasing agricultural areal extent and intensity are expected to accelerate these changes. The USGS LandCarbon project developed prospective future land use and land cover projections based on IPCC scenarios A1b, A2 and B1 to 2050 as the basis for a multitude of biogeochemical assessments. We assessed the impacts on delivery of nutrients and sediments to the coastal ocean, and concomitant carbon storage. Fluxes were estimated using the SPARROW model, calibrated on historical water quality measurements. Significantly greater fluxes of nutrients and sediments to coastal waters by 2050 are projected by the model. For example, for the Eastern United States, nitrate fluxes for 2050 are projected to be16 to 52 percent higher than the baseline year, depending on scenario. As a consequence, an associated increase in the frequency and duration of coastal and estuarine hypoxia events and harmful algal blooms could be expected. Model estimates indicate that these prospective future nutrient and sediment fluxes will increase carbon storage rates in coastal waters by 18 to 56 percent in some regions.

  3. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  4. Rainfall Accumulation over the United States for December 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the accumulation of rainfall over the United States during December 2015, from the IMERG precipitation dataset. The black outline indicates the Mississippi-Missouri River basin...

  5. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure.

  7. Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Monique G; Muldoon, Breda; Wilson, Julie; Maracle, Karonhiakta'tie Bryan

    2013-07-01

    A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.

  8. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m{sup 3}/day (147 ft{sup 3}/day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ``burps,`` that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m{sup 3} (21,400 to 36,700 ft{sup 3}); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m{sup 3} (6,800 to 11,600 ft{sup 3}). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m{sup 3} (14,600 to 25,100 ft{sup 3}).

  9. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  10. Methods to assess lipid accumulation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sikkeland, Jørgen; Jin, Yang; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenesis and tumor progression are associated with significant alterations in cellular metabolism. One metabolic pathway that is commonly deregulated in malignant cells is de novo lipogenesis. Lipogenesis is indeed highly upregulated in several types of cancer, a phenomenon that is linked to tumor progression and poor prognosis. Steroid hormones play an essential role in the growth of a variety of cancers and have been shown to increase the expression and activity of several lipogenic factors, including fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. Such an altered gene expression profile promotes lipid biogenesis and may result in the accumulation of neutral lipids, which become visible as cytoplasmic lipid droplets. By using breast and prostate cancer cells exposed to steroid hormones as a model, here we describe methods for the direct qualitative and quantitative assessment of neutral lipid accumulation in malignant cells.

  11. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  12. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  13. Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils.

    PubMed

    Baran, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Jerzy; Mazurek, Ryszard; Urbański, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2017-02-22

    The aims of this study were to investigate zinc content in the studied soils; evaluate the efficiency of geostatistics in presenting spatial variability of zinc in the soils; assess bioavailable forms of zinc in the soils and to assess soil-zinc binding ability; and to estimate the potential ecological risk of zinc in soils. The study was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska Province. This area is characterized by a great diversity of geological structures and types of land use and intensity of industrial development. The zinc content was affected by soil factors, and the type of land use (arable lands, grasslands, forests, wastelands). A total of 320 soil samples were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties (texture, pH, organic C content, total and available Zn content). Based on the obtained data, assessment of the ecological risk of zinc was conducted using two methods: potential ecological risk index and hazard quotient. Total Zn content in the soils ranged from 8.27 to 7221 mg kg(-1) d.m. Based on the surface semivariograms, the highest variability of zinc in the soils was observed from northwest to southeast. The point sources of Zn contamination were located in the northwestern part of the area, near the mining-metallurgical activity involving processing of zinc and lead ores. These findings were confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. The content of bioavailable forms of zinc was between 0.05 and 46.19 mg kg(-1) d.m. (0.01 mol dm(-3) CaCl2), and between 0.03 and 71.54 mg kg(-1) d.m. (1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3). Forest soils had the highest zinc solubility, followed by arable land, grassland and wasteland. PCA showed that organic C was the key factor to control bioavailability of zinc in the soils. The extreme, very high and medium zinc accumulation was found in 69% of studied soils. There is no ecological risk of zinc to living organisms in the study area, and in 90

  14. Balancing State and Local Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    Describes rationale and attributes of local assessment program to augment statewide testing programs. Describes several steps to develop and implement a local assessment program, including setting priorities and goals, meeting with state officials, developing budgets and funding sources, forming development teams, providing professional…

  15. Multipartite entanglement accumulation in quantum states: Localizable generalized geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Pal, Amit Kumar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2017-02-01

    Multiparty quantum states are useful for a variety of quantum information and computation protocols. We define a multiparty entanglement measure based on local measurements on a multiparty quantum state and an entanglement measure averaged on the postmeasurement ensemble. Using the generalized geometric measure as the measure of multipartite entanglement for the ensemble, we demonstrate, in the case of several well-known classes of multipartite pure states, that the localized multipartite entanglement can exceed the entanglement present in the original state. We also show that measurement over multiple parties may be beneficial in enhancing localizable multipartite entanglement. We point out that localizable generalized geometric measure faithfully signals quantum critical phenomena in well-known quantum spin models even when considerable finite-size effect is present in the system.

  16. State Energy Data Needs Assessment

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to Section 805(d) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-140, requiring the Energy Information Administration to assess State-level energy data needs and submit to Congress a plan to address those needs.

  17. Accumulating and Visualising Tacit Knowledge of Teachers on Educational Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzone-I.; Su, Chien-Yuan; Hsieh, Tung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Assessments, embedded with teachers' implicit (i.e. tacit) domain knowledge, play an important role in evaluating "comprehension of a subject". The knowledge on the importance of both the concepts and their relationships of a subject, if captured, made explicit, and shared around, may greatly help teachers construct more effective…

  18. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  19. Assessment of accumulated damage in circular tubes using nonlinear circumferential guided wave approach: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingxi; Gao, Guangjian; Xiang, Yanxun; Li, Mingliang

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility of using the nonlinear effect of primary Circumferential Guided Wave (CGW) propagation for assessing accumulated damage in circular tubes has been investigated. For a given circular tube, an appropriate mode pair of fundamental and double frequency CGWs is chosen to enable that the second harmonic of the primary wave mode can accumulate along the circumferential direction. After the given circular tube is subjected to compression-compression repeated loading for different numbers of loading cycles, the corresponding ultrasonic measurements are conducted. It is found that there is a direct correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter measured with CGWs propagating through one full circumference and the level of accumulated damage in the circular tube. The experimental result obtained validates the feasibility for quantitative assessment of the accumulated damage in circular tubes using the effect of second-harmonic generation by CGW propagation.

  20. Assessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisán, Samuel T.; Earle, Michael E.; Luís Collado, José; Kochendorfer, John; Alastrué, Javier; Wolff, Mareile; Smith, Craig D.; López-Moreno, Juan I.

    2017-03-01

    Within the framework of the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE), the Thies tipping bucket precipitation gauge was assessed against the SPICE reference configuration at the Formigal-Sarrios test site located in the Pyrenees mountain range of Spain. The Thies gauge is the most widely used precipitation gauge by the Spanish Meteorological State Agency (AEMET) for the measurement of all precipitation types including snow. It is therefore critical that its performance is characterized. The first objective of this study is to derive transfer functions based on the relationships between catch ratio and wind speed and temperature. Multiple linear regression was applied to 1 and 3 h accumulation periods, confirming that wind is the most dominant environmental variable affecting the gauge catch efficiency, especially during snowfall events. At wind speeds of 1.5 m s-1 the tipping bucket recorded only 70 % of the reference precipitation. At 3 m s-1, the amount of measured precipitation decreased to 50 % of the reference, was even lower for temperatures colder than -2 °C and decreased to 20 % or less for higher wind speeds.The implications of precipitation underestimation for areas in northern Spain are discussed within the context of the present analysis, by applying the transfer function developed at the Formigal-Sarrios and using results from previous studies.

  1. Assessment of accumulated fatigue damage in solid plates using nonlinear Lamb wave approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mingxi; Pei, Junfeng

    2007-03-01

    The feasibility of using the nonlinear effect of primary Lamb wave propagation for assessing accumulated fatigue damage in solid plates is theoretically analyzed. After the aluminum sheets are subjected to tension-tension fatigue loading for different numbers of loading cycles, they are subjected to ultrasonic tests near the driving frequency where Lamb waves have a strong nonlinearity. This is followed by the measurement of the amplitude-frequency curves for second harmonics of the considered Lamb waves. The experimental results show that the effect of second-harmonic generation by Lamb wave propagation is very sensitive to the accumulation of fatigue damage of solid plates.

  2. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr−1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr−1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr−1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (−76.7 Tg C yr−1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr−1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation. PMID:25614123

  3. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr-1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr-1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr-1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr-1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr-1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  4. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  5. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of trace metal accumulation in sediments of Veraval Harbor, Gujarat, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, S; Khadanga, Mukunda Kesari; Kumar, J Prince Prakash Jeba; Raghumaran, S; Vijaya, R; Jena, Basanta Kumar

    2017-01-15

    In this study, different types of indices were used to assess the ecological risk of trace metal contamination in sediments on the basis of sediment quality guidelines at Veraval Fishery Harbor. Sediment samples were collected from three sectors in pre-, post-, and monsoon seasons in 2006. Trace metal concentrations were higher in the inner sector during post-monsoon, and it showed the highest statistical significance (p<0.01) among the stations. Pollution load index was higher than unity, indicating alternation by effluent discharge from industries. Enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn were enriched in the northern part of the harbor and Pb had accumulated in the harbor sediment. The ecological risk assessment index revealed that Ni, Zn, and Pb were higher than the effect range median values, indicating their potential toxicity to the aquatic environment in the Veraval Harbor. Hence, the harbor is dominated by anthropogenic activities rather than natural process.

  7. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  8. State Systems Improvement Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document was developed by the Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC) and is designed to be used as an assessment of State systems by State Part B and Part C staff and their stakeholders. It provides a detailed process for State Education Agencies (SEA) and Lead Agencies (LA) to follow that will guide improvement efforts relative to the…

  9. Examining the influence of formative assessment on conceptual accumulation and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Miki K.

    This study explored the effect of formative assessment on student achievement in science. Research in science education has shown that students enter science classrooms with previously formed explanatory models of the natural world; these naive "mental models" have a substantial influence on their learning of scientific conceptions. In general, conceptual change describes the pathway from pre-instructional or prior conceptions to a post-instructional or desired conception. Conceptual change involves a fundamental restructuring of a network of concepts rather than fitting new concepts into an existing conceptual network or structure. Research has shown that conceptual change is difficult to promote; for example, students may accumulate multiple conceptions over the course of instruction, including both new misconceptions and more scientifically-sound conceptions. Hellden and Solomon (2004) found that although students tended to evoke the same, less-scientific conceptions over time, they could produce more scientifically-sound conceptions during interviews with appropriate prompting; thus, students undergo conceptual accumulation rather than conceptual change. Students can recall scientifically-sound conceptions they have learned and may use them to reason, but they do so in partnership or hybridization with their less-scientific prior conceptions. Formative assessment, which focuses on providing immediate feedback by acting upon student understanding during the course of instruction, and conceptual change have both been linked to increased student achievement. Formative assessment is an instructional strategy that helps teachers to assess students' current understanding, identify the gap between current understanding and expected understanding, and provide immediate and useful feedback to students on how to close the gap. Formative assessment ranges from formal (e.g. embedded, planned-for interactions between teacher and entire class) to informal (e.g. on

  10. State and Regional Needs Assessment Report (Revised)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report includes analysis of student enrollment behavior, employment outlook and training needs, and community needs to understand the supply and demand for postsecondary education in Washington State. The assessment will specifically respond to criteria laid out in state legislation: (1) Projections of student, employer, and community demand…

  11. A novel human artery model to assess the magnetic accumulation of SPIONs under flow conditions

    PubMed Central

    Janikowska, Agata; Matuszak, Jasmin; Lyer, Stefan; Schreiber, Eveline; Unterweger, Harald; Zaloga, Jan; Groll, Jürgen; Alexiou, Christoph; Cicha, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic targeting utilises the properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to accumulate particles in specified vasculature regions under an external magnetic field. As the behaviour of circulating particles varies depending on nanoparticle characteristics, magnetic field strength and flow dynamics, we established an improved ex vivo model in order to estimate the magnetic capture of SPIONs in physiological-like settings. We describe here a new, easy to handle ex vivo model of human umbilical artery. Using this model, the magnetic targeting of different types of SPIONs under various external magnetic field gradients and flow conditions was investigated by atomic emission spectroscopy and histology. Among tested particles, SPION-1 with lauric acid shell had the largest capacity to accumulate at the specific artery segment. SPION-2 (lauric acid/albumin-coated) were also successfully targeted, although the observed peak in the iron content under the tip of the magnet was smaller than for SPION-1. In contrast, we did not achieve magnetic accumulation of dextran-coated SPION-3. Taken together, the umbilical artery model constitutes a time- and cost-efficient, 3R-compliant tool to assess magnetic targeting of SPIONs under flow. Our results further imply the possibility of an efficient in vivo targeting of certain types of SPIONs to superficial arteries. PMID:28176885

  12. The Oversight of State Standards and Assessment Programs: Perspectives from a Former State Assessment Director

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Pasquale J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information and insight into how state assessment programs are governed, how individual state and state-consortium assessment programs actually operate, and how key policy and technical decisions on these programs are made. To address these issues, this paper is divided into three sections: First, the New…

  13. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10(kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000(kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000(kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Transcriptional Regulation Facilitates Metabolic Engineering of Isoprenoid Accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lange, Iris; Poirier, Brenton C; Herron, Blake K; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-11-01

    In plants, two spatially separated pathways provide the precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines with modulated levels of expression of each individual gene involved in the cytosolic/peroxisomal mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways. By assessing the correlation of transgene expression levels with isoprenoid marker metabolites (gene-to-metabolite correlation), we determined the relative importance of transcriptional control at each individual step of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. The accumulation patterns of metabolic intermediates (metabolite-to-gene correlation) were then used to infer flux bottlenecks in the sterol pathway. The extent of metabolic cross talk, the exchange of isoprenoid intermediates between compartmentalized pathways, was assessed by a combination of gene-to-metabolite and metabolite-to-metabolite correlation analyses. This strategy allowed the selection of genes to be modulated by metabolic engineering, and we demonstrate that the overexpression of predictable combinations of genes can be used to significantly enhance flux toward specific end products of the sterol pathway. Transgenic plants accumulating increased amounts of sterols are characterized by significantly elevated biomass, which can be a desirable trait in crop and biofuel plants.

  16. Comprehensive Assessment of Transcriptional Regulation Facilitates Metabolic Engineering of Isoprenoid Accumulation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Iris; Poirier, Brenton C.; Herron, Blake K.; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, two spatially separated pathways provide the precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines with modulated levels of expression of each individual gene involved in the cytosolic/peroxisomal mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways. By assessing the correlation of transgene expression levels with isoprenoid marker metabolites (gene-to-metabolite correlation), we determined the relative importance of transcriptional control at each individual step of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. The accumulation patterns of metabolic intermediates (metabolite-to-gene correlation) were then used to infer flux bottlenecks in the sterol pathway. The extent of metabolic cross talk, the exchange of isoprenoid intermediates between compartmentalized pathways, was assessed by a combination of gene-to-metabolite and metabolite-to-metabolite correlation analyses. This strategy allowed the selection of genes to be modulated by metabolic engineering, and we demonstrate that the overexpression of predictable combinations of genes can be used to significantly enhance flux toward specific end products of the sterol pathway. Transgenic plants accumulating increased amounts of sterols are characterized by significantly elevated biomass, which can be a desirable trait in crop and biofuel plants. PMID:26282236

  17. Fluorescent Trimethoprim Conjugate Probes To Assess Drug Accumulation in Wild Type and Mutant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Novel fluorescent TMP probes inhibited eDHFR activity with comparable potency to TMP, but did not kill or inhibit growth of wild type Escherichia coli. However, bactericidal activity was observed against an efflux pump deficient E. coli mutant strain (ΔtolC). A simple and quick fluorescence assay was developed to measure cellular accumulation of the TMP probe using either fluorescence spectroscopy or flow cytometry, with validation by LC-MS/MS. This fluorescence assay may provide a simple method to assess efflux pump activity with standard laboratory equipment. PMID:27737551

  18. Assessment of advanced glycated end product accumulation in skin using auto fluorescence multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marcus; Favilla, Riccardo; Strömberg, Tomas

    2016-04-12

    Several studies have shown that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a role in both the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and are closely linked to inflammation and atherosclerosis. AGEs accumulate in skin and can be detected using their auto fluorescence (AF). A significant correlation exists between AGE AF and the levels of AGEs as obtained from skin biopsies. A commercial device, the AGE Reader, has become available to assess skin AF for clinical purposes but, while displaying promising results, it is limited to single-point measurements performed in contact to skin tissue. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of AGE accumulation is virtually unexplored. We proposed a non-invasive, contact-less novel technique for quantifying fluorescent AGE deposits in skin tissue using a multispectral imaging camera setup (MSI) during ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Imaging involved applying a region-of-interest mask, avoiding specular reflections and a simple calibration. Results of a study conducted on 16 subjects with skin types ranging from fair to deeply pigmented skin, showed that AGE measured with MSI in forearm skin was significantly correlated with the AGE reference method (AGE Reader on forearm skin, R=0.68, p=0.005). AGE measured in facial skin was borderline significantly related to AGE Reader on forearm skin (R=0.47, p=0.078). These results support the use of the technique in devices for non-touch measurement of AGE content in either facial or forearm skin tissue over time.

  19. Assessment of trace element accumulation in surface sediments off Chennai coast after a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Gopal, V; Krishnakumar, S; Simon Peter, T; Nethaji, S; Suresh Kumar, K; Jayaprakash, M; Magesh, N S

    2017-01-30

    The present study was conducted to assess the trace element concentration in marine surface sediments after major flood event of Chennai metropolis, India. Thirty surface samples were collected from off Chennai coast. Trace elements, organic matter, CaCO3, sand-silt-clay and C/N ratios were studied to understand the accumulation dynamics on sediments. The elemental concentration, calcium carbonate and OM distribution suggest that they are derived from urban runoff and transported through Adyar and Cooum Rivers. The enrichment factor reveals that the sediments are enriched by Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni followed by Fe. The observed Igeo value shows that the samples are contaminated by Pb, Cu and Zn. The elemental concentration of the surface sediments is low when compared to other coastal region except Pb. The elevated level of Pb in the surface sediments is probably due to migration of contaminated urban soil from industrial and transportation sectors into marine environment.

  20. Multi-state modeling in ASSESS

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Patenaude, C.J. ); Snell, M.K. ); Key, B. )

    1992-07-06

    The Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security (ASSESS) is an integrated safeguards evaluation tool focusing on theft and diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by insiders, outsiders, and collusion between insiders and outsiders. ASSESS features a common Facility Description module that allows for defining a facility's safeguards and security system simultaneously for both insiderand outsider threats. This Facility Description module supports defining safeguards during two states. The two states could represent day'' and night,'' or normal'' and emergency,'' or simply open'' and closed.'' A problem arises due to differences in the modi operandi of (and hence, evaluation approaches for) insider and outsider threats. This can lead to situations where it is impossible to simultaneously define states correctly to meet the needs of both the Insider and Outsider evaluation modules. We have developed and are currently implementing an approach to address this problem. This approach has requiredprogramming in four ASSESS modules. In this paper, we discuss the ASSESS state problem and give an overview of the solution, including the implementation in the Facility and Insider modules. A second paper discussing details of the implementation in the Outsider module is also being presented in this session.

  1. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  2. Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was <10 % total soil-borne As with concentrations less than the current Australian maximum residue concentration for cereals. The results indicate that risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 μg L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was <7 % for total As and <3 % total Sb which is important to consider when estimating the real risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment.

  3. 34 CFR 200.3 - Designing State Academic Assessment Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designing State Academic Assessment Systems. 200.3... State Academic Assessment Systems. (a)(1) For each grade and subject assessed, a State's academic assessment system must— (i) Address the depth and breadth of the State's academic content standards...

  4. Imbalanced Learning for Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of several imbalanced learning techniques applied to operator functional state assessment where the data is highly imbalanced, i.e., some function states (majority classes) have much more training samples than other states (minority classes). Conventional machine learning techniques usually tend to classify all data samples into majority classes and perform poorly for minority classes. In this study, we implemented five imbalanced learning techniques, including random undersampling, random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), borderline-SMOTE and adaptive synthetic sampling (ADASYN) to solve this problem. Experimental results on a benchmark driving lest dataset show thai accuracies for minority classes could be improved dramatically with a cost of slight performance degradations for majority classes,

  5. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  6. Calibration models for electromagnetic induction methods to assess nutrient accumulation beneath confined livestock areas.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, R Sri; Ferguson, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient accumulation in soils beneath confined livestock areas is a potential source of groundwater contamination. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has become a practical method to assess nutrient content, with multiple linear regression (MLR) as the statistical method often employed to translate EMI readings into nutrient content. The purpose of this research is to compare and contrast the performance of spatially referenced MLR models that include secondary, 'easy-to-acquire' predictor variables such as spatial coordinate locations, soil water content and elevation information with MLR models based solely on EMI readings. Six feedlot areas were surveyed with an EM38 conductivity meter and between 6 and 12 sites at each feedlot were sampled at five different depths. The electrical conductivity (EC(e)), nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO4(3-)) concentrations were measured and used as response variables. Analyses were performed using two different approaches: the response variables in individual layers and response variables by combining the layers within the soil profile. The results of both MLR methods were comparable in most instances because the models preferentially incorporated predictors derived from EM38 readings. Differences between the models were more evident when predicting NO3- and PO4(3-), even though prediction of these two analytes by either method was generally poor. Combined profile analysis was more effective for defining nutrient build-up because by-layer analysis gave non-significant or poor models in many instances.

  7. Metabolomics of urine for the assessment of microvesicular lipid accumulation in the liver following isoniazid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jason P.; Snyder, Rodney W.; Popp, James A.; Fennell, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a noninvasive marker of hepatic microvesicular lipid accumulation (MVLA), a histopathological effect currently diagnosed in humans following liver biopsy. MVLA is detected in animal studies of chemicals and drugs and occurs in some humans exposed to chemicals or pharmaceuticals. Because MVLA is a reversible histopathology, early detection of MVLA using a noninvasive method, could aid clinicians in the treatment of patients taking drugs that are known to induce this injury. Isoniazid (INH) was selected as a model compound for this investigation, because MVLA occurs in tuberculosis (TB) patients treated with a combination therapy, which includes INH. This study used male rats dosed daily with INH at 0, 10, or 300 mg/kg/day for up to 8 days. Urine, blood, and liver were obtained following 1 and 8 days. NMR metabolomics of urine revealed markers that correlated (100%) with the findings of MVLA in the right, left, and median liver lobes in 4/9 rats administered the high dose of INH for 8 days. Metabolomics of liver extracts also revealed markers that correlated with the MVLA injury. Serum enzymes that are clinically used to assess liver injury were not consistently correlated to the findings of MVLA. Metabolite changes consistent with the presence of MVLA correlated with interruptions in inositol, carbohydrate, glycerolipid, and glyoxylate metabolism. This study reveals markers that could find pre-clinical use, provides insights into mechanisms involved in MVLA, and demonstrates the need for the validation of noninvasive MVLA markers in human patients. PMID:21057652

  8. Rainfall Accumulation Across the United States (1/1/2015 - 7/16/2015)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The accumulated precipitation product visualized here begins on Jan. 1, 2015, and runs through July 16, 2015. This visualization shows the heavy rainfall throughout Northern Texas and across Oklaho...

  9. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    role. Erosion and biomass accumulation sustainability targets were determined from the literature. As an example finding, under continuous corn and CT at 0% residue harvest, erosion is the only concern for 35% of the sampling points. Regional variation is strong, with most of the erosion-prone areas in the rolling topography outside of the glaciated Des Moines Lobe. For the same scenario at 100% residue harvest, biomass accumulation is a concern for all points, with erosion an added concern for 43% of points. Fuel GHG fuel emissions were highest for CT (both types of rotations) and continuous corn IT. Fuel costs ($$ and GHG) increased with tillage intensity. This study has provided an initial framework for conducting a life cycle assessment at the field scale, as well as at the state-wide scale. Field specific and site specific decisions (i.e., by farmers), however, will require appropriate technology and equipment, which means more refined resolution. Developing this approach should be the topic of future investigations.

  10. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7–9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIMCT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  11. An assessment of PTV margin based on actual accumulated dose for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ning; Kumarasiri, Akila; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Xing, Lei; Liu, Dezhi; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Zhong, Hualiang; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the results of a margin reduction study involving dosimetric and radiobiologic assessment of cumulative dose distributions, computed using an image guided adaptive radiotherapy based framework. Eight prostate cancer patients, treated with 7-9, 6 MV, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, were included in this study. The workflow consists of cone beam CT (CBCT) based localization, deformable image registration of the CBCT to simulation CT image datasets (SIM-CT), dose reconstruction and dose accumulation on the SIM-CT, and plan evaluation using radiobiological models. For each patient, three IMRT plans were generated with different margins applied to the CTV. The PTV margin for the original plan was 10 mm and 6 mm at the prostate/anterior rectal wall interface (10/6 mm) and was reduced to: (a) 5/3 mm, and (b) 3 mm uniformly. The average percent reductions in predicted tumor control probability (TCP) in the accumulated (actual) plans in comparison to the original plans over eight patients were 0.4%, 0.7% and 11.0% with 10/6 mm, 5/3 mm and 3 mm uniform margin respectively. The mean increase in predicted normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for grades 2/3 rectal bleeding for the actual plans in comparison to the static plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm uniformly was 3.5%, 2.8% and 2.4% respectively. For the actual dose distributions, predicted NTCP for late rectal bleeding was reduced by 3.6% on average when the margin was reduced from 10/6 mm to 5/3 mm, and further reduced by 1.0% on average when the margin was reduced to 3 mm. The average reduction in complication free tumor control probability (P+) in the actual plans in comparison to the original plans with margins of 10/6, 5/3 and 3 mm was 3.7%, 2.4% and 13.6% correspondingly. The significant reduction of TCP and P+ in the actual plan with 3 mm margin came from one outlier, where individualizing patient treatment plans through margin adaptation

  12. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  13. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  14. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Zeebregts, Clark; Tio, Rene; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Smit, Andries

    2008-10-07

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs.

  15. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Zeebregts, Clark; Tio, Rene; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Smit, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs. PMID:18840258

  16. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey input-data form and operational procedure for the assessment of conventional petroleum accumulations: Chapter 25 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, James W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey model for undiscovered conventional accumulations is designed to aid in the assessment of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (collectively called petroleum) resources. Conventional accumulations may be described in terms of discrete fields or pools localized in structural and stratigraphic traps by the buoyancy of oil or natural gas in water. Conventional accumulations are commonly bounded by a down-dip water contact. The assessment model requires estimates of the number and sizes of undiscovered conventional accumulations. Technically recoverable petroleum resources from undiscovered conventional accumulations are calculated by statistically combining probability distributions of the estimated number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations, along with associated risks and coproduct ratios. Probabilistic estimates of petroleum resources are given for oil in oil accumulations, gas (associated/dissolved) in oil accumulations, natural gas liquids in oil accumulations, gas (nonassociated) in gas accumulations, and total liquids (oil and natural gas liquids) in gas accumulations.

  18. Acoustic Prediction State of the Art Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction both for systems and components. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. System level results are shown for both aircraft and engines. Component level results are shown for a landing gear prototype, for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a subsonic round nozzle, and for propulsion airframe aeroacoustic interactions. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  19. Income Class and the Accumulation of Net Worth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Kim, Jeounghee; Joo, Myungkook

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential rates of accumulating net worth among low- and high-income households. To achieve this objective, the authors, using a sample drawn from the 1998 Survey of Consumer Finances, investigated the degree of elasticity of household net worth (or wealth) to household income among five income…

  20. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  1. Accumulation of trace metals in sediments in a Mediterranean Lagoon: Usefulness of metal sediment fractionation and elutriate toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaaboub, Noureddine; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Dhib, Amel; Béjaoui, Béchir; Galgani, François; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    The authors investigated sediment quality in Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) focusing on geochemical characteristics, metal sediment fractionation and elutriate toxicity assessment. Nickel, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd partitioning in sediments was studied; accumulation and bioavailability were elucidated using enrichment factors, sequential extractions, redox potential, acid volatile sulfide and biotest procedures in toxicity evaluation. Results revealed an accumulation for Pb and Zn, reaching 99 and 460 mg kg(-1) respectively. In addition, the acid volatile sulfide values were high in both eastern and western lagoon areas, thus affecting metal availability. Mean enrichment factor values for Pb and Zn were 4.8 and 4.9, respectively, with these elements as the main contributors to the lagoon's moderate enrichment level. Toxicity levels were influenced by accumulation of Zn in different surface sediment areas. Core sediments were investigated in areas with the highest metal concentrations; metal fractionation and biotest confirmed that Zn contributes to sediment toxicity.

  2. Dynamics of peat accumulation and marl flat formation in a calcareous fen, midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, J.J.; Ketterling, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The age and sequence of peat accumulation were investigated at a calcareous fen in northeastern Illinois, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify the processes that form and sustain marl flats, which are areas of marl or tufa substrate within the fen that contain numerous rare plant species. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiocarbon evidence was used to establish the processes and chronology of peat accumulation and erosion adjacent to each marl flat. The age of the base of the peat deposit varies greatly throughout the fen, ranging from 14,679 calibrated years before present (cal. years BP) to nearly modern, indicating that colonization of the sand and gravel substrate by peat occurred throughout the period from the Late Pleistocene to present. Adjacent to one marl flat, trends in basal peat age and thickness show that peat accumulation has progressed laterally inward from both sides, suggesting that the marl flat has been infilling with peat progressively by accumulation at the margins since at least 5,370 cal. years BP or longer. A second marl flat in the fen is surrounded by older, thick peat of differing ages on either edge and is bounded by fresh scarps, indicating that the marl flat currently is expanding laterally by erosion into the preexisting peat blanket. These two examples suggest a continuously repeating process, where erosion of the accumulated peat blanket forms a marl flat, which is later covered by peat accumulation. Trends in basal peat age elsewhere in the fen suggest that other marl flats may have existed in the past that have been completely infilled with peat. This study suggests that marl flat formation is a natural process that has been occurring for millennia, continuously creating habitat for the rare plant species that occupy marl flats. There is no evidence that the marl flats at this site are indicative of anthropogenic disturbance, so that management options for these areas are limited to maintaining the quality and quantity

  3. Assessing accumulation and sublethal effects of lead in a unionid mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Shea, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of the environment remains a global problem. Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb deposited onto roadside sediments from the past use of leaded gasoline in vehicles may be mobilized into rivers and streams, thereby resulting in exposure to aquatic biota. The aims of this study were to conduct a 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata; family Unionidae) mussels to determine uptake kinetics and to assess several potential non-lethal biomarkers of Pb exposure. Mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a control and eight concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 251 µg/L, as a static renewal test. There were five replicates per treatment with one mussel per replicate. The hemolymph of mussels from four of the replicates was repeatedly sampled (days 7, 14, 21, and 28) for analysis of Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations. The mussels in the fifth replicate per treatment were only sampled on day 28 and served as a comparison to the repeatedly sampled mussels. The accumulation of Pb in mussel tissue was also evaluated during the study. No mussels died during the test. We found that measured concentrations of Pb in mussel hemolymph suggested regulation of the heavy metal up to 66 μg/L by day 14, whereas concentrations in tissue proved to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.0001) throughout the 28-day exposure, displaying concentration dependent uptake. The concentration of Pb in mussel hemolymph, which can be sampled and measured non-lethally, is a suitable marker of recent Pb exposure in mussels. In contrast, none of the ion concentrations measured in the hemolymph from the repeatedly sampled mussels was significantly changed with increasing concentrations of Pb, whereas the mussels from the fifth replicate sampled only on day 28 showed altered calcium concentrations. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

  4. Metal accumulation by an epigean and a hypogean freshwater amphipod: Considerations for water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pienet, S.

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate their potential as biomonitors of surface and underground water quality, the accumulation of essential metals, zinc and copper, by two species of amphipod crustaceans, Gammarus fossarum (an epigean amphipod) and Niphargus rhenorhodanensis (a similar but blind and hypogean form) was investigated. These two species were exposed, under controlled laboratory conditions, to different metal concentrations for 12 days. Several concentrations of each of the two metals separately and one concentration of a mixture of both were tested. Percent mortality revealed that the hypogean species was more resistant than the epigean. During the 12 days of experiment, accumulation patterns differed between species and between metals. G. fossarum, but not N. rhenorhodanensis, accumulated zinc at exposures of up to 12 days and concentrations as great as 1,000 {micro}g/L. Zinc levels in tissue of G. fossarum were greater than in those of N. rhenorhodanensis. Epigean and hypogean amphipods did not clearly accumulate copper in exposures as great at 65 {micro}g/L. Possible reasons for the differences in zinc and copper accumulation between the two species are discussed. Finally, the suitability of the two species as biomonitors for surface and underground water is discussed.

  5. Temporal assessment of nanoparticle accumulation after experimental brain injury: Effect of particle size

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Vimala N.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Adelson, P. David; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) based therapeutic and theranostic agents have been developed for various diseases, yet application to neural disease/injury is restricted by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a host of pathological alterations, including transient breakdown of the BBB, thus opening a window for NP delivery to the injured brain tissue. This study focused on investigating the spatiotemporal accumulation of different sized NPs after TBI. Specifically, animal cohorts sustaining a controlled cortical impact injury received an intravenous injection of PEGylated NP cocktail (20, 40, 100, and 500 nm, each with a unique fluorophore) immediately (0 h), 2 h, 5 h, 12 h, or 23 h after injury. NPs were allowed to circulate for 1 h before perfusion and brain harvest. Confocal microscopy demonstrated peak NP accumulation within the injury penumbra 1 h post-injury. An inverse relationship was found between NP size and their continued accumulation within the penumbra. NP accumulation preferentially occurred in the primary motor and somatosensory areas of the injury penumbra as compared to the parietal association and visual area. Thus, we characterized the accumulation of particles up to 500 nm at different times acutely after injury, indicating the potential of NP-based TBI theranostics in the acute period after injury. PMID:27444615

  6. NAEP 1992 Reading State Report for New Mexico. The Trial State Assessment at Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1992, the NAEP Program included an expanded TSA in fourth-grade reading. The 1992 reading assessment considered students' performance in situations that…

  7. NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for New Mexico. Trial State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…

  8. Assessment of Bathymetry and Sediment Accumulation of Walker Lake, PA with Multiple Frequency GPR Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Booterbaugh, A.; Beren, M.

    2012-12-01

    Silting within all man-made reservoirs, can be a major problem. Exploring bathymetry with electromagnetic prospection tools is one way to identify the magnitude of sediment accumulation in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, the bathymetry and sediment accumulation of Walker Lake, PA was explored via multi-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. Walker Lake is located on the North Branch Middle Creek, which is a tributary to Middle Creek within the Susquehanna River basin. The technique developed in this study included two antennas positioned on a medium size inflatable boat towed by a 14' flat-bottom Jon Boat. Both 400 and 100 MHz antennas were deployed and sediment thickness and distribution throughout the lake were identified. A total of eighteen transects were taken along the entire length of the lake. A new method with multiple approaches including RADAN 7, GPR Viewer, SAS 9.1.3 and MATLAB was developed to generate three-Dimensional and contour surface of the pre-1971 Topography and bathymetry based on GPR reflection readings. As a result, depth, accumulation and rate of sedimentation in the lake were successfully measured. The lake was found to vary between 0.5 to 9 meters in depth. Sediment accumulation and distribution were calculated from the difference between the surveyed bathymetry and the 1971 pre-existent landscape topography. Sediment was found to accumulate thickest within the old channel of Middle Creek however, the bulk of the sediment volume lied outside this channel. Sediment deposition accumulates mainly upstream near the inlet to the lake and gradually decreases toward the dam inversely proportional to the depth of the lake.

  9. Assessing the Nation's Literacy: A State Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    This primer is designed to provide a step-by-step guide for state policymakers and state agency officials interested in assessing the literacy skills of the people of their state. Chapter 1 describes the importance of assessing the literacy skills in each state. Literacy is discussed as an economic necessity, a requirement for a healthy democracy,…

  10. The State of Mathematics Achievement in Rhode Island: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…

  11. The State of Mathematics Achievement in New Mexico: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…

  12. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  13. Steady-state model of biota sediment accumulation factor for metals in two marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.; Mahony, J.D.; Mueller, R.

    1995-11-01

    A model of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) is developed to relate the ratio of metal concentrations in two marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mytilus edulis) to sediment metal concentration. A generalized metal BSAF can be approximated by a simple relationship that is a function of sediment to water column partitioning, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), the depuration rate, the metal assimilation efficiency from food, the bivalve feeding rate, and the growth rate. Analyses of Mussel Watch data indicate that the medium BSAF across stations varies by about three orders of magnitude from Zn, Cd, and Cu at the highest levels of BSAF = 1 to 10, while Cr has the lowest BSAF at 0.01. Total Hg is about 1.0 and Ni and Pb are approximately 0.1. Calibration of the model indicates that the food route of metal accumulation is significant for all metals but specially for Zn, Cd, Cu, and Hg where virtually all of the observed BSAF is calculated to be due to ingestion of metal from food in the overlying water. These results indicate a potential significance of the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which results in relatively high binding of metal and resulting low depuration rates.

  14. Sequential assessment of pulmonary epithelial diethylene triamine penta-acetate clearance and intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation during Escherichia coli peritonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Segall, G.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Wu, Z.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The individual roles of pulmonary capillary endothelial and alveolar epithelial permeability in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are unclear. We developed a method for the sequential assessment of pulmonary macromolecule accumulation and small solute clearance in vivo using a gamma camera. We measured the exponential clearance coefficient of 111In-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetate (111In-DTPA) to assess airway clearance of small solutes. We also calculated the exponential equilibration coefficient of 111In-labeled transferrin (111In-TF) to assess intrapulmonary accumulation of transferrin. We determined these parameters in guinea pigs with Escherichia coli peritonitis and compared them with a saline-treated control group, oleic-acid-treated groups, and a group treated with low molecular weight dextran Ringer solution. The pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation were significantly increased in the peritonitis group (29.4 +/- 8.2 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02, and 15.1 +/- 3.1 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02) when compared with the control group (3.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) min-1 and 4.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-3) min-1). These changes developed within 5.5 h of the initial insult. Neither increased extravascular lung water nor elevated pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures were detected in the peritonitis group. The low molecular weight dextran Ringer group did not show a significant increase in the pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation.

  15. The Road Ahead for State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report includes three papers that address critical "next generation" issues in assessment policy that can help to guide the choices made about system design: computer adaptive assessments, assessment of English learners and assessing science. None of these topics has received the attention that it deserves in the current debate on assessment…

  16. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... responsibilities for assessment. (a)(1) Each State, in consultation with its LEAs, must implement a system of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments that includes, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading/language arts and, beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science. (2)(i) The State...

  17. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities for assessment. (a)(1) Each State, in consultation with its LEAs, must implement a system of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments that includes, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading/language arts and, beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science. (2)(i) The State...

  18. The Technical Report of NAEP's 1990 Trial State Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffler, Stephen L.; And Others

    This report documents the design and data analysis procedures of the Trial State Assessment Program of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Today the NAEP is the only survey using advanced plausible values methodology that uses a multiple imputation procedure in a psychometric context. The 1990 Trial State Assessment collected…

  19. Gallic acid and tannase accumulation during fungal solid state culture of a tannin-rich desert plant (Larrea tridentata Cov.).

    PubMed

    Treviño-Cueto, B; Luis, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Rodríguez, R; Aguilera, A; Aguilar, C N

    2007-02-01

    Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mocino ex DC.) Coville, also known as Larrea, gobernadora, chaparral, or creosote bush, is a shrubby plant which dominates some areas of the desert southwest in the United States and Northern Mexico and its use has not been exploited and standardized. In this study, gobernadora was studied to evaluate its potential use for support of solid state culture. Influence of two minimal media added with gobernadora powder as the sole carbon source and inducer of tannin-degrading enzymes was evaluated. Cultures were initially 70% moisture, had a pH of 5.5 and were inoculated with Aspergillus niger Aa-20 at 2 x 10(7) spores per gram of media. Analysis of pH, moisture, tannin uptake, gallic acid accumulation and tannase production were evaluated. Results indicated a high content of condensed (39.4%dm) and hydrolysable (22.8%dm) tannins. Invasion capacity of fungal growth was of 0.15 mmh(-1). Tannase production reached values of 1040 Ul(-1) at 43 h of culture. During the first 48 h of culture, the concentration of gallic acid accumulation was 0.33 gl(-1). Gobernadora is a potential source of gallic acid and tannase production by solid state culture; however, further optimization of the process is needed.

  20. Alternative Methods for Assessing Science: Report to the States. Science & Mathematics Indicators Project. Conference Report of State Assessment Directors and State Science Supervisors (Tampa, Florida, January 13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf; Selden, Ramsay

    State assessment directors and State science supervisors discussed alternative methods for assessing student learning in science at a conference. The conference had two objectives: (1) to increase the knowledge of state science supervisors and assessment directors of recent experience at international, national, and state levels with alternative…

  1. An Analysis of State Alternate Assessment Participation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musson, Jane E.; Thomas, Megan K.; Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kearns, Jacqueline F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine all states' participation guidelines for alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) and to analyze these guidelines for common and contrasting themes. State alternate assessment participation guidelines were found for all 50 states. Participation guidelines were coded, and 12…

  2. NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for New Mexico. The Trial State Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics to shift to standards-based reporting of National…

  3. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square

  4. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in female Fischer 344 rats; accumulation of wax components; implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Blas-Y-Estrada, Florence; Nygaard, Unni C; Alexander, Jan; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to three MOSH mixtures: oils largely below and above C25 (S-C25 and L-C25) and a 1:1 mixture of L-C25 with a wax; doses of 400, 1000 and 4000mg/kg feed were administered during 120days. MOSH were determined by on-line HPLC-GC-FID in liver, spleen, adipose tissue and the carcass. The composition of the hydrocarbons accumulated in the tissues was further analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). MOSH in the mass range of C26-30 were more strongly accumulated than those between C20-25, which does not support the present classification of MOSH differentiating at n-C25 for risk assessment. Compared to the total of the MOSH, n-alkanes and n-alkyl monocyclic naphthenes were generally enriched in adipose tissue. In liver and spleen, n-alkanes up to C25 were eliminated, but strongly accumulated at around C30. Based on this profile, poor solubility and the melting points, it is hypothesized that crystallization protects these wax components against metabolism and elimination. In the liver, relative retention of n-alkanes decreased again beyond C30, accentuated at high exposure, suggesting reduced absorption. Compared to the animal data, accumulation of n-alkanes from food sources, such as apples, into human tissues seems low, perhaps because of low absorption due to their presence in crystalline form. A series of dominant isoalkanes, accumulated in all tissues analyzed, was characterized, though without proposing a structure. Implications on present regulation of white mineral oil products are discussed.

  5. Fish eyes and brain as primary targets for mercury accumulation - a new insight on environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo, Joana; Araújo, Olinda; Canário, João; Almeida, Armando; Pacheco, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Fish eyes and brain are highly susceptible to environmental Hg exposure but this issue is still scarcely investigated, mainly regarding methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Yet, Hg levels in fish lens have not been previously examined under field conditions. Total Hg (tHg), MeHg and inorganic Hg (iHg) levels were assessed in the brain, eye wall and lens of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) from an Hg contaminated area, both in winter and summer, together with water and sediment levels. Sampling was performed at Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) where a confined area (LAR) is severely contaminated by Hg. Fish brain, eye wall and lens accumulated higher levels of tHg, MeHg and iHg at LAR than the reference site, reflecting faithfully environmental spatial differences. The brain and eye wall responded also to the winter-summer changes found in water and sediment, accumulating higher levels of MeHg (and tHg) in winter. Contrarily, lens was unable to reflect seasonal changes, probably due to its composition and structural stability over time. The three neurosensory structures accumulated preferentially MeHg than iHg (MeHg was higher than 77% of tHg). Lens exhibited a higher retention capacity of MeHg (mean around 1 μg g(-1) at LAR), accumulating higher levels than the other two tissues. Interestingly, MeHg and iHg levels were significantly correlated for the brain and eye wall but poorly associated within the two analysed eye components. The high levels of MeHg found in the brain, eye wall and lens could compromise their functions and this needs further research.

  6. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  7. The State of Learning Outcomes Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; Ewell, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, economic and other factors are pressing institutions of higher education to assess student learning to insure that graduates acquire the skills and competencies demanded in the 21st century. This paper summarises the status of undergraduate student learning outcomes assessment at accredited colleges and universities in the United…

  8. Elevated Accumulation of Parabens and their Metabolites in Marine Mammals from the United States Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchuan; Sasaki, Nozomi; Elangovan, Madhavan; Diamond, Guthrie; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-20

    The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well-known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05), which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in marine mammals. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were found in the livers of polar bears from the Chuckchi Sea and Beaufort Sea, which suggested widespread distribution of MeP and 4-HB in the oceanic environment.

  9. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  10. A molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships and lineage accumulation rates within the family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata).

    PubMed

    Weisrock, David W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Macey, J Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H; Zhao, Ermi; Jowkar, Houman; Larson, Allan

    2006-11-01

    We examine phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the family Salamandridae using approximately 2700 bases of new mtDNA sequence data (the tRNALeu, ND1, tRNAIle, tRNAGln, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and COI genes and the origin for light-strand replication) collected from 96 individuals representing 61 of the 66 recognized salamandrid species and outgroups. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis are performed on the new data alone and combined with previously reported sequences from other parts of the mitochondrial genome. The basal phylogenetic split is a polytomy of lineages ancestral to (1) the Italian newt Salamandrina terdigitata, (2) a strongly supported clade comprising the "true" salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), and (3) a strongly supported clade comprising all newts except S. terdigitata. Strongly supported clades within the true salamanders include monophyly of each genus and grouping Chioglossa and Mertensiella as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Lyciasalamandra and Salamandra. Among newts, genera Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton form a strongly supported clade whose sister taxon comprises the genera Calotriton, Cynops, Euproctus, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus. Our results strongly support monophyly of all polytypic newt genera except Paramesotriton and Triturus, which appear paraphyletic, and Calotriton, for which only one of the two species is sampled. Other well-supported clades within newts include (1) Asian genera Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton, (2) North American genera Notophthalmus and Taricha, (3) the Triturus vulgaris species group, and (4) the Triturus cristatus species group; some additional groupings appear strong in Bayesian but not parsimony analyses. Rates of lineage accumulation through time are evaluated using this nearly comprehensive sampling of

  11. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1

    PubMed Central

    Anning, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  12. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

  13. Common Core State Standards Assessments: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were created in response to the shortcomings of No Child Left Behind era standards and assessments. Among those failings were the poor quality of content standards and assessments and the variability in content expectations and proficiency targets across states, as well as concerns related to the economic…

  14. Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-10-31

    This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.

  15. Field study of Ra accumulation in trout with assessment of radiation dose to man

    SciTech Connect

    Ropes, S.K.; Whicker, F.W.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in edible fish from surface ponds near an open pit U mine. Because one reclamation plan for the U mine proposed formation of an artificial lake in the open pit, potential radiation dose to man from ingestion of fish needed to be investigated. Trout were collected from four existing ponds which varied in mean /sup 226/Ra concentration from 12-33 pCi/l and in Ca concentration from 30-330 mg Ca/l. Radium and Ca accumulation in trout flesh, skin, fins and bone were measured. Geometric mean concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in trout flesh from four ponds ranged from 6.3-30 pCi/kg wet weight. The distribution of Ra in the trout body was similar to that of Ca. The calculated dose equivalent commitment to human endosteal tissue range from 0.2-2 mrem per fish consumed, depending on the assumed dietary and environmental parameters. Neglecting the consumption of trout skin underestimated the ingestion dose from /sup 226/Ra by a factor of 5-10. Estimated annual dose equivalent rates to human endosteal tissue ranged from 1.0-83 mrem/yr for an individual who consumed one fish per week for a 50-yr period. The dose to man from ingestion of /sup 226/Ra in fish would not likely preclude the establishment of a recreational lake at this site.

  16. Total petroleum system assessment of undiscovered resources in the giant Barnett Shale continuous (unconventional) gas accumulation, Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Undiscovered natural gas having potential for additions to reserves in the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, north-central Texas, was assessed using the total petroleum system assessment unit concept and a cell-based methodology for continuous-type (Unconventional) resources. The Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system is defined in the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin as encompassing the area in which the organic-rich Barnett is the primary source rock for oil and gas produced from Paleozoic carbonate and clastic reservoirs. Exploration, technology, and drilling in the Barnett Shale play have rapidly evolved in recent years, with about 3500 vertical and 1000 horizontal wells completed in the Barnett through 2005 and more than 85% of the them completed since 1999. Using framework geology and historical production data, assessment of the Barnett Shale was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey using vertical wells at the peak of vertical well completions and before a transition to completions with horizontal wells. The assessment was performed after (1) mapping critical geological and geochemical parameters to define assessment unit areas with future potential, (2) defining distributions of drainage area (cell size) and estimating ultimate recovery per cell, and (3) estimating future success rates. Two assessment units are defined and assessed for the Barnett Shale continuous gas accumulation, resulting in a total mean undiscovered volume having potential for additions to reserves of 26.2 TCFG. The greater Newark East fracture-barrier continuous Barnett Shale gas assessment unit represents a core-producing area where thick, organic-rich, siliceous Barnett Shale is within the thermal window for gas generation (Ro ??? 1.1%) and is overlain and underlain by impermeable limestone barriers (Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone and Ordovician Viola Limestone, respectively) that serve to confine induced fractures during well completion to maximize gas

  17. Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Tord

    1979-01-01

    Studies were carried out in Japan, United States, and Sweden regarding comparability of analytical methods for cadmium, daily intake of cadmium via food, daily amount of cadmium in feces, concentrations of cadmium in different tissues and the body burden of cadmium, urinary excretion of cadmium and cadmium concentrations in blood. It was found that the cadmium intake via food among adults is about 35 μg/day in Japan (Tokyo) and about 17 μg/day in the U.S. (Dallas) and Sweden (Stockholm). It varies with age in a way similar to calorie intake. Body burden increases rapidly with age. The half-time of cadmium is longer in muscles than in liver or kidneys. In the cross-sectional population samples studied (smokers and nonsmokers mixed) the average cadmium body burden at age 45 was about 21 mg in Japan, 9 mg in the U.S., and 6 mg in Sweden. Among nonsmokers in the U.S. and Sweden the body burden at age 45 was about 5–6 mg. The difference in average body burden for smokers and nonsmokers is explained by differences in smoking habits. Cadmium excretion in urine was closely correlated with body burden and about 0.005–0.01% of body burden is excreted daily in urine. Cadmium concentration in the blood was a good indicator of average recent intake over a 3-month period. Neither blood cadmium nor urine cadmium changed immediately after an increase of exposure level. PMID:226355

  18. The Political Structuration of Assessment: Negotiating State Power and Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Examines the national educational assessment systems of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay to explore the role of politics and state-polity relations in shaping the design, implementation, and impact of national assessment systems. Discusses the rapid global diffusion of national assessment systems and the impact of centralized versus decentralized…

  19. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6)). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4) with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4), which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4)). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  20. Assessing the Impacts of Herbivory on Plant Silica Accumulation across a Global Network of Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, K.

    2015-12-01

    Plants, especially grasses, have a profound impact on the biogeochemical cycling of silicon. Silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in soil water is absorbed by plant roots, transported via the transpiration stream, and deposited as solid silica (SiO2) phytoliths in leaf tissue. Evidence indicates that plant phytolith accumulation may have evolved as an anti-herbivore strategy, and modern studies reveal that these silica particles are abrasive to animal mouthparts and can interfere with digestion. Furthermore, several studies have shown that grasses have the ability to respond to insect and mammal herbivory by modifying the amount of silicon they absorb from soil, a property known as inducible defense. However, herbivory studies remain largely limited to a laboratory setting, and research in natural systems has only been conducted at a regional spatial scale. To address whether these localized patterns persist at the global scale, we utilized data from a network of 40 grassland sites occurring on six continents. Vegetation samples including grasses, forbs, and litter, were collected in and out of 6m x 6m herbivore exclosures by a team of collaborating scientists for an on-going research effort known as the Nutrient Network (NutNet). We utilized near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to create a calibration for plant silica which allowed for the rapid analysis of more than 1000 samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that silica content of grasses was higher outside of exclosures, where herbivores had access to vegetation. Our data reveal that herbivores play a significant role in modifying plant silicon uptake, and hence, the rates of silicon cycling in grasslands across the globe.

  1. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  2. Science Assessments for All: Integrating Science Simulations into Balanced State Science Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.; Buckley, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the collaboration of six states to study how simulation-based science assessments can become transformative components of multi-level, balanced state science assessment systems. The project studied the psychometric quality, feasibility, and utility of simulation-based science assessments designed to serve formative purposes…

  3. Strength in Numbers: State Spending on K-12 Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    In the coming years, states will need to make the most significant changes to their assessment systems in a decade as they implement the Common Core State Standards, a common framework for what students are expected to know that will replace existing standards in 45 states and the District of Columbia. The Common Core effort has prompted concerns…

  4. Annual Performance Reports: 2003-2004. State Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Moen, Ross; Altman, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2003-2004 state assessment information that was submitted to the U.S. Department of Education by states in their Annual Performance Reports. States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports to the U.S.…

  5. Physiological measures and mental-state assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, John A.

    1988-01-01

    General considerations regarding monitoring of operators for alertness are discussed, including who should be monitored and what information should be collected. Measures that have been used to ascertain more general and persistent states of alertness are outlined, including cardiac activity, peripheral vascular activity, skin conductance, electroencephalography, pupillography, oculomotor activity, and body movements.

  6. Timeline and Approach to Standards and Assessments. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The following profiles address the basic decisions and actions that state education policy-makers--in the state departments of education, unless otherwise noted--are taking to foster successful statewide implementation of the new standards and aligned assessments in 15 states. These profiles provide a descriptive overview of each state's…

  7. Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2013-07-31

    This paper presents a parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned gradient algorithm and an orthogonal decomposition-based algorithm. The preliminary tests against a commercial Energy Management System (EMS) State Estimation (SE) tool using real-world data are performed. The results show that while the precondition gradient algorithm can solve the SE problem quicker with the help of parallel computing techniques, it might not be good for real-world data due to the large condition number of gain matrix introduced by the wide range of measurement weights. With the help of PETSc package and considering one iteration of the SE process, the orthogonal decomposition-based PSE algorithm can achieve 5-20 times speedup comparing against the commercial EMS tool. It is very promising that the developed PSE can solve the SE problem for large power systems at the SCADA rate, to improve grid reliability.

  8. Accumulation of organochlorines and mercury in flounder — an approach to pollution assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Harms, U.; Luckas, B.

    1986-12-01

    Levels of PCBs, HCB and Hg were determined in the muscle tissue of flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.), sampled at two sites of the highly industrialized Elbe estuary which is characterized by a decreasing gradient of contaminant levels in water and sediments towards the mouth of the river. The contaminant levels were compared to those found in muscle tissue of flounders caught in an unpolluted reference area, the Eider estuary. Juvenile flounders (1 2 cm total length) caught during their migration from the southern North Sea coast into the Elbe estuary in early summer showed a significantly higher level of contamination at both Elbe stations than those from the reference area. In the following spring, the flounders, having grown to a length of 12 14 cm, reflected the gradient of contaminants measured in water and sediment. However, during summer and late autumn a drastic increase in average contaminant concentration was observed in the muscle tissue of flounders taken from the less polluted estuarine site. It became evident that severe oxygen depletion in the heavily polluted area near Hamburg had provoked the migration of highly contaminated fish downstream to the less polluted sampling area; thus intermingling with the less contaminated flounder population of this region had occurred. The results obtained indicate that careful analysis of environmentally controlled behavioural patterns in the species used for monitoring purposes as well as an appropriate statistical treatment of the data gained from chemical analysis are essential for assessing the contaminant concentrations in organisms in relation to the pollution load of their habitats.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Fatigue Damage Accumulation in Wavy Slip Metals from Acoustic Harmonic Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive, analytical treatment is presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of a stress perturbation with dislocation substructures (veins and persistent slip bands) and cracks that evolve during high-cycle fatigue of wavy slip metals. The nonlinear interaction is quantified by a material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contribution to beta from the substructures is obtained from the analysis of Cantrell [Cantrell, J. H., 2004, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 460, 757]. The contribution to beta from cracks is obtained by applying the Paris law for crack propagation to the Nazarov-Sutin crack nonlinearity equation [Nazarov, V. E., and Sutin, A. M., 1997, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 3349]. The nonlinearity parameter resulting from the two contributions is predicted to increase monotonically by hundreds of percent during fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. The increase in beta during the first 80-90 percent of fatigue life is dominated by the evolution of dislocation substructures, while the last 10-20 percent is dominated by crack growth. The model is applied to the fatigue of aluminium alloy 2024-T4 in stress-controlled loading at 276MPa for which experimental data are reported. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.

  10. Assessment of heavy metals accumulation by spontaneous vegetation: Screening for new accumulator plant species grown in Kettara mine-Marrakech, Southern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Midhat, Laila; Ouazzani, Naaila; Esshaimi, Mouhsine; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Mandi, Laila

    2017-02-01

    The present paper aims to perform a screening of native plants growing in Kettara mine-Marrakech (Southern Morocco) for its phytoremediation. Plants and soil samples were collected and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations at several sites in the mine. The results showed that the soil in the vicinity of Kettara mine is deficient in major elements and contain toxic levels of metals. Spontaneously growing native plants were botanically identified and then classified into 21 species and 14 families. Significant difference was observed among the average concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) in plants (p ≤ 0.05). Six plants of 21 species namely Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin, Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagreze-Fossat, Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench, Calendula algeriensis Boiss. & Reuter, Aizoon hispanicum L. and Melilotus sulcata Desf. were considered as the best-performing specimens due to their high ability to accumulate multiple metals in their shoots and roots without sustaining toxicity. This was confirmed by the transfer factors generally higher than 1. Using the most common criteria to classify the hyperaccumulator plants, these species can be classified as new accumulator plants of many heavy metals and be potentially used as remediation tools of metal-contaminated sites.

  11. The transient accumulation of the signaling state of photoactive yellow protein is controlled by the external pH.

    PubMed

    Borucki, Berthold; Joshi, Chandra P; Otto, Harald; Cusanovich, Michael A; Heyn, Maarten P

    2006-10-15

    The signaling state of the photoreceptor photoactive yellow protein is the long-lived intermediate I(2)'. The pH dependence of the equilibrium between the transient photocycle intermediates I(2) and I(2)' was investigated. The formation of I(2)' from I(2) is accompanied by a major conformational change. The kinetics and intermediates of the photocycle and of the photoreversal were measured by transient absorption spectroscopy from pH 4.6 to 8.4. Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis of the data at pH 7 showed the presence of three spectrally distinguishable species: I(1), I(2), and I(2)'. Their spectra were determined using the extrapolated difference method. I(2) and I(2)' have electronic absorption spectra, with maxima at 370 +/- 5 and 350 +/- 5 nm, respectively. Formation of the signaling state is thus associated with a change in the environment of the protonated chromophore. The time courses of the I(1), I(2), and I(2)' intermediates were determined from the wavelength-dependent transient absorbance changes at each pH, assuming that their spectra are pH-independent. After the formation of I(2)' ( approximately 2 ms), these three intermediates are in equilibrium and decay together to the initial dark state. The equilibrium between I(2) and I(2)' is pH dependent with a pK(a) of 6.4 and with I(2)' the main species above this pK(a). Measurements of the pH dependence of the photoreversal kinetics with a second flash of 355 nm at a delay of 20 ms confirm this pK(a) value. I(2) and I(2)' are photoreversed with reversal times of approximately 55 micros and several hundred microseconds, respectively. The corresponding signal amplitudes are pH dependent with a pK(a) of approximately 6.1. Photoreversal from I(2)' dominates above the pK(a). The transient accumulation of I(2)', the active state of photoactive yellow protein, is thus controlled by the proton concentration. The rate constant k(3) for the recovery to the initial dark state also has a pK(a) of

  12. Effects of greenhouse warming and N-fertilization on carbon accumulation rates in a nutrient-poor boreal mire: decadal effects assessed using 210Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olid, Carolina; Nilsson, Mats B.; Eriksson, Tobias; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2013-04-01

    Boreal peatlands represent a major long-term reservoir of atmospheric carbon (C) and play an important role in the global C cycle. How C accumulation in these peatlands responds to changing temperature and nutrient conditions is under debate. In this study, we assessed how peat and C accumulation rates have responded to increased annual nitrogen additions (30 kg ha-1 yr-1) and increased air temperatures (+3.6°C) in the longest ongoing boreal mire manipulation experiment. Accumulation rates for the uppermost 40 cm of peat in nitrogen and temperature treated plots (n=11) were assessed by 210Pb dating covering the last ~100yrs. A reference surface, installed in 1995 was used as independent validation of the dating model. An empirically based model of organic matter accumulation/degradation was applied to evaluate changes in both peat inputs and organic matter decay rates in response to the treatments. A significant increase in C-accumulation (15 g C m-2 yr-1) was observed in peat subjected to nitrogen additions, while greenhouse warming did not seem to significantly affect C-accumulation or decay rates. Based on our findings we argue that C-accumulation in nutrient poor boreal mires is mainly altered in near-surface peat layers (~15 cm) in response to nitrogen additions and that the uppermost peat layers (<40 cm) in nutrient poor boreal peatlands will continue to function as net C-sinks during the first decades of global warming.

  13. Corpora and Language Assessment: The State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the current state of and recent developments in the use of corpora for language assessment and considers future directions with a special focus on computational methodology. Because corpora began to make inroads into language assessment in the 1990s, test developers have increasingly used them as a reference resource to…

  14. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, Walt; Heimiller, Donna; Beiter, Philipp; Scott, George; Draxl, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  15. Proficiency Guidance on New State Summative Assessments from NWEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) computer adaptive interim assessments serve many purposes, from informing instruction to identifying students for intervention to projecting proficiency on state accountability assessments. To make sure its flagship product does the latter, Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) routinely conducts studies…

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  17. The Next Generation of State Assessment and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert; Marion, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot program in New Hampshire models innovative ways creating and applying state assessments and educator accountability. A study of New Hampshire's new system, which has already received approval by the U.S. Department of Education under a waiver from NCLB, finds some positive results and also suggests challenges states might face in putting…

  18. SC State Profile. South Carolina: High School Assessment Program (HSAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about South Carolina's High School Assessment Program. The purpose of the test is to: (1) Demonstrate students' achievement based on selected South Carolina academic standards; (2) Provide data to state policymakers on student attainment of state education goals to inform educational policy decisions; and (3) Meet a…

  19. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... multiple up-to-date measures of student academic achievement, including measures that assess higher-order thinking skills and understanding of challenging content, as defined by the State. These measures may... challenging academic content and student academic achievement standards. (ii) If a State has...

  20. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mathematics, reading/language arts and, beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science. (2)(i) The State may... thinking skills and understanding of challenging content, as defined by the State. These measures may..., knowledge, and skills without evaluating or assessing personal or family beliefs and attitudes, except...

  1. State Alternate Assessments: Status as IDEA Alternate Assessment Requirements Take Effect. Synthesis Report 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    An online survey investigated the development of alternate assessments for students with disabilities who cannot participate in state and district-wide assessment programs. Responses from all 50 states, American Samoa, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Marshall Islands, Virgin Islands, and Washington, D.C. found there is a divergence in who is involved in…

  2. Low temperature-induced viable but not culturable state of Ralstonia eutropha and its relationship to accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Nowroth, Verena; Marquart, Lisa; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The culturability of Escherichia coli, Ralstonia eutropha and Bacillus subtilis after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline at either 5°C or 30°C was determined. The culturability of B. subtilis showed little dependence on temperature. The culturability of E. coli rapidly decreased at 30°C but remained almost constant at 5°C. In contrast, the culturability of R. eutropha decreased by three orders of magnitude at 5°C within 24 h but only moderately decreased (one order of magnitude) at 30°C. Remarkably, prolonged incubation of R. eutropha at 30°C resulted in a full recovery of colony forming units in contrast to only a partial recovery at 5°C. Ralstonia eutropha cells at 30°C remained culturable for 3 weeks while culturability at 5°C constantly decreased. The effect of temperature was significantly stronger in a polyhydroxybutyrate-negative mutant. Our data show that accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate has a cold-protective function and can prevent R. eutropha entering the viable but not culturable state. PMID:27810883

  3. Assessing Outcomes of Higher Education in Colorado: Initial Library Participation in State Legislature Mandated Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Mary L.; And Others

    In response to a state mandate, the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) created an administrative structure, the University Assessment Committee (UAC), to assess the institution's educational merit. Representing the university library was the University Library Assessment Committee (ULAC). The ULAC used two surveys, one for faculty and one for…

  4. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2017-01-18

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey assessment concepts for conventional petroleum accumulations: Chapter 24 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Klett, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional petroleum accumulations are discrete fields or pools localized in structural or stratigraphic traps by the buoyancy of oil or gas in water; they float, bubble-like, in water. This report describes the fundamental concepts supporting the U.S. Geological Survey “Seventh Approximation” model for resource assessments of conventional accumulations. The Seventh Approximation provides a strategy for estimating volumes of undiscovered petroleum (oil, gas, and coproducts) having the potential to be added to reserves in a 30-year forecast span. The assessment of an area requires (1) choice of a minimum accumulation size, (2) assignment of geologic and access risk, and (3) estimation of the number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations in the assessment area. The combination of these variables yields probability distributions for potential additions to reserves. Assessment results are controlled by geology-based input parameters supplied by knowledgeable geologists, as opposed to projections of historical trends.

  6. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  7. Assessing cadmium and vanadium accumulation using diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) and phytoplankton in the Churchill River estuary, Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Mangal, V; Zhu, Y; Shi, Y X; Guéguen, C

    2016-11-01

    Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) and phytoplankton communities were evaluated for the measurement of Cd and V at environmentally relevant concentrations in laboratory settings and in the Churchill River estuary (Manitoba, Canada) during an annual spring melt. Despite rapid changes in hydrology and water quality, DGT samplers and intracellular Cd and V concentrations were positively correlated (0.79 < r(2) < 0.99), suggesting comparable accumulation trends between both DGT-labile and intracellular monitoring techniques. The largest accumulated concentrations of both Cd and V by DGT and phytoplankton accumulation methods were found later into the river discharge period. In controlled settings, accumulated Cd and V concentrations by the diatom Attheya septentrionalis displayed a strong correlation with metals accumulated by DGTs (r(2) > 0.99). Principal component analysis (PCA) reinforced similarities between both metal monitoring techniques and assessed how changing environmental variables during the river discharge period influenced each monitoring technique. Cd accumulation was influenced by DOC concentrations and protein-like DOM whereas ionic strength (i.e. conductivity) and humic-like DOM influenced V accumulation. The present findings suggest that (1) DGT is a versatile tool for monitoring bioaccumulation of Cd and V in highly dynamic environmental systems and (2) DOC concentration, DOM composition, conductivity, pH, and river discharge influence the bioavailability of Cd and V in estuarine and riverine waters.

  8. Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in South Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Boularbah, Ali; Schwartz, Christophe; Bitton, Gabriel; Aboudrar, Wafae; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Morel, Jean Louis

    2006-05-01

    Metalliferous soils cover a relatively large surface area in Morocco, and up to now no hyperaccumulating plants have been identified on these mining or these industrial sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in three mining areas in southern Morocco with the ultimate goal of finding metal hyperaccumulating species by using the MetPAD biotest. The biotest helps to obtain information on the selective metal toxicity of aqueous extracts from the plants. A strong metal toxicity, as revealed by the biotest is an indication of a hyperaccumulating plant. Toxicity tests were run concurrently with chemicals analyses of metals in plants and their water extracts. The chemical analyses allow the determination of the hyperaccumulated metal(s). Specimens of the plant species mainly growing on and in the vicinity of the three mines were sampled with their corresponding soils. The results show that all plants analyzed had lower heavy metal content and toxicity despite the relatively very high soil concentrations. A comparison of our results with the criterion used to classify the hyperaccumulator plants indicates that plants we collected from mining sites were hypertolerant but not hyperaccumulators. This was confirmed by transfer factors generally lower than 1. Nevertheless, these tolerant plants species can be used as tools for revegetation for erosion control in metals-contaminated sites (phytostabilization).

  9. Assessment of epidemiology capacity in State Health Departments - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-12-18

    Since 2001, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) periodically has conducted a standardized national assessment of state health departments' core epidemiology capacity. During April-June 2009, CSTE sent a web-based questionnaire to the state epidemiologist in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The assessment inquired into workforce capacity and technological advancements to support surveillance. Measures of capacity included total number of epidemiologists and self-assessment of the state's ability to carry out four essential services of public health (ESPH). This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which determined that in 2009, 10% fewer epidemiologists were working in state health departments than in 2006. Compared with 2006, the percentage of state health departments with substantial-to-full (>50%) epidemiology capacity decreased in three ESPH, including 1) capacities to monitor and detect health problems, 2) investigate them, and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of population-based services. The percentage of departments with substantial-to-full epidemiology capacity for bioterrorism/emergency response decreased slightly, from 76% in 2006 to 73% in 2009. More than 30% of states reported minimal-to-no (<25%) capacity to evaluate and conduct research and for five of nine epidemiology program areas, including environmental health, injury, occupational health, oral health, and substance abuse. Working together, federal, state, and local agencies should develop a strategy to address downward trends and major gaps in epidemiology capacity.

  10. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  11. Accumulation of policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface litter and soils in four forests in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Perlinger, J. A.; Zielinska, B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic material, both from natural or anthropogenic sources. Once emitted, they can be transported across thousands of kilometers impacting remote environments. Here, we characterize the distribution of 23 PAHs and 9 oxygenated PAHs (Σ32PAH) in litter and soils in four remote forests in the United States. Concentrations of Σ32PAH in fresh surface litter (Oi layers) showed very low levels in three of the four forests (mixed coniferous forest in Maine, deciduous blue oak forest in California, and a coniferous forest in Washington State), with PAHs levels much lower than those reported in previous studies from Europe. The analysis showed that PAHs represented a mix of regional background sources. Highest PAH levels were observed in a coniferous forest floor in Florida, attributable to frequent prescribed burning of understory vegetation at this site, and supported by high contributions of retene (>7%; compared to <1% at other sites). Σ32PAH increased in deeper, more decomposed organic litter layers, increasing from 57±19 ng g-1 (in Oi layer) to 511± 285 ng g-1 in decomposed, humidified litter layers (Oe and Oa horizons). In mineral soils, Σ32PAH were over an order of magnitude lower (average 37±8 ng g-1), which was attributed to higher bulk densities of mineral soils. However, standardized per unit of organic carbon (OC), Σ32PAH:OC ratios in mineral soils also were below levels observed in overlying litter, indicating a strong sorption capacity of organic horizons for atmospheric deposition. Within mineral soils, Σ32PAH:OC ratios increased with depth (Ah horizons: 750±198 ng g-1; B horizons: 1,202±97 ng g-1), indicating that vertical transfer in mineral soils leads to significant accumulation of PAH in subsoils. ΣPAH:OC increases observed in deeper soil layers may be attributed to slower mineralization rates of PAHs compared to OC, plus

  12. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    PubMed

    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide

  13. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  14. Map of assessed shale gas in the United States, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale-gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012 as part of the National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered gas within shale-gas assessment units. These shale-gas assessment units are mapped, and square-mile cells are shown to represent proprietary shale-gas wells. The square-mile cells include gas-producing wells from shale intervals. In some cases, shale-gas formations contain gas in deeper parts of a basin and oil at shallower depths (for example, the Woodford Shale and the Eagle Ford Shale). Because a discussion of shale oil is beyond the scope of this report, only shale-gas assessment units and cells are shown. The map can be printed as a hardcopy map or downloaded for interactive analysis in a Geographic Information System data package using the ArcGIS map document (file extension MXD) and published map file (file extension PMF). Also available is a publications access table with hyperlinks to current U.S. Geological Survey shale gas assessment publications and web pages. Assessment results and geologic reports are available as completed at the U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program Web Site, http://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx. A historical perspective of shale gas activity in the United States is documented and presented in a video clip included as a PowerPoint slideshow.

  15. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thinking skills and understanding of challenging content, as defined by the State. These measures may..., knowledge, and skills without evaluating or assessing personal or family beliefs and attitudes, except that... status; (iv) Migrant status as defined in Title I, part C of the Elementary and Secondary Education...

  16. Annual Performance Reports: 2002-2003 State Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Moen, Ross E.; Wiley, Hilda I.

    2005-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before March 31, 2004. These reports contained information on a variety of indicators, including assessment participation and performance…

  17. Forum on Common Language for States and Assessment Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren S.; Thurlow, M.; Christensen, L.; Shyyan, V.; Lazarus, S.; Chartrand, A.

    2016-01-01

    More than 80 individuals representing staff from state departments of education, school districts, other countries, testing and testing-related companies, and other educational organizations participated in a forum on June 20, 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to discuss the need for common accessibility language across assessment platforms. The…

  18. State Writing Assessment: Inclusion of Motivational Factors in Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Zheng, Jinjie; Morlock, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated large-scale state writing assessments for the inclusion of motivational characteristics in the writing task and written prompt. We identified 6 motivational variables from the authentic activity literature: time allocation, audience specification, audience intimacy, definition of task, allowance for multiple perspectives, and…

  19. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  20. Student Outcomes Assessment: What Makes it Work? Assessment Practices & Experiences in the California State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Inst. for Teaching and Learning.

    This monograph is a collection of papers that emerged from a project evaluating the implementation of college outcomes assessment at the campuses of the California State University (CSU) system. Fifteen pilot projects integrated their outcomes assessment in the academic majors and in general education from 1986 to 1990 and the projects were then…

  1. Assessing Outside the Bubble: Performance Assessment for Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jesica M.; Bristow, Lora J.; Coriell, Bryn P.; Jensen, Mark E.; Johnson, Leif E.; Luring, Sara R.; Lyons-Tinsley, Mary Ann; Mefford, Megan M.; Neu, Gwen L.; Samulski, Emerson T.; Warner, Timothy D.; White, Mathew F.

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of Common Core State Standards has increased the need for assessments capable of measuring more performance-based outcomes. This monograph brings together the current literature and resources for the development and implementation of performance assessment. The text was written as part of a project-based graduate course and has…

  2. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources; results, methodology, and supporting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, G.L.; Takahashi, K.I.; Varnes, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the Minerals Management Service. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  3. 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Varnes, Katharine L.

    1996-01-01

    This revised CD-ROM summarizes the results, released in 1995, of the 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. Minor errors in the original DDS-30 (listed in DDS-35 and DDS-36) are corrected in this revised version and in the data files now released in DDS-35 and DDS-36. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  4. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  5. Assessing Compliance with United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no exceptions or special considerations for CubeSats in the United States Government (USG) Orbital Debris (OD) Mitigation Guidelines. For all objects launched into space the 2010 United States Space Policy requires that any failure to comply with the USG OD Mitigation Guidelines requires approval by the head of the launching agency. In addition it requires that the US Secretary of State be notified of any non-compliance. For these reasons it is important that missions consider these policies during their design phase. This paper will discuss methods to assess compliance with USG OD mitigation guidelines as they apply to CubeSat missions using tools such as the NASA Debris Assessment Software (DAS).

  6. State Versus Trait: Validating State Assessment of Child and Parental Catastrophic Thinking About Children's Acute Pain.

    PubMed

    Durand, Hannah; Birnie, Kathryn A; Noel, Melanie; Vervoort, Tine; Goubert, Liesbet; Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; Caes, Line

    2017-04-01

    Pain catastrophizing has emerged as one of the most robust predictors of child pain outcomes. Although assessments of state (ie, situation-specific) pain catastrophizing in children and parents are often used, their psychometric properties are unknown. This study aimed to assess factor structure, reliability, and predictive validity of state versions of Pain Catastrophizing Scales for children and parents relative to corresponding trait versions for child and parental pain-related outcomes. Data were pooled from 8 experimental pain studies in which child and/or parent state catastrophizing (measured immediately before application of a pain stimulus) and trait catastrophizing were assessed in community-based samples of children aged 8 to 18 years (N = 689) and their parents (N = 888) in Dutch or English. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to examine the underlying factor structure of the state versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for parents/children, revealing a single factor solution that explained 55.53% of the variance for children and 49.72% for parents. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine relative influence of state versus trait catastrophizing on child and parent pain-related outcomes. Child and parent state catastrophizing were significantly associated with child pain intensity, child state anxiety and parental distress. State catastrophizing scores showed stronger associations than trait scores for most outcomes.

  7. Assessment of epidemiology capacity in state health departments - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Lampkins, Rebecca; Lemmings, Jennifer; Lichtenstein, Meredith; Huang, Monica; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-04-17

    Since 2001, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) periodically has conducted a standardized national assessment of state health departments' core epidemiology capacity (1-4). During August-September 2013, CSTE sent a web-based questionnaire to state epidemiologists in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The questionnaire inquired into workforce capacity and technology advancements to support public health surveillance. Measures of capacity included the total number of epidemiologists, a self-assessment of the state's ability to carry out four of the 10 essential public health services* most relevant to epidemiologists, and program-specific epidemiology capacity. This report summarizes the results, which indicated that in 2013, most of these measures were at their highest level since assessments began in 2001, including the number of epidemiologists, the percentage of state health departments with substantial-to-full (>50%) capacity for three of the 10 essential public health services, and the percentage with substantial-to-full epidemiology capacity for eight of 10 program areas. However, >50% of states reported minimal-to-no (<25%) epidemiology capacity for four of 10 program areas, including occupational health (55%), oral health (59%), substance abuse (73%), and mental health (80%). Federal, state, and local agencies should work together to develop a strategy to address continued outstanding gaps in epidemiology capacity.

  8. Proposal for a state health technology assessment program.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Phil

    2012-08-01

    Evidence suggests that a significant number of medical technologies are of little or no benefit to patients. Under current budgetary pressures, state health care programs cannot afford continued spending on unnecessary medical care without further cuts in enrollment. Limiting coverage of high-tech care only to indications supported by good clinical evidence would help save state health care dollars. However, there is currently no public process to formally evaluate new medical interventions in Wisconsin. In fact, new therapies often are introduced into clinical practice, and covered by state health insurance programs, even when there is weak or questionable evidence of clinical effectiveness. This article proposes the creation of a state Health Technology Assessment program in Wisconsin to systematically evaluate new tests or treatments, and to promote evidence-based coverage decisions. Such a program would help limit wasteful spending on unnecessary technologies, reinforce good clinical practice, and protect patients from the risks of interventions that have not been proven effective.

  9. Clofazimine Biocrystal Accumulation in Macrophages Upregulates Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Production To Induce a Systemic Anti-Inflammatory State

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gi S.; Keswani, Rahul K.; Sud, Sudha; Rzeczycki, Phillip M.; Murashov, Mikhail D.; Koehn, Tony A.; Standiford, Theodore J.

    2016-01-01

    Clofazimine (CFZ) is a poorly soluble antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of leprosy. In spite of its therapeutic value, CFZ therapy is accompanied by the formation of drug biocrystals that accumulate within resident tissue macrophages, without obvious toxicological manifestations. Therefore, to specifically elucidate the off-target consequences of drug bioaccumulation in macrophages, we compared the level of inflammasome activation in CFZ-accumulating organs (spleen, liver and lung) in mice after 2 and 8 weeks of CFZ treatment when the drug exists in soluble and insoluble (biocrystalline) forms, respectively. Surprisingly, the results showed a drastic reduction in caspase 1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) cleavage in the livers of mice treated with CFZ for 8 weeks (8-week-CFZ-treated mice) compared to 2-week-CFZ-treated and control mice, which was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in hepatic IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) production and a 21-fold increase in serum IL-1RA levels. In the lung and spleen, IL-1β cleavage and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression were unaffected by soluble or biocrystal CFZ forms. Functionally, there was a drastic reduction of carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the footpads and lungs, respectively, of 8-week-CFZ-treated mice. This immunomodulatory activity of CFZ biocrystal accumulation was attributable to the upregulation of IL-1RA, since CFZ accumulation had minimal effect in IL-1RA knockout mice or 2-week-CFZ-treated mice. In conclusion, CFZ accumulation and biocrystal formation in resident tissue macrophages profoundly altered the host's immune system and prompted an IL-1RA-dependent, systemic anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27021320

  10. Volcanic ashfall accumulation and loading on gutters and pitched roofs from laboratory empirical experiments: Implications for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, S. J.; Cole, J. W.; Wilson, G.; Wilson, T. M.; Broom, S.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanic ash load is dependent on the migration and accumulation of ash on roofing surfaces and guttering, of which limited research has been conducted. This study investigates this knowledge gap through the empirical experimental testing of volcanic ash on variably pitched metal sheet roofs with modern PVC gutter systems, highlighting the relative importance of accumulation, migration, remobilization, saturation, and subsequent load. A testing rig delivered ash onto variably pitched roofs (pitches 15°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 45°) with two 45° tests involving a wet surface with subsequent ashfall, and the second of ashfall with periods of wetting, followed by wetting until failure. In testing, dry ash on a dry roof accumulates at pitches up to 35°, above this pitch the percentage of ash accumulating reduces with greater percentages infilling guttering and or lost to the ground. With the introduction of a wet roof surface at 45° pitch, adherence of dry ash greatly increases, increasing accumulated ash thickness as compared to dry tests from 8% to 38%. For testing involving periods of wetting at 45° roof pitch, accumulation percentages further increased to 50%. Ash migrating from the roof surface filled guttering more rapidly at greater pitches, which once full resulted in further migrating ash to spill over the front or back gutter lips. Collapse of guttering did not occur during testing, but deformation and bracket detachment did occur at loads > 1 kPa. This study provides data on load calculations on roofing and PVC guttering through the quantification and utilization of relationships between ash fate, pitch, and the influence of water, in the development of two scenarios for both roof and gutter. These two scenarios then enable the estimation of ash accumulation and thus the load and collapse thresholds for roof and gutter at different roof pitch, which could be adopted for volcanic risk modeling or risk management.

  11. Cadmium Accumulation Characteristics in Turnip Landraces from China and Assessment of Their Phytoremediation Potential for Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Ya; Li, Boqun; Wu, Yuansheng; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution is a global environmental problem that threatens ecosystem and human health. Cadmium (Cd) pollution is the most prominent HM pollution type because of its high toxicity, strong migration, and the large polluted area globally. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil is frequently practiced because of its cost-effectiveness and operability and because it has no associated secondary pollution. High-accumulation plants, including those identified as hyperaccumulators, play an important role in phytoremediation. Therefore, screening of plants to identify hyperaccumulators is important for continued phytoremediation. In the present study, we investigated the Cd tolerance and accumulation capabilities of 18 turnip landraces from China under a soil experiment with known Cd level. The results indicated that turnip has a high capacity for Cd accumulation. Furthermore, significant differences in Cd tolerance and accumulation characteristics were found among different landraces when they grew at 50 mg kg-1 (dry weight) Cd concentration. Among the studied landraces, five turnip landraces met the requirements of Cd hyperaccumulators and three landraces were identified as potential candidates. However, the total Cd content accumulated by individual plant of different turnip landraces was dependent on both the Cd accumulation capacity and plant biomass. Compared with some reported Cd hyperaccumulators, turnip not only shows a high Cd-accumulation capacity but also has rapid growth and a wide distribution area. These advantages indicate that turnip may have considerable potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Furthermore, the study also indicates that it is not advisable to consume turnip cultivated in an environment that exceeds safe Cd levels. PMID:28018398

  12. Accumulation of as, pb, and cu associated with the recent sedimentary processes in the colorado delta, South of the United States-Mexico boundary.

    PubMed

    Daesslé, L W; Lugo-Ibarra, K C; Tobschall, H J; Melo, M; Gutiérrez-Galindo, E A; García-Hernández, J; Alvarez, L G

    2009-05-01

    Sediment cores from the Colorado River (CR) remnant delta were used to assess the changing sedimentation and pollutant deposition processes in response to extensive human manipulation of the river. The cores are formed of alternating layers of clays and silts, with isolated sandy horizons. The clayey units are interpreted as periods of flood flows into this low gradient and meandering estuary after dam construction in the United States. The geochemistry of these sediments is particular because of the association of MnO with CaO rather than with the Fe(2)O(3)-rich clays. Past pollution of the CR delta by As, and probably also Pb and Cu, is recorded in some cores. Enrichment factors (EFs) >1 for these elements and their statistical association suggest anthropogenic inputs. The most likely sources for these element enrichments (especially As) are the arsenate-based pesticides used intensively in the area during the first half of the 20th century. The transport of these elements from the nearby agricultural lands into the present river reaches appears to have been driven in part by flooding events of the CR. Flushing by river and tide flows appear to be responsible of a lower pollutant deposition in the CR compared to the adjacent Hardy River (HR). Arsenic in the buried clay units of the HR has concentrations above the probable toxic effect level (PEL) for dwelling organisms, with maximum concentrations of 30 microg g(-1). Excess (210)Pb activities ((210)Pb(xs)) indicate that fluxes of this unsupported atmospheric isotope were not constant in this estuarine environment. However, the presence of (210)Pb(xs) does indicate that these sediments accumulated during the last ~100 years. Aproximate sediment ages were estimated from the correlation of historic flooding events with the interpretation of the stratigraphic record. They are in fair agreement with the reported onset of DDT metabolites at the bottom of one core.

  13. Consequences of Advanced Glycation End Products Accumulation in Chronic Kidney Disease and Clinical Usefulness of Their Assessment Using a Non-invasive Technique - Skin Autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Oleniuc, Mihaela; Secara, Irina; Onofriescu, Mihai; Hogas, Simona; Voroneanu, Luminita; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Accelerated formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products occur under circumstances of increased supply of substrates such as hyperglycaemic or oxidative stress and in age-related and chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoarthritis and also non-diabetic atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. Advanced glycation end-products accumulation occurs especially on long-lived proteins such as collagen in the skin and in vascular basement membranes leading to vascular damage. Adequate renal clearance capacity is an important factor in the effective removal of advanced glycation end-products. The Autofluorescence Reader was developed as a marker, representative for tissue advanced glycation end-products accumulation, easily applicable in a clinical setting, initially for predicting diabetes related complications. Studies have already shown a relationship between skin autofluorescence and diabetes complications, as well as its predictive value for total and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes. Moreover skin autofluorescence was demonstrated to be superior to Haemoglobin A1c and other conventional risk factors. Advanced glycation end-products have been proposed as a novel factor involved in the development and progression of chronic heart failure. Assessment of advanced glycation end-products accumulation in end-stage renal disease and undergoing renal replacement therapies patients has become of great importance. Cardiovascular and connective tissue disorders are very common in patients with end-stage renal disease, and the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products is significantly increased in these patients. Mortality is markedly increased in patients with decreased kidney function, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. Skin advanced glycation end-products levels are strong predictors of survival in haemodialysis patients independent of other established risk factors

  14. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  15. In vitro analysis of photosensitizer accumulation for assessment of applicability of fluorescence diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of epidermolysis bullosa patients.

    PubMed

    Larisch, Patrick; Verwanger, Thomas; Onder, Kamil; Krammer, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by blistering following mechanical trauma. Chronic wounds of EB patients often lead to tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Early diagnosis may prevent its invasive growth--frequently the reason of premature mortality of EB-patients. Early detection of tumors is achieved by fluorescence diagnosis (FD), where photosensitizers localize selectively in tumors and fluoresce upon illumination. Excessive accumulation of photosensitizers in inflamed areas, as occasionally found at chronic wounds and tumors due to inflammatory processes, leads to false-positive results in FD. This study analyzed accumulation kinetics of the photosensitizers hypericin and endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in different skin cell lines including the three EB subtypes under normal and proinflammatory conditions (stimulated with TNF-alpha). The aim was to assess the applicability of FD of SCC in EB. All cell lines accumulate hypericin or PpIX mostly increasing with incubation time, but with different kinetics. SCC cells of recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB) accumulate less hypericin or PpIX than nonmalignant RDEB cells. Nevertheless, tumor selectivity in vivo might be existent. Non-EB cell lines are more active concerning photosensitizer enrichment. Proinflammatory conditions of skin cell lines seem to have no major influence on photosensitizer accumulation.

  16. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  17. Assessment Opt-Out Policies: State Responses to Parent Pushback. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie; Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    With new state assessments kicking into full swing across the country, schools are seeing more and more parents wanting to opt out their children. Determining whether states allow assessment opt-outs can be complex and is constantly evolving. In some states the answer is clear: State policies either allow or prohibit state assessment opt-outs, or…

  18. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for New Mexico. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  19. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Indiana. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  20. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Guam. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Herr, Fiona; Ballator, Nada

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  1. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Alabama. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  2. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for North Carolina. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  3. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Colorado. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  4. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Texas. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  5. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Nevada. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  6. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Wyoming. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  7. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Maine. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  8. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Florida. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  9. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for New Hampshire. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  10. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Mississippi. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  11. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for West Virginia. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  12. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Georgia. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  13. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Wisconsin. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  14. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Hawaii. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  15. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Arizona. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  16. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Connecticut. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  17. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Delaware. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  18. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Kentucky. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  19. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Tennessee. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  20. Access Assistants for State Assessments: A Study of State Guidelines for Scribes, Readers, and Sign Language Interpreters. Synthesis Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapper, Ann T.; Morse, Amanda B.; Thompson, Sandra J.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2005-01-01

    For several years, states have listed accommodations allowed on state assessments. States soon found that the definitions of these accommodations varied not only across states, but also within states and even in schools. Over the past few years, states have made greater attempts to define each accommodation and to decide whether the accommodation…

  1. Feature Detection for Model Assessment in State Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-15

    Gong Combat Control Systems Department S. C. Nardone University of Massachusetts Dartmouth DTICS ELECTE JUL 141992 DlNA Naval Underwater Systems...Assessment in State Estimation .AUTHOR(S) D. J. Ferkinhoff S. C. Nardone * J. G. Baylog K. F. Gong 7. PERFORLMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES...VA 22203 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES *S. C. Nardone is affiliated with the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747. 12

  2. Clinical study assessing the photosensitizer accumulation and light penetration for esophageal cancer prior to treatment by PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargo, Paulo R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2001-07-01

    The FDA has approved PDT using Photofrin for certain esophageal and lung cancers, specifying an approved prescription of administered drug (mg/kg body weight) and administered light (J/linear cm of cylindrical fiber). This paper describes our development of a multi-optical fiber catheter for endoscopic use which documents the drug accumulated in the target tissues and the light penetration into the target tissues. The catheter uses reflectance to specify the light penetration depth and uses reflectance- corrected fluorescence to document drug accumulation. The goal is to document the variation in drug and light received by patients who are administered the FDA-approved prescription.

  3. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    PubMed

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors.

  4. Automatic Severity Assessment of Dysarthria using State-Specific Vectors.

    PubMed

    Sriranjani, R; Umesh, S; Reddy, M Ramasubba

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to assess the severity of the dysarthria using state-specific vector (SSV) of phone-cluster adaptive training (phone-CAT) acoustic modeling technique is proposed. The dominant component of the SSV represents the actual pronunciations of a speaker. Comparing the dominant component for unimpaired and each dysarthric speaker, a phone confusion matrix is formed. The diagonal elements of the matrix capture the number of correct pronunciations for each dysarthric speaker. As the degree of impairment increases, the number of phones correctly pronounced by the speaker decreases. Thus the trace of the confusion matrix can be used as objective cue to assess di?erent severity levels of dysarthria based on a threshold rule. Our proposed objective measure correlates with the standard Frenchay dysarthric assessment scores by 74 % on Nemours database. The measure also correlates with the intelligibility scores by 82 % on universal access dysarthric speech database.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  6. A State-by-State Assessment of Food Service Regulations for Prevention of Norovirus Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Gould, L Hannah; Sharp, Donald; Brown, Laura G; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-09-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. Foodborne transmission of norovirus is often associated with contamination of food during preparation by an infected food worker. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Food Code provides model food safety regulations for preventing transmission of foodborne disease in restaurants; however, adoption of specific provisions is at the discretion of state and local governments. We analyzed the food service regulations of all 50 states and the District of Columbia (i.e., 51 states) to describe differences in adoption of norovirus-related Food Code provisions into state food service regulations. We then assessed potential correlations between adoption of these regulations and characteristics of foodborne norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System from 2009 through 2014. Of the 51 states assessed, all (100%) required food workers to wash their hands, and 39 (76%) prohibited bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Thirty states (59%) required exclusion of staff with vomiting and diarrhea until 24 h after cessation of symptoms. Provisions requiring a certified food protection manager (CFPM) and a response plan for contamination events (i.e., vomiting) were least commonly adopted; 26 states (51%) required a CFPM, and 8 (16%) required a response plan. Although not statistically significant, states that adopted the provisions prohibiting bare-hand contact (0.45 versus 0.74, P =0.07), requiring a CFPM (0.38 versus 0.75, P =0.09), and excluding ill staff for ≥24 h after symptom resolution (0.44 versus 0.73, P =0.24) each reported fewer foodborne norovirus outbreaks per million person-years than did those states without these provisions. Adoption and compliance with federal recommended food service regulations may decrease the incidence of foodborne norovirus outbreaks.

  7. Effectiveness of Repeat Angiographic Assessment in Patients Designated for Radioembolization Using Yttrium-90 Microspheres With Initial Extrahepatic Accumulation of Technitium-99m Macroaggregated Albumin: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dudeck, Oliver Wilhelmsen, Skadi; Ulrich, Gerhard; Loewenthal, David; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a workflow consisting of repeat assessment in patients planned for yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization in case of nontarget visceral technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) accumulation despite initial prophylactic coil embolization of nonhepatic arteries. Materials and Methods: In 341 patients with primary and secondary liver cancer, pretreatment hepatic angiograms, as well as single-photon emission computed tomography coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans, were obtained. Extrahepatic tracer deposition was identified in 33 patients (9.7%) necessitating repeat assessment. Images were reviewed to correlate the site of MAA accumulation with causative gastrointestinal vessels, and repeat angiograms served as reference standard. Results: At repeat angiography, the source of extrahepatic flow was identified and eliminated in 31 of 33 patients (93.9%). In 20 patients (60.6%), successful embolization of nontarget vessels was achieved, in 13 patients (39.4%), MAA was administered more distally. Afterward, extrahepatic MAA deposition was eliminated in 30 patients (90.9%). Conclusion: The algorithm of repeat assessment in case of extrahepatic MAA accumulation has proven highly effective to eliminate extrahepatic shunting, thus decreasing the risk of postradioembolization complications due to inadvertent visceral microsphere deposition.

  8. Assessment and application of a snowblow modelling approach for identifying enhanced snow accumulation in areas of former glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie; Smith, Michael; Le Brocq, Anne; Ardakova, Ekaterina; Hillier, John; Boston, Clare

    2016-04-01

    The redistribution of snow by wind can play an important role in providing additional mass to the surface of glaciers and can, therefore, have an impact on the glacier's surface mass balance. In areas of marginal glaciation, this local topo-climatic effect may be prove crucial for the initiation and survival of glaciers, whilst it can also increase heterogeneity in the distribution of snow on ice caps and ice sheets. We present a newly developed snowblow model which calculates spatial variations in relative snow accumulation that result from variations in topography. We apply this model to areas of former marginal glaciation in the Brecon Beacons, Wales and an area of former plateau icefield glaciation in the Monadhliath, Scotland. We can then determine whether redistribution by snow can help explain variations in the estimated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) of these former glaciers. Specifically, we compare the areas where snow is modelled as accumulating, to the reconstructed glacier surface, which is based on mapped moraines believed to be of Younger Dryas age. The model is applied to 30 m resolution DEMs and potential snow accumulation is simulated from different wind directions in order to determine the most likely contributing sector. Total snow accumulation in sub-set areas is then calculated and compared to the reconstructed glacier area. The results suggest that areas with larger amounts of snow accumulation often correspond with those where the ELA is lower than surrounding glaciers and vice versa, in both the marginal and icefield setting, suggesting that the role of snowblow in supplying additional mass to the surface of glaciers is significant.

  9. Measurement of snow interception and canopy effects on snow accumulation and melt in a mountainous maritime climate, Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Bolton, Susan M.

    2002-11-01

    The results of a 3 year field study to observe the processes controlling snow interception by forest canopies and under canopy snow accumulation and ablation in mountain maritime climates are reported. The field study was further intended to provide data to develop and test models of forest canopy effects on beneath-canopy snowpack accumulation and melt and the plot and stand scales. Weighing lysimeters, cut-tree experiments, and manual snow surveys were deployed at a site in the Umpqua National Forest, Oregon (elevation 1200 m). A unique design for a weighing lysimeter was employed that allowed continuous measurements of snowpack evolution beneath a forest canopy to be taken at a scale unaffected by variability in canopy throughfall. Continuous observations of snowpack evolution in large clearings were made coincidentally with the canopy measurements. Large differences in snow accumulation and ablation were observed at sites beneath the forest canopy and in large clearings. These differences were not well described by simple relationships between the sites. Over the study period, approximately 60% of snowfall was intercepted by the canopy (up to a maximum of about 40 mm water equivalent). Instantaneous sublimation rates exceeded 0.5 mm per hour for short periods. However, apparent average sublimation from the intercepted snow was less than 1 mm per day and totaled approximately 100 mm per winter season. Approximately 72 and 28% of the remaining intercepted snow was removed as meltwater drip and large snow masses, respectively. Observed differences in snow interception rate and maximum snow interception capacity between Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), white fir (Abies concolor), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) were minimal.

  10. State-Level Cancer Quality Assessment and Research

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Joseph; Gillespie, Theresa W.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the Institute of Medicine called for a national cancer data system in the United States to support quality-of-care assessment and improvement, including research on effective interventions. Although considerable progress has been achieved in cancer quality measurement and effectiveness research, the nation still lacks a population-based data infrastructure for accurately identifying cancer patients and tracking services and outcomes over time. For compelling reasons, the most effective pathway forward may be the development of state-level cancer data systems, in which central registry data are linked to multiple public and private secondary sources. These would include administrative/claims files from Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers. Moreover, such a state-level system would promote rapid learning by encouraging adoption of near-real-time reporting and feedback systems, such as the Commission on Cancer’s new Rapid Quality Reporting System. The groundwork for such a system is being laid in the state of Georgia, and similar work is advancing in other states. The pace of progress depends on the successful resolution of issues related to the application of information technology, financing, and governance. PMID:21799333

  11. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Condition in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustini, John M.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2009-09-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, later amended by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977, it tasked the newly created U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the states, with periodically assessing the quality of U.S. waters and reporting on progress toward meeting the goals of the CWA. In subsequent decades, reviews by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations consistently have found available water quality data and reporting to be inadequate to evaluate the nation's progress [Shapiro et al., 2008]. In response to these concerns, in 1989 EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to develop and demonstrate scientific tools to monitor the status of, and trends in, U.S. aquatic resources and environmental stressors affecting them. Recent EPA-led efforts involve monitoring wadeable perennial streams (streams or rivers shallow enough to be wadeable during seasonal low flows), which make up an estimated 90% of the total length of all perennial flowing waters in the United States [EPA, 2006]. Selected results from the first national survey of these streams, the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) [EPA, 2006; Paulsen et al., 2008], illustrate how such surveys can provide critical information to guide management of this important resource. Nonmonitoring applications of data from the WSA and earlier regional surveys show the wide-ranging applicability of these rich data sets.

  12. A History of New York State Literacy Test Assessment: Historicizing Calls to Localism in Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serviss, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon archival materials, I describe the history, design, and assessment of literacy tests from early 20th century New York state. Practitioners working with these early standardized writing tests grappled with tensions created by public Nativist sentiment, the legislation of "literacy," and calls to score the tests in…

  13. National Assessment of Educational Progress and State Assessments: What Do the Data Really Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Gordon, William R., II

    2011-01-01

    A high school principal and faculty celebrated after hearing that their students in each of the quartiles had improved in both reading and mathematics on the state accountability assessment. Because of the percent of increases in achievement levels on the test, the Florida Department of Education awarded the school an A for 2011. Shortly…

  14. Arsenic accumulation pattern in 12 Indian ferns and assessing the potential of Adiantum capillus-veneris, in comparison to Pteris vittata, as arsenic hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Raj, Anshita; Khare, P B; Tripathi, R D; Jamil, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of some Indian ferns to accumulate and tolerate arsenic. Twelve species of Indian ferns were exposed to 10 mg L(-1) arsenic as sodium arsenate for 15 days in hydroponic system. Depending on the arsenic uptake in the plant parts--Pteris vittata, Pteris cretica, Adiantum capillus-veneris and Nephrolepis exaltata may be categorised as arsenic accumulator. Further, A. capillus-veneris plants were grown in arsenic contaminated soil (200-600 mg kg(-1)) under green-house condition, to assess its arsenic accumulation and tolerance mechanism, in comparison to known As-hyperaccumulator--P. vittata Linn., growing in the same conditions. The experiment identified A. capillus-veneris having a potential to tolerate arsenic up to 500 mg kg(-1). The plants were analysed for the extent of oxidative stress, as a result of arsenic accumulation. A. capillus-veneris was able to detoxify the arsenic stress through induction of anti-oxidant defence system.

  15. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. The effects of bisphosphonates on bone remodeling, microdamage accumulation and fracture repair process].

    PubMed

    Mashiba, Tasuku

    2015-10-01

    Basically bisphosphonates are the agents that prevent the deterioration of bone structure due to suppressed bone remodeling although they are able to increase the thickness of cortical bone by suppressing bone resorption in the cortical surfaces. On the other hand, suppression of bone remodeling allows microdamage accumulation by impaired repair of damages, therefore, severe remodeling suppression over long time period could promote bone fatigue process, leading to fatigue fractures such as atypical femoral fracture. The use of bisphosphonate after fracture may delays natural fracture healing process due to suppressed callus remodeling. Bisphosphonate that has high binding affinity to bone easily accumulates in bone, therefore, easily causes severely suppressed bone turnover following long term treatment, and its effects last longer even after withdrawal.

  16. Accumulation and Endocrine Disrupting Effects of the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster® 550 in Rats: An Exploratory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Roberts, Simon C.; Mabrey, Natalie; McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Gear, Robin B.; Braun, Joe; Belcher, Scott M.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate accumulation, metabolism and endocrine disrupting effects of FM 550 in rats exposed to 100 or 1000 μg/day across gestation and lactation. FM 550 components accumulated in tissues of exposed dams and offspring and induced phenotypic hallmarks associated with metabolic syndrome in the offspring. Effects included increased serum thyroxine levels and reduced hepatic carboxylesterease activity in dams, and advanced female puberty, weight gain, male cardiac hypertrophy, and altered exploratory behaviors in offspring. Results of this study are the first to implicate FM 550 as an endocrine disruptor and an obesogen at environmentally relevant levels. PMID:23139171

  17. Accumulation and endocrine disrupting effects of the flame retardant mixture Firemaster® 550 in rats: an exploratory assessment.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B; Roberts, Simon C; Mabrey, Natalie; McCaffrey, Katherine A; Gear, Robin B; Braun, Joe; Belcher, Scott M; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-02-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate accumulation, metabolism and endocrine disrupting effects of FM 550 in rats exposed to 100 or 1000 µg/day across gestation and lactation. FM 550 components accumulated in tissues of exposed dams and offspring and induced phenotypic hallmarks associated with metabolic syndrome in the offspring. Effects included increased serum thyroxine levels and reduced hepatic carboxylesterease activity in dams, and advanced female puberty, weight gain, male cardiac hypertrophy, and altered exploratory behaviors in offspring. Results of this study are the first to implicate FM 550 as an endocrine disruptor and an obesogen at environmentally relevant levels.

  18. The Effects of Finite Sampling Corrections on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies (NVS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    States participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress State Assessment program (state NAEP) are required to sample at least 2,500 students from at least 100 schools per subject assessed. In this ideal situation, 25 students are assessed for a subject in each school selected for that subject. Two problems have arisen: some states…

  19. Assessment of willow (Salix sp.) as a woody heavy metal accumulator: field survey and in vivo X-ray analyses.

    PubMed

    Harada, Emiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Baba, Kei'ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shiono, Masamichi; Mizuno, Naoharu; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    Trees that accumulate metals are important plants for restoring contaminated soil because of their high biomass. In our previous study, we discovered that Salix miyabeana has the capability to take up high levels of Cd, and identified the several accumulation sites of the endogenous metals in the leaf parts of plants. To analyze the detailed localization of Cd in apoplastic and symplastic compartments in S. miyabeana, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) analysis and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were performed on beam line 37XU of the SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). The two-dimensional metal distribution of segments of young stems was obtained by μ-XRF with approximately 2 μm(2) X-ray beams and showed the predominant localization of Cd in the apoplastic region. μ-XANES analyses suggest that the apoplastic detoxification of Cd in willow depends on Cd-oxygen, but not on Cd-sulfur, interaction. S. miyabeana growing near an old mining site in Japan was then examined to evaluate the metal accumulating ability of this plant in the field. The metal concentration in the leaves of the plants was compared to that in the soil and enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Results showed efficient removal of Cd and Zn from the contaminated sites by the willow plants. In order to discuss the combined and long-term effect of multiple heavy metals on S. miyabeana grown in soil, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (VPSEM-EDX) and SR-μ-XRF was used to characterize the serration of leaves. The combination of 2D elemental images revealed metal accumulation in the tip cells in serrations without any exudation of heavy metals from the hydathodes.

  20. [Analysis and assessment of atmospheric pollution based on accumulation characterization of heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Run

    2014-03-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Huainan City. We measured and clustered the accumulation of six heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves in 20 sampling fields with six types of environmental conditions, and analyzed the EF value of heavy metal enrichment in the leaves. The results showed that the accumulations in Platanus acerifolia leaves varied according to different types of metals, following the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Environmental conditions also had great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. Cd and Cu were mostly found in cement plant and mine, respectively, and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were significant higher in main road, compared with other environmental conditions. The average values of EF for all the metals expect Cr in scenic and village area were over 1. The average values of EF for all the metals in mine, power plant, main road and cement plant were above 3. The overall pollution condition of heavy metals in Huainan City followed the order of Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  1. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  2. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  3. A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures with emphasis towards the applications in aeronautics and space is presented. It is felt that since this technology area is growing at such a rapid pace in many different disciplines, it is not feasible to cover all of the current research but only the relevant work as relates to aeronautics and space. Research in smart actuation materials, smart sensors, and control of smart/intelligent structures is covered. In smart actuation materials, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory, electrorheological, and electrostrictive materials are covered. For sensory materials, fiber optics, dielectric loss, and piezoelectric sensors are examined. Applications of embedded sensors and smart sensors are discussed.

  4. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  5. Comparison of two probability distributions used to model sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations: Does the tail wag the assessment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Undiscovered oil and gas assessments are commonly reported as aggregate estimates of hydrocarbon volumes. Potential commercial value and discovery costs are, however, determined by accumulation size, so engineers, economists, decision makers, and sometimes policy analysts are most interested in projected discovery sizes. The lognormal and Pareto distributions have been used to model exploration target sizes. This note contrasts the outcomes of applying these alternative distributions to the play level assessments of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Oil and Gas Assessment. Using the same numbers of undiscovered accumulations and the same minimum, medium, and maximum size estimates, substitution of the shifted truncated lognormal distribution for the shifted truncated Pareto distribution reduced assessed undiscovered oil by 16% and gas by 15%. Nearly all of the volume differences resulted because the lognormal had fewer larger fields relative to the Pareto. The lognormal also resulted in a smaller number of small fields relative to the Pareto. For the Permian Basin case study presented here, reserve addition costs were 20% higher with the lognormal size assumption. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Assessing the effect of copper on growth, copper accumulation and physiological responses of grazing species Atriplex halimus: ecotoxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Naranjo, E; Andrades-Moreno, L; Cambrollé, J; Perez-Martin, A

    2013-04-01

    Tolerance of plants to elevated concentrations of heavy metals in growth media and in its tissues leads to high degrees of metal bioaccumulation, which may pose a risk for humans and animals alike. Therefore, bio-accumulating plants need thorough evaluation from an environmental health point of view. A glasshouse experiment concerning the xerohalophyte Atriplex halimus was carried out to determine its tolerance and capacity to accumulate copper. We investigated the effect of Cu from 0 to 30 mmol l(-1) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus and nutrient uptake of A. halimus by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photoinhibition. We also determined total Cu, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and nitrogen content in the plant. Our results indicated that A. halimus presented a high resistance to Cu-induced stress, since the plants were able to survive at concentrations higher than 15 mmol l(-1) Cu. However, this capacity was not reflected in its ability to accumulate and tolerate greater amounts of Cu in its tissues, since clear phytotoxicity symptoms were detected at tissue concentrations greater than 38 mg kg(-1) Cu. Thus, Cu increment caused a reduction in A. halimus growth, which was related to a decrease in net photosynthetic rate. This reduction was associated with the adverse effect of Cu on the photochemical apparatus and the reduction in the absorption of essential nutrients. The high resistance of A. halimus was largely related with the capacity of this species to avoid the absorption of great amounts of Cu. For all the above reasons, A. halimus could have the characteristics of a Cu-exclusion plant.

  7. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  8. Geodiversity of Ceará State (Brazil): assessment and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The results on the geodiversity assessment of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil) are presented. The assessment was performed using a methodology based on the counting of occurrences of geodiversity with cartographical data and GIS procedures. This work is part of the methodological approaches applied in other large territories in Brazil and Portugal considering geodiversity as the diversity of rocks, fossils, lanforms, soils, water resources, and mineral and energy sources occurrences. Therefore, the geodiversity index resulted from the sum of the six partial indices: i) lithological; ii) paleontological; iii) geomorphological; iv) pedological; vi) hydrological; vi) mineral occurrences. The Geodiversity Index score of each grid square is the sum of all partial indices. Hydrological partial index was an upgrade to the previous five-partial indices methodological proposal, considering both surface water resources and ground water as essential components of geodiversity. Furthermore, the traditional cell grid used to operate the counting of geodiversity elements was substituted by a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins. Vector cartographical data were obtained from official Brazilian institutions and treated with GIS software to generate the six partial indices. According to the type of occurences these indices may have very different ranges thus values were normalized to a maximum of 5 points each. The sum of partial indices in each drainage sub-basin resulted in a quantitative map of geodiversity with values from 4 to 26. Subsequently the values were interpolated using the Kriging method delivering the geodiversity map of the Ceará State. Geodiversity index was here defined with qualitative values ranging from "very low" to "very high". The regions Noroeste Cearense and Sul Cearense have the highest geodiversity in the state while the region Sertões Cearenses has the lowest. The use of specific GIS procedures increases the mapping options and

  9. Lake states regional forest resources assessments: Technical papers. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, H.H.; Vasievich, J.M.

    1997-07-23

    Contains 21 technical working papers prepared for the Lake States regional forest resources assessment, Lake States Forestry Alliance 1995. They represent significant contributions from many individuals and organizations and form the technical background for the Assessment.

  10. Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2008. Synthesis Report 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Cormier, Damien

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, Federal No Child Left Behind regulations were finalized that provided states with additional flexibility for assessing some students with disabilities. The regulations allowed states to offer another assessment option, alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). States are not required to have…

  11. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  12. Towards a joint national and state partnership in aquatic resource assessment monitoring survey design

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is currently conducting national assessments of all aquatic resources in the United States. Prior national assessments were completed for coastal waters and wadeable streams. National assessments are now underway for lakes, rivers and streams, coastal waters, and wetl...

  13. Comprehensive seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; Sil, Arjun

    2014-06-01

    Northeast India is one of the most highly seismically active regions in the world with more than seven earthquakes on an average per year of magnitude 5.0 and above. Reliable seismic hazard assessment could provide the necessary design inputs for earthquake resistant design of structures in this region. In this study, deterministic as well as probabilistic methods have been attempted for seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states at bedrock level condition. An updated earthquake catalogue was collected from various national and international seismological agencies for the period from 1731 to 2011. The homogenization, declustering and data completeness analysis of events have been carried out before hazard evaluation. Seismicity parameters have been estimated using G-R relationship for each source zone. Based on the seismicity, tectonic features and fault rupture mechanism, this region was divided into six major subzones. Region specific correlations were used for magnitude conversion for homogenization of earthquake size. Ground motion equations (Atkinson and Boore 2003; Gupta 2010) were validated with the observed PGA (peak ground acceleration) values before use in the hazard evaluation. In this study, the hazard is estimated using linear sources, identified in and around the study area. Results are presented in the form of PGA using both DSHA (deterministic seismic hazard analysis) and PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, and spectral acceleration (T = 0. 2 s, 1.0 s) for both the states (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years). The results are important to provide inputs for planning risk reduction strategies, for developing risk acceptance criteria and financial analysis for possible damages in the study area with a comprehensive analysis and higher resolution hazard mapping.

  14. An assessment of radon in groundwater in New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A set of 317 samples collected from wells throughout New York State (excluding Long Island) from 2003 through 2008 was used to assess the distribution of radon gas in drinking water. Previous studies have documented high concentrations of radon in groundwater from granitic and metamorphic bedrock, but there have been only limited characterizations of radon in water from sedimentary rock and unconsolidated sand-and-gravel deposits in New York. Approximately 8% of the samples from bedrock wells exceed 89 Bq L-1 (eight times the proposed regulatory limit), but only 2% of samples from sand-and-gravel wells exceed 44 Bq L-1. Specific metamorphic and sedimentary rock formations in New York are associated with the high radon concentrations, indicating that specific areas of New York could be targeted with efforts to reduce the risk of exposure to radon in groundwater. Additionally, radon in groundwater from the sand-and-gravel aquifers was found to be directly correlated to radon in indoor air when assessed by county.

  15. An assessment of radon in groundwater in New York state.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Stephen B; Eckhardt, David A V

    2012-09-01

    A set of 317 samples collected from wells throughout New York State (excluding Long Island) from 2003 through 2008 was used to assess the distribution of radon gas in drinking water. Previous studies have documented high concentrations of radon in groundwater from granitic and metamorphic bedrock, but there have been only limited characterizations of radon in water from sedimentary rock and unconsolidated sand-and-gravel deposits in New York. Approximately 8% of the samples from bedrock wells exceed 89 Bq L (eight times the proposed regulatory limit), but only 2% of samples from sand-and-gravel wells exceed 44 Bq L. Specific metamorphic and sedimentary rock formations in New York are associated with the high radon concentrations, indicating that specific areas of New York could be targeted with efforts to reduce the risk of exposure to radon in groundwater. Additionally, radon in groundwater from the sand-and-gravel aquifers was found to be directly correlated to radon in indoor air when assessed by county.

  16. Setting Cut Scores on Large-Scale Assessments. The State Board Connection Issues in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Boards of Education, Alexandria, VA.

    This Brief builds on the work of the National Association of State Boards of Education 1997 Study Group on State Assessment Systems by examining one of the state board actions that is most likely to capture the publics attention: setting cut scores on state assessments. This process involves a large measure of human judgment and politics and a…

  17. On importance assessment of aging multi-state system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, Ilia; Khvatskin, Lev; Lisnianski, Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Modern high-tech equipment requires precise temperature control and effective cooling below the ambient temperature. Greater cooling efficiencies will allow equipment to be operated for longer periods without overheating, providing a greater return on investment and increased in availability of the equipment. This paper presents application of the Lz-transform method to importance assessment of aging multi-state water-cooling system used in one of Israeli hospitals. The water cooling system consists of 3 principal sub-systems: chillers, heat exchanger and pumps. The performance of the system and the sub-systems is measured by their produced cooling capacity. Heat exchanger is an aging component. Straightforward Markov method applied to solve this problem will require building of a system model with numerous numbers of states and solving a corresponding system of multiple differential equations. Lz-transform method, which is used for calculation of the system elements importance, drastically simplified the solution. Numerical example is presented to illustrate the described approach.

  18. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  19. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Sahi, S. V.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  20. Assessment of antioxidant responses and trace metal accumulation by digestive gland of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra from Northern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations and of a battery of antioxidant parameters were evaluated in digestive gland of the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra. Fe, Al and Cu accumulated in tissue exhibited maximum values in winter, coinciding partially with the highest labile concentrations of Fe and Cu in sediment. Metals, as other pollutants, are known to influence the oxidative status of organisms and antioxidant enzymes have been often proposed as biomarkers of contaminant effects. Seasonal variations of trace metals did not appear to influence those of biochemical parameters, which generally showed an opposite trend with higher enzymatic activities in summer when trace metal concentrations were lower. Organisms from Punta Cuevas (control site) showed higher induction of reactive oxygen species production than those from both considered impacted sites, suggesting the possibility of some biochemical adaptation in organisms or a higher modulation of environmental and physiological factors on antioxidant responses than levels of trace metals. This study, which is the first in the area in this matter, showed that seasonal variations of potential biomarkers should be incorporated into interpretation of long-term biomonitoring studies in this marine coastal ecosystem.

  1. Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate and accelerates the accumulation of proline in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Ambard-Bretteville, Françoise; Sorin, Céline; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Hourton-Cabassa, Cécile; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2.) is a soluble mitochondrial enzyme capable of oxidizing formate into CO2 in the presence of NAD+. It is abundant in non-green tissues and scarce in photosynthetic tissues. Under stress, FDH transcripts (and protein) accumulate in leaves, and leaf mitochondria acquire the ability to use formate as a respiratory substrate. In this paper, we describe the analysis of transgenic potato plants under-expressing FDH, obtained in order to understand the physiological function of FDH. Plants expressing low FDH activities were selected and the study was focused on a line (AS23) showing no detectable FDH activity. AS23 plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control plants, and grew normally under standard conditions. However, mitochondria isolated from AS23 tubers could not use formate as a respiratory substrate. Steady-state levels of formate were higher in AS23 leaves and tubers than in control plants. Tubers of untransformed plants oxidized 14C formate into 14CO2 but AS23 tubers accumulated it. In order to reveal a possible phenotype under stress conditions, control and AS23 plants were submitted to drought and cold. These treatments dramatically induced FDH transcripts in control plants but, whatever the growth conditions, no 1.4 kb FDH transcripts were detected in leaves of AS23 plants. Amongst various biochemical and molecular differences between stressed AS23 and control plants, the most striking was a dramatically faster accumulation of proline in the leaves of drought-stressed plants under-expressing FDH.

  2. Mercury accumulation in sediment cores from three Washington state lakes: evidence for local deposition from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Furl, Chad V; Meredith, Callie A

    2011-01-01

    Mercury accumulation rates measured in age-dated sediment cores were compared at three Washington state lakes. Offutt Lake and Lake St. Clair are located immediately downwind (18 and 28 km, respectively) of a coal-fired power plant and Lake Sammamish is located outside of the immediate area of the plant (110 km). The sites immediately downwind of the power plant were expected to receive increased mercury deposition from particulate and reactive mercury not deposited at Lake Sammamish. Mercury accumulation in cores was corrected for variable sedimentation, background, and sediment focusing to estimate the anthropogenic contribution (Hg(A,F)). Results indicated lakes immediately downwind of the power plant contained elevated Hg(A,F) levels with respect to the reference lake. Estimated fluxes to Lake Sammamish were compared to measured values from a nearby mercury wet deposition collector to gauge the efficacy of the core deconstruction techniques. Total deposition calculated through the sediment core (20.7 μg/m²/year) fell just outside of the upper estimate (18.9 μg/m²/year) of total deposition approximated from the wet deposition collector.

  3. Distribution and transport of radionuclides in a boreal mire--assessing past, present and future accumulation of uranium, thorium and radium.

    PubMed

    Lidman, Fredrik; Ramebäck, Henrik; Bengtsson, Åsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distribution of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and the daughters of (232)Th, (228)Ra and (228)Th, were measured in a small mire in northern Sweden. High activity concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th (up to 41 Bq (238)U kg(-1)) were observed in parts of the mire with a historical or current inflow of groundwater from the surrounding till soils, but the activities declined rapidly further out in the mire. Near the outlet and in the central parts of the mire the activity concentrations were low, indicating that uranium and thorium are immobilized rapidly upon their entering the peat. The (226)Ra was found to be more mobile with high activity concentrations further out into the mire (up to 24 Bq kg(-1)), although the central parts and the area near the outlet of the mire still had low activity concentrations. Based on the fluxes to and from the mire, it was estimated that approximately 60-70% of the uranium and thorium entering the mire currently is retained within it. The current accumulation rates were found to be consistent with the historical accumulation, but possibly lower. Since much of the accumulation still is concentrated to the edges of the mire and the activities are low compared to other measurements of these radionuclides in peat, there are no indications that the mire will be saturated with respect to radionuclides like uranium, thorium and radium in the foreseen future. On the contrary, normal peat growth rates for the region suggest that the average activity concentrations of the peat currently may be decreasing, since peat growth may be faster than the accumulation of radionuclides. In order to assess the total potential for accumulation of radionuclides more thoroughly it would, however, be necessary to also investigate the behaviour of other organophilic elements like aluminium, which are likely to compete for binding sites on the organic material. Measurements of the redox potential and other redox indicators demonstrate that uranium possibly

  4. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities on State English Language Proficiency Assessments: A Review of 2011 State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…

  5. Assessing accumulation and biliary excretion of naphthenic acids in yellow perch exposed to oil sands-affected waters.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hogan, Natacha S; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Berrue, Fabrice; Young, Rozlyn F; Arens, Collin J; Kerr, Russell G; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30 km north of Fort McMurray Alberta: the Demonstration Pond, containing oil sands tailings capped with natural surface water, and the South Bison Pond, integrating lean oil sands. Yellow perch were also sampled from three lakes: Mildred Lake that receives water from the Athabasca River, Sucker Lake, at the edge of oil sands extraction activity, and Kimowin Lake, a distant reference site. Naphthenic acids were measured in perch muscle tissue using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bile metabolites were measured by GC-MS techniques and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection at phenanthrene wavelengths. A method was developed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to evaluate naphthenic acids in bile. Tissue analysis did not show a pattern of naphthenic acids accumulation in muscle tissue consistent with known concentrations in exposed waters. Bile fluorescence and LC-HRMS methods were capable of statistically distinguishing samples originating from oil sands-influenced waters versus reference lakes. Although the GC-MS and HPLC fluorescence methods were correlated, there were no significant correlations of these methods and the LC-HRMS method. In yellow perch, naphthenic acids from oil sands sources do not concentrate in tissue at a measurable amount and are excreted through a biliary route. LC-HRMS was shown to be a highly sensitive, selective and promising technique as an indicator of exposure of biota to oil sands-derived naphthenic acids.

  6. Assessing the ecological state and managing Armenia's farmlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Asmaryan, Shushanik; Muradyan, Vahagn; Tepanosyan, Garegin; Minasyan, Lilit

    2014-05-01

    The territory of the Republic of Armenia (RA) occupies an area 29.8 sq. km, the major part of which - 2077 hectares - falls on farmlands located at a height 400-3200m a.s.l. Such a variation in altitude complicates development of territories especially in the case they have an extensive character stemmed from the Soviet era: land plough-up on sites lying at a very steep angle of decline - >20 grade, unregulated grazing and so on. A long-term, unplanned and unregulated use of farmlands entailed intense washout of upper soil horizon, which subsequently provoked intense development of erosion and degradation of lands. A practicable solution to this problem is a scientifically and methodically grounded assessment of ecological state of farmlands and economically 'competent' planning and management of agricultural resources. With the view of developing animal husbandry and managing pastures/hayfields, in 2011-2012 the Government of the Republic of Armenia under support of the World Bank implemented a Farm Resources Management and Competitiveness Program. The goal of the Program is ceasing a trend to overgrazing and degradation of close-to-village sites, using remote pastures/hayfields in the best effective manner, improving feed production and animal feeding networks, and promoting a growth in animal feed production volumes. To achieve that, the following works were planned and implemented successfully in 23 rural communities of 6 marzes of the RA, which was done by 3 stages. In preparatory stage • Accessible web resources - programs and sites (Google Earth, www.landcocer.org) with a view of identifying information to support implementation of the planned activities, were explored and evaluated. • Cartographic material (topographic maps sc.1:10000, landscape maps, panchromatic and multi-spectral high- and medium - resolution satellite images /LANDSAT ETM, QuickBird/ and other thematic cartographic and archival material) required for subsequent treatment of

  7. Reduction of electron accumulation at InN(0001) surfaces via saturation of surface states by potassium and oxygen as donor- or acceptor-type adsorbates

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhardt, A.; Reiß, S.; Krischok, S. Himmerlich, M.

    2014-01-28

    The influence of selected donor- and acceptor-type adsorbates on the electronic properties of InN(0001) surfaces is investigated implementing in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in work function, surface band alignment, and chemical bond configurations are characterized during deposition of potassium and exposure to oxygen. Although an expected opponent charge transfer characteristic is observed with potassium donating its free electron to InN, while dissociated oxygen species extract partial charge from the substrate, a reduction of the surface electron accumulation occurs in both cases. This observation can be explained by adsorbate-induced saturation of free dangling bonds at the InN resulting in the disappearance of surface states, which initially pin the Fermi level and induce downward band bending.

  8. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Williams, David L.

    1975-01-01

    This assessment of geothermal resources of the United States consists of two major parts: (1) estimates of total heat in the ground to a depth of 10 km and (2) estimates of the part of this total heat that is recoverable with present technology, regardless of price. No attempt has been made to consider most aspects of the legal, environmental, and institutional limitations in exploiting these resouces. In general, the average heat content of rocks is considerably higher in the Western United States than in the East. This also helps to explain why the most favorable hydrothermal convection systems and the hot young igneous systems occur in the West. Resources of the most attractive identified convection systems (excluding national parks) with predicted reservoir temperatures above 150 deg C have an estimated electrical production potential of about 8,000 megawatt century, or about 26,000 megawatt for 30 years. Assumptions in this conversion are: (1) one-half of the volume of the heat reservoirs is porous and permeable, (2) one-half of the heat of the porous, permeable parts is recoverable in fluids at the wellheads, and (3) the conversion efficiency of heat in wellhead fluids to electricity ranges from about 8 to 20 percent , depending on temperature and kind of fluid (hot water or steam). The estimated overall efficiency of conversion of heat in the ground to electrical energy generally ranges from less than 2 to 5 percent, depending on type of system and reservoir temperature. (See also W77-07477) (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  10. [Accumulation of Mercury in Soil-maize System of Non-ferrous Metals Smelting Area and Its Related Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Na; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2015-10-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution, especially the mercury pollution, has been widespread concern in non-ferrous metallurgical area. This study focused on the content, distribution and pollution status of Hg in maize soil of Huludao city. Meanwhile, Hg contents in the various organs of maize were analyzed. Hg concentration in soil ranged from 0.25 to 3.49 mg x kg(-1) with the average content of 1.78 mg x kg(-1), which was 48 times as high as the background value of Liaoning soil. Around 2-3m range of zinc plant, the pattern of spatial distribution showed that the content of Hg was gradually increased with the increase of the distance to Huludao zinc plant. The result of geoaccumulation index reflected that Hg pollution is up to moderate pollution level on the whole. 54. 6% of the total sample were belonged to the serious pollution level. The potential ecological risk index of Hakanson was applied to assess the ecological risk of Hg. The target hazard quotient method (THQ) was used to assess the health risk for human, the results revealed that there was no significant health risk by consumption corn. Mercury is very difficult to transport in soil-maize system, and there is no obvious health risks to adults. But the risk coefficient of children, which is up to 0.056. is much higher than adults.

  11. Non-invasive assessment of negative pressure wound therapy using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound: oedema reduction and new tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen R; Hampton, Sylvie; Martin, Robin

    2013-08-01

    Tissue oedema plays an important role in the pathology of chronic and traumatic wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is thought to contribute to active oedema reduction, yet few studies have showed this effect. In this study, high frequency diagnostic ultrasound at 20 MHz with an axial resolution of 60 µm was used to assess the effect of NPWT at - 80 mmHg on pressure ulcers and the surrounding tissue. Wounds were monitored in four patients over a 3-month period during which changes in oedema and wound bed thickness (granulation tissue) were measured non-invasively. The results showed a rapid reduction of periwound tissue oedema in all patients with levels falling by a mean of 43% after 4 days of therapy. A 20% increase in the thickness of the wound bed was observed after 7 days due to new granulation tissue formation. Ultrasound scans through the in situ gauze NPWT filler also revealed the existence of macrodeformation in the tissue produced by the negative pressure. These preliminary studies suggest that non-invasive assessment using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound could be a valuable tool in clinical studies of NPWT.

  12. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 7: Environmental contaminant accumulation and effects in great blue heron

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Brewer, R.L. Jr.; Buehler, D.A.

    1999-04-01

    Past plant operations and waste disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced an assortment of potentially harmful contaminants into the surrounding environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) and PCBs have been found in fish collected from aquatic systems on the ORR, and a screening level risk assessment has identified piscivorous wildlife downstream from the ORR as being at risk. As a component of an ecological risk assessment of a large river-reservoir system, the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) was chosen as an endpoint species to evaluate potential adverse effects of contaminants on piscivorous wildlife using aquatic systems on or downstream of the ORR. Eggs and chick liver, muscle, and fat samples were collected from two heron colonies located on and two colonies located off the ORR. Samples were analyzed for PCBs, mercury, chromium, and arsenic to determine if differences existed among colonies. Mean mercury and PCB concentrations were greater in eggs and chick tissues collected from colonies located on the ORR. However, no biologically significant differences were observed in fecundity or in egg physical measurements or chick physiological measurements between study locations. The results of this study do not indicate that the contaminant burdens in great blue heron chicks and eggs have a detrimental effect on heron populations utilizing aquatic habitats on the ORR.

  13. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, M.'n.

    1994-11-01

    Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

  14. Sea State and Weather Assessment Capability for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    2008-01-01

    Marine weather and related parameters such as wind, ocean wave height and period, air temperature, sea surface temperature, visibility, and potential for icing are critical to the design, operation, and safety of crewed space vehicles. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Constellation Program requires detailed assessment of marine weather related parameters that may be encountered during launch, abort, landing, and crew rescue operations for the crewed Ares/Orion space vehicles. This information is required for both space vehicle design and operational purposes. The space vehicles must be designed such that they can withstand the environment they are likely to encounter. The crewed Ares/Orion space vehicles will launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida for both International Space Station (ISS) missions with 51.6 o inclination orbits and lunar missions with approximately 28 inclination orbits. Since both missions will fly over the Atlantic Ocean on ascent to orbit and will fly over the Pacific Ocean on descent from orbit, an unlikely but possible emergency abort could require parachuting the Orion capsule and crew into the ocean. This situation could potentially put the crew in an isolated and hazardous environment for several hours while they await rescue. Therefore, abort, landing, and crew rescue elements of the Constellation Program must address weather related parameters on a global scale. This paper describes buoy measurement data, sea surface temperature satellite data, and sea state computer model data that are being utilized by the Constellation Program to address these design and operational issues.

  15. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  16. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  17. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  18. Accumulation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in female Fischer 344 rats: Comparison with human data and consequences for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Blas-Y-Estrada, Florence; Nygaard, Unni C; Alexander, Jan; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were orally exposed to a mixture of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) of broad molecular mass range at doses of 40, 400 and 4000mg/kg feed. Amounts and compositions of the MOSH were analyzed in liver, spleen, adipose tissue and the carcass after exposure during 30, 60, 90 and 120d as well as after 90d exposure followed by 30d depuration. At 40mg/kg in the feed, after 30d of exposure, 10.9% of the ingested MOSH were recovered from the animal body; after 90d plus 30d depuration it was 3.9%. In liver and spleen, the maximum retention in terms of molecular mass (simulated distillation) was at n-C29; in adipose tissue and carcass it was at n-C15/16. The differentiation between MOSH below and above n-C25 (Class I versus Class II and III oils), used for present regulation, is not supported by the present data on accumulation; structural characteristics seem more pertinent than molecular mass. Concentrations in the tissues increased far less than proportionally with the dose, rendering linear extrapolation to low doses questionable. No steady state was reached after 120d. In fact, comparing with the concentrations in human tissues at the estimated exposure, extrapolation from animal experiments seems to grossly underestimate human internal exposure. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used to characterize the MOSH residues in the tissues with the aim of identifying the most strongly accumulated types. In the liver and spleen, the highly branched hydrocarbons dominated, whereas in the adipose tissue it was the n-alkanes and species with main n-alkyl moieties. Strong MOSH accumulation is not of concern per se, but the safety at the high concentrations in human tissues needs to be re-evaluated, possibly taking into account also end points other than granuloma formation.

  19. Transformation and accumulation of PAH and bound residues in soil under extreme conditions - a risk assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The degradation of PAH in contaminated soil does not proceed completely in the majority of cases. However microorganisms which are able to degrade PAH are present in PAH-contaminated soils normally. A total degradation of PAH in contaminated soils is often limited by a lack of bioavailability, which results from a lack of mass transfer. The analytical depletion of contaminants in soil is not only based on degradation processes but also on a fixation or immobilization of the xenobiotic substances as stronger adsorbed to or bound residues in the soil matrix. These bound residues were verified by using 14C-labelled PAH in different soil samples. To evaluate the long term fate of theses PAH-residues the stability and transformation of 14C-labelled non-extractable PAH-residues was investigated in detail under different extreme ecological and climate conditions such as biological stress, freezing and thawing cycles, and chemical worst case conditions. The transformation and remobilization of non-extractable PAH-residues was observed in long-time experiments and was very limited in general (Eschenbach et al. 2001). Only small amounts of non extractable residues were transformed and converted to CO2 and thereby detoxified. However the treatment with a complexing agent led to an increase of extractable 14C-activity. In a further set of experiments the long term risk of a groundwater contamination was assessed. Therefore the elution rate of 14C-PAH was investigated by a routinely usable column test system. It was found that the PAH elution was not solely controlled by desorption processes. The extractable PAH concentrations and elution rates were affected by the mineralization and formation of bound residues as well. For the assessment of the maximum PAH release rate the soil material was treated by extreme and worst case conditions as well. The impact of the elution of bidestillated water, of repeated freeze-thaw cycles and a simulation of acidic rain was investigated. The

  20. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish and assessment of dietary exposure: a study in Hyderabad City, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M Noor; Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Vemula, Sudershan Rao; Sivaperumal, P; Vasudev, K; Ashu, Shaik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Bhatnagar, V

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in different fish species collected from fish outlets in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. The samples of fish extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 45 congeners) were determined by gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-μECD) method. The intake of individual PCB congeners through fish, toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), hazardous quotient, quantitative assessment, and risk evaluations was estimated in the Indian population. Daily dietary intakes of PCBs at the 95th-percentile-measured concentrations were twice the values of the 50th-percentile-measured concentrations in all socio-economic groups. The dietary intakes of PCBs through fish consumption in middle-income group, low-income group, and industrial laborers (0.023 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), the high-income group (0.031 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), and slum dwellers (0.039 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) exceeded the reference dose. The observed estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of our study for all socio-economic sections (0.0087 μg/kg/day) crossed the cancer benchmark concentration of 0.0003 μg/kg/day. In slum dwellers, the ingestion of fish from freshwater and marine water results in the highest lifetime cancer risks of 4.7 in 100,000 and 7.8 in 100,000, respectively. Ultimately, the concentrations of PCBs were determined high in all of the fish species collected. Risk assessment showed that the fish were highly contaminated with PCBs and may pose health threats to consumers in the city of Hyderabad as well as a lifetime cancer risk.

  1. Assessing pigmented pericarp of maize kernels as possible source of resistance to fusarium ear rot, Fusarium spp. infection and fumonisin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Giovanni; Babazadeh, Laleh; Casati, Paola; Pilu, Roberto; Salomoni, Daiana; Toffolatti, Silvia L

    2016-06-16

    One of the purposes of maize genetic improvement is the research of genotypes resistant to fusarium ear rot (FER) and fumonisin accumulation. Flavonoids in the pericarp of the kernels are considered particularly able to reduce the fumonisin accumulation (FUM). The aim of this field study was to assess the effect of flavonoids, associated with anti-insect protection and Fusarium verticillioides inoculation, on FER symptoms and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels. Two isogenic hybrids, one having pigmentation in the pericarp (P1-rr) and the other without it (P1-wr), were compared. P1-rr showed lower values of FER symptoms and FUM contamination than P1-wr only if the anti-insect protection and the F. verticillioides inoculations were applied in combination. Fusarium spp. kernel infection was not influenced by the presence of flavonoids in the pericarp. Artificial F. verticillioides inoculation was more effective than anti-insect protection in enhancing the inhibition activity of flavonoids toward FUM contamination. The interactions between FUM contamination levels and FER ratings were better modeled in the pigmented hybrid than in the unpigmented one. The variable role that the pigment played in kernel defense against FER and FUM indicates that flavonoids alone may not be completely effective in the resistance of fumonisin contamination in maize.

  2. Enrichment and geo-accumulation of heavy metals and risk assessment of sediments of the Kurang Nallah--feeding tributary of the Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Azmat; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ahmed, Zulkifl

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the Kurang stream: a principal feeding tributary of the Rawal Lake Reservoir were investigated using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and metal pollution index (MPI) to determine metal accumulation, distribution and its pollution status. Sediment samples were collected from twenty one sites during two year monitoring in pre- and post-monsoon seasons (2007-2008). Heavy metal toxicity risk was assessed using Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), effect range low/effect range median values (ERL/ERM), and threshold effect level/probable effect level (TEL/PEL). Greater mean concentrations of Ni, Mn and Pb were recorded in post-monsoon season whereas metal accumulation pattern in pre-monsoon season followed the order: Zn>Mn>Ni>Cr>Co>Cd>Pb>Cu>Li. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation (Igeo) values showed that sediments were loaded with Cd, Zn, Ni and Mn. Comparison with uncontaminated background values showed higher concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ni than respective average shale values. Concentrations of Ni and Zn were above ERL values; however, Ni concentration exceeded the ERM values. Sediment contamination was attributed to anthropogenic and natural processes. The results can be used for effective management of fresh water hilly streams of Pakistan.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than farmers irrigating with clean water, but metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  4. Lessons Learned from a Tryout of Spanish and English Versions of a State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Kahl, Stuart R.

    The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) is the new Massachusetts state assessment program that is being implemented in response to state education reform legislation. The paper describes the early efforts of the state Department of Education (MDOE), its prime contractor for development of the MCAS (Advanced Systems in Measurement…

  5. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  6. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  7. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  8. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  9. 34 CFR 462.40 - Must a State have an assessment policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Must a State have an assessment policy? 462.40 Section 462.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Measuring Educational Gain? § 462.40 Must a State have an assessment policy? (a) A State must have a...

  10. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  11. An assessment of tree health and trace element accumulation near a coal-fired generating station, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boone, R; Westwood, R

    2006-10-01

    A forest health assessment was performed in stands dominated by bur oak and trembling aspen to study the potential effects of airborne emissions from a 132 MW coal-fired station. Forty-two stands were sampled within a 16-km radius of the station for both foliar stress symptoms and trace element toxicology. The concentrations of tracer elements (As, Ba, Sr, and V) in the leaf litter were not spatially congruent with airborne emission deposition models (except Ba, which showed elevated levels immediately SE of the station), nor were they at phytotoxic levels. Elemental concentrations were significantly related to soil parameters including organic matter and texture. No patterns were found in forest health along directional or distance gradients from the generating station. Trembling aspen stands demonstrated little decline in general, but three of the 19 bur oak plots, all located on thin sandy soils developed on calcareous till, demonstrated branch dieback. In addition to poor soil conditions, two of these sites also had high water tables, and exhibited tree mortality. The bur oak decline did not appear to be related to emissions from the station, but is suspected to be a result of poor site quality, with urban development as a confounding factor.

  12. Objective Assessment of the Human Visual Attentional State

    PubMed Central

    Willeford, Kevin T.; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Yadav, Naveen K.; Ludlam, Diana P.

    2014-01-01

    Primary objective The purpose of this study was to develop an objective way to assess human visual attention using the alpha band component of the visual-evoked potential (VEP). Design and methods Six different attentional conditions were tested: eyes-open, eyes-closed, eyes-closed with backwards number counting, and three rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks. 18 visually-normal, young-adult subjects (ages 21 to 28 years) were tested binocularly at 1 meter for each condition on two separate days. The Diopsys™ NOVA-TR system was used to obtain the visual-evoked potential (VEP) and extracted alpha-wave and its related power spectrum. Additionally, the Visual Search and Attention Test (VSAT) was administered as a subjective measure of visual attention. Results Subjects exhibited significant decreases in power in the alpha band when comparing the eyes-closed to the eyes-open conditions, with power in the eyes-closed condition being, on average, twice as large. The response from the other four conditions did not reflect the differential attentional demands. The ratio of the power in the eyes-closed condition to the eyes open condition in the lower alpha frequencies (8–10 Hz) was found to be significantly correlated to the group’s performance on the VSAT, especially the 10 Hz component. Conclusions An individual’s ability to attenuate their alpha-component during visual processing may be a predictor of their visual attentional state. These findings solidify the role of the VEP alpha subcomponent as an objective electrophysiological correlate of visual attention, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of human visual-attention disorders in the future. PMID:23111658

  13. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  14. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  15. Social validity assessments: is current practice state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, I S; Baer, D M

    1991-01-01

    The use of evaluative feedback from consumers to guide program planning and evaluation is often referred to as the assessment of social validity. Differing views of its role and value in applied behavior analysis have emerged, and increasingly stereotyped assessments of social validity are becoming commonplace. This paper argues that current applications of social validity assessments are straying from the point originally proposed for them. Thus, several suggestions for improving current social validity assessment are proposed, including (a) expanding the definition of consumers to acknowledge the variety of community members able and likely to affect a program's survival, (b) increasing the psychometric rigor of social validity assessments, (c) extending assessment to heretofore underrepresented populations, (d) implementing widespread application of well-designed social validity assessments, (e) increasing meaningful consumer involvement in the planning and evaluation of behavioral programs, and (f) educating consumers to make better informed programming decisions. PMID:1890040

  16. The Small State in Higher Education: A Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the large number of small sovereign states, there have been limited attempts at mainstreaming the study of the small as a small state in higher education. This paper reviews the context and development of both the category of, and research on small states; it then reviews the challenges involved in implementing any of the four broad…

  17. Assessing Early Implementation of State Autism Insurance Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L.; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M.; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined…

  18. An Analysis of State Autism Educational Assessment Practices and Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Harris, Bryn; Leech, Nancy; Stiff, Lillian; Choi, Gounah; Joel, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    States differ in the procedures and criteria used to identify ASD. These differences are likely to impact the prevalence and age of identification for children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specific state variations in ASD identification and eligibility criteria requirements. We examined variations by state in…

  19. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific metho...

  20. Assessment of particulate accumulation climatology under inversions in Glacier Bay for the 2008 tourist season using WRF/Chem data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirhalla, Michael A.

    micrometers) concentrations from cruise ships, but the absence of aerosol monitoring sites does not allow us to confirm the results. However, no simulated particulates ever exceed the daily average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 150 micrograms per cubic meter. The high variability of particle concentrations in Glacier Bay suggests the need for an air quality observational network to further assess local air quality issues.

  1. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Greer, Colleen D; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Refined risk assessments for birds exposed to flowable and granular formulations ofCPY were conducted for a range of current use patterns in the United States. Overall,the collective evidence from the modeling and field study lines of evidence indicate that flowable and granular CPY do not pose significant risks to the bird communities foraging in agro-ecosystems in the United States. The available information indicates that avian incidents resulting from the legal, registered uses of CPY have been very infrequent since 2002 (see SI Appendix 3). The small number of recent incidents suggests that the current labels for CPY are generally protective of birds.However, incident data are uncertain because of the difficulties associated with finding dead birds in the field and linking any mortality observed to CPY.Plowable CPY is registered for a variety of crops in the United States including alfalfa, brassica vegetables, citrus, corn, cotton, grape, mint, onion, peanut, pome and stone fruits, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet potato, tree nuts, and wheat under the trade name Lorsban Advanced. The major routes of exposure for birds to flowable CPY were consumption of treated dietary items and drinking water. The Liquid Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (Liquid PARAM) was used to simulate avian ingestion of CPY by these routes of exposure. For acute exposure,Liquid PARAM estimated the maximum retained dose in each of 20 birds on each of1,000 fields that were treated with CPY over the 60-d period following initial application.The model used a 1-h time step. For species lacking acceptable acute oral toxicity data (all focal species except northern bobwhite (C. virginianus) and redwinged blackbird (A. phoeniceus)), a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach was used to generate hypothetical dose-response curves assuming high, median and low sensitivity to CPY. For acute risk, risk curves were generated for each use pattern and exposure scenario. The risk

  2. Tectonic state: its significance and characterization in the assessment of seismic effects associated with reservoir impounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Clark, M.M.; Grantz, A.; Savage, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Any analysis of seismicity associated with the filling of large reservoirs requires an evaluation of the natural tectonic state in order to determine whether impoundment is the basic source, a mechanically unrelated companion feature, or a triggering stimulus of the observed seismicity. Several arguments indicate that the associated seismicity is usually a triggered effect. Among the elements of tectonic state considered here (existing fractures, accumulated elastic strain, and deformational style), deformational style is especially critical in forecasting the occurrence of impoundment-induced seismicity. The observational evidence indicates that seismicity associated with impounding generally occurs in areas that combine steeply dipping faults, relatively high strain rates, and either extensional or horizontal-shear strain. Simple physical arguments suggest: (1) that increased fluid pressures resulting from increased reservoir head should enhance the likelihood of seismic activity, whatever the tectonic environment; (2) that stress changes resulting from surface loading may increase the likelihood of crustal failure in areas of normal and transcurrent faulting, whereas they generally inhibit failure in areas of thrust faulting. Comparisons with other earthquake-producing artificial and natural processes (underground explosions, fluid injection, underground mining, fluid extraction, volcanic emissions) indicate that reservoir loading may similarly modify the natural tectonic state. Subsurface loading resulting from fluid extraction may be a particularly close analogue of reservoir loading; "seismotectonic" events associated with fluid extraction have been recognized in both seismically active and otherwise aseismic regions. Because the historic record of seismicity and surface faulting commonly is short in comparison with recurrence intervals of earthquake and fault-slip events, tectonic state is most reliably appraised through combined studies of historic

  3. REGIONAL AND STATE VIEWS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION IN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATE BASED ON 2001 AND 2001 NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is a probability-based survey that permits assessment of estuarine conditions at national, regional, or large-system scales. Additionally, states may use these data to comply with requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA), which mandates re...

  4. 34 CFR 403.203 - What are the State's responsibilities for a State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for a State... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.203 What are the State's responsibilities for...

  5. Reshaping the College Transition: Early College Readiness Assessments and Transition Curricula in Four States. A State Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Fay, Maggie P.; Trimble, Madeline Joy; Pheatt, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Based largely on interviews with stakeholders in California, New York, Tennessee, and West Virginia, this report describes how these states have established initiatives related to early college readiness assessments and transition curricula. It then compares the development of these interventions across states and identifies factors that have…

  6. Using National and State Assessments To Evaluate the Performance of State Education Systems: Learning from the Cases of Kentucky and Maine. Research Report. Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSI) Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; McIntire, Walter G.

    This study examined two major questions: do national and state assessments provide consistent information on the performance of state education systems, and what accounts for discrepancies between national and state assessment results if they are found? Data came from national and state assessments in grade 4 and grade 8 mathematics from 1992 to…

  7. Assessing the State and Federal Missions of the National Guard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    34at risk,","disadvantaged," minority, high school dropouts, or juvenile delinquents . The rationale for military involvement in this domestic issue is...of unit inactivations. FEDERAL AND STATE MISSIONS DEFINED Our fact-finding phase revealed that there currently are differing interpretations of...National Guard involvement in state missions. We also determined that the four stated concerns were of differing levels of research demand. The

  8. AR State Profile. Arkansas: Arkansas Comprehensive Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arkansas Comprehensive Assessment Program. The purpose of this assessment is to: (1) Determine prospective high school graduates' knowledge and skill levels relative to those needed for entry-level employment; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' knowledge and skill levels relative to those…

  9. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to the discharge by hospitals of bio-accumulative pharmaceuticals into aquatic media: The case of mitotane.

    PubMed

    Aurélien, Brackers de Hugo; Sylvie, Bony; Alain, Devaux; Jérôme, Guitton; Yves, Perrodin

    2013-11-01

    The release of hospital wastewater into the urban sewer networks contributes to the general contamination of aquatic media by pharmaceutical residues. These residues include bio-accumulative pharmaceuticals that lead to increased risk for ecosystems because they can concentrate in organisms and food chains, and therefore reach toxic levels. In order to assess the ecotoxicological risks linked to this particular category of residues, we have developed a specific method, by combining a theoretical calculation of pollutant concentrations in organisms to estimate Body Residue (BR), and ecotoxicity biomarkers in fish cell lines, enabling the calculation of a Critical Body Residue (CBR). This method finally results in the calculation of a specific risk quotient (Qb=BR/CBR), characterizing the risk linked to this type of pollutant. This method was applied to mitotane, a bio-accumulative pharmaceutical typically found in hospital wastewater, in the framework of an exposure scenario corresponding to the discharge of all the hospital wastewaters into the Rhone River which flows through the city of Lyon, France. This approach leads to risk quotients (Qb and Qbg) much higher than those found with the classical approach, i.e. Q=PEC/PNEC (Predictive Environmental Concentration/Predictive Non Effect Concentration)=0.0006. This difference in the appreciation of risk is important when using cytotoxicity as the criterion for measuring the toxicity of mitotane (Qb=0.056) and it is even greater when the criterion used is genotoxicity (Qbg=6.8). This study must be now consolidated by taking the biomagnification of the pharmaceuticals into consideration.

  10. Using State Assessments for Teaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, John

    2012-01-01

    Populations of minority students the United States have increased steadily over the past few decades to 42 percent of public school enrollment (Echevarria, 2011). English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing population of students enrolled in public schools across the United States. Nationally, if an ELL speaks English with difficulty,…

  11. Educational Accountability: Characteristics of Legislative Mandates for State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmiller, Archie A.

    Legislation enacted to attain educational accountability is discussed. At present, 23 states have such enactments. The major kinds of accountability enacted in each of these states are one or more of the following: PPBS, MIS, Uniform Accounting, Testing, Evaluation of Professional Employees, and Performance Contracting. The three most frequently…

  12. 34 CFR 200.3 - Designing State Academic Assessment Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 200.1(b); (ii) Be valid, reliable, and of high technical quality; (iii) Express student results in terms of the State's student academic achievement standards; and (iv) Be designed to provide a coherent... accurately the depth and breadth of the State's academic content standards; and (B) Express student...

  13. SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium Common Core State Standards Analysis: Eligible Content for the Summative Assessment. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Edynn; Lagunoff, Rachel; Worth, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report is a descriptive analysis of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), intended to determine which content is eligible for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium's end-of-year summative assessment for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics in grades 3-8 and high school. The high school standards analyzed were those in grades…

  14. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  15. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Normals Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  16. Assessing model state and forecasts variation in hydrologic data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Jos; Coulibaly, Paulin; Dumedah, Gift; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Data assimilation (DA) has been widely used in hydrological models to improve model state and subsequent streamflow estimates. However, for poor or non-existent state observations, the state estimation in hydrological DA can be problematic, leading to inaccurate streamflow updates. This study evaluates the soil moisture and flow variations and forecasts by assimilating streamflow and soil moisture. Three approaches of Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) with dual state-parameter estimation are applied: (1) streamflow assimilation, (2) soil moistue assimilation, and (3) combined assimilation of soil moisture and streamflow. The assimilation approaches are evaluated using the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model in the Spencer Creek catchment in southern Ontario, Canada. The results show that there are significant differences in soil moisture variations and streamflow estimates when the three assimilation approaches were applied. In the streamflow assimilation, soil moisture states were markedly distorted, particularly soil moisture of lower soil layer; whereas, in the soil moisture assimilation, streamflow estimates are inaccurate. The combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture provides more accurate forecasts of both soil moisture and streamflow, particularly for shorter lead times. The combined approach has the flexibility to account for model adjustment through the time variation of parameters together with state variables when soil moisture and streamflow observations are integrated into the assimilation procedure. This evaluation is important for the application of DA methods to simultaneously estimate soil moisture states and watershed response and forecasts.

  17. Trophic state assessment of Bhindawas Lake, Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Ridhi; Garg, J K

    2017-01-01

    Trophic state allows for identification of problems and pressures that an ecosystem faces as well as demarcation of remedial measures. This study focuses on spatial and temporal variations in the trophic state and detection of possible causes of its divergence in Bhindawas Lake, India. The trophic state of the lake undulated between eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic state throughout the study period. Higher phosphorus concentration within the lake ecosystem is the dominant causal factor for its eutrophic state. The influence of other water quality parameters has also been analyzed using Spearman's coefficient of correlation. Deviations between trophic state index (TSI)-chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), TSI-total phosphorus (TP), and TSI-Secchi depth (SD) pointed out that the lake is principally phosphorus limited, and its trophic status is influenced by non-algal turbidity to a large extent. Spatial analysis of trophic levels in geographic information system (GIS) helped in identification of pollution sources and chemical attributes affecting the trophic state of the lake. This study provides a rationale for further investigation of nutrient and sediment loading into the lake system and development of sustainable management and conservation strategy identifying suitable measures ascertaining the ecosystem integrity.

  18. STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE IN WILDLIFE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for assessing risks to wildlife from exposure to toxic waste, pesticide applications, or other alterations in habitat quality and quantity have been evolving rapidly during the past decade. Whereas previously, wildlife exposure estimates were made using simple, determini...

  19. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  20. Kentucky's Early Childhood Continuous Assessment and Accountability System: Local Decisions and State Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; McCormick, Katherine; Gooden, Caroline; Townley, Kim F.

    2007-01-01

    Kentucky has developed an assessment and accountability system that provides outcome data for a set of state early childhood standards for children birth to 5 years of age that are aligned with early childhood outcomes designated by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Within this flexible and comprehensive state assessment system,…

  1. Balancing Autonomy and Comparability: State Approaches to Assessment Selection for Student Learning Objectives. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    States take a wide range of approaches to Student Learning Objectives (SLO) assessment selection. This "Ask the Team" brief helps states consider the trade-offs between approaches that offer more teacher choice and those that offer better comparability across SLOs. The brief identifies four common approaches to selecting SLO assessments:…

  2. The Assessment of Thoughtful Literacy in NAEP: Why the States Aren't Measuring Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty; McGeehan, Catherine M.; Pinto, Catherine M.; Kong, Ailing

    2009-01-01

    The disparity between the results of state accountability tests in reading and the fourth-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has left many educators dismayed and concerned. In this article the authors describe a comparison of assessment approaches evident in NAEP to the approaches taken in a sample of state tests. The authors…

  3. Information and Resources on Developing State Policy on Kindergarten Entry Assessment (KEA). CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) was asked to provide information on how other states are approaching the development and implementation of Kindergarten Entry Assessment (KEA) as part of a comprehensive assessment system. Specifically, the request asked for information about KEA measures used by other states, the processes…

  4. Establishing a State Consortium for Assessment: A Discussion of Factors to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePascale, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Unparalleled demands on state assessment programs and conditions associated with the availability of federal monies, particularly the $350 million portion of the $4 billion Race to the Top funds set aside for assessment, have led to a renewed interest in the establishment of state consortia for the development and administration of assessment…

  5. Two Models for Evaluating Alignment of State Standards and Assessments: Competing or Complementary Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…

  6. The Effects of Finite Sampling on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    This study addressed statistical techniques that might ameliorate some of the sampling problems currently facing states with small populations participating in State National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. The study explored how the application of finite population correction factors to the between-school component of…

  7. Roles of the federal and state governments in outcomes assessment.

    PubMed

    Epstein, M H; McGee, J L

    1996-01-01

    Both federal and state governments have mandates to collect, analyze, and disseminate health care information. The federal government is the single largest payer for health care and health services research. Its agencies, the Healthcare Finance Administration (HCFA) and the Agency for Healthcare Policy Research (AHCPR) play a major role in shaping information strategies for all health care stakeholders. State governments are among those stakeholders and are fertile grounds for experimentation, change, and learning. Building effective federal-state partnerships and public-private partnerships can help foster innovation in health data collection and analysis, as well as identify new strategies for information dissemination.

  8. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  9. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  10. Assessing early implementation of state autism insurance mandates

    PubMed Central

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined five states’ experiences implementing autism insurance mandates. Semi-structured, key-informant interviews were conducted with 17 participants representing consumer advocacy organizations, provider organizations, and health insurance companies. Overall, participants thought that the mandates substantially affected the delivery of autism services. While access to autism treatment services has increased as a result of implementation of state mandates, states have struggled to keep up with the demand for services. Participants provided specific information about barriers and facilitators to meeting this demand. Understanding of key informants’ perceptions about states’ experiences implementing autism insurance mandates is useful for other states considering adopting or expanding mandates or other policies to expand access to autism treatment services. PMID:26614401

  11. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  12. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Tennessee's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  13. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  14. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on California's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  15. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  16. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  17. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alaska's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  18. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on West Virginia's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  19. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alabama's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  20. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Georgia's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  1. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Minnesota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  2. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Arkansas' college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  3. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Florida's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  4. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  5. NAEP 1996 Mathematics State Report for New Mexico. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Clyde M.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various academic subjects. The 1996 NAEP in mathematics assessed the current level of mathematical achievement as a mechanism for informing education reform. In 1996, 44…

  6. A Review of Biobehavioral State Assessment of Individuals with Profound Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephen B.; Taylor, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of individuals with profound disabilities is problematic, particularly when traditional approaches are used. As a result, alternate assessments have been attempted that better suit the needs of these students. One approach that has shown some promise is biobehavioral state assessment. Initially used with infants without disabilities,…

  7. Test Coordinator's Guide for Federal and State Assessments, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide for testing coordinators includes information regarding: (1) Idaho statewide testing (both state and federal requirements); (2) testing dates; (3) Idaho Reading indicator (IRI); (4) Direct Mathematics Assessment (DMA); (5) Direct Writing Assessment (DEA); (6) Idaho Alternative Assessment (IAA); (7) Idaho Standards Achievement Test…

  8. Technical Report of the NAEP 1992 Trial State Assessment Program in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eugene G.; And Others

    The "Nation's Report Card," the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. This report summarizes some of the sophisticated statistical methodology used in the 1992 Trial State Assessment of…

  9. Dislocation Modeling and Comparison With GPS Data to Assess Possible Elastic Strain Accumulation in the Central Lesser Antilles: New Constraints From the NSF REU Site in Dominica Between 2001 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staisch, L.; Styron, R. H.; James, S.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C. L.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Murphy, R.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Caribbean, North and South American plates are converging at a rate of 2 cm/yr in the central region of the Lesser Antilles arc. Here we report high-precision GPS data in concert with forward modeling of a simplified subduction zone geometry to assess strain accumulation for the Lesser Antilles trench. We are able to constrain both vertical and horizontal surface deformation from campaign and continuous GPS observations from 28 geodetic benchmarks located in Guadeloupe, Dominica and Aves Island. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASIS II using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Surface displacements for each site were estimated over 2-7 years. CAR-fixed velocities are projected onto a 500 kilometer transect from the LA trench to Aves Island and compared to calculated displacements for 88 different subduction models. Finite dislocations within an elastic half-space with variable parameters such as angle of the subducting slab, the downdip extent of the locked zone, and percentage of plate interface locking were investigated. Other parameters, such as trench length and slip remained constant. Using a chi-squared, best-fit statistical criterion, the GPS data constrain the subduction interface to a 75 kilometer downdip extent, a 10° dip angle, and near 50% locking. This implies that the subduction zone offshore Dominica is in an interseismic state, thus accumulating strain and causing small westward and upward displacement of the Lesser Antilles relative to the stable Caribbean interior.

  10. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT was…

  11. Common Core State Standards in 2014: District Implementation of Consortia-Developed Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Later this school year, states that have adopted the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are scheduled to begin testing students' progress in learning the content of the standards in mathematics and English language arts (ELA). Many of these states belong to one of two consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and the…

  12. Timeline and Approach to Standards and Assessments. State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The following profiles address decisions and actions that state education policy-makers--in the state departments of education, unless otherwise noted--are taking to foster successful statewide implementation of their states' new college- and career-readiness standards and aligned assessments. These profiles provide a descriptive overview of each…

  13. Year 3 of Implementing the Common Core State Standards: States Prepare for Common Core Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark

    2013-01-01

    With the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS), states have sought to establish clear, high expectations that are consistent across participating states and that signal what K-12 students should learn in mathematics and English language arts (ELA) to be prepared for college and careers. As of July 2013, the CCSS have been adopted by 45…

  14. 34 CFR 403.203 - What are the State's responsibilities for a State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.203 What are the State's responsibilities for a... the groups described in 34 CFR 400.6(c); and (2) Use information gathered by the National...

  15. 34 CFR 403.203 - What are the State's responsibilities for a State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.203 What are the State's responsibilities for a... the groups described in 34 CFR 400.6(c); and (2) Use information gathered by the National...

  16. 34 CFR 403.203 - What are the State's responsibilities for a State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.203 What are the State's responsibilities for a... the groups described in 34 CFR 400.6(c); and (2) Use information gathered by the National...

  17. 34 CFR 403.203 - What are the State's responsibilities for a State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.203 What are the State's responsibilities for a... the groups described in 34 CFR 400.6(c); and (2) Use information gathered by the National...

  18. Assessing Health Issues in States with Large Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Long, Michelle; Menifield, Charles E; Fletcher, Audwin B

    2015-09-01

    Health care spending is often addressed in discussions of budgeting and deficits in the United States. It is important to many Americans that funds allocated for health care spending be allocated and spent in the most efficient and effective manner, leading to improved health outcomes, particularly for underserved populations. Many studies address health care spending, but few address the issue of spending as it relates to societal well-being, or certain health outcomes that adversely impact communities. This study seeks to expand the available literature by analyzing data from national sources at the state level.

  19. State Capacity for Leadership: Ensuring Meaningful Higher Education Involvement in State Implementation of New Assessments Aligned with the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and assessments aligned to them represent a significant milestone in public education reform in the U.S. Developed with consultation from higher education, the rigorous new standards and the assessments now being drafted by two consortia promise to help students reach higher levels of academic achievement and…

  20. INDIRECT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AT THE UNITED STATES ENRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1980s, expousres and subsequent health impact assessments from contaminants emitted into the air from stationary sources focused on the inhalation pathway. This 'direct' pathway of exposure was thought to be the most critical pathway, as it is for many contaminants. ...

  1. Seismic risk assessment and application in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk is a somewhat subjective, but important, concept in earthquake engineering and other related decision-making. Another important concept that is closely related to seismic risk is seismic hazard. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different: seismic hazard describes the natural phenomenon or physical property of an earthquake, whereas seismic risk describes the probability of loss or damage that could be caused by a seismic hazard. The distinction between seismic hazard and seismic risk is of practical significance because measures for seismic hazard mitigation may differ from those for seismic risk reduction. Seismic risk assessment is a complicated process and starts with seismic hazard assessment. Although probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the most widely used method for seismic hazard assessment, recent studies have found that PSHA is not scientifically valid. Use of PSHA will lead to (1) artifact estimates of seismic risk, (2) misleading use of the annual probability of exccedance (i.e., the probability of exceedance in one year) as a frequency (per year), and (3) numerical creation of extremely high ground motion. An alternative approach, which is similar to those used for flood and wind hazard assessments, has been proposed. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  2. Instructional Sensitivity of a State's Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Welsh, Megan E.; Corson, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of achievement test score inferences largely depends on the sensitivity of scores to instruction focused on tested objectives. Sensitivity requirements are particularly challenging for standards-based assessments because a variety of plausible instructional differences across classrooms must be detected. For this study, we developed a…

  3. Induction of a novel class of diacylglycerol acyltransferases and triacylglycerol accumulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as it goes into a dormancy-like state in culture.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jaiyanth; Deb, Chirajyoti; Dubey, Vinod S; Sirakova, Tatiana D; Abomoelak, Bassam; Morbidoni, Hector R; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E

    2004-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis enters the host by inhalation of an infectious aerosol and replicates in the alveolar macrophages until the host's immune defense causes bacteriostasis, which leads the pathogen to go into nonreplicative drug-resistant dormancy. The dormant pathogen can survive for decades till the host's immune system is weakened and active tuberculosis develops. Even though fatty acids are thought to be the major energy source required for the persistence phase, the source of fatty acids used is not known. We postulate that the pathogen uses triacylglycerol (TG) as a storage form of fatty acids. Little is known about the biosynthesis of TG in M. tuberculosis. We show that 15 mycobacterial genes that we identified as putative triacylglycerol synthase (tgs) when expressed in Escherichia coli showed TGS activity, and we report some basic catalytic characteristics of the most active enzymes. We show that several tgs genes are induced when the pathogen goes into the nonreplicative drug-resistant state caused by slow withdrawal of O(2) and also by NO treatment, which is known to induce dormancy-associated genes. The gene (Rv3130c) that shows the highest TGS activity when expressed in E. coli shows the highest induction by hypoxia and NO treatment. Biochemical evidence shows that TG synthesis and accumulation occur under both conditions. We conclude that TG may be a form of energy storage for use during long-term dormancy. Therefore, TG synthesis may be an appropriate target for novel antilatency drugs that can prevent the organism from surviving dormancy and thus assist in the control of tuberculosis.

  4. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes in United States Government Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champney, Leonard; Edleman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study employs the Solomon Four-Group Design to measure student knowledge of the United States government and student knowledge of current events at the beginning of a U.S. government course and at the end. In both areas, knowledge improves significantly. Regarding knowledge of the U.S. government, both males and females improve at similar…

  5. Career Readiness Assessments across States: A Summary of Survey Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Frizzell, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The notion of what it means for a student to be "career-ready" is changing as a result of the recent push by the federal and state governments to ensure that all students are prepared for college and careers by the time they graduate from high school. While much attention has been paid to the "college-ready" aspect of college…

  6. Western state instream flow programs: a comparative assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Matthew J.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1988-01-01

    During their early history, Western States water rights laws were primarily means for facilitating and regulating water diversions for offstream, consumptive use. More recently, a countervailing concern for instream values such as fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, aesthetic values, and water quality has emerged in the legislative and administrative handling of water rights. As of 1988, the Western United States show a variety of approaches to balancing instream and diversion water rights, from zero control through administrative actions to legislatively established rights for guaranteed instream flows. The nine Western States that have adopted statutory instream flow protection programs include Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Arizona, California, and Nevada have relied, to date, on administrative and judicial decisions, while New Mexico has established no mechanism for protecting instream water uses. In the States with statutory protection, instream water uses are granted the same legal status as any other water uses under the prior appropriation doctrine. The success of instream flow protection has been remarkable, given the controversial nature of the issue, with nearly 2,000 stream reaches protected.

  7. 1:1 Technology and Computerized State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    American students in the 21st century are growing up with Internet accessible technology available at their fingertips. Considering this and the continued pressure to compete in a global society, The United States' Department of Education's National Education Technology Plan (NETP) (2010) calls for educators to leverage technology in order to…

  8. Random Vibrations: Assessment of the State of the Art

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L.

    1999-02-23

    Random vibration is the phenomenon wherein random excitation applied to a mechanical system induces random response. We summarize the state of the art in random vibration analysis and testing, commenting on history, linear and nonlinear analysis, the analysis of large-scale systems, and probabilistic structural testing.

  9. The Effect of Inclusion on Student Performance on State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Years of research on the effect of inclusive placements on the academic performance of students with disabilities has been notable for its inconsistent and contradictory findings. This study examined the performance of 651 elementary, middle, and high school students with disabilities in a large urban school district in a plains state on state…

  10. Annual Performance Report: 2007-2008 State Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Jason; Thurlow, Martha; Vang, Mai

    2010-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports (APRs) and Section 618 Table 6 data together to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before February 1, 2009. These reports may have been modified during the following few months,…

  11. Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Tongans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Moy, Karen; Dinger, Mary K.; Williams, Daniel P.; Harbour, Vanessa J.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, health statistics data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) in the United States were almost nonexistent, due to their being historically aggregated into one homogenous group with Asian Americans. However, recent studies on U.S. NHPI highlight a multitude of obesity-related health disparities indicating the necessity…

  12. Assessing the Exposome with External Measures: Commentary on the State of the Science and Research Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Anderson, Kim; Balshaw, David; Cui, Yuxia; Dunton, Genevieve; Hoppin, Jane A; Koutrakis, Petros; Jerrett, Michael

    2017-03-20

    The exposome comprises all environmental exposures that a person experiences from conception throughout the life course. Here we review the state of the science for assessing external exposures within the exposome. This article reviews (a) categories of exposures that can be assessed externally, (b) the current state of the science in external exposure assessment, (c) current tools available for external exposure assessment, and (d) priority research needs. We describe major scientific and technological advances that inform external assessment of the exposome, including geographic information systems; remote sensing; global positioning system and geolocation technologies; portable and personal sensing, including smartphone-based sensors and assessments; and self-reported questionnaire assessments, which increasingly rely on Internet-based platforms. We also discuss priority research needs related to methodological and technological improvement, data analysis and interpretation, data sharing, and other practical considerations, including improved assessment of exposure variability as well as exposure in multiple, critical life stages.

  13. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  15. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure.

  16. Effects Based Assessment in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    during OIF includes: Predator and Global Hawk UAV, RC-135 Rivet Joint , E-8 JSTARS, E-3 AWACS, and overhead national assets. 59 Operation Iraqi Freedom...Moseley, Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC), succinctly described OIF assessment when he said, “BDA [was...only three weeks, the war was over. During these three weeks, Moseley’s air component provided crucial support to Frank’s joint campaign. In order

  17. Emergency Food Delivery: A State-of-the-Art Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    established contacts with other federal offices at the state and local levels and first-hand experience and familiarity with local socioeconomic and...Its readiness to do so forms the essence of the second question that the review raises. While FEMA has acquired a familiarity with disasters, it has not...Bevoling, Ministry of Interior, Schedeldoekshaven 200, Postbus 20011, 2500 The Hague, THE NETHERLANDS. 236. Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion

  18. How Well Aligned Are State Assessments of Student Achievement with State Content Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John

    2011-01-01

    Coherence is the core principle underlying standards-based educational reforms. Assessments aligned with content standards are designed to guide instruction and raise achievement. The authors investigate the coherence of standards-based reform's key instruments using the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum. Analyzing 138 standards-assessment pairs…

  19. Silver solid-state bonding: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.

    1986-07-07

    Silver solid-state bonding is a joining process which has been largely developed at Rocky Flats and used successfully in a number of programs. The implementation of this technology has generally been successful, but significant problems have been encountered in 316 stainless steel-to-1100 aluminum transition joints. In this paper, the known information about the effect of variables in the various steps in the bonding process on final bond strength is reviewed. On the basis of this information, processing steps or variables with the greatest potential for causing large reductions in the final bond strength are identified. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. A Strong State Role in Common Core State Standards Implementation: Rubric and Self-Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzman, Alissa; Porter, William; Towne, Lisa; Vranek, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent an extraordinary opportunity for education in the U.S.: Not only do they provide for the first time a common platform for states to collaborate and to compare performance, but they also align expectations for student achievement with the demands of college and careers in the 21st century and the…

  1. Preliminary assessment of radon potential of the Pacific coast states

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, J.K. )

    1993-04-01

    The US Geological Survey has recently released preliminary assessments of the radon potential in Washington, Oregon, and California. These assessments, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, are based on geology, soils, aeroradiometric data, indoor radon data, and housing characteristics. Coastal mountain areas with low-uranium basaltic rocks and high soil moisture, and drier inland areas of low-uranium basaltic rocks in the northern part of the three-stage area have low round potential (<10 percent of homes with >4 pCi/L). Areas with highly permeable, uraniferous glacial outwash deposits in central and northeastern Washington; local areas with uraniferous marine shales in southern and south-central California; areas of granites, acidic volcanic rocks and alluvium derived from then in southeastern Oregon and central California; and steep soils developed on volcanic rocks in the Columbia River Gorge all have moderate (10-25 percent of homes with >4 pCi/L) radon potential. Extreme levels of indoor radon are possible in the northern Spokane, Wash. suburbs where homes may be sited on uranium occurrences. the radon potential of Mojave-Desert areas with high-uranium soils and rocks seems to be lowered by low radon entry rates, probably caused by slab-on-grade construction, use of evaporative coolers, and lifestyle factors. With the uranium-rich soils and rocks present, however, high indoor radon levels are possible where unusual housing conditions are present.

  2. A Multi-sector Drought Vulnerability Assessment for the State of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggett, Graeme

    2013-04-01

    A Drought Vulnerability Assessment was conducted for the State of Colorado to inform the State Drought Mitigation and Response Plan. The approach developed examines drought vulnerability in a flexible and comprehensive manner intended to determine the vulnerability to state assets and various sectors to drought on a jurisdictional (i.e. county) level. Previous vulnerability studies performed as part of state drought plans have struggled to quantify the impacts of drought. This project was scoped to go beyond previous work and develop a methodology to evaluate drought impacts not only to state assets and agriculture, but to other economic sectors within Colorado. Interrelationships between sectors that either alleviate or compound drought impacts were assessed and quantified, and the capacity to manage future incidents by adapting to the hazard was assessed. The vulnerability assessment includes an assessment of the impacts of climate change on water availability for agriculture and municipal water supply. The approach developed here is a hybrid quantitative and qualitative approach. Very little of this type of work has been done to date in drought vulnerability work. Impacts of drought to state assets and sectors were identified through literature reviews, previous drought impact reports for the state of Colorado, and interviews with sector representatives. A spreadsheet-based tool was developed to tabulate impact data in a transparent and easy-to-edit way, and to incorporate qualitative impact information obtained from interviews and previous reports. Results of the assessment were analyzed spatially and used to make recommendations for drought planning and mitigation.

  3. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  4. Issues and Consequences for State-Level Minimum Competency Testing Programs. State Assessment Series. Wyoming Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott F.; Sheinker, Alan

    This report reviews the current status, empirical findings, theoretical issues, and practical considerations related to state-level minimum competency testing programs. It finds that, although two-thirds of current testing programs now use direct writing prompts to assess writing achievement, essentially all programs rely on multiple choice tests…

  5. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  6. Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

  7. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Assessing the State of the Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The presentations, panel summaries, agenda sessions transcripts, and papers prepared by session authors for the April 2006 Symposium on Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Assessing the State of the Science.

  8. National assessment of the consequences of climate change for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M. C., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is initiating a national assessment of the consequences of climate change and climate variability for the United States and the significance of these consequences for its people.

  9. Assessing the risk of earthquakes in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Although earthquakes in the U.S. are generally considered California's problem, a number of major earthquakes have struck the central and eastern United States. The last damaging earthquake in the eastern U.S. occurred in 1886, near Charleston, SC, killing 60 people and causing extensive damage in Charleston. During the winter of 1811-12, three major earthquakes occurred near New Madrid in southeastern Missouri. Because the area, at that time, was sparsely populated, casualties were not extensive, but the quakes caused damage and ground shaking over an area 20 times larger than that for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Because of these earthquakes and others, the potential for damaging earthquakes in the eastern U.S. is real, and this was the subject of a recent meeting of geologists, seismologists, and engineers in Knoxville, TN, in September 1981. The highlights of their discussions are presented in this article.

  10. Concurrent Validity of the Independent Reading Level Assessment Framework and a State Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Nicole C.; Waggoner, Jacqueline M.; Tarasawa, Beth; Jackson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the use of screening assessments within the increasingly popular Response to Intervention (RTI) framework, specifically seeking to collect concurrent validity evidence on one potential new screening tool, the Independent Reading Level Assessment (IRLA) framework. Furthermore, this study builds on existing literature by…

  11. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Theodore E., Ed.

    "The Role of the State in Performance-Based Teacher Education-Certification" by Robert Roth creates a context for viewing how state agencies are approaching performance education. Peter Airasian then explores the value questions that are at the heart of evaluation issues. Fred McDonald looks at "The State of the Art in Performance Assessment," and…

  12. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Jason; Tinnesand, Heidi; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will

  13. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  14. Putting Civics to the Test: The Impact of State-Level Civics Assessments on Civic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing national debate over the efficacy of state-level exams and whether assessments in civics enhances democratic education. This paper uses a large 2012 national survey of 18-24-year-olds to examine the potential effect of civics assessments on civic outcomes. In doing so, it attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do civics…

  15. Local Assessment Responses to a State-Mandated Minimum-Competency Testing Program: Benefits and Drawbacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; And Others

    A study was undertaken to describe assessment activities of four school districts in Maryland (Washington, Cecil, Montgomery, and Charles Counties) designed to parallel a state-mandated competency-testing program required for high school graduation and to report uses of scores and positive and negative impacts from assessment activities. The…

  16. Secondary Pre-Service Teachers' Content Knowledge for State Assessments: Implications for Mathematics Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilburne, Jane M.; Long, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Seventy secondary mathematics pre-service teachers from two universities were assessed on their content knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and their perceived confidence in teaching the content addressed on the eleventh grade state assessment. The results indicate the pre-service teachers had significant content weakness in data analysis, algebra,…

  17. Technical Report of the NAEP 1994 Trial State Assessment Program in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of the design for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1994 Trial State Assessment in Reading and gives an overview of the steps involved in the implementation of the program from the planning stages through to the analysis and reporting of data. The report does not provide the results of the…

  18. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  19. Common Core State Standards Benchmark Assessments: Item Alignment to the Shifts in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stugart, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Our nation is in the midst of one of the largest education reforms in decades centered on the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and aligned assessments. In an era of rising accountability measures and declining literacy proficiency, it is vital to ensure that educational resources, such as benchmark assessments, are appropriately…

  20. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  1. The 2% Transition: Supporting Access to State Assessments for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Most students with disabilities participate in state assessments with or without accommodations [based on each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP)]. A small number of students with the most severe or profound intellectual disabilities participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). Until…

  2. A Massachusetts and Multi-State Approach to Statewide Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pat; Orcutt, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes efforts in Massachusetts and the Multi-State Collaborative to Advance Learning Outcomes Assessment (MSC) to develop a statewide system for learning outcomes assessment that does not rely on standardized testing and that is designed to transcend the traditional tensions and boundaries between campus-based formative and…

  3. Assessment of the Economics and Finance Collections at Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tygett, Mary

    This document describes a collection assessment made of the Economics and Finance holdings at Ward Edwards Library at Central Missouri State University (CMSU). The assessment is divided into three parts: (1) books, (2) serials, and (3) standing orders/reference materials. In addition to standard collection development sources such as…

  4. A National Assessment of Forest Fragmentation Change for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of land-cover change is important for ecological assessments and environmental planning. We used national land-cover change data, resolved at 0.09 ha per pixel, to assess change in forest fragmentation for the conterminous United States. Temporal change in fragmen...

  5. Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000: Analysis of Questionnaire Data from United States Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) is an International Examination that was developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to assess the reading, mathematics, and science literacy of students in participating countries, including the United States. PISA is a two-hour paper-and-pencil…

  6. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  7. U.S. states and territories national tsunami hazard assessment, historic record and sources for waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Weaver, C.

    2007-12-01

    In 2005, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) released a joint report by the sub-committee on Disaster Reduction and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations titled Tsunami Risk Reduction for the United States: A Framework for Action (Framework). The Framework outlines the President's&pstrategy for reducing the United States tsunami risk. The first specific action called for in the Framework is to "Develop standardized and coordinated tsunami hazard and risk assessments for all coastal regions of the United States and its territories." Since NOAA is the lead agency for providing tsunami forecasts and warnings and NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) catalogs information on global historic tsunamis, NOAA/NGDC was asked to take the lead in conducting the first national tsunami hazard assessment. Earthquakes or earthquake-generated landslides caused more than 85% of the tsunamis in the NGDC tsunami database. Since the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research on earthquake hazards facing all of the United States and its territories, NGDC and USGS partnered together to conduct the first tsunami hazard assessment for the United States and its territories. A complete tsunami hazard and risk assessment consists of a hazard assessment, exposure and vulnerability assessment of buildings and people, and loss assessment. This report is an interim step towards a tsunami risk assessment. The goal of this report is provide a qualitative assessment of the United States tsunami hazard at the national level. Two different methods are used to assess the U.S. tsunami hazard. The first method involves a careful examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database. This resulted in a qualitative national tsunami hazard assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths found in the NGDC database search were compared with the

  8. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards. The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the CCSS; each…

  9. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…

  10. Impact of Design Effects in Large-Scale District and State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that sampling design effects have potentially huge unrecognized impacts on the results reported by large-scale district and state assessments in the United States. When design effects are unrecognized and unaccounted for they lead to underestimating the sampling error in item and test statistics. Underestimating the sampling…

  11. Addressing Two Commonly Unrecognized Sources of Score Instability in Annual State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doorey, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    The work reported in this paper reflects a collaborative effort of many individuals representing multiple organizations. It began during a session at the October 2008 meeting of TILSA when a representative of a member state asked the group if any of their programs had experienced unexpected fluctuations in the annual state assessment scores, and…

  12. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  13. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…

  14. Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2011-01-01

    The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…

  15. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  16. Assessment of Social Media Utilization and Study Habit of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olutola, Adekunle Thomas; Olatoye, Olufunke Omotoke; Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated assessment of social media utilization and study habits of students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students' of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. Researchers'-designed…

  17. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Youth in the United States of America: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, John H.; Benson, Nicholas; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and youth in the United States of America, as well as current practices and future directions. Although administration of intelligence tests in the schools has been a longstanding practice in the United States, their use has also elicited sharp controversy over time.…

  18. 45 CFR 2550.85 - How will the State Plan be assessed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will the State Plan be assessed? 2550.85 Section 2550.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE COMMISSIONS AND...

  19. 45 CFR 2550.85 - How will the State Plan be assessed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will the State Plan be assessed? 2550.85 Section 2550.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE COMMISSIONS AND...

  20. 45 CFR 2550.85 - How will the State Plan be assessed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will the State Plan be assessed? 2550.85 Section 2550.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE COMMISSIONS AND...

  1. 45 CFR 2550.85 - How will the State Plan be assessed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will the State Plan be assessed? 2550.85 Section 2550.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE COMMISSIONS AND...

  2. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  3. National Lakes Assessment 2012: A Collaborative Survey of Lakes in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lakes Assessment 2012: A Collaborative Survey of Lakes in the United States presents the results of a second evaluation of the lakes in the United States. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed t...

  4. 2005 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities. Synthesis Report 64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lail, Kathryn E.; Eisenbraun, Kristin D.; Kato, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2005 (based on 2003 data). The current analysis of states' 2005 participation…

  5. The use of LANDSAT by the states for water quality assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT for water resources applications in U.S. state demonstration projects is reviewed. The most common single application undertaken between 1976 and 1981 was found to be water condition assessment. The majority of projects, however, fell into the general category of watershed hydrology. Some of the states are attempting to use LANDSAT data in an operational mode for water quality assessment. Two of these state projects from Vermont and Wisconsin are described in brief. The basic information requirements of Section 314 of the U.S. Pollution Control Act are given with the type of input LANDSAT data could potentially provide toward those requirements. Surveys were performed to determine: (1) how its states were responding in 1980 to 1981 to the federal and state water quality laws; and (2) the status of LANDSAT analysis capabilities of each state.

  6. Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Potential for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Defne, Z.; Jiang, L.; Fritz, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    Tidal streams are high velocity sea currents created by periodic horizontal movement of the tides, often magnified by local topographical features such as headlands, inlets to inland lagoons, and straits. Tidal stream energy extraction is derived from the kinetic energy of the moving flow; analogous to the way a wind turbine operates in air, and as such differs from tidal barrages, which relies on providing a head of water for energy extraction. With the constantly increasing effort in promoting alternative energy, tidal streams have become promising energy sources due to their continuous, predictable and concentrated characteristics. However, the present lack of a full spatial-temporal assessment of tidal currents for the U.S. coastline down to the scale of individual devices is a barrier to the comprehensive development of tidal current energy technology. A methodology for creating a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology has been developed. The tidal flows are simulated using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is calibrated and validated using observations and tidal predictions. The calibration includes adjustments to model parameters such as bottom friction coefficient, changed land/water masks, or increased grid resolutions. A systematic validation process has been developed after defining various parameters to quantify the validation results. In order to determine the total tidal stream power resource, a common method frequently proposed is to estimate it as a fraction of the total kinetic energy flux passing through a vertical section; however, this now has been shown to generally underestimate the total available resource. The total tidal energy flux includes not just the kinetic energy but also the energy flux due to the work done by the pressure force associated with the tidal motion on the water column as well

  7. Using Fiction to Assess Mental State Understanding: A New Task for Assessing Theory of Mind in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P.; Hooker, Christine I.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others – an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task – the Short Story Task (SST) - intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters’ mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability. PMID:24244736

  8. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    PubMed

    Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P; Hooker, Christine I

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST)--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  9. [Mercury and copper accumulation during last fifty years and their potential ecological risk assessment in sediment of mangrove wetland of Shenzhen, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Li; Chai, Min-Wei; Qiu, Guo-Yu; He, Bei

    2012-12-01

    The processes of sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in gulf region. Chronological analysis of the sediment core collected from mangrove wetland in Shenzhen Bay showed that the sedimentation rate was about 1.38 cm x a(-1). Soil buck density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC) changed in range of 0.36-0.71 g x cm(-3), 6-7, 2.93 x 10(3) -4.97 x 10(3) microS x cm(-1), and 1.5% - 3.8%, respectively. With the increase of soil depth, the soil buck density and EC increased gradually. However, the TOC decreased, with no significant change of pH. Contents of Hg and Cu in the whole depth of core ranged between 92-196 ng x g(-1) and 29-83 microg x g(-1), respectively. And both of them in sediment increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing soil depth. At 14 cm depth, contents of Hg and Cu reached up to the highest levels. Correspondingly, the ecological risk of Hg and Cu changed similarly with the contents of Hg and Cu. At 14 cm depth, the ecological risk indexes of Hg and Cu were at the highest levels of 39.10 and 13.85, respectively. The potential ecological risks of both Hg and Cu in sediments were mild. The rapid economical development of Hong Kong in 1960-1985 and Shenzhen in 1985-2000 contributed much to the Hg and Cu accumulation in mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay, China. Since the year of 2000, the reduction in contents of Hg and Cu has been expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies, improving the environment for growth of mangrove. In conclusion, the variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessment along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and extent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Shenzhen Bay and the catchments.

  10. Performance assessment of a commonly used "accumulation and wash-off" model from long-term continuous road runoff turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Bonhomme, Céline; Al Ali, Saja; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    The suitability of a commonly used accumulation and wash-off model for continuous modelling of urban runoff contamination was evaluated based on 11-month turbidity and flow-rate records from an urban street. Calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed using a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling method for both suspended solids loads (discharge rates) and concentration modelling. Selected models failed at replicating suspended solids concentration over the complete monitoring period. The studied dataset indeed suggests that the accumulation process is rather unpredictable and cannot be satisfactorily represented with usual accumulation models unless short periods are considered. Regarding suspended solid loads modelling, noticeably better performance was achieved, but similar results could as well be obtained with much simpler constant concentration models. Unless providing very accurate estimates of concentrations in runoff, accounting for their temporal variability during rain events may therefore not always be necessary for pollutant loads modelling, as loads are in fact mostly explained by runoff volumes.

  11. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  12. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  13. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  14. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  15. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  16. Instructional and Assessment Accommodations in Kentucky. State Assessment Series, Maryland/Kentucky Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Ysseldyke, Jim; Bielinski, John; House, Allison; Trimble, Scott; Insko, Bill; Owens, Cindy

    This study examined the relationship between instructional and assessment accommodations for students with and without disabilities participating in the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The study evaluated the educational records of 78 students with disabilities and 51 students from the general population. Results are…

  17. Rhode Island State Assessment Program District and School Testing Coordinators Handbook: K-1 Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This handbook will assist principals and school testing coordinators in implementing the spring 2007 administration of the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA). Information regarding administration timeline, reporting, process, online tools and contact personnel is discussed. Contents include: (1) Scheduling; (2) Identify Primary Test…

  18. Changing perceptions of United States natural-gas resources as shown by successive U. S. Department of the Interior assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in four successive estimates of United States technically recoverable natural gas resources are examined in this report. The effective dates of these assessments were January 1 of 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1994. The 1994 estimate of the U.S. total gas endowment increased significantly over the previous three estimates, indicating that the technically recoverable endowment of gas is not an absolute volume, but rather is a quantity that can increase through time in response to advances in technology and in geologic understanding. Much of this increase was in the category of reserve growth. Reserve growth refers to additions to the estimated ultimate recovery of fields that typically occur as discovered fields are developed and produced. The potential for U.S. reserve growth, rather than being rapidly used up, appears to be sustainable for many years by intensive engineering efforts coupled with improving technology. Potential additions to reserves in continuous (unconventional) accumulations also represent a type of reserve growth, and were estimated (for the first time) in the 1994 assessment at 358 trillion cubic feet of gas. This resource category provides a significant new contribution to the estimated U.S. total gas endowment.

  19. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  20. Is State Assessment a Viable Tool for Reflection of Classroom Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tony; Newsome, Kolouia

    North Carolina uses Dimensions of Thinking (Marzano et al., 1988) as a framework to incorporate higher order thinking in their End-of- Course exams. The goal of this research was to explore whether this effort could also help facilitate the inclusion of higher order thinking in the classroom. Based on reviewing state EOC-related documents and…

  1. A novel manifold-manifold distance index applied to looseness state assessment of viscoelastic sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; Guo, Ting; Luo, Xue; Qu, Jinxiu; Zhang, Chenxuan; Cheng, Wei; Li, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Viscoelastic sandwich structures (VSS) are widely used in mechanical equipment; their state assessment is necessary to detect structural states and to keep equipment running with high reliability. This paper proposes a novel manifold-manifold distance-based assessment (M2DBA) method for assessing the looseness state in VSSs. In the M2DBA method, a manifold-manifold distance is viewed as a health index. To design the index, response signals from the structure are firstly acquired by condition monitoring technology and a Hankel matrix is constructed by using the response signals to describe state patterns of the VSS. Thereafter, a subspace analysis method, that is, principal component analysis (PCA), is performed to extract the condition subspace hidden in the Hankel matrix. From the subspace, pattern changes in dynamic structural properties are characterized. Further, a Grassmann manifold (GM) is formed by organizing a set of subspaces. The manifold is mapped to a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), where support vector data description (SVDD) is used to model the manifold as a hypersphere. Finally, a health index is defined as the cosine of the angle between the hypersphere centers corresponding to the structural baseline state and the looseness state. The defined health index contains similarity information existing in the two structural states, so structural looseness states can be effectively identified. Moreover, the health index is derived by analysis of the global properties of subspace sets, which is different from traditional subspace analysis methods. The effectiveness of the health index for state assessment is validated by test data collected from a VSS subjected to different degrees of looseness. The results show that the health index is a very effective metric for detecting the occurrence and extension of structural looseness. Comparison results indicate that the defined index outperforms some existing state-of-the-art ones.

  2. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": Guidance for States and State Assessment Consortia in Defining and Addressing Policy and Technical Issues and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    States participating in the four federally-funded assessment consortia are required to establish a "common definition of English Learner." This includes the two Race to the Top academic assessment consortia and the two Enhanced Assessment Grant English language proficiency (ELP) assessment consortia. This paper provides guidance that…

  3. An Education in Contrast: State-by-State Assessment of School Immunization Records Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Amy B.; Field, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the complexities of school-related immunization policies, their relation to immunization information systems (IIS) and immunization registries, and the historical context to better understand this convoluted policy system. Methods. We used legal databases (Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw) to identify school immunization records policies for 50 states, 5 cities, and the District of Columbia (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “grantees”). The original search took place from May to September 2010 (cross-referenced in July 2013 with the list on http://www.immunize.org/laws). We describe the requirements, agreement with IIS policies, and penalties for policy violations. Results. We found a complex web of public health, medical, and education-directed policies, which complicates immunization data sharing. Most (79%) require records of immunizations for children to attend school or for a child-care institution licensure, but only a few (11%) require coordination between IIS and schools or child-care facilities. Conclusions. To realize the full benefit of IIS investment, including improved immunization and school health program efficiencies, IIS and school immunization records policies must be better coordinated. States with well-integrated policies may serve as models for effective harmonization. PMID:25122033

  4. Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Levis, J W; Barlaz, M A; Themelis, N J; Ulloa, P

    2010-01-01

    Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic wastes (SSO). The objective of this study was to characterize the state-of-the-practice of food waste treatment alternatives in the US and Canada. Site visits were conducted to aerobic composting and two anaerobic digestion facilities, in addition to meetings with officials that are responsible for program implementation and financing. The technology to produce useful products from either aerobic or anaerobic treatment of SSO is in place. However, there are a number of implementation issues that must be addressed, principally project economics and feedstock purity. Project economics varied by region based on landfill disposal fees. Feedstock purity can be obtained by enforcement of contaminant standards and/or manual or mechanical sorting of the feedstock prior to and after treatment. Future SSO diversion will be governed by economics and policy incentives, including landfill organics bans and climate change mitigation policies.

  5. State Transition to High-Quality, College/Career-Ready Assessments: A Workbook for State Action on Key Policy, Legal, and Technical Issues. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Over the next few years, states will be transitioning to new, high-quality assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) or other state college- and career-ready (CCR) standards. States are committed to making this transition in a manner that is determined and thoughtful--to help transform teaching and learning, advance CCR…

  6. State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States. Report 18. Errors in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    PAPER S-73-lu- STATE-OF-THE-ART FOR ASSESSING EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE - UNITED STATES Report 18 ERRORS IN PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSISo by...Daniel. Veneziano t(Ii Department of Civil Engineering ~ MassachuseWt institute oF Technology .0 Cambridge, Mass. 02139 January 1982 Report 18 of a Serios...COVE.RED STATE-OF-THE-ART FOR ASSESSING EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE UNITED STATES; Report 18 , ERRORS IN Report 18 of a series PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC

  7. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  8. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  9. Assessment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P.

    2012-12-12

    This report describes the methodology and results of the most rigorous assessment to date of the riverine hydrokinetic energy resource in the contiguous 48 states and Alaska, excluding tidal waters. The assessment provides estimates of the gross, naturally available resource, termed the theoretical resource, as well as estimates, termed the technically recoverable resource, that account for selected technological factors affecting capture and conversion of the theoretical resource. The technically recoverable resource does not account for all technical constraints on energy capture and conversion.

  10. What States Can Learn about State Standards and Assessment Systems from No Child Left Behind Documents and Interviews with Central Region Assessment Directors. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 036

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elisabeth A.; Barley, Zoe A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the No Child Left Behind requirements for state standards and assessment systems. It examined official documents and peer review decision letters and included interviews with state assessment directors in the Central Region to highlight the challenges states face in developing and implementing approved…

  11. Assessing Student Achievement in the States: Background Studies. Studies for the Evaluation of the NAEP Trial State Assessment Commissioned for the National Academy of Education Panel Report on the 1990 Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Education, Stanford, CA.

    This document presents 10 papers concerning the 1990 Trial State Assessment, which was restricted to the eighth-grade public school population in 37 states, the District of Columbia, and 2 U.S. territories. The following are the papers: (1) "A Critique of Sampling in the 1990 Trial State Assessment" (Bruce D. Spencer); (2)…

  12. A novel multisensor traffic state assessment system based on incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  13. The sociologist and the state. An assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Willem

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology based on a reading of his posthumously published lectures on the state in Sur l'État. It argues that the state was a foundational element in Bourdieu's rendition of the symbolic order of everyday life. As such, the state becomes equally pivotal in Bourdieu's sociology, the applicability of which rests on the existence of the state, which stabilizes the social fields and their symbolic action that constitute the object of sociology. The state, which Bourdieu considers a 'meta'-ordering principle in social life, ensures that sociology has a well-ordered object of study, vis-à-vis which it can posit itself as 'meta-meta'. The state thus functions as an epistemic guarantee in Bourdieu's sociology. A critical analysis of Bourdieu's sociology of the state offers the chance of a more fundamental overall assessment of Bourdieu's conception of sociology that has relevance for any critical sociological perspective that rests on the assumption of a meta-social entity, such as the state in Bourdieu's work, as a final ordering instance.

  14. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the production of greenhouse fruiting-cuttings and in vitro organ culture techniques. 13C and 15N labelling experiments showed that this system enables the intact detached berries actively to absorb and utilize carbon and nitrogen from the culture medium. It was further used to study the effects of sugars on anthocyanin accumulation. A sucrose concentration >2% could induce anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of additional exogenous abscisic acid. The higher the sucrose concentration, the earlier was the induction of anthocyanin accumulation. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose increased anthocyanin accumulation, with glucose and fructose being more effective than sucrose. This increase was not due to an increase in its precursor level, since the phenylalanine content was decreased by a high sugar supply. Instead, genome-wide transcriptome analysis suggests that the sugar-induced enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation results from altered expression of regulatory and structural genes (especially UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase), together with massive reprogramming in signalling transduction pathways. This in vitro system may serve to study the response of berry composition to nutrient factors and hormones, and their interaction with environmental factors (e.g. light and temperature), which can all be finely tuned and controlled. PMID:24477640

  15. Annual Sea Level Variability Induced by Changes in Sea Ice Extent and Accumulation on Ice Sheets: An Assessment Based on Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Giovinetto, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes of mean annual net accumulation at the surface on the grounded ice sheets of East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and Greenland in response to variations in sea ice extent are estimated using grid-point values 100 km apart. The data bases are assembled principally by bilinear interpolation of remotely sensed brightness temperature (Nimbus-5 ESMR, Nimbus-7 SMMR), surface temperature (Nimbus-7 THIR), and surface elevation (ERS-1 radar altimeter). These data, complemented by field data where remotely sensed data are not available, are used in multivariate analyses in which mean annual accumulation (derived from firn emissivity) is the dependent variable; the independent variables are latitude, surface elevation, mean annual surface temperature, and mean annual distance to open ocean (as a source of energy and moisture). The last is the shortest distance measured between a grid point and the mean annual position of the 10% sea ice concentration boundary, and is used as an index of changes in sea ice extent as well as of mean concentration. Stepwise correlation analyses indicate that variations in sea ice extent of +/-50 km would lead to changes in accumulation inversely of +/-4% on East Antarctica, +/- 10% on West Antarctica, and +4% on Greenland. These results are compared with those obtained in a previous study using visually interpolated values from contoured compilations of field data; they substantiate the findings for the Antarctic ice sheets (+/-4% on East Antarctica, +/-9% in West Antarctica), and suggest a reduction by one half of the probable change of accumulation on Greenland (from +/-8%). The results also suggest a reduction of the combined contribution to sea level variability to +/- 0.19 mm/a (from +/- 0.22 mm/a).

  16. Map of assessed tight-gas resources in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R. H.; ,

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of tight-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within tight-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the second digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hard-copy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS tight-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  17. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  18. Characterization of the fatigue behavior of the medial collateral ligament utilizing traditional and novel mechanical variables for the assessment of damage accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zec, Michelle L; Thistlethwaite, Paul; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2010-01-01

    Ligaments are regularly subjected to repetitive loading in vivo. Typically, mechanical studies focus on repetitive loading protocols of short duration, while those characterizing damage accumulation over a longer duration (i.e., fatigue studies) are lacking. The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to demonstrate that damage does accumulate in ligament tissue subjected to repetitive loading and (b) to evaluate existing and new methods for characterizing fatigue damage accumulation. It was hypothesized that ligaments would accumulate damage with repetitive loading as evidenced by failure at stresses well below ultimate tensile strength, creep curve discontinuities, and by reductions in stiffness during loading. Eight normal medial collateral ligaments from female New Zealand white rabbits were cycled in tension, between 0 MPa and 28 MPa, to failure or until 259,200 cycles, whichever came first. Medial collateral ligaments that did not fail were subsequently loaded to failure. Displacement rates (dl(max)/dt) as well as primary, secondary, and tertiary creeps were monitored as indices of damage accumulation and impending mechanical failure. Additionally, the relative utilities of tangent, secant, and chord stiffness parameters were critically evaluated. Finally, new uses for the second derivative of force-displacement data were explored. Three out of eight ligaments failed during testing, demonstrating that ligaments can fail in fatigue under moderate tensile stress in vitro. The evaluation of displacement rates (dl(max)/dt), as well as primary through tertiary creep patterns, were not well suited to predicting failure in normal ligaments until rupture was all but imminent. Tangent stiffness, which was calculated from a mathematically defined start of the "linear region," was surprisingly constant throughout testing. Secant stiffness dropped in a predictable fashion, providing a global indicator of tissue stiffness, but did not provide any insight into fiber

  19. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  20. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  1. Voices from the Field: Making State Assessment Decisions for English Language Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kristin K.; Goldstone, Linda; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ward, Jenna; Hatten, James; Christensen, Laurene L.

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are an increasing presence in schools in the United States. Title I and Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act require that these students meet the same academic grade-level standards and participate in content assessments as their fluent-English speaking peers without…

  2. Influencing Public School Policy in the United States: The Role of Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Burroughs, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review the influence of state, national and international large-scale assessments (LSAs) on education policy and research. They distinguish between two main uses of LSAs: as a means for conducting research that informs educational reform and LSAs as a tool for implementing standards and enforcing accountability. The authors discuss the…

  3. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  4. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as par...

  6. Postsecondary Preparation and Remediation: Examining the Effect of the Early Assessment Program at California State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jessica S.; Kurlaender, Michal; Grodsky, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how participation in the Early Assessment Program, which provides California high school juniors with information about their academic readiness for college-level work at California State University campuses, affects their college-going behavior and need for remediation in college. Using administrative records from…

  7. The Rise, Fall, and Rise of State Assessment in California, 1993-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Mazzeo, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    The California Learning Assessment System (CLAS) was developed in 1991 to align the state's testing system to curriculum content and improve measurement of student, school, and district performance. CLAS was discontinued because of tension between political and technical factors, key stakeholders' divergent priorities and goals, and virulent…

  8. Dangerous Liaisons: Reflections on a Pilot Project for State-Mandated Outcomes Assessment of Written Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Harry C.

    2008-01-01

    This study details the development and results of a campus-based writing assessment plan that was mandated by a state-wide university system in order to explore the ''value-added'' from a writing program curriculum to undergraduate students' competence with written expression. Four writing samples (two timed essays and two conventional essays)…

  9. Linking the New York State NYSTP Assessments to NWEA MAP Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) is committed to providing partners with useful tools to help make inferences from the Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) interim assessment scores. Recently, NWEA completed a concordance study to connect the scales of the New York State Testing Program (NYSTP) reading and math with those of the MAP…

  10. Examining Alignment: National and Local Assessments and the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the national movement to improve mathematics instruction and assessment, states and districts are looking for the best tools to measure student progress toward proficiency. There is a national dialogue about how to use 8th-grade measurements like ACT EXPLORE and NAEP as predictors of student success and school accountability. This…

  11. NONINDIGENOUS PATHOGENIC SHRIMP VIRUS INTRODUCTIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous Pathogenic Shrimp Virus Introductions into the United States: Developing a Qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment. Austin, R.K.; van der Schalie, W.R.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Menzie, C.; Menzie-Cura and Associates, Chelmsford, MA; Fair...

  12. The Definition, Assessment, and Mitigation of State Boredom within Educational Settings: A Comprehensive Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Fiorella, Logan; Carper, Teresa; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating the situational factors that give rise to state boredom is a consistent challenge facing educators. Despite the growing amount of literature devoted to the construct, the field has yet to arrive at a consensus regarding a clear theoretical or operational definition. Subsequently, inconsistencies exist in the assessment methodologies,…

  13. Graduation Policies for Students with Disabilities Who Participate in States' General Assessments. Synthesis Report 98

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Albus, Debra A.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Graduation requirements and diploma options for students with disabilities who participate in the general assessment has been a topic of interest for many years. The recent push for all students, including those with disabilities, to leave school ready for college and career has heightened the importance of understanding what states are requiring…

  14. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  15. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND FUTURE DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Environmental Exposures and Future Disease States

    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Hongzu Ren, Judith E. Schmid, Jessica Stapelfeldt, Lillian F. Strader, Kary E. Thompson, Douglas B. T...

  16. State Assessment of Educational Progress in North Carolina, 1973-74, Cultural Arts, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Research.

    A representative sample of about 2,500 third-graders took the Cultural Arts Test, a perception survey which was part of the 1973-74 State Assessment of Educational Progress in North Carolina. The test dealt with students' perceptions of their own competence, interests, preferences, and happiness in the cultural arts; of their teachers. and…

  17. An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrio, Angel A.

    2003-01-01

    Current and preferred culture of Ohio State University Extension was assessed by 297 extension staff categorized by gender, location, program area, title, age, and years employed. Most categories selected a Clan culture type as dominant in both the current and preferred situations. The Clan culture portrays an organization that concentrates on…

  18. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  19. An Assessment of Community College Staff Development Needs in the Northeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammons, James O.; Wallace, Terry H. Smith

    This monograph reports the results of a study conducted to make a comprehensive assessment of the inservice training needs of public and private two-year colleges in the northeastern United States and Ohio. A questionnaire was sent to the chief executive officer of 294 two-year colleges to gather information on degree of need for specific areas of…

  20. Ability of Early Literacy Measures to Predict Future State Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and predict future state reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…

  1. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…

  2. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Mathematical & Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemistry (N=145), computer science (N=58), geoscience (N=91), mathematics (N=115), physics (N=123), and statistics/biostatistics (N=64) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: program size; characteristics of graduates; reputational…

  3. Child Assessment at the Preprimary Level: Expert Opinion and State Trends. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Carol; Bowman, Barbara T.

    In Spring 2001, Erikson Institute conducted two surveys to provide practical information on the current state of expert opinion and public practice with regard to the assessment of prekindergarten children. The first survey questioned a select group of 25 national leaders in the early childhood field regarding the most important components of a…

  4. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  5. State & District-Wide Assessments of School Achievement. Issues in Education. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovations in Special Education, Columbia, MO.

    This bulletin provides guidelines to Missouri educators concerning inclusion of students with disabilities in state and district-wide assessments of school achievement as required under Missouri's Outstanding Schools Act and the reauthorization of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997. It stresses the greater focus on…

  6. German Studies in the United States: Assessment and Outlook. Monatshefte Occasional Volume Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes, Walter F. W., Ed.; Nollendorfs, Valters, Ed.

    This volume focuses on two principal aspects of German studies in the United States: (1) an assessment of the German-teaching profession from primary to graduate school, with attention to its "raison d'etre" in the present academic, social, and cultural situation, as well as its structures, aims, and personnel; and (2) strategies for survival and…

  7. Quantifying ecosystem services from pastureland in the United States: The conservation effects assessment project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands of the United States. Society for Range Management members are familiar with the rangeland CEAP effort but may know...

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Students' Anxiety and Test Performance on State-Mandated Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Rosalinda; Menchaca, Velma; Huerta, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether relationships exist between Hispanic fourth-grade students' anxiety and test performance on a state-mandated writing assessment. Quantitative methodologies were employed by using test performance and survey data from 291 participants. While no significantly direct relationship exists between students' levels of anxiety…

  9. Constructs of Writing Proficiency in US State and National Writing Assessments: Exploring Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Jill V.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent gaps between optimistic state and pessimistic national academic performance assessment results are increasingly leading to calls for unified national standards in the US. Critics argue that these gaps reveal vast differences in how proficiency is conceptualized; however, little is known about how conceptualizations compare among…

  10. Descriptive Study of State Assessment Policies for Accommodating English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Lynn Shafer; Rivera, Charlene; Acosta, Barbara D.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a study of the U.S. Department of Education's (ED)'s efforts to support states in meeting the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (Ashby, 2006). The study found the requirement to include all students, including English language learners (ELLs) in standards and assessment systems, a…

  11. USE OF ROAD MAPS IN NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads ...

  12. Chemistry Students' Assessment of Their Teachers' Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Benue State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduloju, M. O.; Obinne, A. D. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the assessment of chemistry teachers' effectiveness by chemistry students. A survey research design was used. Two hundred students were sampled for the study from Benue State. The result showed that students agreed that their teachers cover a large part of the syllabus before the examination. Findings also revealed that there…

  13. Literacy Specialists in Math Class! Closing the Achievement Gap on State Math Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…

  14. Evaluation of Student Engagement Assessment in Colorado State University's Warner College of Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a participatory program evaluation of student engagement assessment in Colorado State University's (CSU) Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR). The college requested the evaluation after completing two pilot studies of undergraduate engagement which led them to consider establishing the…

  15. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2012-12-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the same time, a survey of faculty indicates that other concepts, such as the application of genetics to society or the environment, are viewed as equally or even more important than foundation concepts. This disconnect suggests a need for more explicit goal setting prior to curriculum development. We also review the relationship between concept inventories, multiple-choice tests measuring conceptual understanding, and curricular goals. Existing concept inventories offer a strong foundation on which to build community-developed concept assessments of genetics knowledge. Concept assessments such as these would allow the genetics education community to test hypotheses of curricular change.

  16. Psychiatric workforce needs and recommendations for the community mental health system: a state needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Berry, Frank W; Citron, Tod; Fitzgerald, Judy; Rapaport, Mark H; Stephens, Bryan; Druss, Benjamin G

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other states, Georgia is facing workforce challenges within its community mental health system. These issues may be exacerbated as implementation of the Affordable Care Act expands demand for behavioral health services. Georgia's Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities commissioned a needs assessment to examine the shortage of prescribing providers (psychiatrists, advanced practice registered nurses, and physician assistants) in the state's public mental health system. A unique partnership of key stakeholders developed and conducted the mixed-methods needs assessment at six of Georgia's 27 community mental health centers serving more than 40,000 patients annually. The assessment documented challenges in recruiting and retaining psychiatrists and workforce shortages for all prescriber groups. The authors describe opportunities for optimizing the psychiatric workforce and training the next generation of community psychiatrists.

  17. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    PubMed

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  18. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    To select suitable tree species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated area, we measured the AMF status and heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues in a lead-zinc mine area, Northwest China. All 15 tree species were colonized by AM fungi in our investigation. The mycorrhizal frequency (F%), mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and spore density (SP) reduced concomitantly with increasing Pb and Zn levels; however, positive correlations were found between arbuscule density (A%) and soil total/DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in plant samples were 168.21, 96.61, 41.06, and 0.79 mg/kg, respectively. Populus purdomii Rehd. accumulated the highest concentrations of Zn (432.08 mg/kg) and Cu (140.85 mg/kg) in its leaves. Considerable amount of Pb (712.37 mg/kg) and Cd (3.86 mg/kg) were concentrated in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Populus simonii Carr., respectively. Plants developed different strategies to survive in HM stress environment: translocating more essential metals (Zn and Cu) into the aerial parts, while retaining more toxic heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the roots to protect the above-ground parts from damage. According to the translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), growth rate and biomass production, five tree species (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Cotinus coggygria Scop., P. simonii, P. purdomii, and R. pseudoacacia) were considered to be the most suitable candidates for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization purposes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants.

  19. Nutrient limitation is the main regulatory factor for carotenoid accumulation and for Psy and Pds steady state transcript levels in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) exposed to high light and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Coesel, Sacha Nicole; Baumgartner, Alexandra Cordeiro; Teles, Licia Marlene; Ramos, Ana Alexandra; Henriques, Nuno Miguel; Cancela, Leonor; Varela, João Carlos Serafim

    2008-01-01

    Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco (1905) is a green unicellular alga able to withstand severe salt, light, and nutrient stress, adaptations necessary to grow in harsh environments such as salt ponds. In response to such growth conditions, this microalga accumulates high amounts of beta-carotene in its single chloroplast. In this study, we show that carotenoid accumulation is consistently inhibited in cells grown in nutrient-supplemented media and exposed either to high-light or medium-low-light conditions. Likewise, carotenogenesis in cells shifted to higher salinity (up to 27% NaCl) under medium-low-light conditions is inhibited by the presence of nutrients. The steady-state levels of transcripts encoding phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase increased substantially in D. salina cells shifted to high light or high salt under nutrient-limiting conditions, whereas the presence of nutrients inhibited this response. The regulatory effect of nutrient availability on the accumulation of carotenoids and messenger RNA levels of the first two enzymes committed to carotenoid biosynthesis is discussed.

  20. Review article: Assessing the costs of natural hazards - state of the art and knowledge gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.; Thieken, A. H.; Viavattene, C.

    2013-05-01

    Efficiently reducing natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards. Current methods to assess these costs employ a variety of terminologies and approaches for different types of natural hazards and different impacted sectors. This may impede efforts to ascertain comprehensive and comparable cost figures. In order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management, a review of existing cost assessment approaches was undertaken. This review considers droughts, floods, coastal and Alpine hazards, and examines different cost types, namely direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and the costs of risk mitigation. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art cost assessment approaches and discusses key knowledge gaps. It shows that the application of cost assessments in practice is often incomplete and biased, as direct costs receive a relatively large amount of attention, while intangible and indirect effects are rarely considered. Furthermore, all parts of cost assessment entail considerable uncertainties due to insufficient or highly aggregated data sources, along with a lack of knowledge about the processes leading to damage and thus the appropriate models required. Recommendations are provided on how to reduce or handle these uncertainties by improving data sources and cost assessment methods. Further recommendations address how risk dynamics due to climate and socio-economic change can be better considered, how costs are distributed and risks transferred, and in what ways cost assessment can function as part of decision support.

  1. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": A Brief Defining Policy and Technical Issues and Opportunities for State Assessment Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (USED) requires states participating in either of the two Race to the Top assessment consortia (Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers [PARCC]), as well as those participating in either of the two Enhanced Assessment Grant (EAG) English language…

  2. Moving Forward with Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Efforts: A Position Paper of the Early Childhood Education State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eboni C.

    2011-01-01

    As more states have become engaged in kindergarten assessment efforts, early childhood educators and assessment experts have recommended developing such efforts within a coordinated assessment system that provides data about children's progress over time, (pre-k through grade 12), and is designed to address both educational policy and practice…

  3. Research on the Relationship between Reaction Ability and Mental State for Online Assessment of Driving Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengzhu; Li, Shiwu; Wang, Linhong; Chai, Meng; Chen, Facheng; Wei, Yunong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Driving fatigue affects the reaction ability of a driver. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between driving fatigue, physiological signals and driver’s reaction time. Methods: Twenty subjects were tested during driving. Data pertaining to reaction time and physiological signals including electroencephalograph (EEG) were collected from twenty simulation experiments. Grey correlation analysis was used to select the input variable of the classification model. A support vector machine was used to divide the mental state into three levels. The penalty factor for the model was optimized using a genetic algorithm. Results: The results show that α/β has the greatest correlation to reaction time. The classification results show an accuracy of 86%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 85.53%. The average increase of reaction time is 16.72% from alert state to fatigued state. Females have a faster decrease in reaction ability than males as driving fatigue accumulates. Elderly drivers have longer reaction times than the young. Conclusions: A grey correlation analysis can be used to improve the classification accuracy of the support vector machine (SVM) model. This paper provides basic research that online detection of fatigue can be performed using only a simple device, which is more comfortable for users. PMID:27886139

  4. Research on the Relationship between Reaction Ability and Mental State for Online Assessment of Driving Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengzhu; Li, Shiwu; Wang, Linhong; Chai, Meng; Chen, Facheng; Wei, Yunong

    2016-11-24

    Background: Driving fatigue affects the reaction ability of a driver. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between driving fatigue, physiological signals and driver's reaction time. Methods: Twenty subjects were tested during driving. Data pertaining to reaction time and physiological signals including electroencephalograph (EEG) were collected from twenty simulation experiments. Grey correlation analysis was used to select the input variable of the classification model. A support vector machine was used to divide the mental state into three levels. The penalty factor for the model was optimized using a genetic algorithm. Results: The results show that α/β has the greatest correlation to reaction time. The classification results show an accuracy of 86%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 85.53%. The average increase of reaction time is 16.72% from alert state to fatigued state. Females have a faster decrease in reaction ability than males as driving fatigue accumulates. Elderly drivers have longer reaction times than the young. Conclusions: A grey correlation analysis can be used to improve the classification accuracy of the support vector machine (SVM) model. This paper provides basic research that online detection of fatigue can be performed using only a simple device, which is more comfortable for users.

  5. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap for Economically Disadvantaged Students? Analyzing Change since No Child Left Behind Using State Assessments and the National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.

    2011-01-01

    A critical state-level indicator of progress in public education is student achievement annual performance and change over time. The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) has been very active in tracking and reporting on student achievement results and using state assessment scores and other data to analyze achievement trends. A central…

  7. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  8. Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

    2010-04-16

    A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

  9. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  10. How Does the Hawaii High School Assessment Measure Up? A Comparison of the 2005 Grade 10 Hawaii State Assessment in Reading and Mathematics with High School Graduation Exams from Other States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    At the request of the Hawaii Department of Education, Achieve conducted a study of Hawaii's 2005 grade 10 State Assessment in reading and mathematics. The study compared the content, rigor and passing (meets proficiency) scores on Hawaii's assessment with those of the six states that participated in Achieve's earlier study, "Do Graduation…

  11. Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made to link trait-level spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering with state-level assessments of these two subtypes of mind wandering. Here we evaluated whether trait-level deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering map onto state levels of these subtypes of mind wandering. Results showed correspondence between trait-level reports of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and their state-level counterparts, indicating that people's reports on the intentionality of their mind wandering in the laboratory correspond to their reports of the intentionality of mind wandering in everyday life. Thus, the trait- and state-level scales of mind wandering were found to validate each other: Whereas the state-level measures provided some construct validity for the trait-level measures, the trait-level measures indicated that the state-level measures may be generalizable to everyday situations.

  12. The 20 GHz solid state transmitter design, impatt diode development and reliability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picone, S.; Cho, Y.; Asmus, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A single drift gallium arsenide (GaAs) Schottky barrier IMPATT diode and related components were developed. The IMPATT diode reliability was assessed. A proof of concept solid state transmitter design and a technology assessment study were performed. The transmitter design utilizes technology which, upon implementation, will demonstrate readiness for development of a POC model within the 1982 time frame and will provide an information base for flight hardware capable of deployment in a 1985 to 1990 demonstrational 30/20 GHz satellite communication system. Life test data for Schottky barrier GaAs diodes and grown junction GaAs diodes are described. The results demonstrate the viability of GaAs IMPATTs as high performance, reliable RF power sources which, based on the recommendation made herein, will surpass device reliability requirements consistent with a ten year spaceborne solid state power amplifier mission.

  13. State-of-the-art assessment: shelter habitability. Final report Oct 81-Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.D.; Chessin, R.; Laney, M.; Cox, L.

    1982-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the state-of-the-art of shelter habitability research, to describe nuclear weapons effects and mitigation techniques, to summarize current civil defense programs and policies, and to identify future research needs related to shelter habitability. The work consisted of an extensive review of civil defense literature, a review of non-civil defense literature through computer searches, and personnel communications with individual researchers. The information obtained was summarized into a state-of-the-art assessment of research related to shelter habitability. General conclusions were listed to identify areas where there is general agreement among researchers. Recommendations for further study were made for areas where there is disagreement among researchers and where there are important unanswered questions.

  14. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Bell, J N B; Marshall, F M

    2007-11-01

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions.

  15. How information resources are used by state agencies in risk assessment applications - Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.S.

    1990-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Illinois (Illinois EPA) has programs in water, air, and land pollution and water supplies paralleling those of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The organization is part of a tripartite arrangement in which the Pollution Control Board is the judicial arm, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources is the research arm, and the Illinois EPA is the enforcement arm. Other state agencies are also concerned with various aspects of the environment and may do risk assessments for chemicals. Although there are various risk assessment activities, both formal and informal, in our agency and in others, this paper will discuss only recent initiatives in water quality criteria.

  16. Assessment of Solid State Replacement of TWT Amplifiers for Satellite Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    the present state-of-the-art achievements of GaAs YET transistors, assesses their probable capabilities and the associated technology problems. Designs...8217’ " = - .. . - -. - -. ’ .. ,-,.-’, UNCeT ASITE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Wlien DOt* Entered) Thus an FET/ Read diode hybrid amplifier is proposed that...SECTION B. FET/ READ -IMPATT HYBRID AMPLIFIER FOR TWTA REPLACEMENT C.A. Lee and G.C. Dalman ............... 20 I SECTION C. DESIGN OF HIGH-POWER SOLID

  17. Heat pipes for spacecraft temperature control: An assessment of the state-of-the-art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Groll, M.

    1976-01-01

    Various heat pipe temperature control techniques are critically evaluated using characteristic features and properties, including heat transport capability, volume and mass requirements, complexity and ease of fabrication, reliability, and control characteristics. Advantages and disadvantages of specific approaches are derived and discussed. Using four development levels, the state of-the-art of the various heat pipe temperature control techniques is assessed. The need for further research and development is discussed and suggested future efforts are projected.

  18. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  19. Continuing to Hold the Test Maker Accountable: The ISLLC Standards and the New York State School District Leadership Licensure Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markson, Craig; Inserra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of school leadership candidates' perceptions of their level of training in the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards (ISLLC) with their scores on Parts I and II of the New York State School District Leader (SDL) licensure assessments. The New York State assessments were…

  20. Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales: Results from the 2013 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2015-046

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandeira de Mello, V.; Bohrnstedt, G.; Blankenship, C.; Sherman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Under the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, states developed their own assessments and set their own proficiency standards to measure student achievement. This has resulted in a great deal of variation among the states, both in their proficiency standards and in their student assessments (NCES 2008-475).…

  1. State Perspectives on Implementing, or Choosing Not to Implement, an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Porter W.

    2009-01-01

    Since Federal regulations have given states the option to implement alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS) as part of their accountability systems for a small group of students with disabilities, a number of states have made decisions about whether or not to develop and implement such an assessment.…

  2. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

  3. National assessment of capacity in public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-08

    In 2011, the University of Michigan's Center of Excellence in Public Health Workforce Studies and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) assessed the workforce and program capacity in U.S. public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories. During April-August 2011, APHL sent a web-based questionnaire to 105 public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratory directors comprising all 50 state public health laboratories, 41 local public health laboratories, eight environmental laboratories, and six agricultural laboratories. This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which inquired about laboratory capacity, including total number of laboratorians by occupational classification and self-assessed ability to carry out functions in 19 different laboratory program areas. The majority of laboratorians (74%) possessed a bachelor's degree, associate's degree, or a high school education or equivalency; 59% of all laboratorians were classified as laboratory scientists. The greatest percentage of laboratories reported no, minimal, or partial program capacity in toxicology (45%), agricultural microbiology (54%), agricultural chemistry (50%), and education and training for their employees (51%). Nearly 50% of laboratories anticipated that more than 15% of their workforce would retire, resign, or be released within 5 years, lower than the anticipated retirement eligibility rate of 27% projected for state public health workers. However, APHL and partners in local, state, and federal public health should collaborate to address gaps in laboratory capacity and rebuild the workforce pipeline to ensure an adequate future supply of public health laboratorians.

  4. Assessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Gosseries, O; Thibaut, A; Boly, M; Rosanova, M; Massimini, M; Laureys, S

    2014-02-01

    Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging population. We will here review the different altered states of consciousness occurring after severe brain damage, and explain the difficulties associated with behavioral assessment of consciousness. We will then describe a non-invasive technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with high-density electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), which has allowed us to detect the presence or absence of consciousness in different physiological, pathological and pharmacological states. Some potential underlying mechanisms of the loss of consciousness will then be discussed. In conclusion, TMS-EEG is highly promising in identifying markers of consciousness at the individual level and might be of great value for clinicians in the assessment of consciousness.

  5. A multi-model integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire Elsner, M.; Salathe, E. P.; Hamlet, A. F.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miles, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    In April 2007, the State of Washington passed legislation mandating a comprehensive statewide assessment of the impacts of climate change over the next 100 years. The Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) is working with Washington State University, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and state agencies to perform an integrated assessment on the effects of climate change for eight statewide sectors: public health, agriculture, the coastal zone, forest ecosystems, salmon, infrastructure, energy, and water supply and management. An additional Climate Scenarios Working Group serves the eight other sectors by providing projections of future regional climate, downscaled to 1/16th degree spatial resolution over the state of Washington. We utilize projections from A1B and B1 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, as simulated by the full suite of 20 GCMs, archived in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. In this approach, we apply 40 ensembles of statistically downscaled future climate to drive hydrologic model simulations. Each sector incorporates the projections of climatic and hydrologic variables in their evaluations of the impacts of climate change. Here we present impacts on hydrologic variables (such as snowpack and streamflow), as well as related implications for several of the sectors listed above, over the State of Washington for three periods: the 2020s, 2040s and 2080s. We also discuss CIG's collaboration with multi-stakeholder adaptation working groups to identify potential barriers to adaptation and strategies to address the projected impacts in each sector.

  6. In silico assessment of kinetics and state dependent binding properties of drugs causing acquired LQTS.

    PubMed

    Lee, William; Mann, Stefan A; Windley, Monique J; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    The Kv11.1 or hERG potassium channel is responsible for one of the major repolarising currents (IKr) in cardiac myocytes. Drug binding to hERG can result in reduction in IKr, action potential prolongation, acquired long QT syndrome and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of drugs in development is based on the measurement of the drug concentration that causes 50% current block, i.e., IC50. However, drugs with the same apparent IC50 may have very different kinetics of binding and unbinding, as well as different affinities for the open and inactivated states of Kv11.1. Therefore, IC50 measurements may not reflect the true risk of drug induced arrhythmias. Here we have used an in silico approach to test the hypothesis that drug binding kinetics and differences in state-dependent affinity will influence the extent of cardiac action potential prolongation independent of apparent IC50 values. We found, in general that drugs with faster overall kinetics and drugs with higher affinity for the open state relative to the inactivated state cause more action potential prolongation. These characteristics of drug-hERG interaction are likely to be more arrhythmogenic but cannot be predicted by IC50 measurement alone. Our results suggest that the pre-clinical assessment of Kv11.1-drug interactions should include descriptions of the kinetics and state dependence of drug binding. Further, incorporation of this information into sophisticated in silico models should be able to better predict arrhythmia risk and therefore more accurately assess safety of new drugs in development.

  7. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  8. Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

  9. Ascorbate oxidase-dependent changes in the redox state of the apoplast modulate gene transcript accumulation leading to modified hormone signaling and orchestration of defense processes in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Pignocchi, Cristina; Kiddle, Guy; Hernández, Iker; Foster, Simon J; Asensi, Amparo; Taybi, Tahar; Barnes, Jeremy; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-06-01

    The role of the redox state of the apoplast in hormone responses, signaling cascades, and gene expression was studied in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with modified cell wall-localized ascorbate oxidase (AO). High AO activity specifically decreased the ascorbic acid (AA) content of the apoplast and altered plant growth responses triggered by hormones. Auxin stimulated shoot growth only when the apoplastic AA pool was reduced in wild-type or AO antisense lines. Oxidation of apoplastic AA in AO sense lines was associated with loss of the auxin response, higher mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, and susceptibility to a virulent strain of the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The total leaf glutathione pool, the ratio of reduced glutathione to glutathione disulfide, and glutathione reductase activities were similar in the leaves of all lines. However, AO sense leaves exhibited significantly lower dehydroascorbate reductase and ascorbate peroxidase activities than wild-type and antisense leaves. The abundance of mRNAs encoding antioxidant enzymes was similar in all lines. However, the day/night rhythms in the abundance of transcripts encoding the three catalase isoforms were changed in response to the AA content of the apoplast. Other transcripts influenced by AO included photorespiratory genes and a plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel-associated gene. We conclude that the redox state of the apoplast modulates plant growth and defense responses by regulating signal transduction cascades and gene expression patterns. Hence, AO activity, which modulates the redox state of the apoplastic AA pool, strongly influences the responses of plant cells to external and internal stimuli.

  10. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  11. Present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere 1990: An assessment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. T.; Kurylo, M. J.; Prather, M. J.; Ormond, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is charged with the responsibility to report on the state of the knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part 1 of this report, issued earlier this year, summarized the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program during the last two years. New findings since the last report to Congress was issued in 1988 are presented. Several scientific assessments of the current understanding of the chemical composition and physical structure of the stratosphere are included, in particular how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. These reviews include: a summary of the most recent international assessment of stratospheric ozone; a study of future chlorine and bromine loading of the atmosphere; a review of the photochemical and chemical kinetics data that are used as input parameters for the atmospheric models; a new assessment of the impact of Space Shuttle launches on the stratosphere; a summary of the environmental issues and needed research to evaluate the impact of the newly re-proposed fleet of stratospheric supersonic civil aircraft; and a list of the contributors to this report and the science assessments which have formed our present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere and ozone depletion.

  12. Effect of major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and anions (SO4(2-), Cl- , NO3-) on Ni accumulation and toxicity in aquatic plant (Lemna minor L.): implications For Ni risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Hale, Beverley; Vigneault, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    The effect of major cation activity (Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , Na(+) , K(+) ) on Ni toxicity, with dose expressed as exposure (total dissolved Ni concentration NiTot ) or free Ni ion activity (in solution Ni(2+) ), or as tissue residue (Ni concentration in plant tissue NiTiss ) to the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. was examined. In addition, Ni accumulation kinetics was explored to provide mechanistic insight into current approaches of toxicity modeling, such as the tissue residue approach and the biotic ligand model (BLM), and the implications for plant Ni risk assessment. Major cations did not inhibit Ni accumulation via competitive inhibition as expected by the BLM framework. For example, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (sulfate as counter-anion) had an anticompetitive effect on Ni accumulation, suggesting that Ca or Mg forms a ternary complex with Ni-biotic ligand. The counter-anion of the added Ca (sulfate, chloride, or nitrate) affected plant response (percentage of root growth inhibition) to Ni. Generally, sulfate and chloride influenced plant response while nitrate did not, even when compared within the same range of Ca(2+) , which suggests that the anion dominated the observed plant response. Overall, although an effect of major cations on Ni toxicity to L. minor L. was observed at a physiological level, Ni(2+) or NiTot alone modeled plant response, generally within a span of twofold, over a wide range of water chemistry. Thus, consideration of major cation competition for improving Ni toxicity predictions in risk assessment for aquatic plants may not be necessary.

  13. East Meets West: An Earthquake in India Helps Hazard Assessment in the Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Although geographically distant, the State of Gujarat in India bears many geological similarities to the Mississippi Valley in the Central United States. The Mississippi Valley contains the New Madrid seismic zone that, during the winter of 1811-1812, produced the three largest historical earthquakes ever in the continental United States and remains the most seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains. Large damaging earthquakes are rare in ‘intraplate’ settings like New Madrid and Gujarat, far from the boundaries of the world’s great tectonic plates. Long-lasting evidence left by these earthquakes is subtle (fig. 1). Thus, each intraplate earthquake provides unique opportunities to make huge advances in our ability to assess and understand the hazards posed by such events.

  14. An audit about music therapy assessments and recommendations for adult patients suspected to be in a low awareness state.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In neuro-rehabilitation, the role of music therapy is expanding to include assessment of patients with severely-altered states of consciousness. Diagnosis of these conditions is a complex task for all, and cases of misdiagnosis have been reported. Aggregated findings from 33 music therapy assessments of patients suspected of being in a low awareness state are described and discussed here. The Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Low Awareness States (MATLAS) was used during these assessments. All assessments were offered as part of a specialist multidisciplinary assessment package. A brief description of the patient group is supplied, along with details regarding the assessment tool and the recommendations that followed. In summary, a difference in the time it took to assess patients in vegetative state (VS) as compared to those in minimally conscious state (MCS) was found and, on average, the assessment of those in VS took less time to complete than for those in MCS. A greater range in session length was found for patients in VS, as compared to those in MCS. Generally after the assessments, patients in VS were likely to be admitted to a sensory regulation group administered by a music therapy assistant, supervised by a qualified music therapist, to enable the continued collection of behavioral responses to stimuli. Patients in MCS were admitted to a music therapy treatment program offered by a qualified music therapist. Ongoing work is recommended to advance the assessment and treatment of this patient population, and to consolidate the role of music therapy with this population.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  16. Integrating remotely sensed leaf area index and leaf nitrogen accumulation with RiceGrow model based on particle swarm optimization algorithm for rice grain yield assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hang; Zhu, Yan; Li, Wenlong; Cao, Weixing; Tian, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    A regional rice (Oryza sativa) grain yield prediction technique was proposed by integration of ground-based and spaceborne remote sensing (RS) data with the rice growth model (RiceGrow) through a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Based on an initialization/parameterization strategy (calibration), two agronomic indicators, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA) remotely sensed by field spectra and satellite images, were combined to serve as an external assimilation parameter and integrated with the RiceGrow model for inversion of three model management parameters, including sowing date, sowing rate, and nitrogen rate. Rice grain yield was then predicted by inputting these optimized parameters into the reinitialized model. PSO was used for the parameterization and regionalization of the integrated model and compared with the shuffled complex evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) optimization algorithm. The test results showed that LAI together with LNA as the integrated parameter performed better than each alone for crop model parameter initialization. PSO also performed better than SCE-UA in terms of running efficiency and assimilation results, indicating that PSO is a reliable optimization method for assimilating RS information and the crop growth model. The integrated model also had improved precision for predicting rice grain yield.

  17. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  18. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents climate observations throughout the years 2008-09 within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the Composite Topographic Index (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms). PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data were summarized to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  19. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  20. [Assessment system for watershed ecological health in the United States: development and application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-07-01

    To meet the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act, the environmental agencies in the United States (U.S.) have developed a comprehensive ecological assessment system of watershed health in the last two decades. The system employs a watershed approach, and includes a large set of hydrological, chemical, and biological indices, having become an essential part of the watershed water quality management system in the U.S. and provided strong support for the protection of water environment and the restoration of aquatic system. In this paper, the development and application of the ecological assessment system of watershed health by the U.S. environmental regulators, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were overviewed from the aspects of related laws and regulations, ecosystem function analysis, ecological health indicators, comprehensive assessment system, and monitoring and data management systems, and the health assessment systems for the rivers, lakes, estuaries, coasts, and wetlands adopted by the National$t1-1-1 Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) were introduced. Some suggestions for the future development of the scientific ecological assessment system of watershed health in China were put forward based on the understanding of the protection and remediation practices of our water environment.