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Sample records for accumulated strain energy

  1. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  2. Strain patterns and strain accumulation along plate margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of strain accumulation along plate margins in Japan, New Zealand, and the United States indicate that: (1) a typical maximum rate of secular strain accumulation is on the order of 0.3 ppm/a, (2) a substantial part of the strain accumulation process can be attributed to slip at depth on the major plate boundary faults, and (3) some plastic deformation in a zone 100 km or more in width is apparently involved in the strain accumulation process.

  3. Streptomycin Accumulation in Susceptible and Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, L. E.; Elzen, H. M. Van Den

    1976-01-01

    Streptomycin accumulation by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown to be prevented or inhibited by inhibitors of electron transport, sulfhydryl groups and protein synthesis, and agents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Streptomycin is recovered from cells in an unchanged form and is intracellularly concentrated above extracellular concentrations. Accumulation kinetics are multiphasic; an initial phase which cannot be prevented by the above inhibitors is unable to cause inhibition of cell growth or loss of cell viability. Prevention of further phases of uptake does prevent these events. Inhibitor-susceptible accumulation is time dependent and begins almost immediately upon exposure of cells to streptomycin. Streptomycin accumulation remains energy dependent even when cells are losing acid-soluble [3H]adenine, presumably through loss of permeability control. These results demonstrate that streptomycin accumulation necessary for inhibition of cell growth or cell death requires energy and is not a process of diffusion or secondary to membrane leakage. Streptomycin accumulation in ribosomally resistant mutants of E. coli and P. aeruginosa is similar in that both energy-independent and energy-dependent accumulation can be demonstrated. The total energy-dependent accumulation is, however, significantly lower than that in streptomycin-susceptible cells due to the absence of an additional energy-dependent phase of accumulation, which seems dependent on ribosomal binding of streptomycin. Ribosomally resistant strains can be shown to concentrate streptomycin accumulated by the energy-dependent process above the external concentration in nutrient broth but not in Trypticase soy broth. The energy-dependent accumulation can be saturated in the Strr strain of E. coli in nutrient broth, implying limited accumulation sites. PMID:820248

  4. Strain accumulation and rotation in the Eastern California Shear Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Gan, Weijun; Svarc, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Although the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) (strike ???N25??W) does not quite coincide with a small circle drawn about the Pacific-North America pole of rotation, trilateration and GPS measurements demonstrate that the motion within the zone corresponds to right-lateral simple shear across a vertical plane (strike N33??W??5??) roughly parallel to the tangent to that local small circle (strike ???N40??W). If the simple shear is released by slip on faults subparallel to the shear zone, the accumulated rotation is also released, leaving no secular rotation. South of the Garlock fault the principal faults (e.g., Calico-Blackwater fault) strike ???N40??W, close enough to the strike of the vertical plane across which maximum right-lateral shear accumulates to almost wholly accommodate that accumulation of both strain and rotation by right-lateral slip. North of the Garlock fault dip slip as well as strike slip on the principal faults (strike ???N20??W) is required to accommodate the simple shear accumulation. In both cases the accumulated rotation is released with the shear strain. The Garlock fault, which transects the ECSZ, is not offset by north-northwest striking faults nor, despite geological evidence for long-term left-lateral slip, does it appear at the present time to be accumulating left-lateral simple shear strain across the fault due to slip at depth. Rather the motion is explained by right-lateral simple shear across the orthogonal ECSZ. Left-lateral slip on the Garlock fault will release the shear strain accumulating there but would augment the accumulating rotation, resulting in a secular clockwise rotation rate ???80 nrad yr-1 (4.6?? Myr-1).

  5. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the new madrid seismic zone.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zoback, M D; Segall, P

    1992-09-18

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  6. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P. USGS, Menlo Park, CA )

    1992-09-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes greater than 8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time. 34 refs.

  7. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  8. Strain accumulation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1983-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Svarc, J. L.; Prescott, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    A 14-station, 50-km aperture geodetic array centered on the proposed radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was surveyed in 1983, 1984, 1993, and 1998 to determine the rate of strain accumulation there. The coseismic effects of the 1992 (MS=5.4) Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which occurred within the array, were calculated from a dislocation model and removed from the data. The measured principal strain accumulation rates determined over the 1983-1998 interval are ɛ1 = 2±12 nanostrain/yr N87°W±12° and ɛ2 = -22±12 nanostrain/yr N03°E±12° (extension reckoned positive and quoted uncertainties are standard deviations). The N65°W extension rate is -2±12 nanostrain/yr, significantly less than the 1991-1997 N65°W rate of 50±9 nanostrain/yr reported by Wernicke et al. [1998]. The implied maximum right-lateral engineering-shear, strain accumulation rate is γ=ɛ1-ɛ2 = 23±10 nanostrain/yr, a marginally significant rate. Almost half (ɛ1 = 6 nanostrain/yr N90°W, ɛ2 = -6 nanostrain/yr N00°E, and γ = 12 nanostrain/yr ) of the measured strain rate can be attributed to strain accumulation on the Death Valley-Furnace Creek (50 km distant) and Hunter Mountain-Panamint Valley (90 km distant) faults. The residual strain rate after the removal of those fault contributions is not significant at the 95% confidence level.

  9. Storing wind energy into electrical accumulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordescu, M.; Petrescu, D. I.; Erdodi, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Shall be determined, in this work, the energy stored in the accumulators electrical, AE, at a wind system operating at wind speeds time-varying. mechanical energy caught in the turbine from the wind, (TV), is transformed into electrical energy by the generator synchronous with the permanent magnets, GSMP. The Generator synchronous with the permanent magnets saws, via a rectifier, energy in a battery AE, finished in a choice of two: variant 1-unregulated rectifier and variant of the 2-controlled rectifier and task adapted. Through simulation determine the differences between the two versions

  10. Strain accumulation in southern California, 1973-1980.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Lisowski, M.; King, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Frequent surveys of seven trilateration networks in southern California over the interval 1973-1980 suggest that a regional increment in strain may have occurred in 1978-1979. Prior to 1978 and after late 1979 the strain accumulation has been predominantly a uniaxial north-south compression. This secular trend was interrupted sometime in 1978-1979 by an increment in both north-south and east-west extension in five of the seven networks. The onset of this change appears to have occurred first in the networks farthest south. The changes occurred without any unusual seismicity within the networks, but the overall seismicity in southern California was unusually low prior to and has been unusually high since the occurrence. The average principal strain rates for the seven networks in the 1973-1980 interval are 0.17 mu strain/yr north- south contraction and 0.08 mu strain/yr east-west extension. Although the observed increment in strain could be related to unidentified systematic error in the measuring system, a careful review of the measurements and comparisons with three other measuring systems reveal no appreciable cumulative systematic error. -Authors

  11. Ismetpasa and Destek regions; Creeping or accumulating strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavasoglu, Hakan; Alkan, M. Nurullah; Aladogan, Kayhan; Ozulu, I. Murat; Ilci, Veli; Sahin, Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Tiryakioglu, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the most destructive fault system all over the world. In the last century, many devastating seismic event happened on it and its shear zone (NAFZ). Especially, after the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes, the earth science studies increase to save human life. To better understand the mechanism of the active fault system, tectonic stress and strain are important phenomena. According to elastic rebound theory, the locked active faults release the accumulated strain abruptly in four periods; interseismic, preseismic, coseismic and postseismic. In the literature, this phase is called the earthquake cycle. On the other hand, there is another scenario (aseismic deformation or creep) to release the strain without any remarkable seismic event. For the creep procedure, the important subject is threshold of the aseismic slip rate. If it is equal or larger than long-term slip rate, the destructive earthquakes will not occur along the fault which has aseismic slip rate. On the contrary, if the creep motion is lower than long-term slip rate along the fault, the fault has potential to produce moderate-to-large size earthquakes. In this study, the regions, Ismetpasa and Destek, have been studied to determine the aseismic deformation using GPS data. The first and second GPS campaigns have been evaluated with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Preliminary results of the project (slip-rate along the NAF in this region and aseismic deformation) will be presented.

  12. A new fungal isolate, Penidiella sp. strain T9, accumulates the rare earth element dysprosium.

    PubMed

    Horiike, Takumi; Yamashita, Mitsuo

    2015-05-01

    With an aim to develop a highly efficient method for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) by using microorganisms, we attempted to isolate dysprosium (Dy)-accumulating microorganisms that grow under acidic conditions from environmental samples containing high concentrations of heavy metals. One acidophilic strain, T9, which was isolated from an abandoned mine, decreased the concentration of Dy in medium that contained 100 mg/liter Dy to 53 mg/liter Dy after 3 days of cultivation at pH 2.5. The Dy content in the cell pellet of the T9 strain was 910 μg/mg of dry cells. The T9 strain also accumulated other REEs. Based on the results of 28S-D1/D2 rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization, we designated this fungal strain Penidiella sp. T9. Bioaccumulation of Dy was observed on the cell surface of the T9 strain by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results indicate that Penidiella sp. T9 has the potential to recover REEs such as Dy from mine drainage and industrial liquid waste under acidic conditions.

  13. A New Fungal Isolate, Penidiella sp. Strain T9, Accumulates the Rare Earth Element Dysprosium

    PubMed Central

    Horiike, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    With an aim to develop a highly efficient method for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) by using microorganisms, we attempted to isolate dysprosium (Dy)-accumulating microorganisms that grow under acidic conditions from environmental samples containing high concentrations of heavy metals. One acidophilic strain, T9, which was isolated from an abandoned mine, decreased the concentration of Dy in medium that contained 100 mg/liter Dy to 53 mg/liter Dy after 3 days of cultivation at pH 2.5. The Dy content in the cell pellet of the T9 strain was 910 μg/mg of dry cells. The T9 strain also accumulated other REEs. Based on the results of 28S-D1/D2 rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization, we designated this fungal strain Penidiella sp. T9. Bioaccumulation of Dy was observed on the cell surface of the T9 strain by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results indicate that Penidiella sp. T9 has the potential to recover REEs such as Dy from mine drainage and industrial liquid waste under acidic conditions. PMID:25710372

  14. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  15. Interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D. F.; Heflin, M. B.; Peltzer, G.; Crampe, F.; Webb, F. H.

    2005-05-01

    We use global positioning system (GPS) geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to distinguish between interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles. We establish a relationship between horizontal and vertical seasonal oscillations of the Santa Ana aquifer, use this relationship to infer cumulative horizontal anthropogenic motions from cumulative vertical motions caused by water and oil resource management, and estimate horizontal interseismic velocities corrected for anthropogenic effects. Vertical anthropogenic rates from 1992 to 1999 are slower than 3 mm/yr in the Santa Ana and San Gabriel aquifers and faster than 5 mm/yr in the Chino aquifer and in many oil fields. Inferred horizontal anthropogenic velocities are faster than 1 mm/yr at 18 of 46 GPS sites. Northern metropolitan Los Angeles is contracting, with the 25 km south of the San Gabriel mountains shortening at 4.5 ±1 mm/yr (95% confidence limits). The thrust fault in an elastic edge dislocation model of the observed strain is creeping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath and north of a position 6 ±2 km deep and 8 ±8 km north of downtown Los Angeles. The model fault is near the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills thrust but south of the Sante Fe Springs segment of the thrust. Disagreement between the 6 km locking depth in the model and the 15 km seismogenic depth inferred from earthquakes suggests that the elastic continuum model may be unsatisfactory; models with different stiffnesses of sedimentary basin and crystalline basement must be investigated.

  16. Interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.; Peltzer, Gilles; Crampé, FréDeric; Webb, Frank H.

    2005-04-01

    We use global positioning system (GPS) geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to distinguish between interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles. We establish a relationship between horizontal and vertical seasonal oscillations of the Santa Ana aquifer, use this relationship to infer cumulative horizontal anthropogenic motions from cumulative vertical motions caused by water and oil resource management, and estimate horizontal interseismic velocities corrected for anthropogenic effects. Vertical anthropogenic rates from 1992 to 1999 are slower than 3 mm yr-1 in the Santa Ana and San Gabriel aquifers and faster than 5 mm yr-1 in the Chino aquifer and in many oil fields. Inferred horizontal anthropogenic velocities are faster than 1 mm yr-1 at 18 of 46 GPS sites. Northern metropolitan Los Angeles is contracting, with the 25 km south of the San Gabriel Mountains shortening at 4.5 ± 1 mm yr-1 (95% confidence limits). The thrust fault in an elastic edge dislocation model of the observed strain is creeping at 9 ± 2 mm yr-1 beneath and north of a position 6 ± 2 km deep and 8 ± 8 km north of downtown Los Angeles. The model fault is near the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills thrust but south of the Sante Fe Springs segment of the thrust. Disagreement between the 6 km locking depth in the model and the 15 km seismogenic depth inferred from earthquakes suggests that the elastic continuum model may be unsatisfactory; models with different stiffnesses of sedimentary basin and crystalline basement must be investigated.

  17. Constraints on accumulated strain near the ETS zone along Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, Randy D.; Schmidt, David A.; Weldon, Ray J.; Burgette, Reed J.

    2016-04-01

    Current national seismic hazard models for Cascadia use the zone of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) to denote the lower boundary of the seismogenic zone. Recent numerical models have suggested that an appreciable amount of long-term strain may accumulate at the depth of ETS and questions this assumption. We use uplift rates from leveling campaigns spanning approximately 50-70 yrs in Washington and Oregon to investigate the amount of potential long-term locking near the ETS zone. We evaluate the potential for deeper locking in Cascadia by exploring a range of locking parameters along the subduction zone, including the ETS zone. Of the four east-west leveling profiles studied, three show a reduction in the misfit when secondary locking near the ETS zone is included; however the reduction in misfit values is only statistically significant for one profile. This would suggest that models including a small amount of secondary locking are broadly indistinguishable from models without any secondary locking. If secondary locking is considered, the leveling data allow for locking up to ∼20% of the plate rate near the updip edge of the ETS zone. These results are consistent with, but less resolved, by GPS observations.

  18. Cesium Accumulation and Growth Characteristics of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain CS402

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Noriko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Yagi, Osami

    1994-01-01

    Growth and cesium accumulation characteristics of two cesium-accumulating bacteria isolated from soils were investigated. Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 and Rhodococcus sp. strain CS402 accumulated high levels of cesium (approximately 690 and 380 μmol/g [dry weight] of cells or 92 and 52 mg/g [dry weight] of cells, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in the presence of 0.5 mM cesium. The optimum pH for cesium uptake by both Rhodococcus strains was 8.5. Rubidium and cesium assumed part of the role of potassium in the growth of both Rhodococcus strains. Potassium and rubidium inhibited cesium accumulation by these Rhodococcus strains. It is likely that both Rhodococcus strains accumulated cesium through a potassium transport system. PMID:16349312

  19. The effect of energy substrates on PHB accumulation of Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ai-ling; Xia, Jin-lan; Song, Zhi-wen; Jiang, Peng; Xia, Yan; Wan, Min-xi; Zhang, Rui-yong; Yang, Yi; Liu, Ke-ke

    2013-09-01

    The effect of glucose and elemental sulfur on the growth and PHB accumulation of Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1 was investigated. Meanwhile, the differential expressions of 19 genes related with PHB accumulation, sulfur metabolism and carbon fixed in heterotrophy, phytotrophy and mixotrophy were studied by RT-qPCR. The results showed that strain DX1-1 could accumulate PHB with sulfur as the energy substance and atmospheric CO2 as carbon resource. Glucose could improve the growth of strain DX1-1 cultured in medium with sulfur as the energy substance, and almost all the key enzyme-encoding genes related with PHB, sulfur metabolism and carbon fixed were basically up-regulated. PHB polymerase (Arcy_3030), ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (Acry_0825), ribulose-phosphate-epimerase (Acry_0022), and cysteine synthase A (Acry_2560) played important role in PHB accumulation, the modified expression of which could influence the PHB yield. With CO2 as carbon resource, the main initial substance of PHB accumulation for strain DX1-1 was acetyl-CoA, instead of acetate with the glucose as the carbon resource. Because of accumulating PHB by fixed atmospheric CO2 while independent of light, A. cryptum DX1-1 may have specifically potential in production of PHB.

  20. Relationship of trehalose accumulation with ethanol fermentation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pin-Mei; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Chi, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ou; Qian, Chao-Dong; Liu, Tian-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Du, Feng-Guang; Sun, Pei-Yong; Qu, Ai-Min; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect and the mechanisms of trehalose accumulation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated during ethanol fermentation. The engineered strains with more intercellular trehalose achieved significantly higher fermentation rates and ethanol yields than their wild strain ZS during very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, while their performances were not different during regular fermentation. The VHG fermentation performances of these strains were consistent with their growth capacity under osmotic stress and ethanol stress, the key stress factors during VHG fermentation. These results suggest that trehalose accumulation is more important for VHG fermentation of industrial yeast strains than regular one. The differences in membrane integrity and antioxidative capacity of these strains indicated the possible mechanisms of trehalose as a protectant under VHG condition. Therefore, trehalose metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving the VHG fermentation performance of industrial yeast strains.

  1. Strain accumulation near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1993-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Svarc, J. L.; Prescott, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    A 50-km aperture geodetic network centered on the proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was surveyed with GPS in 1993 and 1998. The average deformation rate across the area is described by the principal strain rates 22.8±8.8 nstrain yr-1 N77.6°W±13.5° and -8.8±11.9 nstrain yr-1 N12.5°E±13.5° (extension reckoned positive) and a clockwise rotation rate about a vertical axis of 9.6±7.4 nrad yr-1 relative to fixed North America. Quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. Those strain rates are consistent with the geodetic strain rates (2±12 nstrain yr-1 N87°±12°W and -22±12 nstrain yr-1 N03°±12°E) previously reported by Savage et al. [1999] for the 1983-1998 interval and with the low extension rate (5-20 nstrain yr-1) [Marrett et al., 1998] inferred from the geologic record. None of those strain rates is consistent with the 50±9 nstrain yr-1 N65°W extension rate for the area reported by Wernicke et al. [1998].

  2. Strain accumulation and rotation in western Nevada, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svarc, J.L.; Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Ramelli, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    The positions of 44 GPS monuments in an array extending from the Sierra Nevada at the latitude of Reno to near Austin, Nevada, have been measured several times in the 1993-2000 interval. The western half of the array spans the Walker Lane belt, whereas the eastern half spans the central Nevada seismic zone (CNSZ). The principal strain rates in the Walker Lane belt are 29.6 ?? 5.3 nstrain yr-1 N88.4??E ?? 5.4?? and -12.8 ?? 6.0 nanostrain yr-1 N01.6??W ?? 5.4??, extension reckoned positive, and the clockwise (as seen from above the Earth) rotation rate about a vertical axis is 13.6 ?? 4.0 nrad yr-1. The quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. The motion in the Walker Lane belt can then be represented by a zone striking N35??W subject to 16.8 ?? 4.9 nstrain yr-1 extension perpendicular to it and 19.5 ?? 4.0 nstrain yr-1 right-lateral, simple shear across it. The N35??W strike of the zone is the same as the direction of the local tangent to the small circle drawn about the Pacific-North America pole of rotation. The principal strain rates for the CNSZ are 46.2 ?? 11.0 nstrain yr-1 N49.9??W ?? 6.0?? and -13.6 ?? 6.1 nstrain yr-1 N40.1??E ?? 6.0??, and the clockwise rotation rate about a vertical axis is 20.3 ?? 6.3 nrad yr-1. The motion across the CNSZ can then be represented by a zone striking N12??E subject to 32.6 ?? 11.0 nstrain yr-1 extension perpendicular to it and 25.1 ?? 6.3 nstrain yr-1 right-lateral, simple shear across it. The N12??E strike of the zone is similar to the strikes of the faults (Rainbow Mountain, Fairview Peak, and Dixie Valley) within it.

  3. Strain accumulation and rotation in western Oregon and southwestern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svarc, J.L.; Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Murray, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Velocities of 75 geodetic monuments in western Oregon and southwestern Washington extending from the coast to more than 300 km inland have been determined from GPS surveys over the interval 1992-2000. The average standard deviation in each of the horizontal velocity components is ??? 1 mm yr-1. The observed velocity field is approximated by a combination of rigid rotation (Euler vector relative to interior North America: 43. 40??N ?? 0.14??, 119.33??W ?? 0.28??, and 0.822 ?? 0.057?? Myr-1 clockwise; quoted uncertainties are standard deviations), uniform regional strain rate (??EE = -7.4 ?? 1.8, ??EN = -3.4 ?? 1.0, and ??NN = -5.0 ?? 0.8 nstrain yr-1, extension reckoned positive), and a dislocation model representing subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America. Subduction south of 44.5??N was represented by a 40-km-wide locked thrust and subduction north of 44.5??N by a 75-km-wide locked thrust.

  4. Strain accumulation in the Santa Barbara Channel, 1971-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; King, Nancy; Agnew, Duncan; Hager, Bradford

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical evidence suggests a significant amount of north-south convergence occurs across the Santa Barbara Channel. Tectonic studies indicate a discrepancy between observed fault slip in California and the North American-Pacific plate motion. Newer plate motion models (NUVEL-1) yield a lower rate of convergence. Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1987, when combined with 1971 trilateration measurements, should be sufficient to resolve the present-day convergence rate. In early 1987. from January 3 to 7, GPS data were collected at 14 sites in California and at 5 additional stations throughout North America. The data can be used to estimate the rate of crustal deformation (convergence) ocurring across the Santa Barbara Channel. The GPS baselines were computed with the Bernese 2nd generation software. A comparison was made between baseline lengths obtained with the Burnese and MIT softwares. Baseline changes from 1971 to January, 1987 (GPS-Bernese) across the Santa Barbara Channel were computed. A uniform strain model was calculated from the baseline changes. The present-day rate of convergence across the Santa Barbara Channel was determined to be 8 to 10 mm/yr. This conclusion is obtained from changes in the baseline length measured with a 1971 trilateration survey and a January, 1987, GPS survey. The rapid convergence rate, in addition to the history of large seismic events, suggests this region is a prime target for future geodetic and geophysical studies.

  5. Strain-Energy-Release Rates In Delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    Q3DG computer program developed to perform quasi-three-dimensional stress analysis of composite laminates containing delaminations. Calculates strain-energy-release rates for long, rectangular composite laminates containing delaminations and subjected to any combination of mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic loading. Written in FORTRAN V.

  6. Flywheel set for accumulating kinetic energy of rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Theyse, F.H.

    1980-09-16

    A flywheel set is described for accumulating energy with elastically supported bearings, resulting in a low critical speed, lying at all times under the operational flywheel speed. The axial thrust taking bearings, or one bearing, may be operating with magnetic forces.

  7. Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid accumulation in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina strain.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that

  8. Comparison of clenbuterol and salbutamol accumulation in the liver of two different mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Vulić, Ana; Pleadin, Jelka; Durgo, Ksenija; Scortichini, Giampiero; Stojković, Ranko

    2014-06-01

    In the European Union, β(2)-adrenergic agonists like clenbuterol and salbutamol are banned from use as growth promoters. Although clenbuterol and salbutamol both accumulate in the liver, differences in the accumulation rate can be seen among animal species due to different β(2)-adrenoreceptor distributions. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of the two in the liver tissue of two different mouse strains. The study included 200 8-week-old BALB/c and C57/BL/6 mice. One group of BALB/c (40) and one group of C57/BL/6 (40) mice were treated with 2.5 mg/kg body mass clenbuterol per os for 28 days. The remaining two animal groups were treated with salbutamol in the same manner. The animals were then randomly sacrificed on day 1, 15 and 30 post treatments. Despite of the same treatment dose, the results revealed clenbuterol to persist in the liver tissue longer than salbutamol. On post treatment day 30, the concentration of clenbuterol residue in C57/BL/6 and BALB/c mice liver tissue were 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.21 ± 0.03 ng/g, respectively, while residues of salbutamol were not detected. When comparing the accumulation of both compounds between the two mouse strains, it becomes apparent that no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the accumulation rate can be found.

  9. Comparison of game-farm and wild-strain mallard ducks in accumulation of methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The accumulation of mercury was compared in game-farm and wild-strain mallard ducks fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury in the form of methylmercury dicyandiamide. There were no significant differences between the two strains in levels of mercury that accumulated in blood, kidney, liver, breast muscle, brain, eggs, or ducklings. Mercury levels in blood were significantly correlated with levels in other tissues and eggs, as were levels in down feathers of ducklings with levels in carcasses of ducklings. The results indicate that game-farm mallards are probably suitable substitutes for wild mallards in toxicological work, that blood samples can be used to estimate levels of mercury in other tissues of adults, and that down feathers are predictive of mercury levels in duckling carcasses.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. HG01, a Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Strain Isolated from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Nahat, Rafael Augusto Teodoro Pereira de Souza; Guzmán Moreno, César Wilber; Carreño Farfán, Carmen Rosa; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain HG01, isolated from a salt mine in Peru, is a halophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacterium accumulating poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from different carbon sources. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this isolate, which was found to be 3,665,487 bp long, with a G+C content of 68%. PMID:26798101

  11. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martínez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana, Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández, María; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-07-02

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Seventeen isolates were found that were able to degrade tyramine and histamine in broth culture. All 17 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Lactobacillus casei. They were typed by plasmid S1-PFGE and genomic macrorestriction-PFGE analysis. Two strains (L. casei 4a and 5b) associated with high degradation rates for both BAs were selected to test how this ability might affect histamine and tyramine accumulation in a Cabrales-like mini-cheese manufacturing model. The quantification of BAs and the monitoring of the strains' growth over ripening were undertaken by RP-HPLC and qPCR respectively. Both strains were found to reduce histamine and tyramine accumulation. These two strains might be suitable for use as adjunct cultures for reducing the presence of BAs in cheese.

  12. Construction and characterization of Salmonella typhimurium strains that accumulate and excrete alpha- and beta-isopropylmalate.

    PubMed

    Fultz, P N; Choung, K K; Kemper, J

    1980-05-01

    Two Salmonella typhimurium strains, which could be used as sources for the leucine biosynthetic intermediates alpha- and beta-isopropylmalate were constructed by a series of P22-mediated transductions. One strain, JK527 [flr-19 leuA2010 Delta(leuD-ara)798 fol-162], accumulated and excreted alpha-isopropylmalate, whereas the second strain, JK553 (flr-19 leuA2010 leuB698), accumulated and excreted alpha- and beta-isopropylmalate. The yield of alpha-isopropylmalate isolated from the culture medium of JK527 was more than five times the amount obtained from a comparable volume of medium in which Neurospora crassa strain FLR(92)-1-216 (normally used as the source for alpha- and beta-isopropylmalate) was grown. Not only was the yield greater, but S. typhimurium strains are much easier to handle and grow to saturation much faster than N. crassa strains. The combination of the two regulatory mutations flr-19, which results in constitutive expression of the leucine operon, and leuA2010, which renders the first leucine-specific biosynthetic enzyme insensitive to feedback inhibition by leucine, generated limitations in the production of valine and pantothenic acid. The efficient, irreversible, and unregulated conversion of alpha-ketoisovaleric acid into alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase K(m) for alpha-ketoisovaleric acid, 6 x 10(-5) M) severely restricted the amount of alpha-ketoisovaleric acid available for conversion into valine and pantothenic acid (ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase K(m) for alpha-ketoisovaleric acid, 1.1 x 10(-3) M; transaminase B K(m) for alpha-ketoisovaleric acid, 2 x 10(-3) M).

  13. Strain accumulation along the San Andreas fault system East of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Lisowski, M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of several large earthquakes to the east of San Francisco Bay during historical times, and present high levels of microseismicity, indicate that a significant part of the relative plate motion may be occurring east of San Francisco Bay. Furthermore, the Hayward fault is known to be slipping aseismically at the surface, and the Calaveras fault may be slipping aseismically also. These facts raise an important question: Is the observed creep rate accommodating all of the east bay deformation or is there a significant amount of strain accumulating along these faults? Several small survey networks (< 2 km diameter) located along the Hayward and Calaveras faults, have been measured occasionally since 1965. Recent observations of these and other networks have been made by the U.S. Geological Survey. These observations imply a surface slip rate on the Hayward fault at Fremont, Hayward, Berkeley, and Richmond of about 6 mm/yr. On the Calaveras fault, north of the Hayward-Calaveras fault junction, surface slip rates have been determined from only four data sets. Three of which give a rate of 3 mm/yr. The U.S. Geological Survey annually measures 32 longer lines (10-30 km) in the east bay. Observations of these lines extend back to 1977 for most and to 1970 for some of the lines. The observed creep rates and the data for the longer east-bay lines provide constraints on the amount and position of deeper slip on the Hayward and Calaveras faults. After correcting for line-length changes due to fault slip, we calculated the strain accumulation rate. The shear strain rate parallel to east bay faults is 0.07 ?? 0.02 ??strain/yr, a rate well below that of other areas along the San Andreas fault system, suggesting that creep is relieving a large part of the strain in this area. ?? 1983.

  14. Biaxial load effects on the crack border elastic strain energy and strain energy rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Subramonian, N.; Liebowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the singular solution (first term of a series representation) is investigated for the crack tip stress and displacement field in an infinite sheet with a flat line crack with biaxial loads applied to the outer boundaries. It is shown that if one retains the second contribution to the series approximations for stress and displacement in the calculation of the local elastic strain energy density and elastic strain energy rate in the crack border region, both these quantities have significant biaxial load dependency. The value of the J-integral does not depend on the presence of the second term of the series expansion for stress and displacement. Thus J(I) is insensitive to the presence of loads applied parallel to the plane of the crack.

  15. Present-day Block Motions and Strain Accumulation on Active Faults in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the accumulated strain rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being accumulated along intrablock faults with very low strain (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also

  16. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  17. Slip distribution, strain accumulation and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear strain localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of strain

  18. Estimating Strain Accumulation in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, T. J.; Calais, E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical behaviour -- and hence earthquake potential -- of faults in continental interiors is a question of critical importance for the resultant seismic hazard, but no consensus has yet been reached on this controversial topic. The debate has focused on the central and eastern United States, in particular the New Madrid Seismic Zone, struck by three magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes in 1811--1812, and to a lesser extent the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone just to the north. A key aspect of this issue is the rate at which strain is currently accruing on those faults in the plate interior, a quantity that remains debated. Understanding if the present-day strain rates indicate sufficient motion to account for the historical and paleoseismological earthquakes by steady-state fault behaviour, or if strain accumulation is time-dependent in this area, is critical for investigating the causative process driving this seismicity in the plate interior, and how regional strain reflects the interplay between stresses arising from different geological processes. Here we address this issue with an analysis of up to 14 years of continuous GPS data from a network of 200 sites in the central United States centred on the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones. We find that high-quality sites in these regions show motions that are consistently within the 95% confidence limit of zero deformation relative to a rigid background. These results place an upper bound on regional strain accrual of 0.2 mm/yr and 0.5 mm/yr in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones, respectively. These results, together with increasing evidence for temporal clustering and spatial migration of earthquake sequences in continental interiors, indicate that either tectonic loading rates or fault properties vary with time in the NMSZ and possibly plate-wide.

  19. Effect of viscoelastic postseismic relaxation on estimates of interseismic crustal strain accumulation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Plag, Hans-Peter

    2010-03-01

    We estimate the long-term crustal strain rate at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada from GPS velocities taking into account viscoelastic relaxation following recent earthquakes to remove bias associated with transient deformation. The YM data reveal postseismic relaxation in time series non-linearity and geographic variation of the transient signal. From the data we estimate best-fitting lower crust and upper mantle viscosities of 1019.5 Pa s and 1018.5 Pa s, respectively. Once the relaxation model predictions are subtracted from the data, the long-term shear strain accumulation rate is between 16.3 and 25.1 nanostrains/year (ns/yr) to 99% confidence, a range much larger than the formal uncertainties from GPS measurement. We conclude that 1) a Maxwell viscoelastic model cannot explain all the deformation observed at YM, 2) uncertainty in viscosities dominates uncertainty in YM strain rates, and 3) the effects of large, recent earthquakes must be accounted for in seismic hazard studies using GPS.

  20. Accumulation of energy reserves in algae: From cell cycles to biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Vitova, Milada; Bisova, Katerina; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Zachleder, Vilem

    2015-11-01

    Starch and lipids are key components of algal cells and responsible for buffering variable supplies of energy and carbon that are vital for cell growth and reproduction, particularly DNA replication, nuclear and cellular division. The basic characteristics of energy reserves, their ultrastructure and localization inside the cell, regulation of their synthesis in relation to cell cycle phases, and their control by external factors, including light intensity, temperature, and carbon dioxide are described. Over the last two decades, research in this field has been boosted by possible biotechnological applications of algae for the production of biofuels from energy conserving compounds (bioethanol from starch and biodiesel from lipids). Recent findings on mechanisms that lead to an accumulation of exceptionally high levels of starch and lipids in algae will be summarized in this review. Macroelement (N, S, P) limitation, or depletion in mineral medium, as the most widely used approaches for enhancing both starch and lipid accumulation, are reviewed in detail. Potential biotechnological strategies for the economically viable overproduction of lipid and starch, such as a two-step procedure exploiting the effects of nutrient limitation and depletion, as well as the means and rationale for selecting appropriate strains, are discussed.

  1. A physical model for strain accumulation in the San Francisco Bay Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strain accumulation in tectonically active regions is generally a superposition of the effects of background tectonic loading, steady-state dislocation processes, such as creep, and transient deformation. In the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR), the most uncertain of these processes is transient deformation, which arises primarily in association with large earthquakes. As such, it depends upon the history of faulting and the rheology of the crust and mantle, which together determine the pattern of longer term (decade-scale) post-seismic response to earthquakes. We utilize a set of 102 GPS velocity vectors in the SFBR in order to characterize the strain rate field and construct a physical model of its present deformation. We first perform an inversion for the continuous velocity gradient field from the discrete GPS velocity field, from which both tensor strain rate and rotation rate may be extracted. The present strain rate pattern is well described as a nearly uniform shear strain rate oriented approximately N34??W (140 nanostrain yr-1) plus a N56??E uniaxial compression rate averaging 20 nanostrain yr-1 across the shear zone. We fit the velocity and strain rate fields to a model of time-dependent deformation within a 135-kin-wide, arcuate shear zone bounded by strong Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithosphere to the SW and NE, respectively. Driving forces are purely lateral, consisting of shear zone deformation imposed by the relative motions between the thick Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithospheres. Assuming a depth-dependent viscoelastic structure within the shear zone, we account for the effects of steady creep on faults and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, subject to constant velocity boundary conditions on the edges of the shear zone. Fault creep is realized by evaluating dislocations on the creeping portions of faults in the fluid limit of the viscoelastic model. A priori plate

  2. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-06-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials.

  3. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-01-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials. PMID:27283872

  4. Correlation of data on strain accumulation adjacent to the San Andreas Fault with available models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of deformation on strike slip faults were performed and the results applied to geodetic observations performed in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault in California. The initial efforts were devoted to an extensive series of finite element calculations of the deformation associated with cyclic displacements on a strike-slip fault. Measurements of strain accumulation adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicate that the zone of strain accumulation extends only a few tens of kilometers away from the fault. There is a concern about the tendency to make geodetic observations along the line to the source. This technique has serious problems for strike slip faults since the vector velocity is also along the fault. Use of a series of stations lying perpendicular to the fault whose positions are measured relative to a reference station are suggested to correct the problem. The complexity of faulting adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicated that the homogeneous elastic and viscoelastic approach to deformation had serious limitations. These limitation led to the proposal of an approach that assumes a fault is composed of a distribution of asperities and barriers on all scales. Thus, an earthquake on a fault is treated as a failure of a fractal tree. Work continued on the development of a fractal based model for deformation in the western United States. In order to better understand the distribution of seismicity on the San Andreas Fault system a fractal analog was developed. The fractal concept also provides a means of testing whether clustering in time or space is a scale-invariant process.

  5. Spontaneous mutation accumulation in multiple strains of the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Andrew D; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D; Colegrave, Nick

    2014-09-01

    Estimates of mutational parameters, such as the average fitness effect of a new mutation and the rate at which new genetic variation for fitness is created by mutation, are important for the understanding of many biological processes. However, the causes of interspecific variation in mutational parameters and the extent to which they vary within species remain largely unknown. We maintained multiple strains of the unicellular eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for approximately 1000 generations under relaxed selection by transferring a single cell every ~10 generations. Mean fitness of the lines tended to decline with generations of mutation accumulation whereas mutational variance increased. We did not find any evidence for differences among strains in any of the mutational parameters estimated. The overall change in mean fitness per cell division and rate of input of mutational variance per cell division were more similar to values observed in multicellular organisms than to those in other single-celled microbes. However, after taking into account differences in genome size among species, estimates from multicellular organisms and microbes, including our new estimates from C. reinhardtii, become substantially more similar. Thus, we suggest that variation in genome size is an important determinant of interspecific variation in mutational parameters.

  6. Along-strike Variations in Active Strain Accumulation in the Northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, K. D.; Ahmad, T.; Sandiford, M.; Codilean, A. T.; Fulop, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of channel steepness, erosion rate, and physiographic data highlight pronounced along-strike changes in active strain accumulation in the northwest Himalaya. In particular, the data suggest that the mid-crustal ramp of the Main Himalayan Thrust could merge along-strike with an active portion of the Main Boundary Thrust near longitude ~77º E. This along-strike change in active fault geometry also coincides with the lateral termination of both lesser and greater Himalayan sequences, a significant reduction in total shortening within the wedge, and pronounced variations in regional seismicity. Recent activity along extensional structures in the high Himalaya of this same region appears to have led to significant reorganization, modification and capture of the Sutlej River basin, one of the largest Himalayan river systems. Given the recent 2015 Gorkha earthquake along a comparable section ~500-km along strike, these new constraints on active fault architecture could have regional implications for how strain is partitioned along seismogenic faults in the northwest Himalaya.

  7. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  8. Ciliates rapidly enhance the frequency of conjugation between Escherichia coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junji; Oguri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Akizawa, Kouzi; Suzuki, Haruki; Simizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism underlying bacterial conjugation through protozoa was investigated. Kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli SM10λ+ carrying pRT733 with TnphoA was used as donor bacteria and introduced by conjugation into ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli clinical isolate recipient bacteria. Equal amounts of donor and recipient bacteria were mixed together in the presence or absence of protozoa (ciliates, free-living amoebae, myxamoebae) in Page's amoeba saline for 24 h. Transconjugants were selected with Luria broth agar containing kanamycin and ciprofloxacin. The frequency of conjugation was estimated as the number of transconjugants for each recipient. Conjugation frequency in the presence of ciliates was estimated to be approximately 10⁻⁶, but in the absence of ciliates, or in the presence of other protozoa, it was approximately 10⁻⁸. Conjugation also occurred in culture of ciliates at least 2 h after incubation. Successful conjugation was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Addition of cycloheximide or latrunculin B resulted in suppression of conjugation. Heat killing the ciliates or bacteria had no effect on conjugation frequency. Co-localization of green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli and PKH-67-vital-stained E. coli was observed in the same ciliate vesicles, suggesting that both donor and recipient bacteria had accumulated in the same vesicle. In this study, the conjugation frequency of bacteria was found to be significantly higher in vesicles purified from ciliates than those in culture suspension. We conclude that ciliates rapidly enhance the conjugation of E. coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

  9. Rapid strain accumulation on the Ashkabad fault (Turkmenistan) from atmosphere-corrected InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B.

    2013-07-01

    We have measured interseismic deformation across the Ashkabad strike-slip fault using 13 Envisat interferograms covering a total effective timespan of ˜30 years. Atmospheric contributions to phase delay are significant and variable due to the close proximity of the Caspian Sea. In order to retrieve the pattern of strain accumulation, we show it is necessary to use data from Envisat's Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument, as well as numerical weather model outputs from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), to correct interferograms for differences in water vapor and atmospheric pressure, respectively. This has enabled us to robustly estimate the slip rate and locking depth for the Ashkabad fault using a simple elastic dislocation model. Our data are consistent with a slip rate of 5-12 mm/yr below a locking depth of 5.5-17 km for the Ashkabad fault, and synthetic tests support the magnitude of the uncertainties on these estimates. Our estimate of slip rate is 1.25-6 times higher than some previous geodetic estimates, with implications for both seismic hazard and regional tectonics, in particular supporting fast relative motion between the South Caspian Block and Eurasia. This result reinforces the importance of correcting for atmospheric contributions to interferometric phase for small strain measurements. We also attempt to validate a recent method for atmospheric correction based on ECMWF ERA-Interim model outputs alone and find that this technique does not work satisfactorily for this region when compared to the independent MERIS estimates.

  10. On the strain energy of laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1991-01-01

    The present effort to obtain the asymptotically correct form of the strain energy in inhomogeneous laminated composite plates proceeds from the geometrically nonlinear elastic theory-based three-dimensional strain energy by decomposing the nonlinear three-dimensional problem into a linear, through-the-thickness analysis and a nonlinear, two-dimensional analysis analyzing plate formation. Attention is given to the case in which each lamina exhibits material symmetry about its middle surface, deriving closed-form analytical expressions for the plate elastic constants and the displacement and strain distributions through the plate's thickness. Despite the simplicity of the plate strain energy's form, there are no restrictions on the magnitudes of displacement and rotation measures.

  11. GPS measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 +/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 +/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  12. Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  13. Interseismic strain accumulation in south central Chile from GPS measurements, 1996-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, J. C.; Campos, J.; Madariaga, R.; Kausel, E.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Armijo, R.; Dimitrov, D.; Georgiev, I.; Barrientos, S.

    2002-06-01

    Two campaigns of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were carried out in the Concepción-Constitución area of Chile in 1996 and 1999. It is very likely that this area is a mature seismic gap, since no subduction earthquake has occurred there since 1835. In 1996, 32 sites were occupied in the range 35°S-37°S, between the Pacific coast of Chile and the Andes near the Chile-Argentina border. In 1999, the network was extended by the installation of 9 new points in the Arauco region whereas 13 points among the 1996 stations were reoccupied. The analysis of this campaign data set, together with the data recorded at eight continuous GPS sites (mostly IGS stations) in South America and surrounding regions, indicates a velocity of about 40 +/- 10 mm/yr in the direction N80-90°S for the coastal sites with respect to stable cratonic South America. This velocity decreases to about 20-25 mm/yr towards the Andes. We interpret this result as reflecting interseismic strain accumulation above the Nazca-South America subduction zone, due to a locked thrust zone extending down to about 60 km depth.

  14. Dislocation pileup as a representation of strain accumulation on a strike-slip fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional model of strain accumulation on a vertical transform fault is a discrete screw dislocation in an elastic half-space with the Burgers vector of the dislocation increasing at the rate of relative plate motion. It would be more realistic to replace that discrete dislocation by a dislocation distribution, presumably a pileup in which the individual dislocations are in equilibrium. The length of the pileup depends upon the applied stress and the amount of slip that has occurred at depth. I argue here that the dislocation pileup (the transition on the fault from no slip to slip at the full plate rate) occupies a substantial portion of the lithosphere thickness. A discrete dislocation at an adjustable depth can reproduce the surface deformation profile predicted by a pileup so closely that it will be difficult to distinguish between the two models. The locking depth (dislocation depth) of that discrete dislocation approximation is substantially (???30%) larger than that (depth to top of the pileup) in the pileup model. Thus, in inverting surface deformation data using the discrete dislocation model, the locking depth in the model should not be interpreted as the true locking depth. Although dislocation pileup models should provide a good explanation of the surface deformation near the fault trace, that explanation may not be adequate at greater distances from the fault trace because approximating the expected horizontally distributed deformation at subcrustal depths by uniform slip concentrated on the fault is not justified.

  15. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  16. Impact of Strain Accumulation on InGaAs/GaAsP Multiple-Quantum-Well Solar Cells: Direct Correlation between In situ Strain Measurement and Cell Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Ma, Shaojun; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-10-01

    The effects of accumulating strain inside InGaAs/GaAsP multiple-quantum-well (MQW) solar cells were investigated and their correlation with in situ wafer curvature measurement was examined. The p-i-n GaAs solar cells, containing 20-period InGaAs/GaAsP MQWs in an i-GaAs layer, were fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The strain inside MQWs was varied by changing In content in an InGaAs well, while maintaining other parameters. As evidenced by curvature transience, the excessive strain led to lattice relaxation, resulting in defects, dislocations, and poor crystal quality. Consequently, short circuit current density and open circuit voltage deteriorated, and solar cell performance degraded. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained in a strain-balanced MQW solar cell. InGaAs/GaAsP MQWs have a great potential for extending the absorption edge of GaAs cells and for enhancing the efficiency of III/V multijunction solar cells by current matching. Hence, the growth of InGaAs/GaAsP MQWs for photovoltaic application requires a strain monitoring system and careful control such that the accumulating strain is minimized.

  17. On strain energy and constitutive relations for alkali metals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Arkilic, G. M.; Macdonald, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    An expression for the strain energy as a continuous differentiable function of the Green-Cauchy deformation tensor is obtained for the alkali metals at absolute zero temperature. The development is based on well established quantum and classical calculations of the various contributions to the crystal energy. Stress-deformation relations are next obtained. As a check on the accuracy of the strain energy, theoretical calculations of the values of the second-order elastic coefficients are obtained and compared to known experimental data. The predicted values are shown to compare quite well with the experimental values.

  18. Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, James A.; Striebel, James F.; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E.; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083

  19. Interseismic strain accumulation across the Ashkabad fault (NE Iran) from MERIS-corrected ASAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    The right-lateral Ashkabad Fault separates deforming NE Iran from the stable Turkmenistan platform to the north, and also facilitates the north-westwards extrusion of the South Caspian block (along with the left-lateral Shahrud fault zone). The fault represents the northernmost boundary of significant deformation of the Arabia-Eurasia collision in NE Iran. The 1948 M 7.3 Ashkabad earthquake, which killed around 110,000 people and was the deadliest earthquake to hit Europe or the Middle East in the 20th Century, also possibly occurred on this fault. However, the slip rate and therefore the seismic hazard that the Ashkabad fault represents are not well known. GPS data in NE Iran are sparse, and there are no direct geological or quaternary rates for the main strand of the fault. We use Envisat ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2010 to measure interseismic strain accumulation across the fault, and hence estimate the slip rate across it. Due to the proximity of this region to the Caspian Sea and the presence of highly variable weather systems, we use data from Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument, as well as modelled weather data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), to correct interferograms for differences in water vapour and atmospheric pressure. We mitigate the effects of remaining noise by summing the 13 corrected interferograms that cover the fault, effectively creating a 30 year interferogram with improved signal-to-noise ratio, and we empirically correct for orbital errors. Our measurements of rates of displacement are consistent with an interseismic model for the Ashkabad fault where deformation occurs at depth on a narrow shear zone below a layer in which the fault is locked. We invert the data to solve for best fitting model parameters, estimating both the slip rate and the depth to which the fault is locked. Our measurements show that the Ashkabad fault is accumulating strain at a rate of 9 mm

  20. Strain Accumulation Estimated from Seafloor Crustal Deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Kenji, Y.; Sakata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Our research has developed an observation system for seafloor crustal deformation composed of the kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging techniques [Tadokoro et al., 2006; Ikuta et al., 2008]. We monitored crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Amurian Plate. The convergence rate is predicted at 60 mm/y in the N59W direction by the Euler vector of REVEL [Sella et al., 2002]. We installed three monitoring sites (named KMN, KMS, and KME) on the seafloor at depths of about 1920-2030 m. The sites KMN and KMS are installed perpendicular to the trough axis with a spacing of 20 km; the site KME is 50 km from KMN and KMS in the direction parallel to the trough axis. The monitoring was started in 2004, 2005, and 2008 at KMS, KMN, and KME, respectively. The numbers of measurements are 16, 20, and 5 times at KMN, KMS, and KME, respectively. We obtained 3-7 years averaged horizontal site velocities within ITRF2000 adopting a robust estimation method with Tukey's biweight function to the time series of site position measured until the end of 2011. Substituting the synthetic rigid block motions of the Amurian Plate from the velocities within ITRF2000, we obtained the following site velocities with respect to the Amurian Plate [Tadokoro et al., 2012]: KMN 41±4 mm/y, N77±7W KMS 43±5 mm/y, N80±6W KME 42±5 mm/y, N80±7W In contrast, the on-land GPS horizontal velocities along the coast is 23-33 mm/y toward N74-80W. The present observational results show: (1) the velocity vectors are all the same length and direction, which indicates no internal deformation in this region; (2) the back-slip model predicts that the plate interface beneath the region is uniformly locked with coupling ratios of 60-80 %, indicating strain accumulation that will be released during the anticipated mega-thrust Tonankai earthquake; and (3) the directions of site velocities differ from that of convergence vector by 20 degrees, which is affected by

  1. Complex Toxin Profile of French Mediterranean Ostreopsis cf. ovata Strains, Seafood Accumulation and Ovatoxins Prepurification

    PubMed Central

    Brissard, Charline; Herrenknecht, Christine; Séchet, Véronique; Hervé, Fabienne; Pisapia, Francesco; Harcouet, Jocelyn; Lémée, Rodolphe; Chomérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher

    2014-01-01

    Ostreopsis cf. ovata produces palytoxin analogues including ovatoxins (OVTXs) and a putative palytoxin (p-PLTX), which can accumulate in marine organisms and may possibly lead to food intoxication. However, purified ovatoxins are not widely available and their toxicities are still unknown. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the ecophysiology of Ostreopsis cf. ovata and its toxin production as well as to optimize the purification process for ovatoxin. During Ostreopsis blooms in 2011 and 2012 in Villefranche-sur-Mer (France, NW Mediterranean Sea), microalgae epiphytic cells and marine organisms were collected and analyzed both by LC-MS/MS and hemolysis assay. Results obtained with these two methods were comparable, suggesting ovatoxins have hemolytic properties. An average of 223 μg·kg−1 of palytoxin equivalent of whole flesh was found, thus exceeding the threshold of 30 μg·kg−1 in shellfish recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Ostreopsis cells showed the same toxin profile both in situ and in laboratory culture, with ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a) being the most abundant analogue (~50%), followed by OVTX-b (~15%), p-PLTX (12%), OVTX-d (8%), OVTX-c (5%) and OVTX-e (4%). Ostreopsis cf. ovata produced up to 2 g of biomass per L of culture, with a maximum concentration of 300 pg PLTX equivalent cell−1. Thus, an approximate amount of 10 mg of PLTX-group toxins may be produced with 10 L of this strain. Toxin extracts obtained from collected biomass were purified using different techniques such as liquid-liquid partition or size exclusion. Among these methods, open-column chromatography with Sephadex LH20 phase yielded the best results with a cleanup efficiency of 93% and recovery of about 85%, representing an increase of toxin percentage by 13 fold. Hence, this purification step should be incorporated into future isolation exercises. PMID:24828292

  2. A physical model for strain accumulation in the San Francisco Bay region: Stress evolution since 1838

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.; Bakun, W.H.; Nyst, M.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of the behavior of plate boundary zones has progressed to the point where reasonably comprehensive physical models can predict their evolution. The San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) is dominated by a few major faults whose behavior over about one earthquake cycle is fairly well understood. By combining the past history of large ruptures on SFBR faults with a recently proposed physical model of strain accumulation in the SFBR, we derive the evolution of regional stress from 1838 until the present. This effort depends on (1) an existing compilation of the source properties of historic and contemporary SFBR earthquakes based on documented shaking, geodetic data, and seismic data (Bakun, 1999) and (2) a few key parameters of a simple regional viscoelastic coupling model constrained by recent GPS data (Pollitz and Nyst, 2004). Although uncertainties abound in the location, magnitude, and fault geometries of historic ruptures and the physical model relies on gross simplifications, the resulting stress evolution model is sufficiently detailed to provide a useful window into the past stress history. In the framework of Coulomb failure stress, we find that virtually all M ??? 5.8 earthquakes prior to 1906 and M ??? 5.5 earthquakes after 1906 are consistent with stress triggering from previous earthquakes. These events systematically lie in zones of predicted stress concentration elevated 5-10 bars above the regional average. The SFBR is predicted to have emerged from the 1906 "shadow" in about 1980, consistent with the acceleration in regional seismicity at that time. The stress evolution model may be a reliable indicator of the most likely areas to experience M ??? 5.5 shocks in the future.

  3. Complex Propagation of Strain Energy in Icosahedral Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have modeled the propagation of strain energy in both a vertex-based icosahedral network (12 nodes of degree 5, maximum geodesic of 3, icosahedral graph) and a face-based icosahedral network (20 nodes of degree 3, maximum geodesic of 5, dodecahedral graph), in which initial perturbation from a pre-strained state results in successive episodes of release of strain energy governed by threshold failure. The method may be extended to larger networks through icosahedral discretization of the sphere by higher-order triangulations. Relative to a reference case, we have begun to explore the effects of varying a number of network parameters. These include: the initial distribution of strain energies, the size of the initial perturbation, the nature (quantized vs. total) of threshold-governed energy release, the magnitude of syn-propagational damping, the extent of post-propagational relaxation, and the directionality (weighted mixtures of omnidirectional with either constant unidirectional or variable unidirectional) of post-failure propagation. For most cases explored thus far, simple patterns of nodal failure and energy release emerge, with networks exhibiting constant, decaying, or quasi-periodic behavior. More complex network behavior, exhibiting more complicated power spectra and less uniform levels of nodal activity, emerge only when various forms of directionality (i.e., radiation patterns) are introduced. Results from such modeling may eventually prove useful in studies of deformational microstructures or of triggered seismicity.

  4. A low energy positron accumulator for the plasma confinement in a compact magnetic mirror trap

    SciTech Connect

    Higaki, Hiroyuki Kaga, Chikato; Nagayasu, Katsushi; Okamoto, Hiromi; Nagata, Yugo; Kanai, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2015-06-29

    A low energy positron accumulator was constructed at RIKEN for the purpose of confining an electron-positron plasma. The use of 5 mCi {sup 22}Na RI source with a standard solid Ne moderator and N{sub 2} buffer gas cooling resulted in a low energy positron yield of ∼ 3 × 10{sup 5} e+/s. So far, 2 × 10{sup 6} positrons have been accumulated in 120s.

  5. The strain capacitor: A novel energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Deb Shuvra, Pranoy; McNamara, Shamus

    2014-12-15

    A novel electromechanical energy storage device is reported that has the potential to have high energy densities. It can efficiently store both mechanical strain energy and electrical energy in the form of an electric field between the electrodes of a strain-mismatched bilayer capacitor. When the charged device is discharged, both the electrical and mechanical energy are extracted in an electrical form. The charge-voltage profile of the device is suitable for energy storage applications since a larger portion of the stored energy can be extracted at higher voltage levels compared to a normal capacitor. Its unique features include the potential for long lifetime, safety, portability, wide operating temperature range, and environment friendliness. The device can be designed to operate over varied operating voltage ranges by selecting appropriate materials and by changing the dimensions of the device. In this paper a finite element model of the device is developed to verify and demonstrate the potential of the device as an energy storage element. This device has the potential to replace conventional energy storage devices.

  6. Biomass accumulation and energy conversion efficiency in aromatic rice genotypes.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, S M; Hanafi, M M; Ashrafuzzaman, M; Razi Ismail, M; Salam, M A; Khair, A

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate photosynthetic efficiency along with different growth parameters of aromatic rice genotypes. Forty genotypes including three non-aromatic checks exhibited enormous variations for leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), grain yield, total dry matter, harvest index and photosynthetic efficiency or energy use efficiency (Emu) at panicle initiation and heading stages. Minimum LAI-value was 0.52 in Khazar at PI stage and maximum was 4.91 in Sakkor khora at heading stage. The CGR-value was in the range of 4.80-24.11 g m(-2) per day. The best yielder BR39 produced grain of 4.21 t ha(-1) and the worst yielder Khazar gave 1.42 t ha(-1). Total dry matter (TDM) yield varied from 4.04 to 12.26 t ha(-1) where genotypes proved their energy use efficiency a range between 0.58 to 1.65%. Emu showed a significant positive relation with TDM (r=0.80(**)), CGR (r=0.72(**)) and grain yield (r=0.66(**)). A negative correlation was established between TDM and harvest index and LAI and RGR. Path analysis result showed that NAR at heading stage exerted highest positive direct effect (0.70) on Emu.

  7. Accumulation of astaxanthin by a new Haematococcus pluvialis strain BM1 from the white sea coastal rocks (Russia).

    PubMed

    Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Sidorov, Roman; Solovchenko, Alexei

    2014-08-15

    We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new strain for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis strains currently employed in microalgal biotechnology.

  8. Analysis of strains lacking known osmolyte accumulation mechanisms reveals contributions of osmolytes and transporters to protection against abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E; Deutch, Charles E; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H; Plater, Samantha M; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie; Wood, Janet M

    2014-09-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K(+) glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm.

  9. Analysis of Strains Lacking Known Osmolyte Accumulation Mechanisms Reveals Contributions of Osmolytes and Transporters to Protection against Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E.; Deutch, Charles E.; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H.; Plater, Samantha M.; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie

    2014-01-01

    Osmolyte accumulation and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced accumulation of K+ glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte accumulation mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and the laboratory strain MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not accumulate large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte accumulation to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine accumulated after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm. PMID:24951793

  10. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  11. Growth and lipid accumulation in three Chlorella strains from different regions in response to diurnal temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weinan; Zou, Shanmei; He, Meilin; Fei, Cong; Luo, Wei; Zheng, Shiyan; Chen, Bo; Wang, Changhai

    2016-02-01

    It was economically feasible to screen strains adaptive to wide temperature fluctuation for outdoor cultivation without temperature control. In this research, three Chlorella strains from arctic glacier, desert soil and temperate native lake were isolated and identified. The growth, biochemical composition, lipid content and fatty acid composition of each strain cultured under the mode of diurnal temperature fluctuations were compared. All the three Chlorella strains showed desirable abilities of accumulating lipid under diurnal temperature fluctuations and their fatty acid profiles were suitable for biodiesel production, although the growth and biochemical composition were seemed to be region-specific. The highest lipid content was at 51.83±2.49% DW, 42.80±2.97% DW and 36.13±2.27% DW under different temperature fluctuation of 11 °C, 25 °C, 7 °C, respectively. The results indicated that the three Chlorella strains could be promising biodiesel feedstock for outdoor cultivation by the cultural mode of diurnal temperature fluctuations.

  12. Strain energy minimization in SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) magnet winding

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.M.

    1990-09-24

    Differential geometry provides a natural family of coordinate systems, the Frenet frame, in which to specify the geometric properties of magnet winding. By a modification of the Euler-Bernoulli thin rod model, the strain energy is defined with respect to this frame. Then it is minimized by a direct method from the calculus of variations. The mathematics, its implementation in a computer program, and some analysis of an SSC dipole by the program will be described. 16 refs.

  13. Free mycolic acid accumulation in the cell wall of the mce1 operon mutant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Sally A; Leavell, Michael D; Marjanovic, Olivera; Iavarone, Anthony T; Leary, Julie A; Riley, Lee W

    2013-10-01

    The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of tuberculosis, serves as an effective barrier against many chemotherapeutic agents and toxic host cell effector molecules, and it may contribute to the mechanism of persistence. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains mutated in a 13-gene operon called mce1, which encodes a putative ABC lipid transporter, induce aberrant granulomatous response in mouse lungs. Because of the postulated role of the mce1 operon in lipid importation, we compared the cell wall lipid composition of wild type and mce1 operon mutant M. tuberculosis H37Rv strains. High resolution mass spectrometric analyses of the mce1 mutant lipid extracts showed unbound mycolic acids to accumulate in the cell wall. Quantitative analysis revealed a 10.7 fold greater amount of free mycolates in the mutant compared to that of the wild type strain. The free mycolates were comprised of alpha, methoxy and keto mycolates in the ratio 1:0.9:0.6, respectively. Since the mce1 operon is regulated in vivo, the free mycolates that accumulate during infection may serve as a barrier for M. tuberculosis against toxic products and contribute to the pathogen's persistence.

  14. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  15. Damage detection using modal strain energy and laser vibrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, Andrew W.; Liu, Pengxiang; Rao, Vittal S.; Koval, Leslie R.

    2000-06-01

    Structural health monitoring for complex systems can contribute significantly to reduced life cycle costs. Many damage detection algorithms have been proposed in the literature for investigating the structural integrity of systems. Changes in modal strain energy have been used to detect the location and extent of damage in structures. In the previous studies, the stiffness matrix is analytically derived and assumed constant even after damage. This paper reports a study on the sensitivity of the modal strain energy method to the stiffness matrix and its accuracy in detecting the location and extent of damage. The modal strain energies for each element of the undamaged structure are computed for each mode using the original analytical matrix and measured modal data. Modal data from the damaged case is used to update the stiffness matrix by a simplified matrix update scheme. This updated matrix is used to correct the elemental matrices for the damaged system. Two case studies are presented in this work. The first is an experimental and analytical model of a cantilever beam and the second, a truss model of the European Space Agency. In the first case three identical aluminum cantilever beams are used. Damage is simulated on two of them by milling 1-inch long slots at two different locations on the beams. Modal data are obtained from experiment using Scanning Laser Vibrometer (SLV) and STAR software to extract the mode shape vectors from the experimental results. These are also compared with finite element simulations of the beams. The second case is an analytical example in which damage is simulated by reducing the area of one of the truss elements hypothetically by 50%. Results from these studies show a slight improved accuracy in determining the location of damage using an updated elemental stiffness matrix. For experimental results however, modal strain energy change method does not give an accurate location of the damages. There is need for further analysis of the

  16. Cesium accumulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain immobilized in hydrogel matrices.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takayuki; Yamasaki, Mika; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Agarose gels were superior to calcium-alginate gels for immobilizing Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain to remove cesium from water. Suitable incubation time of the immobilized cells in cesium solutions, cell number in the gels and volume ratio of the cesium solution to the gels for efficient cesium removal were identified.

  17. Physiological diversity and trehalose accumulation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains isolated from spontaneous fermentations during the production of the artisanal Brazilian cachaça.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Pataro, Carla; Guerra, Juliana B; Neves, Maria J; Corrêa, Soraya R; Moreira, Elizabeth S A; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-seven Schizosaccharomyces pombe isolates from seven cachaça distilleries were tested for maximum temperature of growth and fermentation, osmotolerance, ethanol resistance, invertase production, and trehalose accumulation. Two isolates were selected for studies of trehalose accumulation under heat shock and ethanol stress. The S. pombe isolates were also characterized by RAPD-PCR. The isolates were able to grow and ferment at 41 degrees C, resisted concentrations of 10% ethanol, and grew on 50% glucose medium. Four isolates yielded invertase activity of more than 100 micromol of reducing sugar x mg(-1) x min(-1). The S. pombe isolates were able to accumulate trehalose during stationary phase. Two isolates, strains UFMG-A533 and UFMG-A1000, submitted to a 15 min heat shock, were able to accumulate high trehalose levels. Strain UFMG-A533 had a marked reduction in viability during heat shock, but strain UFMG-A1000 preserved a viability rate of almost 20% after 15 min at 48 degrees C. No clear correlation was observed between trehalose accumulation and cell survival during ethanol stress. Strain UFMG-A1000 had higher trehalose accumulation levels than strain UFMG-A533 under conditions of combined heat treatment and ethanol stress. Molecular analysis showed that some strains are maintained during the whole cachaça production period; using the RAPD-PCR profiles, it was possible to group the isolates according to their isolation sites.

  18. Interseismic Strain Accumulation at the Northern Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone From Integration of InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S. Y.; Xue, L.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of the Nicoya Peninsula directly above the seismogenic zone in northern Costa Rica has allowed detailed studies of its seismic and aseismic behavior. This segment of the Middle American Trench generates large earthquakes about every 50 years with the last event occurring in 1950. Abundant seismicity, multiple episodes of slow slip and tremor and years of surface deformation have been recorded here between 2000 and 2011, since the first GPS and seismic instruments were installed. Several models of interseismic strain accumulation have been produced using the GPS data. These models reveal different patterns of locking and variations in locking magnitude that range between 50% to 100% of the plate convergence rate. The GPS data provide excellent temporal coverage but relatively sparse spatial coverage and poor quality vertical measurements of ground deformation. To improve on this, we combine InSAR and GPS observations to produce the first interseismic deformation estimates obtained by InSAR at a subduction zone. We use 18 ALOS SAR acquisitions between 2007 and 2011 covering the Nicoya Peninsula and ROI_PAC software to construct 120 interferograms with perpendicular baselines under 1200m. GPS data are used to correct for orbital errors and corrected interferograms are stacked to produce a deformation rate map that strongly resembles a synthetic interferogram constructed using a GPS based interseismic deformation model. To detect accumulated interseismic deformation over a longer time period we use the small baseline subset (SBAS) method to construct InSAR time series. The resulting linear rate map agrees very well with the GPS measurements along two profiles perpendicular to the coast where GPS observations are the densest. Maximum displacements reach ~10-15 mm/yr near the coastline. Future work will integrate these results with GPS observations to obtain a high-resolution strain accumulation model for the Nicoya Peninsula.

  19. Determining Recoverable and Irrecoverable Contributions to Accumulated Strain in a NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy During Thermomechanical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, J. A.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Bigelow, G.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S., II

    2011-01-01

    When Ni(29.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30 shape memory alloy is thermally cycled under stress, significant strain can accumulate due to elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and plasticity. The strain due to remnant martensite can be recovered by further thermal cycling under 0 MPa until the original transformation-induced volume change and martensite coefficient of thermal expansion are obtained. Using this technique, it was determined that the 8.15% total accumulated strain after cycling under 200 MPa consisted of 0.38%, 3.97% and 3.87% for elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and creep/plasticity, respectively.

  20. The use of the Fermilab antiproton Accumulator in medium energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Church, M.; Harms, E.; Hsueh, S.Y.; Kells, W.; MacLachlan, J.; Marsh, W.; McCarthy, J.; Pastrone, N.; Peoples, J.

    1988-06-07

    The Fermilab antiprotron Accumulator has been modified for use in a medium energy experiment. The experiment is conducted with circulating antiproton beam of momentum between 6.7 GeV/c and 3.7 GeV/c colliding with protons from an internal gas jet. Antiprotons are accumulated at the normal momentum of 8.9 GeV/c and then decelerated to the appropriate energy. It is necessary to cool the beam continually during the time it is colliding with the gas jet. The experiment requires new provisions for the control of magnet power supplies and low level rf system and modifications of the cooling system and high level energy systems to permit variable energy operation. Transition must be crossed to decelerate the beam below 5 GeV/c; because the deceleration is very slow, transition can not be crossed in a conventional manner. This paper will describe the required changes to the Accumulator and operating experience with protons. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Bibenzyl Canniprene Inhibits the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids and Selectively Accumulates in Some Cannabis sativa Strains.

    PubMed

    Allegrone, Gianna; Pollastro, Federica; Magagnini, Gianmaria; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Seegers, Julia; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Appendino, Giovanni

    2017-02-06

    Canniprene (1), an isoprenylated bibenzyl unique to Cannabis sativa, can be vaporized and therefore potentially inhaled from marijuana. Canniprene (1) potently inhibited the production of inflammatory eicosanoids via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway (IC50 0.4 μM) and also affected the generation of prostaglandins via the cyclooxygenase/microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase pathway (IC50 10 μM), while the related spiranoid bibenzyls cannabispiranol (2) and cannabispirenone (3) were almost inactive in these bioassays. The concentration of canniprene (1) was investigated in the leaves of 160 strains of C. sativa, showing wide variations, from traces to >0.2%, but no correlation was found between its accumulation and a specific phytocannabinoid profile.

  2. InSAR observations of strain accumulation and fault creep along the Chaman Fault system, Pakistan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, Heresh; Amelung, Falk

    2016-08-01

    We use 2004-2011 Envisat synthetic aperture radar imagery and InSAR time series methods to estimate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation in the Chaman Fault system in Pakistan and Afghanistan. At 29 N we find long-term slip rates of 16 ± 2.3 mm/yr for the Ghazaband Fault and of 8 ± 3.1 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. This makes the Ghazaband Fault one of the most hazardous faults of the plate boundary zone. We further identify a 340 km long segment displaying aseismic surface creep along the Chaman Fault, with maximum surface creep rate of 8.1 ± 2 mm/yr. The observation that the Chaman Fault accommodates only 30% of the relative plate motion between India and Eurasia implies that the remainder is accommodated south and east of the Katawaz block microplate.

  3. Measurement of interseismic strain accumulation across the North Anatolian Fault by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tim; Parsons, Barry; Fielding, Eric

    In recent years, interseismic crustal velocities and strains have been determined for a number of tectonically active areas through repeated measurements using the Global Positioning System. The terrain in such areas is often remote and difficult, and the density of GPS measurements relatively sparse. In principle, satellite radar interferometry can be used to make millimetric-precision measurements of surface displacement over large surface areas. In practice, the small crustal deformation signal is dominated over short time intervals by errors due to atmospheric, topographic and orbital effects. Here we show that these effects can be over-come by stacking multiple interferograms, after screening for atmospheric anomalies, effectively creating a new interferogram that covers a longer time interval. In this way, we have isolated a 70 km wide region of crustal deformation across the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. The distribution of deformation is consistent with slip of 17-32 mm/yr below 5-33 km on the extension of the surface fault at depth. If the GPS determined slip rate of 24±1 mm/yr is accepted, the locking depth is constrained to 18±6 km.

  4. Interseismic strain accumulation in seismic gap of south central Chile from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, A.; Vigny, C.; Ruegg, J. C.; Campos, J.

    2003-04-01

    Three campaigns of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were carried out in the Concepcion-Constitucion seismic gap in South Central Chile in 1996, 1999, and 2002. We observed a network of about 40 sites, made of 2 east-west transects roughly perpendicular to the trench ranging from the coastal area to the Argentina border and 1 north-south profile along the coast. Data sets were processed with MIT's GAMIT/GLOBK package. Horizontal velocities have formal uncertainties around 1 to 2 mm/yr in average. Vertical velocities are also determined and have uncertainties around 2 to 5 mm/yr. We find that the convergence between Nazca and South-America plates better matches the pole previously estimated by (Larson et al, 1997) than the Nuvel-1A estimate. Our estimate predicts a convergence of 72 mm/yr at N70 to be compared with Nuvel-1A 80 mm/yr at N79. With respect to stable South America, horizontal velocities decrease from 35 mm/yr on the coast to 14 mm/yr in the Cordillera. Vertical velocities help constraint lithospheric flecture. Partionning of the slightly oblique convergence will be investigated. The gradient of convergent parallel velocities reflects aseismic elastic loading on a zone of about 400 km width. Interestingly enough, this gradient exhibit a linear pattern, marginally compatible with the expected arctangent shape. 70 mm/yr of motion accumulated since the last big event in this area (1835 Earthquake described by Darwin) represent more than 10 m of displacement. Therefore, this area is probably mature for a next large earthquake, the magnitude of which could reach 8.5.

  5. Hydraulic accumulator-motor-generator energy regeneration system for a hybrid hydraulic excavator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tianliang; Wang, Qingfeng

    2012-11-01

    Though the traditional energy regeneration system(ERS) which used a hydraulic motor and a generator in hybrid excavators can regenerate part of the energy, the power of the motor and the generator should be larger and the time for regenerating energy is so short. At first, the structure of new ERS that combines the advantages of an electric and hydraulic accumulator is analyzed. The energy can be converted into both the electric energy and the hydraulic energy at the lowering of the boom and the generator can still works when the boom stops going down. Then, a method how to set the working pressure of the hydraulic accumulator is proposed. To avoid the excess loss, extra noise and shock pressure, a two-level pressure threshold method that the generator starts to work at the rising edge of the high pressure threshold and stops working at the falling edge of the low pressure threshold is presented to characterize the working mode of the generator. The control strategies on how to control the boom velocity at the lowering of the boom and how to improve the recovery efficiency when the boom stops going down are presented. The test bench of hybrid excavator with ERS is constructed, with which the studies on the influences of ERS on energy conversion efficiency and control performance are carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed ERS features better speed control performance of the boom than traditional ERS. It is also observed that an estimated 45% of the total potential energy could be regenerated at the lowering of the boom in the proposed ERS, and the power level of the generator and the hydraulic motor could be reduced by 60%. Hence, the proposed ERS has obvious advantages over the traditional ERS on the improvement of energy regeneration time, energy efficiency, control performance and economy.

  6. On the influence of dynamic stress variations on strain accumulation in fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. S.; Shilko, E. V.; Astafurov, S. V.; Dimaki, A. V.; Vysotsky, E. M.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of the influence of the stress state of interface of the block medium structural elements on the deformation response of interface to the dynamic impacts. It is shown that the basic characteristics of the stress state determining the deformation response of the interface are the values of shear stress and mean stress. It is found that the dependence of the irreversible displacement at the interface zone initiated by dynamic impact on the reduced shear stress is described by the logistic function. Herewith, the influence of the mean stress and dynamic impact energy on the value of displacement initiated by dynamic impact can be taken into account by dependence of the logistic function numerator on these parameters.

  7. Interseismic Strain Accumulation in Metropolitan Los Angeles Distinguished from Oil and Water management using InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D. F.; Agram, P. S.; Rollins, C.; Avouac, J. P.; Barbot, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thesis.InSAR measurements from 1992 to 2012 are detecting deformation due to oil pumping and groundwater changes throughout metropolitan Los Angeles. This is allowing elastic strain build up on blind thrusts beneath the city to be accurately evaluated using GPS. Oil Fields.Pumping and repressurization of oil fields have generated substantial displacement in metropolitan Los Angeles, causing Beverly Hills, downtown, and Whittier to subside at 3-10 mm/yr and Santa Fe Springs and La Mirada to rise at 5-9 mm/yr. Aquifers.Displacements of the Santa Ana and San Gabriel Valley aquifers accumulate in response to sustained changes in groundwater over periods of either drought or heavy precipitation. Santa Ana aquifer has subsided nearly 0.1 m in response to lowering of the groundwater level by about 25 m over the past 18 years. Anthropogenic Vs. Tectonic Motion.We are assessing horizontal motions due to changes groundwater using an empirical relationship established on the basis of seasonal oscillations of Santa Ana aquifer. Anthropogenic horizontal motion is estimated to be proportional to the directional gradient in vertical motion inferred with InSAR. We are finding this rough approximation to be quite useful for evaluating deviations of GPS positions from a constant velocity. We are also constructing Mogi models of volume change in oil fields to evaluate GPS deviations. Earthquake Strain Buildup on Blind Thrust Faults.NNE contraction perpendicular to the big restraining bend in the San Andreas fault is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas in the San Gabriel Mountains, but instead 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. An elastic model of interseismic strain accumulation fit to GPS data and incorporating a 1D approximation of the rheology of the Los Angeles basin indicates the deep segment of the Puente Hills (-upper Elysian Park) Thrust to be slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km. Please see also our

  8. Metabolic engineering of sugarcane to accumulate energy-dense triacylglycerols in vegetative biomass.

    PubMed

    Zale, Janice; Jung, Je Hyeong; Kim, Jae Yoon; Pathak, Bhuvan; Karan, Ratna; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiuhua; Wu, Hao; Candreva, Jason; Zhai, Zhiyang; Shanklin, John; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-02-01

    Elevating the lipid content in vegetative tissues has emerged as a new strategy for increasing energy density and biofuel yield of crops. Storage lipids in contrast to structural and signaling lipids are mainly composed of glycerol esters of fatty acids, also known as triacylglycerol (TAG). TAGs are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available in nature. Therefore, altering the carbon-partitioning balance in favour of TAG in vegetative tissues of sugarcane, one of the highest yielding biomass crops, is expected to drastically increase energy yields. Here we report metabolic engineering to elevate TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of sugarcane. Constitutive co-expression of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2 (DGAT1-2) and oleosin1 (OLE1) and simultaneous cosuppression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and a subunit of the peroxisomal ABC transporter1 (PXA1) in transgenic sugarcane elevated TAG accumulation in leaves or stems by 95- or 43-fold to 1.9% or 0.9% of dry weight (DW), respectively, while expression or suppression of one to three of the target genes increased TAG levels by 1.5- to 9.5-fold. Accumulation of TAG in vegetative progeny plants was consistent with the results from primary transgenics and contributed to a total fatty acid content of up to 4.7% or 1.7% of DW in mature leaves or stems, respectively. Lipid droplets were visible within mesophyll cells of transgenic leaves by confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results provide the basis for optimizations of TAG accumulation in sugarcane and other high yielding biomass grasses and will open new prospects for biofuel applications.

  9. Converter-based accumulation of electric energy generated by microbial biofuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetilov, A. N.; Kitova, A. E.; Dyakov, A. V.; Gotovtsev, P. M.; Vasilov, R. G.; Gutorov, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial biofuel cell (BFC) was used as a primary energy source for energy storage system. The converter BQ25504 (Texas Instruments) was applied for transformation of electrical energy from microwatt primary sources. The energy storage operation begins if BFC output voltage was higher or equal to 300 mV. In case of stationary operation it was possible to provide energy storage of BFC output voltage equal to 100 mV. The developed system based on converter enables to increase the initial voltage BFC of 0.5 V to 3.1 V; accumulated energy is stored on the various capacitors. Resulting voltage was stable with application of condensers with capacities from 100 μF to 6800 μF. In case of application of 3.1 V and 6800 μF condenser the storage energy was equal to 32.7 mJ. It was enough to provide short time operation of diode L-1154SURDK (2.0 V, 20 mA) and electrical motor M25E-4L (MITSUMI; 3.0 V, 100 mA). Designed system can be applied for energy supply of small electrical devices (for example remote sensors) and autonomous microrobots.

  10. Reconciling patterns of interseismic strain accumulation with thermal observations across the Carrizo segment of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Schmalzle, G. M.; Harris, R. N.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal state of the lithosphere has significant influence on crustal deformation and the depth extent of seismicity. Additional factors such as lithology and stress state are generally thought to impart smaller contributions. Along the Carrizo segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), however, observed strain accumulation across the fault is counter to that expected based on contrasts in heat flow and microseismicity cutoff depths [Schmalzle et al., JGR, 2006]. We reconcile this discrepancy by suggesting that large overpressures and/or anomalous basement rocks make an important contribution to the crustal rheology in this area. The Carrizo segment of the SAF separates rocks of the Salinian Block to the SW characterized by high heat flow (~75 - 95 mW/m2) and shallow microseismicity (~10 km depth or less) from rocks of the Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Group to the NE associated with low heat flow (50 - 60 mW/m2) and deeper microseismicity (less than ~20 km deep). Intriguingly, GPS data from this region suggest that the NE side of the fault accommodates more strain than the SW side, inconsistent with what is generally expected based on the thermal data and cutoff depth of microseismicity. Viscoelastic models have been able to explain this asymmetric strain accumulation well with a constant elastic thickness coupled with a ~20 km wide soft (i.e., low Young’s modulus) zone NE of the fault. We show that by using this model in combination with the contrast in elastic thickness inferred from heat flow and microseismicity observations, we achieve better agreement with geologically accepted long-term average slip rates. Interestingly, the ~20 km wide soft zone NE of the fault is required to achieve this result. We suggest that this soft zone may be a result of either large overpressures or anomalous basement lithology. The presence of large overpressures is consistent with the subsurface extent of a hydrologic seal that extends ~10 - 20 km NE from the fault

  11. Accumulated Bending Energy Elicits Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    López, David J.; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V.; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A2. The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A2 activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis. PMID:22824271

  12. Accumulated bending energy elicits neutral sphingomyelinase activity in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    López, David J; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M; Alonso, Alicia

    2012-05-02

    We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A(2). The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A(2) activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis.

  13. Residual thermal and moisture influences on the strain energy release rate analysis of edge delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.; Raju, I. S.; Garber, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    A laminated plate theory analysis is developed to calculate the strain energy release rate associated with edge delamination growth in a composite laminate. The analysis includes the contribution of residual thermal and moisture stresses to the strain energy released. The strain energy release rate, G, increased when residual thermal effects were combined with applied mechanical strains, but then decreased when increasing moisture content was included. A quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis indicated identical trends and demonstrated these same trends for the individual strain energy release rate components, G sub I and G sub II, associated with interlaminar tension and shear. An experimental study indicated that for T300/5208 graphite-epoxy composites, the inclusion of residual thermal and moisture stresses did not significantly alter the calculation of interlaminar fracture toughness from strain energy release rate analysis of edge delamination data taken at room temperature, ambient conditions.

  14. Low-energy theory for strained graphene: an approach up to second-order in the strain tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Leyva, Maurice; Wang, Chumin

    2017-04-01

    An analytical study of low-energy electronic excited states in uniformly strained graphene is carried out up to second-order in the strain tensor. We report a new effective Dirac Hamiltonian with an anisotropic Fermi velocity tensor, which reveals the graphene trigonal symmetry being absent in first-order low-energy theories. In particular, we demonstrate the dependence of the Dirac-cone elliptical deformation on the stretching direction with respect to graphene lattice orientation. We further analytically calculate the optical conductivity tensor of strained graphene and its transmittance for a linearly polarized light with normal incidence. Finally, the obtained analytical expression of the Dirac point shift allows a better determination and understanding of pseudomagnetic fields induced by nonuniform strains.

  15. Low-energy theory for strained graphene: an approach up to second-order in the strain tensor.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Leyva, Maurice; Wang, Chumin

    2017-04-26

    An analytical study of low-energy electronic excited states in uniformly strained graphene is carried out up to second-order in the strain tensor. We report a new effective Dirac Hamiltonian with an anisotropic Fermi velocity tensor, which reveals the graphene trigonal symmetry being absent in first-order low-energy theories. In particular, we demonstrate the dependence of the Dirac-cone elliptical deformation on the stretching direction with respect to graphene lattice orientation. We further analytically calculate the optical conductivity tensor of strained graphene and its transmittance for a linearly polarized light with normal incidence. Finally, the obtained analytical expression of the Dirac point shift allows a better determination and understanding of pseudomagnetic fields induced by nonuniform strains.

  16. The Lima-Peru seismic gap: a study of inter-seismic strain accumulation from a decade of GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Pollitz, F. F.; Dixon, T. H.

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian subduction zone between the Mendaña Fracture zone and Arica, northern Chile, has been source of large megathrust earthquakes since historical to present times, The two last major events affecting the southern segment corresponds to Arequipa 2001 (Mw 8.3) and Pisco 2007 (Mw 8.1). A noteworthy event is the Lima 1746 earthquake with an assigned magnitude of Mw 8.5 and which is assumed to have broken several km of the seismogenic zone off Lima. The great shock was followed by a devastating tsunami that destroyed the main port of Callao, killing about 99 percent of its population. This extreme event was followed by quiescence of a few hundred years until the XX century when the Lima subduction zone was broken again by the earthquakes of May 1940 (Mw 8.0), October 1966 (Mw 8.0) and Lima 1974 (Mw 8.0). The broken areas overlap partially with the estimated area of the 1746 earthquake and put the region in a state of seismic gap representing a major hazard for Lima city - Peru's capital and its about 9 million of inhabitants. Our study reports the interseismic strain accumulation derived from a decade of GPS measurement at 11 geodetic monuments including one measurement in an island 80 km offshore and models variations of coupling along the plate interface.

  17. Strain Effect on the Absorption Threshold Energy of Silicon Circular Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.; Bahramiyan, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the influence of strain on threshold energy of absorption in Silicon circular nanowires is investigated. For this purpose, we first have used the density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the electron and hole effective masses. Then, we have obtained absorption threshold energy with two different procedures, DFT and effective mass approximation (EMA). We have also obtained the band structures of Si nanowires both DFT and EMA. The results show that: i) the expansive strain increases the hole effective mass while compressive strain increases the electron effective mass, ii) the electron and hole effective masses reduce with decreasing the wire size, iii) the absorption threshold energy decreases by increasing strain for compressive and tensile strain and its behavior as a function of strain is approximately parabolic, iv) the absorption threshold energy (for all sizes) obtained using EMA is greater than the DFT results.

  18. Strain Measurements using High Energy White X-rays at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Shobu, T.; Kaneko, H.; Mizuki, J.; Konishi, H.; Shibano, J.; Hirata, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2007-01-19

    The strain in the bulk of a material was evaluated using high energy white X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. The specimen, which was a 5 mm thick austenitic stainless steel sample (JIS-SUS304L), was subjected to bending. The internal strain was measured using white X-rays, which ranged in energy from 60 keV to 125 keV. Highly accurate internal strain measurements were accomplished by simultaneously using strain data from several lattice planes of {alpha} -Fe. Furthermore, utilizing diffracted beams with a high energy, a high peak count, and a profile similar to a Gaussian distribution decreased the error of the strain measurement The results indicated that high energy white X-rays can effectively measure the internal strain at a millimeter depth.

  19. Heat production by energy viscous dissipation at the stage of the Earth's accumulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurie Khachay, Professor; Olga Hachay, Professor

    2016-04-01

    In [1] it is suggested the model of Sun's protoplanetary cloud matter differentiation during the process of terrestrial planets accumulation. In [2] it was shown that the energy released during the decay of short-lived radioactive elements in the small size more than 50 km, it is enough that the temperature inside of the protoplanet becomes larger than the temperature of iron melting. It provides a realization of the matter differentiation process and convection development inside the inner envelopes. In [3] it is shown that during the sequence of changes in the growth of accumulated protoplanets, three types of driving mechanisms of convection are realized: internal heat sources; heated top; finally in the outer forming core of the Earth, heated from bottom and chemical and thermal convection. At all stages of proto Earth's development the convective heat-mass transfer becomes a most significant factor in the dynamics of the planet. However, the heat release due to friction in the viscous liquid is still considered only for the formed planetary envelopes with a constant radius and angular speed. In this paper we present the first results of numerical modeling of thermal evolution of 3D spherical segment for a protoplanet with increasing radius. To describe the planetary accumulation Safronov equation is used [4]. For the quantitative determination of the released heat by viscous friction a system of hydro dynamic equations of a viscous liquid is used. The obtained results show that the heat input due to viscous friction heat release at the early stage of planetary accumulation was very significant. This work was supported by grant RFFI №16-05-00540 Reference. 1. Anfilogov V., Khachay Y., 2015, Some Aspects of the Solar System Formation. Springer Briefs of the Earth Sciences. 75p 2. Anfilogov V., Khachay Y., 2005, A possible variant of matter differentiation on the initial stage of Earth's forming. DAN, V. 403, No 6, pp. 803-806. 3. Khachay Yu. Realization of

  20. The Effects of Light, Temperature, and Nutrition on Growth and Pigment Accumulation of Three Dunaliella salina Strains Isolated from Saline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Duangmanee, Promchup; Zhao, Pu; Juntawong, Niran; Ma, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing algal industries in saline-alkali areas is necessary. However, suitable strains and optimal production conditions must be studied before widespread commercial use. Objectives: The effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and CO(NH2)2 on beta-carotene and biomass accumulation were compared and evaluated in order to provide scientific guidance for commercial algal production in northeastern Thailand. Materials and Methods: An orthogonal design was used for evaluating optimal conditions for the algal production of three candidate Dunaliella salina strains (KU XI, KU 10 and KU 31) which were isolated from saline soils and cultured in the column photobioreactor. Results: The optimal light and temperature for algae growth were 135.3 μmol m-2 s-1 and 22°C, while the conditions of 245.6 μmol m-2 s-1 and 22°C induced the highest level of beta-carotene production (117.99 mg L-1). The optimal concentrations of KNO3, CO(NH2)2, and NaHCO3 for algae growth were 0.5 g L-1, 0.36 g L-1, and 1.5 g L-1, respectively, while 0, 0.12 g L-1 and 1.5 g L-1 were best suited for beta-carotene accumulation. The highest beta-carotene rate per cell appeared with the highest light intensity (12.21 pg) and lowest temperature (12.47 pg), and the lowest total beta-carotene content appeared at the lowest temperature (15°C). There was not a significant difference in biomass accumulation among the three Dunaliella strains; however, the beta-carotene accumulation of KU XI was higher than that of the other two strains. Conclusions: Light and temperature were both relevant factors that contributed to the growth and beta-carotene accumulation of the three D. salina strains, and NaHCO3 had significantly positive effects on growth. The degree of impact of the different factors on cell growth was temperature > NaHCO3 > light intensity > KNO3 > CO (NH2)2 > strains; the impact on beta-carotene accumulation was temperature > light intensity > KNO3 > CO (NH2)2 > strains > NaHCO3 PMID

  1. Interseismic strain accumulation at the Mw8.8 2010 Maule earthquake by means of finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, M.; Tassara, A.; Araya, R.; Bataille, K.

    2012-04-01

    We implemented a two-dimensional finite element model that simulates the accumulation of crustal deformation due to the tectonic loading on a locked subduction fault and applied this model to study the seismic cycle of the Mw8.8 2010 Maule (Central Chile) earthquake. Our goal is to gain insigth into the fundamental factors controling elastic strain build-up and release in subduction zones and to evaluate different approaches proposed for modeling surface deformation as observed by GPS-based crustal velocities. By applying the finite element technique we developed a linear elasticity solver that allows us to assess a realistic plate geometry, rheology and relative velocity of subducting plate in a coupled seismic zone. Constraining parameters such as convergence velocity as well as the geometry of the subduction zone are supported by independent geophysical data so we concentrate on the influence of mechanical slab thickness, variations in the updip and downdip limit, degree of coupling and rheology. We have introduced idealized geometric models, noting that our numerical solution reproduce the analytical solution for an elastic half-space and that the surface displacement field obtained for a curved fault and non-zero slab thickness model mimics the predictions of a simple backslip model when the slab thickness tends to zero. We compared model predictions with GPS observations in a EW profile crossing the Maule earthquake rupture area in an attempt for determining the parameters of the seismogenic zone most suitable for this region. Our preliminary results, that consider a realistic geometry and uniform convergence velocity, suggest little influence of the subducting plate thickness for the same downdip limit and the fit to observations is only locally achieved within the margin of error of GPS speeds. We will show results for the inter- and co-seismic phases of the seismic cycle.

  2. Estimate of tephra accumulation probabilities for the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, Richard P.; Scott, William E.

    2011-01-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, we estimate the thickness of tephra accumulation that has an annual probability of 1 in 10,000 of being equaled or exceeded at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, where a project to build the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant is underway. We follow the methodology of a 1987 probabilistic assessment of tephra accumulation in the Pacific Northwest. For a given thickness of tephra, we calculate the product of three probabilities: (1) the annual probability of an eruption producing 0.1 km3 (bulk volume) or more of tephra, (2) the probability that the wind will be blowing toward the Hanford Site, and (3) the probability that tephra accumulations will equal or exceed the given thickness at a given distance. Mount St. Helens, which lies about 200 km upwind from the Hanford Site, has been the most prolific source of tephra fallout among Cascade volcanoes in the recent geologic past and its annual eruption probability based on this record (0.008) dominates assessment of future tephra falls at the site. The probability that the prevailing wind blows toward Hanford from Mount St. Helens is 0.180. We estimate exceedance probabilities of various thicknesses of tephra fallout from an analysis of 14 eruptions of the size expectable from Mount St. Helens and for which we have measurements of tephra fallout at 200 km. The result is that the estimated thickness of tephra accumulation that has an annual probability of 1 in 10,000 of being equaled or exceeded is about 10 centimeters. It is likely that this thickness is a maximum estimate because we used conservative estimates of eruption and wind probabilities and because the 14 deposits we used probably provide an over-estimate. The use of deposits in this analysis that were mostly compacted by the time they were studied and measured implies that the bulk density of the tephra fallout we consider here is in the range of 1,000-1,250 kg/m3. The

  3. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  4. EFFECT OF STRAIN FIELD ON THRESHOLD DISPLACEMENT ENERGY OF TUNGSTEN STUDIED BY MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Gao, X.; He, W. H.

    2016-03-31

    The influence of hydrostatic strain on point defect formation energy and threshold displacement energy (Ed) in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. Two different tungsten potentials (Fikar and Juslin) were used. The minimum Ed direction calculated with the Fikar-potential was <100>, but with the Juslin-potential it was <111>. The most stable self-interstitial (SIA) configuration was a <111>-crowdion for both potentials. The stable SIA configuration did not change with applied strain. Varying the strain from compression to tension increased the vacancy formation energy but decreased the SIA formation energy. The SIA formation energy changed more significantly than for a vacancy such that Ed decreased with applied strain from compression to tension.

  5. A simplified approach to strain energy release rate computations for interlaminar fracture of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armanios, Erian A.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    A simple approach for the strain energy release rate computations based on the finite element method and a singular fitting model is presented. The model uses the stress and displacement distributions at the delamination front. The method is applied to a mixed-mode double cracked-lap-shear composite configuration. The strain energy release rate components predicted by the model are compared with the finite element crack-closure method. The effect of the mesh size on the stress and displacement distribution is isolated. The strain energy release rates predicted by relatively coarse mesh sizes are in good agreement with the finite element crack closure method.

  6. Formation and Migration Energies of Interstitials in Silicon Under Strain Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, Timur; Barnett, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation calculations are conducted for Si substrates to analyze formation and diffusion energies of interstitials under strain condition using statics methods .based on a Stillinger-Weber type potential function. Defects in the vicinity of the surface region and in the bulk are examined, and the role played by compressive and tensile strains on the energetics of interstitials is investigated. Results indicate that strain alters defect energetics which, in turn, modifies their diffusion characteristics.

  7. STRAIN-ENERGY RATES FOR A CLASS OF PERTURBATIONS OF BOUNDARY GEOMETRIES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    perturbations of boundary geometry. Application of the argument to the calculation of the rate of change of the elastic strain energy for a family of edge notches in tensile sheet is then demonstrated. (Author)

  8. Energy-dense diet triggers changes in gut microbiota, reorganization of gut-brain vagal communication and increases body fat accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Alexandra C.; Cooper, Erin M.; DiLorenzo, Patricia M.; O’Loughlin, Levi J.; Konkel, Michael E.; Peters, James H.; Hajnal, Andras; Sen, Tanusree; Lee, Sun Hye; de La Serre, Claire B.; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation. Sprague-Dawley rats consumed a low energy-dense rodent diet (LFD; 3.1 kcal/g) or high energy-dense diet (HFD, 5.24 kcal/g). Minocycline was used to manipulate gut microbiota composition. 16S Sequencing was used to determine microbiota composition. Immunofluorescence against IB4 and Iba1 was used to determine NTS reorganization and microglia activation. Nodose ganglia from LFD rats were isolated and co-cultured with different bacteria strains to determine neurotoxicity. HFD altered gut microbiota with increases in Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio and in pro-inflammatory Proteobacteria proliferation. HFD triggered reorganization of vagal afferents and microglia activation in the NTS, associated with weight gain. Minocycline-treated HFD rats exhibited microbiota profile comparable to LFD animals. Minocycline suppressed HFD-induced reorganization of vagal afferents and microglia activation in the NTS, and reduced body fat accumulation. Proteobacteria isolated from cecum of HFD rats were toxic to vagal afferent neurons in culture. Our findings show that diet-induced shift in gut microbiome may disrupt vagal gut-brain communication resulting in microglia activation and increased body fat accumulation. PMID:28379213

  9. Intersubband energies in strain-compensated InGaN/AlInN quantum well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol

    2016-01-15

    Intersubband transition energies in the conduction band for strain-compensated InGaN/AlInN quantum well (QW) structures were investigated as a function of strain based on an effective mass theory with the nonparabolicity taken into account. In the case of an InGaN/AlInN QW structure lattice-matched to GaN, the wavelength is shown to be longer than 1.55 μm. On the other hand, strain-compensated QW structures show that the wavelength of 1.55 μm can be reached even for the QW structure with a relatively small strain of 0.3 %. Hence, the strain-compensated QW structures can be used for telecommunication applications at 1.55 μm with a small strain, compared to conventional GaN/AlN QW structure.

  10. Strain-Induced Energy Band Gap Opening in Two-Dimensional Bilayered Silicon Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Zhou, R.; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhuang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of bilayered silicon film (BiSF) under in-plane biaxial strain/stress using density functional theory (DFT). Atomic structures of the two-dimensional (2-D) silicon films are optimized by using both the local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In the absence of strain/stress, five buckled hexagonal honeycomb structures of the BiSF with triangular lattice have been obtained as local energy minima, and their structural stability has been verified. These structures present a Dirac-cone shaped energy band diagram with zero energy band gaps. Applying a tensile biaxial strain leads to a reduction of the buckling height. Atomically flat structures with zero buckling height have been observed when the AA-stacking structures are under a critical biaxial strain. Increase of the strain between 10.7% and 15.4% results in a band-gap opening with a maximum energy band gap opening of ˜0.17 eV, obtained when a 14.3% strain is applied. Energy band diagrams, electron transmission efficiency, and the charge transport property are calculated. Additionally, an asymmetric energetically favorable atomic structure of BiSF shows a non-zero band gap in the absence of strain/stress and a maximum band gap of 0.15 eV as a -1.71% compressive strain is applied. Both tensile and compressive strain/stress can lead to a band gap opening in the asymmetric structure.

  11. The exponentiated Hencky-logarithmic strain energy: part III—coupling with idealized multiplicative isotropic finite strain plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Patrizio; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel

    2016-03-01

    We investigate an immediate application in finite strain multiplicative plasticity of the family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies F mapsto W_eH(F):= widehat{W}_eH(U) := μ/k e^{k | dev_n log {U}|^2}+κ/2 {widehat{k}} e^{widehat{k} [ tr(log U)]^2}&quad if& det F > 0, + ∞ & quad if & det F ≤ 0, based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor {log U} . Here, {μ > 0} is the infinitesimal shear modulus, {κ=2 μ+3λ/3 > 0} is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with λ the first Lamé constant, {k,widehat{k}} are additional dimensionless material parameters, {F=nabla \\varphi} is the gradient of deformation, {U=√{F^T F}} is the right stretch tensor, and dev n {log {U} =log {U}-1/n tr(log {U})\\cdot{1}} is the deviatoric part of the strain tensor {log U} . Based on the multiplicative decomposition {F=F_e F_p} , we couple these energies with some isotropic elasto-plastic flow rules {F_p {dt}/[F_p^{-1}]in-partial χ(dev_3 Σe)} defined in the plastic distortion F p , where {partial χ} is the subdifferential of the indicator function {χ} of the convex elastic domain {E_e({Σe},1/3{σ}_{y}^2)} in the mixed-variant {Σe} -stress space, {Σe=F_e^T D_{F_e}W_iso(F_e)} , and {W_iso(F_e)} represents the isochoric part of the energy. While {W_eH} may loose ellipticity, we show that loss of ellipticity is effectively prevented by the coupling with plasticity, since the ellipticity domain of {W_eH} on the one hand and the elastic domain in {Σe} -stress space on the other hand are closely related. Thus, the new formulation remains elliptic in elastic unloading at any given plastic predeformation. In addition, in this domain, the true stress-true strain relation remains monotone, as observed in experiments.

  12. Interseismic Strain Accumulation in the Imperial Valley and Implications for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2009-12-01

    From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear strain, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed strain field to that computed using the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic strain transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear strain rate of 0.7 μstrain/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the southern Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the southern San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.

  13. Less Strain Energy despite Fewer Misfit Dislocations: The Impact of Ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Th.; Kroeger, R.; Flege, J.I.; Clausen, T.; Falta, J.; Janzen, A.; Zahl, P.; Kury, P.; Kammler, M.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.

    2006-02-17

    The average strain state of Ge films grown on Si(111) by surfactant mediated epitaxy has been compared to the ordering of the interfacial misfit dislocation network. Surprisingly, a smaller degree of average lattice relaxation was found in films grown at higher temperature. On the other hand, these films exhibit a better ordered dislocation network. This effect energetically compensates the higher strain at higher growth temperature, leading to the conclusion that, apart from the formation of misfit dislocations, their ordering represents an important channel for lattice-strain energy relaxation.

  14. Strain controlled ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition and vacancy formation energy of defective graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Sahoo, Mpk; Wang, Jie

    2016-09-23

    Single vacancy (SV)-induced magnetism in graphene has attracted much attention motivated by its potential in achieving new functionalities. However, a much higher vacancy formation energy limits its direct application in electronic devices and the dependency of spin interaction on the strain is unclear. Here, through first-principles density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the possibility of strain engineering towards lowering vacancy formation energy and inducing new magnetic states in defective graphene. It is found that the SV-graphene undergoes a phase transition from an initial ferromagnetic state to a ferrimagnetic state under a biaxial tensile strain. At the same time, the biaxial tensile strain significantly lowers the vacancy formation energy. The charge density, density of states and band theory successfully identify the origin and underlying physics of the transition. The predicted magnetic phase transition is attributed to the strain driven spin flipping at the C-atoms nearest to the SV-site. The magnetic semiconducting graphene induced by defect and strain engineering suggests an effective way to modulate both spin and electronic degrees of freedom in future spintronic devices.

  15. Effect of strain and temperature on the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, Benjamin; Asta, Mark; Hosemann, Peter; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    The threshold displacement energy (TDE) is the minimum amount of kinetic energy required to displace an atom from its lattice site. The magnitude of the TDE displays significant variance as a function of the crystallographic direction, system temperature and applied strain, among a variety of other factors. It is critically important to determine an accurate value of the TDE in order to calculate the total number of displacements due to a given irradiation condition, and thus to understand the materials response to irradiation. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to calculate the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron as a function of strain and temperature. With applied strain, a decrease of the TDE of up to approximately 14 eV was observed. A temperature increase from 300 K to 500 K can result in an increase of the TDE of up to approximately 9 eV.

  16. Effect of Strain Field on Threshold Displacement Energy of Tungsten Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong; Gao, Ning; Setyawan, W.; Kurtz, R. J.; Wang, Zhi-Guang; Gao, Xing; He, Wen-Hao; Pang, Li-Long

    2016-09-01

    The influence of strain field on defect formation energy and threshold displacement energy (Ed) in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten (W) has been studied with molecular dynamics simulations. Two different W potentials (Fikar and Juslin) were compared and the results indicate that the connection distance and selected function linking the short-range and long-range portions of the potentials affects the threshold displacement energy and its direction-specific values. The minimum Ed direction calculated with the Fikar-potential is <100> and with the Juslin-potential is <111>. Nevertheless, the most stable self-interstitial configuration is found to be a <111>-crowdion for both potentials. This stable configuration does not change with applied strain. Varying the strain from compression to tension increases the vacancy formation energy but decreases the self-interstitial formation energy. The formation energy of a self-interstitial changes more significantly than a vacancy such that Ed decreases with applied hydrostatic strain from compression to tension.

  17. Internal strain gradients quantified in bone under load using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, S.R.; Yuan, F.; Brinson, L.C.; Almer, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering (>60 keV) allows noninvasive quantification of internal strains within bone. In this proof-of-principle study, wide angle X-ray scattering maps internal strain vs position in cortical bone (murine tibia, bovine femur) under compression, specifically using the response of the mineral phase of carbonated hydroxyapatite. The technique relies on the response of the carbonated hydroxyapatite unit cells and their Debye cones (from nanocrystals correctly oriented for diffraction) to applied stress. Unstressed, the Debye cones produce circular rings on the two-dimensional X-ray detector while applied stress deforms the rings to ellipses centered on the transmitted beam. Ring ellipticity is then converted to strain via standard methods. Strain is measured repeatedly, at each specimen location for each applied stress. Experimental strains from wide angle X-ray scattering and an attached strain gage show bending of the rat tibia and agree qualitatively with results of a simplified finite element model. At their greatest, the apatite-derived strains approach 2500 {micro}{var_epsilon} on one side of the tibia and are near zero on the other. Strains maps around a hole in the femoral bone block demonstrate the effect of the stress concentrator as loading increased and agree qualitatively with the finite element model. Experimentally, residual strains of approximately 2000 {micro}{var_epsilon} are present initially, and strain rises to approximately 4500 {micro}{var_epsilon} at 95 MPa applied stress (about 1000 {micro}{var_epsilon} above the strain in the surrounding material). The experimental data suggest uneven loading which is reproduced qualitatively with finite element modeling.

  18. Internal strain gradients quantified in bone under load using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Yuan, Fang; Brinson, L C; Almer, J D

    2011-01-11

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering (>60 keV) allows noninvasive quantification of internal strains within bone. In this proof-of-principle study, wide angle X-ray scattering maps internal strain vs position in cortical bone (murine tibia, bovine femur) under compression, specifically using the response of the mineral phase of carbonated hydroxyapatite. The technique relies on the response of the carbonated hydroxyapatite unit cells and their Debye cones (from nanocrystals correctly oriented for diffraction) to applied stress. Unstressed, the Debye cones produce circular rings on the two-dimensional X-ray detector while applied stress deforms the rings to ellipses centered on the transmitted beam. Ring ellipticity is then converted to strain via standard methods. Strain is measured repeatedly, at each specimen location for each applied stress. Experimental strains from wide angle X-ray scattering and an attached strain gage show bending of the rat tibia and agree qualitatively with results of a simplified finite element model. At their greatest, the apatite-derived strains approach 2500 με on one side of the tibia and are near zero on the other. Strains maps around a hole in the femoral bone block demonstrate the effect of the stress concentrator as loading increased and agree qualitatively with the finite element model. Experimentally, residual strains of approximately 2000 με are present initially, and strain rises to approximately 4500 με at 95 MPa applied stress (about 1000 με above the strain in the surrounding material). The experimental data suggest uneven loading which is reproduced qualitatively with finite element modeling.

  19. Sensor topologies for application of strain energy damage diagnostics and prognostication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernicky, Timothy P.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2012-04-01

    Structural health monitoring methodologies devised over the past two decades have increasing shown improved robustness in capability to identify the onset of structural damage and locate the source of the damage. However, the pathway to prognostication and life-cycle assessment through structural health monitoring remains stalled by a lack of success in the diagnostic step of experimentally quantifying the severity of damage in suitable, engineering quantities. Of the methods devised, strain energy approaches have demonstrated not only strength in identifying and localizing structural damage but also uniquely provide a theoretical basis for quantifying damage through measurement of relative stiffness loss in individual members. Conventional applications of strain energy methods use distributed accelerometers, often being single-axis and oriented in the same direction. The limited degrees-of-freedom measured limits the modal parameter extraction to a reduced subset and yields only partial reconstruction of the strain energy in the system. Furthermore, it has been shown experimentally and proven analytically that improvement in strain energy methods through increased spatial density of the sampling array is constrained by the effect of measurement noise on the accuracy of the numerical computations. In this paper, alternative sensor topologies are explored for improving the reconstruction of strain energy estimates. An experimental component of the research includes strain energy estimates for a fixed-free beam heavily instrumented with accelerometers. Prescribed damage is incrementally applied to the beam to permit a basis for comparison amongst the sensor topologies in addressing the damage diagnostics problem with specific emphasis on quantification of severity through stiffness loss.

  20. Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance of energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1) grown in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Gyula; Solti, Adám; Czech, Viktória; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Tóth, Brigitta; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a plant based, cost effective technology to detoxify or stabilise contaminated soils. Fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants may be used not only in phytoremediation but also in energy production. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this combined application, was grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn accumulation and tolerance. Its shoot metal accumulation showed the order Pb < Ni < Cu ∼ Cd < Zn. In parallel with this, Pb and Ni had no or very little influence on the growth, dry matter content, chlorophyll concentration and transpiration of the plants. Cu and Cd treatment resulted in significant decreases in all these parameters that can be attributed to Fe plaque formation in the roots suggested by markedly increased Fe and Cu accumulation. This came together with decreased shoot and root Mn concentrations in both treatments while shoot Cu and Zn concentrations decreased under Cd and Cu exposure, respectively. Zn treatment had no effect or even slightly stimulated the plants. This may be due to a slight stimulation of Fe translocation and a very efficient detoxification mechanism. Based on the average 300 mg kg⁻¹ (dry mass) Zn concentration which is 0.03% of the shoot dry mass the variety is suggested to be classified as Zn accumulator.

  1. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenu, Luigi; Forni, Daniele; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) was finally evaluated.

  2. Contents, accumulation and release of energy in green, dead and decomposing plant materials in an upland grassland near Kamenicky, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Ulehlová, B

    1980-01-01

    The energy content was studied in above-ground live plant material and in litter in a natural grassland ecosystem with dominant Nardus stricta L., defined phytosociologically as Polygalo-Nardetum strictae. PREISING 1950 corr. OBERDORFER 1957, and in two of its fertilized variants in the course of 1975 to 1977. Based on the determined production characteristics and data on decomposition processes, the amounts of energy accumulated by the green parts of the stands and the amount of energy released during decomposition from the litter were calculated. Changes in the energy content of litter in different stages of decomposition were determined. With progressing decomposition the energy content per gram ash-free decomposing plant litter increases.

  3. Strain accumulation in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones from 14 years of continuous GPS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Timothy J.; Calais, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical behavior—and hence earthquake potential—of faults in continental interiors is an issue of critical importance for the resultant seismic hazard, but no consensus has yet been reached on this controversial topic. The debate has focused on the central and eastern United States, in particular, the New Madrid Seismic Zone, struck by four magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes in 1811-1812, and to a lesser extent the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone just to the north. A key aspect of this issue is the rate at which strain is currently accruing on those plate interior faults, a quantity that remains debated. Here we address this issue with an analysis of up to 14.6 years of continuous GPS data from a network of 200 sites in the central United States centered on the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones. We find that the high-quality sites in these regions show motions that are consistently within the 95% confidence limit of zero deformation. These results place an upper bound on strain accrual on faults of 0.2 mm/yr and 0.6 mm/yr in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones, respectively. For the New Madrid region, where a paleoseismic record is available for the past ˜5000 years, we argue that strain accrual—if any—does not permit the 500-900 year repeat time of paleo-earthquakes observed in the Upper Mississippi Embayment. These results, together with increasing evidence for temporal clustering and spatial migration of earthquake sequences in continental interiors, indicate that either tectonic loading rates or fault properties vary with time in the New Madrid Seismic Zone and possibly plate wide.

  4. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae: Annual report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a lipid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 33 figs.

  5. NITZSCHIA OVALIS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) MONO LAKE STRAIN ACCUMULATES 1,4/2,5 CYCLOHEXANETETROL IN RESPONSE TO INCREASED SALINITY(1).

    PubMed

    Garza-Sánchez, Fernando; Chapman, David J; Cooper, James B

    2009-04-01

    The growth of microalgae in hypersaline conditions requires that cells accumulate osmoprotectants. In many instances, these are polyols. We isolated the diatom Nitzschia ovalis H. J. Arn. from the saline and alkaline water body Mono Lake (CA, USA). This isolate can grow in salinities ranging from 5 to 120 parts per thousand (ppt) of salt but normally at 90 ppt salinity. In this report, we identified the major polyol osmoprotectant as 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol by electron ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS), (1) H, (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and infrared (IR) and showed an increase in cellular concentration in response to rising salinity. This increase in the cyclitol concentration was evaluated by gas chromatography of the derived tetraacetylated cyclohexanetetrol obtaining an average of 0.7 fmol · cell(-1) at 5 ppt and rising to 22.5 fmol · cell(-1) at 120 ppt. The 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol was also detected in the red alga Porphyridium purpureum. Analysis of the free amino acid content in N. ovalis cultures exposed to changes in salinity showed that proline and lysine also accumulate with increased salinity, but the cellular concentration of these amino acids is about 10-fold lower than the concentration of 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol. The comparison of amino acid concentration per cell with cyclitol suggests that this polyol is important in compensating the cellular osmotic pressure due to increased salinity, but other physiological functions could also be considered.

  6. Pyramidal defects in Mg-doped GaN in light of strain-energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Nyung

    2011-12-01

    The planar segregation gives rise to stress and strain fields which are approximated by a uniaxial character in a displacement controlled system. In this condition, the elastic strain energy is proportional to Young's modulus. Young's modulus of GaN is minimized when the directions normal to a conical segregation surface make about 48° with the c-axis of hexagonal GaN, which is close to the angle 47.3° between the c-axis and the directions normal to the {112¯3} planes. This implies that the formation of pyramidal defects in magnesium-doped GaN can be a compromise between minimization of the elastic strain energy due to segregation of magnesium and the planar segregation.

  7. Earthquake depths and the relation to strain accumulation and stress near strike-slip faults in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.O. )

    1990-04-10

    Earthquakes in the major fault zones are predominantly deep. Earthquakes in the crustal blocks bounding the fault zones are predominantly shallow. In the San Jacinto fault zone, maximum earthquake depths correlate with surface heat flow. These relations together with focal mechanisms, geodetic strain measurements, and fault zone models are consistent with the following ideas: (1) Interseismic plate motion is accommodated by aseismic slip along an extension of the major fault zone below a brittle zone that is locked between large earthquakes. (2) The aseismic slip in a narrow fault zone in the brittle-plastic transition region concentrates strain at the base of the brittle fault zone. (3) Deep earthquakes occur in thelower part of the brittle fault zone due to stick-slip failure of highly stressed patches. (4) Background earhtquakes and aftershocks that occur several kilometers deeper than large earthquake hypocenters suggest that a zone of mixed slip behavior may exist between the stable sliding (deep) and stick-slip (shallow) regions of the fault zone. Furthermore, the difference in seismicity between the San Jacinto and southern San Andreas faults suggests that the nature of this mixed zone may evolve as total displacement in the fault zone increases. (5) Shear stress may be less in the crustal blocks than in the deep brittle fault zones and generally at a level sufficient to cause brittle failure only shallow in the crustal blocks. (6) In the stress field produced by plate motion and slip in the deep fault zone, the upper brittle fault zone is not oriented favorably for shear failure. Lack of shallow earthquakes in the fault zones and the predominance of shallow earthquakes on favorably oriented fractures in the adjacent crustal blocks suggest that either stress in the upper brittle fault zone is relatively low or the upper fault zone is effectively strong due to its orientation.

  8. Analogy of strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm and structural topology optimization.

    PubMed

    Jang, In Gwun; Kim, Il Yong; Kwak, Byung Ban

    2009-01-01

    In bone-remodeling studies, it is believed that the morphology of bone is affected by its internal mechanical loads. From the 1970s, high computing power enabled quantitative studies in the simulation of bone remodeling or bone adaptation. Among them, Huiskes et al. (1987, "Adaptive Bone Remodeling Theory Applied to Prosthetic Design Analysis," J. Biomech. Eng., 20, pp. 1135-1150) proposed a strain energy density based approach to bone remodeling and used the apparent density for the characterization of internal bone morphology. The fundamental idea was that bone density would increase when strain (or strain energy density) is higher than a certain value and bone resorption would occur when the strain (or strain energy density) quantities are lower than the threshold. Several advanced algorithms were developed based on these studies in an attempt to more accurately simulate physiological bone-remodeling processes. As another approach, topology optimization originally devised in structural optimization has been also used in the computational simulation of the bone-remodeling process. The topology optimization method systematically and iteratively distributes material in a design domain, determining an optimal structure that minimizes an objective function. In this paper, we compared two seemingly different approaches in different fields-the strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm (biomechanical approach) and the compliance based structural topology optimization method (mechanical approach)-in terms of mathematical formulations, numerical difficulties, and behavior of their numerical solutions. Two numerical case studies were conducted to demonstrate their similarity and difference, and then the solution convergences were discussed quantitatively.

  9. Damage localization in beam-like structures using changes in modal strain energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouali, M.; Mellel, N.; Dougdag, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the application and reliability of using modal strain energy in damage localization estimation of beam-like structures. This is based on the fact that damage often cause a loss of stiffness that increase the modal displacement of two ends of beam element containing the damage, So the modal strain energy after damage will be increased and Modal Strain Energy Change Ratio (MSECR) in this element is larger than other elements and the location of damage is detected by finding the element with higher MSECR. To conduct this investigation, an experimental modal analysis program was carried out on a cantilever beam subjected to a controlled crack levels and the first seven mode shapes were extracted and used to calculate the modal strain energy change. The experimental MSECR was computed and the location of the damage was accurately identified especially for crack sizing as small as 10% of the beam height. Finally, finite elements models were built and validated, MSE change method was applied and the results demonstrate that the method is capable of localizing the damage for beam structure.

  10. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    Santee WR, Yokota M, Weyand PG, and Delany JP (2004). Total energy expenditure estimated using foot -ground contact pedometry. Diabetes Technology...reached high levels of thermal-work strain by the end of a slow foot patrol [4] even though they followed TB MED 507 work-rest and water intake

  11. Modeling the water and energy balance of vegetated areas with snow accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to quantify soil–atmosphere water and energy exchange is important in understanding agricultural and natural ecosystems, as well as the earth’s climate. We developed a one-dimensional vertical model that calculates solar radiation, canopy energy balance, surface energy balance, snowpack ...

  12. Construction of a Vibrio cholerae prototype vaccine strain O395-N1-E1 which accumulates cell-associated cholera toxin B subunit.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Gi-eun; Jung, Hae-Mi; Kim, Bong Su; Mekalanos, John J

    2008-10-09

    Because of its production and use in Vietnam, the most widely used oral cholera vaccine consists of heat- or formalin-killed Vibrio cholerae whole cells (WC). An earlier version of this type of vaccine called whole cell-recombinant B subunit vaccine (BS-WC) produced in Sweden also contained the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). Both WC and BS-WC vaccines produced moderate levels of protection in field trials designed to evaluate their cholera efficacy. V. cholerae cells in these vaccines induce antibacterial immunity, and CTB contributes to the vaccine's efficacy presumably by stimulating production of anti-toxin neutralizing antibody. Although more effective than the WC vaccine, the BS-WC vaccine has not been adopted for manufacture by developing world countries primarily because the CTB component is difficult to manufacture and include in the vaccine in the doses needed to induce significant immune responses. We reasoned this was a technical problem that might be solved by engineering strains of V. cholerae that express cell-associated CTB that would co-purify with the bacterial cell fraction during the manufacture of WC vaccine. Here we report that construction of a V. cholerae O1 classical strain, O395-N1-E1, that has been engineered to accumulate CTB in the periplasmic fraction by disrupting the epsE gene of type II secretion pathway. O395-N1-E1 induces anti-CTB IgG and vibriocidal antibodies in mice immunized with two doses of formalin killed whole cells. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with O395-N1-E1 induced a significantly higher anti-CTB antibody response compared to that of the parental strain, O395-N1. Our results suggest that this prototype cholera vaccine candidate strain may assist in preparing improved and inexpensive oral BS-WC cholera vaccine without the need to purify CTB separately.

  13. Strain Analysis of Si by FEM and Energy-Filtering CBED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Masaru; Tomokiyo, Yoshitsugu; van der Biest, Omer

    2002-02-01

    Lattice strains around a platelet oxygen precipitate in Si wafer is studied by energy filtering convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) and calculations based on the finite element method (FEM). Local lattice strains are measured from CBED patterns obtained with a probe size less than 2 nm in a specimen thicker than 450 nm. Strains measured are compressive along a direction normal to a plate of the precipitate and tensile along a direction parallel to the plate. Two-dimensional stress fields near the precipitate are obtained with FEM computer analyses by fitting the measured strains. It appears that shear stresses are concentrated at the end of the precipitate edge and the maximum shear stress at an interface between the precipitate and the Si-matrix is 1.9 GPa. It is demonstrated that a combination of the energy filtering CBED and FEM is very useful for the study of local strains near interfaces in semiconductor devices, in particular for the study of stress fields that are too steep for application of the conventional CBED technique.

  14. Multi-layered controllable stiffness beams for morphing: energy, actuation force, and material strain considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Gabriel; Gandhi, Farhan

    2010-04-01

    Morphing aerospace structures could benefit from the ability of structural elements to transition from a stiff load-bearing state to a relatively compliant state that can undergo large deformation at low actuation cost. The present paper focuses on multi-layered beams with controllable flexural stiffness—comprising polymer layers affixed to the surfaces of a base beam and cover layers, in turn, affixed to the surfaces of the polymer layers. Heating the polymer through the glass transition reduces its shear modulus, decouples the cover layers from the base beam and reduces the overall flexural stiffness. Although the stiffness and actuation force required to bend the beam reduce, the energy required to heat the polymer layer must also be considered. Results show that for beams with low slenderness ratios, relatively thick polymer layers, and cover layers whose extensional stiffness is high, the decoupling of the cover layers through softening of the polymer layers can result in flexural stiffness reductions of over 95%. The energy savings are also highest for these configurations, and will increase as the deformation of the beam increases. The decoupling of the cover layers from the base beam through the softening of the polymer reduces the axial strains in the cover layers significantly; otherwise material failure would prevent large deformation. Results show that when the polymer layer is stiff, the cover layers are the dominant contributors to the total energy in the beam, and the energy in the polymer layers is predominantly axial strain energy. When the polymer layers are softened the energy in the cover layers is a small contributor to the total energy which is dominated by energy in the base beam and shear strain energy in the polymer layer.

  15. Direct dose mapping versus energy/mass transfer mapping for 4D dose accumulation: fundamental differences and dosimetric consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haisen S.; Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Gulam, Misbah; Nurushev, Teamour S.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2014-01-01

    The direct dose mapping (DDM) and energy/mass transfer (EMT) mapping are two essential algorithms for accumulating the dose from different anatomic phases to the reference phase when there is organ motion or tumor/tissue deformation during the delivery of radiation therapy. DDM is based on interpolation of the dose values from one dose grid to another and thus lacks rigor in defining the dose when there are multiple dose values mapped to one dose voxel in the reference phase due to tissue/tumor deformation. On the other hand, EMT counts the total energy and mass transferred to each voxel in the reference phase and calculates the dose by dividing the energy by mass. Therefore it is based on fundamentally sound physics principles. In this study, we implemented the two algorithms and integrated them within the Eclipse treatment planning system. We then compared the clinical dosimetric difference between the two algorithms for ten lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, by accumulating the delivered dose to the end-of-exhale (EE) phase. Specifically, the respiratory period was divided into ten phases and the dose to each phase was calculated and mapped to the EE phase and then accumulated. The displacement vector field generated by Demons-based registration of the source and reference images was used to transfer the dose and energy. The DDM and EMT algorithms produced noticeably different cumulative dose in the regions with sharp mass density variations and/or high dose gradients. For the planning target volume (PTV) and internal target volume (ITV) minimum dose, the difference was up to 11% and 4% respectively. This suggests that DDM might not be adequate for obtaining an accurate dose distribution of the cumulative plan, instead, EMT should be considered.

  16. Determination and Finite Element Validation of the WYPIWYG Strain Energy of Superficial Fascia from Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Marcos; Peña, Estefanía; Montáns, Francisco J

    2017-03-01

    What-You-Prescribe-Is-What-You-Get (WYPIWYG) procedures are a novel and general phenomenological approach to modelling the behavior of soft materials, applicable to biological tissues in particular. For the hyperelastic case, these procedures solve numerically the nonlinear elastic material determination problem. In this paper we show that they can be applied to determine the stored energy density of superficial fascia. In contrast to the usual approach, in such determination no user-prescribed material parameters and no optimization algorithms are employed. The strain energy densities are computed solving the equilibrium equations of the set of experiments. For the case of superficial fascia it is shown that the mechanical behavior derived from such strain energies is capable of reproducing simultaneously the measured load-displacement curves of three experiments to a high accuracy.

  17. Convergence of strain energy release rate components for edge-delaminated composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.; Aminpour, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Strain energy release rates for edge delaminated composite laminates were obtained using quasi 3 dimensional finite element analysis. The problem of edge delamination at the -35/90 interfaces of an 8-ply composite laminate subjected to uniform axial strain was studied. The individual components of the strain energy release rates did not show convergence as the delamination tip elements were made smaller. In contrast, the total strain energy release rate converged and remained unchanged as the delamination tip elements were made smaller and agreed with that calculated using a classical laminated plate theory. The studies of the near field solutions for a delamination at an interface between two dissimilar isotropic or orthotropic plates showed that the imaginary part of the singularity is the cause of the nonconvergent behavior of the individual components. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, an 8-ply laminate with the delamination modeled in a thin resin layer, that exists between the -35 and 90 plies, was analyzed. Because the delamination exists in a homogeneous isotropic material, the oscillatory component of the singularity vanishes.

  18. Convergence of strain energy release rate components for edge-delaminated composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.; Aminpour, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Strain energy release rates for edge delaminated composite laminates were obtained using quasi 3 dimensional finite element analysis. The problem of edge delamination at the -35/90 interfaces of an 8-ply composite laminate subjected to uniform axial strain was studied. The individual components of the strain energy release rates did not show convergence as the delamination tip elements were made smaller. In contrast, the total strain energy release rate converged and remained unchanged as the delamination tip elements were made smaller and agreed with that calculated using a classical laminated plate theory. The studies of the near field solutions for a delamination at an interface between two dissimilar isotropic or orthotropic plates showed that the imaginary part of the singularity is the cause of the nonconvergent behavior of the individual components. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, an 8-ply laminate with the delamination modeled in a thin resin layer, that exists between the -35 and 90 plies, was analyzed. Because the delamination exists in a homogeneous isotropic material, the oscillatory component of the singularity vanishes.

  19. Strain energy density and thermodynamic entropy as prognostic measures of crack initiation in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontiveros, Victor Luis

    A critical challenge to the continued use of engineering structures as they are asked to perform longer than their design life is the prediction of an initiating crack and the prevention of damage, estimation of remaining useful life, schedule maintenance and to reduce costly downtimes and inspections. The research presented in this dissertation explores the cumulative plastic strain energy density and thermodynamic entropy generation up to crack initiation. Plastic strain energy density and thermodynamic entropy generation are evaluated to investigate whether they would be capable of providing a physical basis for fatigue life and structural risk and reliability assessments. Navy aircraft, specifically, the Orion P-3C, which represent an engineered structure currently being asked to perform past is design life, which are difficult and time consuming to inspect from carrier based operations and are currently evaluated using an empirically based damage index the, fatigue life expended, is used as an example in this investigation. A set of experimental results for aluminum alloy 7075-T651, used in airframe structures, are presented to determine the correlation between plastic strain energy dissipation and the thermodynamic entropy generation versus fatigue crack initiation over a wide range of fatigue loadings. Cumulative plastic strain energy and thermodynamic entropy generation measured from hysteresis energy and temperature rise proved to be valid physical indices for estimation of the probability of crack initiation. Crack initiation is considered as a major evidence of fatigue damage and structural integrity risk. A Bayesian estimation and validation approach is used to determine systematic errors in the developed models as well as other model uncertainties. Comparisons of the energy-based and entropy-based models are presented and benefits of using one over the other are discussed.

  20. High-energy carbonate-sand accumulation, the Quicksands, southwest Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Lidz, Barbara H.; Holmes, Charles W.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of the Quicksands, located along a broad ridge on the platform shelf west of Key West, Florida, indicate a significant deposit of non-oolitic carbonate sand occurs in a belt 47 km long by 28 km wide. The surface of the belt is ornamented by large (5 m), migrating tidal bars, oriented in a north-south direction, on which sand waves, oriented in an east-west direction, are superimposed. Some of the sand waves are awash at low tide. The sand waves are formed by strong reversing tidal currents flowing between the Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of Florida. The waves migrate directly over Pleistocene bedrock to the east, but the deposit thickens to the west and sand waves there overlie non-oolitic Holocene accumulations as thick as 12 m. Westward-dipping accretionary bedding indicates that net migration of the sands is to the west, despite north-south movement of tidal currents. The westward edge of the accumulation has accreted over deeper, muddier deposits. Although tidal currents and resultant bedforms appear identical to those of active ooid deposits in the Bahamas and elsewhere, no oolitically coated grains were found in this study. Thin-section analyses show the principal component (average 48%) of the sands is fragmented plates of species of the green alga Halimeda , followed by particulate coral (average 17%), which increases off the flanks of the main sand body. Short vibracores confirm the presence of cross-bedding.

  1. Effect of light intensity on algal biomass accumulation and biodiesel production for mixotrophic strains Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide cultivated in highly concentrated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yecong; Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger R

    2012-09-01

    In this research, the effect of light intensity on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal through algae cultivation, and biodiesel productivity was investigated with algae species Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide. The light intensities studied were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed that light intensity had profound impact on tested responses for both strains, and the dependence of these responses on light intensity varied with different algae strains. For C. kessleri, the optimum light intensity was 120 µmol m(-2) S(-1) for all responses except for COD removal. For C. protothecoide, the optimum light intensity was 30 µmol m(-2) S(-1). The major components of the biodiesel produced from algae biomass were 16-C and 18-C FAME, and the highest biodiesel contents were 24.19% and 19.48% of dried biomass for C. kessleri and C. protothecoide, respectively. Both species were capable of wastewater nutrients removal under all lighting conditions with high removal efficiencies.

  2. On the form of the strain energy function for a family of SBR materials. [Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene materials with varying crosslink densities are analyzed through use of a strain energy function of the type introduced by Valanis and Landel (1967). A form of the strain energy function derived from strip biaxial tests proves to be accurate when checked against uniaxial and other biaxial test results.

  3. Facets of Arctic energy accumulation based on observations and reanalyses 2000–2015

    PubMed Central

    Haimberger, Leopold; Pietschnig, Marianne; Storto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Various observation‐ and reanalysis‐based estimates of sea ice mass and ocean heat content trends imply that the energy imbalance of the Arctic climate system was similar [1.0 (0.9,1.2) Wm−2] to the global ocean average during the 2000–2015 period. Most of this extra heat warmed the ocean, and a comparatively small fraction went into sea ice melt. Poleward energy transports and radiation contributed to this energy increase at varying strengths. On a seasonal scale, stronger radiative energy input during summer associated with the ice‐albedo feedback enhances seasonal oceanic heat uptake and sea ice melt. In return, lower sea ice extent and higher sea surface temperatures lead to enhanced heat release from the ocean during fall. This weakens meridional temperature gradients, consequently reducing atmospheric energy transports into the polar cap. The seasonal cycle of the Arctic energy budget is thus amplified, whereas the Arctic's long‐term energy imbalance is close to the global mean. PMID:27867237

  4. Facets of Arctic energy accumulation based on observations and reanalyses 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold; Pietschnig, Marianne; Storto, Andrea

    2016-10-16

    Various observation- and reanalysis-based estimates of sea ice mass and ocean heat content trends imply that the energy imbalance of the Arctic climate system was similar [1.0 (0.9,1.2) Wm(-2)] to the global ocean average during the 2000-2015 period. Most of this extra heat warmed the ocean, and a comparatively small fraction went into sea ice melt. Poleward energy transports and radiation contributed to this energy increase at varying strengths. On a seasonal scale, stronger radiative energy input during summer associated with the ice-albedo feedback enhances seasonal oceanic heat uptake and sea ice melt. In return, lower sea ice extent and higher sea surface temperatures lead to enhanced heat release from the ocean during fall. This weakens meridional temperature gradients, consequently reducing atmospheric energy transports into the polar cap. The seasonal cycle of the Arctic energy budget is thus amplified, whereas the Arctic's long-term energy imbalance is close to the global mean.

  5. Facets of Arctic energy accumulation based on observations and reanalyses 2000-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold; Pietschnig, Marianne; Storto, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Various observation- and reanalysis-based estimates of sea ice mass and ocean heat content trends imply that the energy imbalance of the Arctic climate system was similar [1.0 (0.9,1.2) Wm-2] to the global ocean average during the 2000-2015 period. Most of this extra heat warmed the ocean, and a comparatively small fraction went into sea ice melt. Poleward energy transports and radiation contributed to this energy increase at varying strengths. On a seasonal scale, stronger radiative energy input during summer associated with the ice-albedo feedback enhances seasonal oceanic heat uptake and sea ice melt. In return, lower sea ice extent and higher sea surface temperatures lead to enhanced heat release from the ocean during fall. This weakens meridional temperature gradients, consequently reducing atmospheric energy transports into the polar cap. The seasonal cycle of the Arctic energy budget is thus amplified, whereas the Arctic's long-term energy imbalance is close to the global mean.

  6. Fiber optic DTS system application in the research of accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Látal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Šiška, Petr; Skapa, Jan; Hanáečk, František; Vašinek, Vladimír; Vitásek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Bocheza, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    The team of authors tries to provide information on the results of the fiber-optic DTS system application under long-term research of accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass in this article. In 2006, was in Ostrava implemented the largest object in the Czech Republic, which is heated by heat pump system. It is a multi-purpose aula at VŠB-TU + CIT (Center for Information Technology). The installed heat pump system consists of ten heat pumps with a total output of 700kW and 110 wells about 140m deep. The applied research is conducted in two measuring polygons ("Big" and "Little" polygon). Simultaneously with fiber-optic DTS system is applied group of PT1000 temperature sensors and Geothermal Response Test (GERT). Fiber-optic DTS system is deployed inside polyethylene PE collector via a special sensory fiber optic cable. The ecological antifreeze mixture, based on the technical spirit, used for the collection and delivery of energy to the rock mass circulates inside of PE collector. PT1000 temperature sensors are placed at certain intervals on the outer side of the PE U-tube within the heat well. The result of application of the fiberoptic DTS system is information about the heat profile of wells, thermal conductivity of the geological environment and the impact of external changes in the thermal wells, along with the accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass (over-summer period).

  7. Stored energy function and compressibility of compressible rubberlike materials under large strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    By using new invariants in the theory of finite elasticity an expression is obtained for the stored energy function of slightly compressible materials in which the effects of the distortional change (change of shape) and of the volume change are clearly separated. The volume-related terms are expressed as a function of the third invariant, the classical compressibility, and an induced anisotropy of the effective compressibility which is due to the large deformations. After evaluating the terms, using data on pressure, volume, uniaxial strain, and fractional volume change vs strain data on natural rubber from the literature, it is shown that the volume change contribution to the total stress observed in a simple tensile experiment can be clearly separated from the distortional contribution, even at finite strains.

  8. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  9. Phase field approach with anisotropic interface energy and interface stresses: Large strain formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Warren, James A.

    2016-06-01

    A thermodynamically consistent, large-strain, multi-phase field approach (with consequent interface stresses) is generalized for the case with anisotropic interface (gradient) energy (e.g. an energy density that depends both on the magnitude and direction of the gradients in the phase fields). Such a generalization, if done in the "usual" manner, yields a theory that can be shown to be manifestly unphysical. These theories consider the gradient energy as anisotropic in the deformed configuration, and, due to this supposition, several fundamental contradictions arise. First, the Cauchy stress tensor is non-symmetric and, consequently, violates the moment of momentum principle, in essence the Herring (thermodynamic) torque is imparting an unphysical angular momentum to the system. In addition, this non-symmetric stress implies a violation of the principle of material objectivity. These problems in the formulation can be resolved by insisting that the gradient energy is an isotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the deformed configuration, but depends on the direction of the gradient of the order parameters (is anisotropic) in the undeformed configuration. We find that for a propagating nonequilibrium interface, the structural part of the interfacial Cauchy stress is symmetric and reduces to a biaxial tension with the magnitude equal to the temperature- and orientation-dependent interface energy. Ginzburg-Landau equations for the evolution of the order parameters and temperature evolution equation, as well as the boundary conditions for the order parameters are derived. Small strain simplifications are presented. Remarkably, this anisotropy yields a first order correction in the Ginzburg-Landau equation for small strains, which has been neglected in prior works. The next strain-related term is third order. For concreteness, specific orientation dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients are examined, using published molecular dynamics

  10. Testing and evaluation of stretching strain in clamped-clamped beams for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emad, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Mohamed A. E.; Ghoneima, Maged; Dessouky, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, evaluation of stretching strain capabilities to harvest energy from a piezoelectric clamped-clamped beam is theoretically modeled and experimentally tested. The utilization of stretching strain has many advantages as: elimination of any substrate material, and the simple electrode configuration. The doubly clamped structure exhibits a highly nonlinear frequency response (Hardening Duffing) that widens the bandwidth during the frequency up-ward sweep. The wide bandwidth makes it suitable for practical applications. A design of 53.5 {{mm}}3 (29.7 {{mm}}3 piezoelectric material + 23.8 {{mm}}3 proof mass) energy harvester was tested using PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) that can generate up to 15 μW from vibrations of 0.5{g} at 128 {Hz} and 2 MΩ load. The design can also generate up to 41 μ {{W}} from vibrations of 1{g} at 140 {Hz} and 2 MΩ load.

  11. A strain energy-based vibrational NDE method applied to an aerospace structure

    SciTech Connect

    Osegueda, R. A.; Andre, G.; Ferregut, C. M.; Carrasco, C.; Pereyra, L.; James, G. III; Grygier, M.; Rocha, R.

    1999-12-02

    An early prototype of the Vertical Stabilizer Assembly (VSA) of the Shuttle Orbiter was modal tested at healthy and damaged states to study vibrational nondestructive damage evaluation in aerospace structures. Frequency Response and Coherence functions were collected with a Laser Vibrometer at 84 points when the healthy and damaged VSA was shaken with a continuous random force from 0 to 300 Hz. The measurements were used to extract the resonant frequencies and modal shapes for the healthy and damaged states. After pairing of the mode shapes between the healthy and damaged states through the Modal Assurance Criterion, the strain energy of the modes were determined through a finite element model of the VSA and normalized. The localization of the damage is achieved through an analysis of the differences between the modal strain energy in the healthy and damaged states and a fusion on the information obtained from several modes. This paper evaluates the detectability and performance of four different methods.

  12. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  13. A novel strain energy density algorithm for laser-induced micro-hollows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelen, Serap

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical adaptation and stability of implants are dependent on strain energy density algorithms of their surfaces. These applications are in their early stage, but theoretical predictions show us that we can manufacture very strong, flexible biomaterial surface which has a shock absorbing ability. Laser micro-machining is a clean tool for biomedical industry. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a laser micro-machining method for imitating lotus effect on commercially pure titanium specimen surfaces and to develop a novel strain energy density algorithm. Novel 3D nelumbo leafs were prepared using a fiber laser (λ=1060 nm) with 200-250 ns pulse durations and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  14. A Monte Carlo-finite element model for strain energy controlled microstructural evolution - 'Rafting' in superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Srolovitz, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a specialized microstructural lattice model, MCFET (Monte Carlo finite element technique), which simulates microstructural evolution in materials in which strain energy has an important role in determining morphology. The model is capable of accounting for externally applied stress, surface tension, misfit, elastic inhomogeneity, elastic anisotropy, and arbitrary temperatures. The MCFET analysis was found to compare well with the results of analytical calculations of the equilibrium morphologies of isolated particles in an infinite matrix.

  15. Comminution of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C

    2013-11-26

    Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic comminution or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of comminution under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the comminution process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  16. Error localization of finite element updating model based on element strain energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi; Zang, Chaoping; Wang, Xiaowei; Jiang, Yuying

    2016-09-01

    An error localization indicator based on modal strain energy changes is proposed and used for selecting design parameters to be updated in model updating process. Taking an aeroengine combustor casing structure as an example, the ‘supermodel’ of combustor casing was established and validated with the test data and the reduced model (also called the design model) was built with the simplification of modelling. By comparing the modal strain energy changes between ‘supermodel’ and design model of combustor casing, the error locations of the reduced combustor casing modelling was highlighted by the error localization indicator. Then, the updating parameters of the design model were selected as the areas with significant variations of modal strain energy changes based on the error localization indicator. Defining the updating object function with the minimum of natural frequency errors between the FE model prediction and the modal test data, model updating of the design combustor casing model based sensitivity analysis method was carried out using the experimental modal data. After model updating, the maximum frequency error of the first ten modes was decreased from 27.1% to 1.2%, compared with the test data. The result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and certain significance in parameter selection for model updating.

  17. Strain and Cohesive Energy of TiN Deposit on Al(001) Surface: Density Functional Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Xuejie

    2016-07-01

    To apply the high hardness of TiN film to soft and hard multilayer composite sheets, we constructed a new type of composite structural material with ultra-high strength. The strain of crystal and cohesive energy between the atoms in the eight structures of N atom, Ti atom, 2N2Ti island and TiN rock salt deposited on the Al(001) surface were calculated with the first-principle ultra-soft pseudopotential approach of the plane wave based on the density functional theory. The calculations of the cohesive energy showed that N atoms could be deposited in the face-centered-cubic vacancy position of the Al(001) surface and results in a cubic structure AlN surface. The TiN film could be deposited on the interface of β-AlN. The calculations of the strains showed that the strain in the TiN film deposited on the Al(001) surface was less than that in the 2N2Ti island deposited on the Al(001) surface. The diffusion behavior of interface atom N was investigated by a nudged elastic band method. Diffusion energy calculation showed that the N atom hardly diffused to the substrate Al layer.

  18. Sodium-coupled energy transduction in the newly isolated thermoalkaliphilic strain LBS3.

    PubMed Central

    Prowe, S G; van de Vossenberg, J L; Driessen, A J; Antranikian, G; Konings, W N

    1996-01-01

    Strain LBS3 is a novel anaerobic thermoalkaliphilic bacterium that grows optimally at pH 9.5 and 50 degrees C. Since a high concentration of Na+ ions is required for growth, we have analyzed the primary bioenergetic mechanism of energy transduction in this organism. For this purpose, a method was devised for the isolation of right-side-out membrane vesicles that are functional for the energy-dependent uptake of solutes. A strict requirement for Na+ was observed for the uptake of several amino acids, and in the case of L-leucine, it was concluded that amino acid uptake occurs in symport with Na+ ions. Further characterization of the leucine transport system revealed that its pH and temperature optima closely match the conditions that support the growth of strain LBS3. The ATPase activity associated with inside-out membrane vesicles was found to be stimulated by both Na+ and Li+ ions. These data suggest that the primary mechanism of energy transduction in the anaerobic thermoalkaliphilic strain LBS3 is dependent on sodium cycling. The implications of this finding for the mechanism of intracellular pH regulation are discussed. PMID:8763937

  19. Elastic Strain Energy Storage and Neighboring Organ Assistance for Fluid Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, C. P.

    2003-11-01

    Storage of elastic strain energy by non-muscular structures such as tendons and ligaments, is a common scheme employed by jumping animals. Also, since skeletal muscle is attached to bone, mechanical advantage is obtained, allowing a burst of power that is unobtainable by muscle contraction alone. This is important at launch since force may be applied for only the brief period when the legs are in contact with the ground. Liquid propelling structures such as the urinary bladder and the heart face the similar problem of being able to impart force to the content only as long as the wall is in a stretched state. Using data from videocystometry and cardiac catheterisation we show that the means employed to achieve liquid propulsion appears to involve a combination of isometric contraction (contraction against a closed sphincter or valve) with hyperelastic stretch of the wall, elastic strain energy storage by the wall, overshoot past the undistended state and neighboring organ assistance (NOA). Thus, the heart, a partially collapsible thick muscular shell without the benefit of NOA manages an ejection fraction of about 70%. Using all of the above means, the collapsible urinary bladder is able to nearly always empty. Elastic strain energy storage and NOA appear to be important strategies for liquid propulsion employed by hollow viscera.

  20. Strengths and strain energies of volcanic edifices: implications for eruptions, collapse calderas, and landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, A.

    2012-07-01

    Natural hazards associated with volcanic edifices depend partly on how fracture resistant the edifices are, i.e. on their strengths. Observations worldwide indicate that large fluid-driven extension fractures (dikes, inclined sheets), shear fractures (landslides), and mixed-mode fractures (ring dikes and ring faults) normally propagate more easily in a basaltic edifice (shield volcano) than in a stratovolcano. For example, dike-fed eruptions occur once every few years in many basaltic edifices but once every 102-3 yr in many stratovolcanoes. Large landslides and caldera collapses also appear to be more common in a typical basaltic edifice/shield volcano than in a typical stratovolcano. In contrast to a basaltic edifice, a stratovolcano is composed of mechanically dissimilar rock layers, i.e. layers with mismatching elastic properties (primarily Young's modulus). Elastic mismatch encourages fracture deflection and arrest at contacts and increases the amount of energy needed for a large-scale edifice failure. Fracture-related hazards depend on the potential energy available to propagate the fractures which, in turn, depends on the boundary conditions during fracture propagation. Here there are two possible scenarios: one in which the outer boundary of the volcanic edifice or rift zone does not move during the fracture propagation (constant displacement); the other in which the boundary moves (constant load). In the former, the total potential energy is the strain energy stored in the volcano before fracture formation; in the latter, the total potential energy is the strain energy plus the work done by the forces moving the boundary. Constant-displacement boundary conditions favor small eruptions, landslides, and caldera collapses, whereas constant-load conditions favor comparatively large eruptions, landslides, and collapses. For a typical magma chamber (sill-like with a diameter of 8 km), the strain energy change due to magma-chamber inflation is estimated at the

  1. Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Sam

    2013-03-01

    Sam Hazen of the University of Massachusetts on "Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  2. Enhanced sputtering yields of carbon due to accumulation of low-energy Xe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, T.; Wada, M.; Hyakutake, T.; Muramoto, T.; Nishida, M.

    2009-05-01

    We have calculated the sputtering yields of carbon and molybdenum under xenon ion bombardment by a Monte Carlo code ACAT which simulates binary collision events in solids. The yields of carbon calculated with ACAT differ from the experimental data below the threshold energy predicted from the semi-empirical formula proposed by Yamamura and Tawara. Meanwhile, the results of ACAT with 14% xenon atoms retained in graphite are in good agreement with the experimental data and the xenon retention in carbon plays an important role in reducing the threshold energy for carbon sputtering. In order to estimate the experimental sputtering yields of carbon, a simplified formula is proposed in the frame of the semi-empirical formula. The formula predicts the yield curve close to the reported sputtering yields of carbon for the condition that carbon target retains 14% xenon atoms.

  3. Shear-wave Velocity Structure and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in the Up-Dip Region of the Cascadia Subduction Zone: Similarities to Tohoku?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Wei, M.

    2013-12-01

    the measured compliances in this frequency band using a genetic algorithm that solves for the S-wave velocity, P-wave velocity, and density in a layered structure. By including constraints on the Vp distribution from active-source studies, these parameters appear well constrained down to about 4 km depth from our dataset. There is a clear difference in observed compliance values between stations close to the deformation front (~10 km) and those further up the continental slope (~30-40 km) indicating a region of unconsolidated, high-porosity sediment similar to the off-Tohoku region. The low S-wave velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios in the up-dip region correspond to unconsolidated high-porosity sediments. We calculated the effect of this material property contrast on the inter-seismic strain accumulation in the up-dip region of the subduction zone using a finite element model and find that the sediments can increase the amount of inter-seismic strain accumulated in the up-dip region by >100% relative to a homogenous elastic model.

  4. InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Akoǧlu, Ahmet M.; ćakmak, Rahşan; Tatar, Orhan; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency's Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.

  5. Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  6. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  7. Quantification of colloid retention and release by straining and energy minima in variably saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Sang, Wenjing; Morales, Verónica L; Zhang, Wei; Stoof, Cathelijne R; Gao, Bin; Schatz, Anna Lottie; Zhang, Yalei; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2013-08-06

    The prediction of colloid transport in unsaturated porous media in the presence of large energy barrier is hampered by scant information of the proportional retention by straining and attractive interactions at surface energy minima. This study aims to fill this gap by performing saturated and unsaturated column experiments in which colloid pulses were added at various ionic strengths (ISs) from 0.1 to 50 mM. Subsequent flushing with deionized water released colloids held at the secondary minimum. Next, destruction of the column freed colloids held by straining. Colloids not recovered at the end of the experiment were quantified as retained at the primary minimum. Results showed that net colloid retention increased with IS and was independent of saturation degree under identical IS and Darcian velocity. Attachment rates were greater in unsaturated columns, despite an over 3-fold increase in pore water velocity relative to saturated columns, because additional retention at the readily available air-associated interfaces (e.g., the air-water-solid [AWS] interfaces) is highly efficient. Complementary visual data showed heavy retention at the AWS interfaces. Retention by secondary minima ranged between 8% and 46% as IS increased, and was greater for saturated conditions. Straining accounted for an average of 57% of the retained colloids with insignificant differences among the treatments. Finally, retention by primary minima ranged between 14% and 35% with increasing IS, and was greater for unsaturated conditions due to capillary pinning.

  8. An energy-based model accounting for snow accumulation and snowmelt in a coniferous forest and in an open area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějka, Ondřej; Jeníček, Michal

    2016-04-01

    An energy balance approach was used to simulate snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution in an open area, forest clearing and coniferous forest during winter seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13 in the Bystřice River basin (Krušné Mountains, Czech Republic). The aim was to describe the impact of vegetation on snow accumulation and snowmelt under different forest canopy structure and trees density. Hemispherical photographs were used to describe the forest canopy structure. Energy balance model of snow accumulation and melt was set up. The snow model was adjusted to account the effects of forest canopy on driving meteorological variables. Leaf area index derived from 32 hemispherical photographs of vegetation and sky was used to implement the forest influence in the snow model. The model was evaluated using snow depth and SWE data measured at 16 localities in winter seasons from 2011 to 2013. The model was able to reproduce the SWE evolution in both winter seasons beneath the forest canopy, forest clearing and open area. The SWE maximum in forest sites was by 18% lower than in open areas and forest clearings. The portion of shortwave radiation on snowmelt rate was by 50% lower in forest areas than in open areas due to shading effect. The importance of turbulent fluxes was by 30% lower in forest sites compared to openings because of wind speed reduction up to 10% of values at corresponding open areas. Indirect estimation of interception rates was derived. Between 14 and 60% of snowfall was intercept and sublimated in the forest canopy in both winter seasons. Based on model results, the underestimation of solid precipitation (heated precipitation gauge used for measurement) at the weather station Hřebečná was revealed. The snowfall was underestimated by 40% in winter season 2011/12 and by 13% in winter season 2012/13. Although, the model formulation appeared sufficient for both analysed winter seasons, canopy effects on the longwave radiation and ground heat flux were not

  9. Energy transfer in strained graphene assisted by discrete breathers excited by external ac driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evazzade, Iman; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Korznikova, Elena A.; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.; Roknabadi, Mahmood Rezaee; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present molecular-dynamics study, external ac driving is used at frequencies outside the phonon spectrum to excite gap DBs in uniformly strained graphene nanoribbon. Harmonic displacement or harmonic force is applied to a zigzag atomic chain of graphene. In the former case, nonpropagating DBs are excited on the atoms next to the driven atoms, while in the latter case the excited DBs propagate along the nanoribbon. The energy transfer along the nanoribbon assisted by the DBs is investigated in detail, and the differences between harmonic displacement driving and harmonic force driving are discussed. It is concluded that the amplitude of external driving at out-of-phonon spectrum frequencies should not necessarily be large to obtain a noticeable energy transfer to the system. Overall, our results suggest that external harmonic driving even at relatively small driving amplitudes can be used to control excitation of DBs and consequently the energy transfer to the system.

  10. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  11. Prediction of fault-related damage zones in porous granular rock using strain energy density criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.; Schultz, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    In granular geologic materials such as porous sandstone, fault-related damage zones are formed by deformation bands, which are tabular discontinuities characterized by pore space collapse and shear. We present results of a study in which separate strain energy density-based criteria are used to successfully predict the tendencies for the nucleation and for the propagation of deformation bands in a classic outcrop of fault-related damage zones within the brittlely-deformed Jurassic Wingate sandstone exposed in the Laramide-aged Uncompahgre Uplift, in western Colorado. The separate distributions of volumetric and distortional strain energy density are calculated for the geometry and stress state of the causative Laramide-aged thrust fault displacements from boundary element calculations of the attendant slip-induced local stresses. Volumetric strain energy density predicts the tendency for deformation band nucleation, the growth stage at which the deformation bands are defined by pore space collapse. Deformation band propagation, where shear occurs along the band, is predicted by distortional strain energy density. The relative magnitudes of elevated volumetric and distortional strain energy density are correlated with deformation band intensity (i.e. the mapped fracture intensity). Within a damage zone, enhanced deformation band nucleation tendencies are predicted and observed to occur within the upper hanging wall and ahead of the causative thrust fault, as well as along the frictionally-slipping base of the Wingate. Additionally, enhanced deformation band propagation tendencies are predicted ahead of and slightly within the footwall of the thrust. Here, propagation would occur along deformation bands that nucleated at an earlier stage of fault growth. The predicted tendencies for deformation band propagation are consistent with the observed distributions of compressive mode II deformation band stepover structures, which occur solely between propagating deformation

  12. Constitutive Modeling of Skeletal Muscle Tissue with an Explicit Strain-Energy Function

    PubMed Central

    Odegard, G.M.; Donahue, T.L. Haut; Morrow, D.A.; Kaufman, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    While much work has previously been done in the modeling of skeletal muscle, no model has, to date, been developed that describes the mechanical behavior with an explicit strain-energy function associated with the active response of skeletal muscle tissue. A model is presented herein that has been developed to accommodate this design consideration using a robust dynamical approach. The model shows excellent agreement with a previously published model of both the active and passive length-tension properties of skeletal muscle. PMID:19045546

  13. Damping Properties of Sandwich Truss Core Structures by Strain Energy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, M.; Rucevskis, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Polanski, M.

    2015-11-01

    Sandwich panel structures with stiff face sheets and cellular cores are widely used to support dynamic loads. Combining face sheets made of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with an aluminium pyramidal truss improves the damping performance of the structure due to viscoelastic character of CRFP composites. To predict the damping characteristics of the pyramidal truss core sandwich panel the strain energy method is adopted. The procedure for evaluating the damping of the sandwich panel was performed using commercial finite element software NASTRAN and MATLAB. Non-contact vibration tests were performed on the real sandwich panels in order to extract the modal characteristics and compare them with the numerical predictions.

  14. New Insights into Strain Accumulation and Release in the Central and Northern Walker Lane, Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, California and Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Jayne M.

    The Walker Lane is a 100 km-wide distributed zone of complex transtensional faulting that flanks the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada. Up to 25% of the total Pacific-North American relative right-lateral plate boundary deformation is accommodated east of the Sierra Nevada, primarily in the Walker Lane. The results of three studies in the Central and Northern Walker Lane offer new insights into how constantly accumulating plate boundary shear strain is released on faults in the Walker Lane and regional earthquake hazards. This research is based on the collection and analysis of new of geologic and geodetic datasets. Two studies are located in the Central Walker Lane, where plate boundary deformation is accommodated on northwest trending right-lateral faults, east-northeast trending left-lateral faults, and north trending normal faults. In this region, a prominent set of left-stepping, en-echelon, normal fault-bounded basins between Walker Lake and Lake Tahoe fill a gap in Walker Lane strike slip faults. Determining how these basins accommodate shear strain is a primary goal of this research. Paleoseismic and neotectonic observations from the Wassuk Range fault zone in the Walker Lake basin record evidence for at least 3 Holocene surface rupturing earthquakes and Holocene/late Pleistocene vertical slip rates between 0.4-0.7 mm/yr on the normal fault, but record no evidence of right-lateral slip along the rangefront fault. A complementary study presents new GPS velocity data that measures present-day deformation across the Central Walker Lane and infers fault slip and block rotation rates using an elastic block model. The model results show a clear partitioning between distinct zones of strain accommodation characterized by (1) right-lateral translation of blocks on northwest trending faults, (2) left-lateral slip and clockwise block rotations between east and northeast trending faults, and (3) right-lateral oblique normal slip with minor clockwise block rotations

  15. Strain relaxation of CdTe on Ge studied by medium energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, J. C.; Pierre, F.; Jalabert, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have used the medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) technique to assess the strain relaxation in molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) grown CdTe (2 1 1)/Ge (2 1 1) system. A previous X-ray diffraction study, on 10 samples of the same heterostructure having thicknesses ranging from 25 nm to 10 μm has allowed the measurement of the strain relaxation on a large scale. However, the X-ray diffraction measurements cannot achieve a stress measurement in close proximity to the CdTe/Ge interface at the nanometer scale. Due to the huge lattice misfit between the CdTe and Ge, a high degree of disorder is expected at the interface. The MEIS in channeling mode is a good alternative in order to profile defects with a high depth resolution. For a 21 nm thick CdTe layer, we observed, at the interface, a high density of Cd and/or Te atoms moved from their expected crystallographic positions followed by a rapid recombination of defects. Strain relaxation mechanisms in the vicinity of the interface are discussed

  16. Creation of High-Yield Polyhydroxyalkanoates Engineered Strains by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shiquan; Cheng, Ying; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2008-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a candidate for biodegradable plastic materials, can be synthesized by numerous microorganisms. However, as its production cost is high in comparison with those of chemically synthesized plastics, a lot of research has been focused on the efficient production of PHAs using different methods. In the present study, the mutation effects of PHAs production in strain pCB4 were investigated with implantation of low energy ions. It was found that under the implantation conditions of 7.8 × 1014 N+/cm2 at 10 keV, a high-yield PHAs strain with high genetic stability was generated from many mutants. After optimizing its fermentation conditions, the biomass, PHAs concentration and PHAs content of pCBH4 reached 2.26 g/L, 1.81 g/L, and 80.08% respectively, whereas its wild type controls were about 1.24 g/L, 0.61 g/L, and 49.20%. Moreover, the main constituent of PHAs was identified as poly-3-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) in the mutant stain and the yield of this compound was increased up to 41.33% in contrast to that of 27.78% in the wild type strain.

  17. Time series analysis of strain accumulation along the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) over the 1993-2009 period, from ERS and ENVISAT InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Romain; Lasserre, Cecile; Doin, Marie-Pierre; Guillaso, Stéphane; Cavalié, Olivier; Peltzer, Gilles; Sun, Jianbao; Rong, Dailu; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Xu, Xiwei

    2010-05-01

    We use SAR interferometry to measure the strain accumulation along the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (HFS), that marks the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a thrust fault system. No large earthquake is reported on the central section of the HFS, the "Tianzhu seismic gap", since ~1000 years. We first analyze the complete ENVISAT SAR data archive along 4 descending and 2 ascending tracks for the 2003-2009 period and construct an InSAR-based mean Line-Of-Sight (LOS) velocity map around the HFS from the eastern end of the Qilian shan (102° E), to the west, to the Liupan shan (106° E), to the east. Data are processed using a small baseline chain type. For each track, all radar images are coregistrated to a single master and interferograms are produced using a local adaptative range filtering. Residual orbital and atmospheric delays are jointly inverted and corrected for each unwrapped interferogram. Atmospheric corrections are validated using the ERA40 global atmospheric model (ECMWF). The interferograms series on each track are then inverted to obtain the increments of LOS radar delays between acquisition dates, adapting the Lopez-Quiroz et al. 2009 time series analysis. The obtained LOS mean velocity maps show a dominant left-lateral motion across the fault with along-strike variations: some fault sections are locked at shallow depth while others are creeping and local vertical movements are observed (subsidence in the "Jingtai" pull-apart basin). For various fault slip rates imposed below 20 km (4-10 mm/yr), we model the shallow velocity by inverting the mean LOS velocity maps for both strike-slip and dip-slip motion on vertical, 5km x 2.5km discretized patches, using a least-square method with an appropriate degree of smoothing. The fault geometry follows the surface trace of the

  18. Variation of strain energy release rate with plate thickness. [fracture mode transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sih, G. C.; Hartranft, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical model of a through-thickness crack in a statically stretched plate is presented in which the crack front stress state is permitted to vary in the direction of the plate thickness. The amplitude or intensity of this stress field can be made nearly constant over a major portion of the interior crack front which is in a state of plane strain. The average amount of work available for extending a small segment of the crack across the thickness is associated with an energy release rate quantity in a manner similar to the two-dimensional Griffith crack model. The theoretically calculated energy release rate is shown to increase with increasing plate thickness, indicating that available work for crack extension is higher in a thicker plate.

  19. D-psicose increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Onishi, Kana; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of D-psicose by increasing energy expenditure in rats pair-fed the high-sucrose diet (HSD). Wistar rats were divided into two dietary groups: HSD containing 5% cellulose (C) and 5% d-psicose (P). The C dietary group was further subdivided into two groups: rats fed the C diet ad libitum (C-AD) and pair-fed the C diet along with those in the P group (C-PF). Resting energy expenditure during darkness and lipoprotein lipase activity in the soleus muscle were significantly higher in the P group than in the C-PF group. Serum levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue; and body fat accumulation were all significantly lower in the P group than in the C-PF group. The anti-obesity effects of D-psicose could be induced not only by suppressing lipogenic enzyme activity but also by increasing EE in rats.

  20. Strain fields around high-energy ion tracks in {alpha}-quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D. M.; Norman, A. K.; Doyle, B. L.; McDaniel, F. D.

    2006-09-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to image the tracks of high-energy {sup 197}Au{sup +26} (374 MeV) and {sup 127}I{sup +18} (241 MeV) ions incident in a nonchanneling direction through a prethinned specimen of hexagonal {alpha}-quartz (SiO{sub 2}). These ions have high electronic stopping powers in quartz, 24 and 19 keV/nm, respectively, which are sufficient to produce a disordered latent track. When the tracks are imaged with diffraction contrast using several different reciprocal lattice vectors, they exhibit a radial strain extending outward from their disordered centerline approximately 16 nm into the crystalline surroundings. The images are consistent with a radial strain field with cylindrical symmetry around the amorphous track, like that found in models developed to account for the lateral expansion of amorphous SiO{sub 2} films produced by irradiation with high-energy ions. These findings provide an experimental basis for increased confidence in such modeling.

  1. Conversion of light-energy into molecular strain in the photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Gamiz-Hernandez, Ana P; Kaila, Ville R I

    2016-01-28

    The Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) is a light-driven photoreceptor, responsible for the phototaxis of halophilic bacteria. Recently, a new short-lived intermediate (pR0) was characterized in the PYP photocycle using combined time-resolved X-ray crystallography and density functional theory calculations. The pR0 species was identified as a highly contorted cis-intermediate, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with protein residues. Here we show by hybrid quantum mechanics/classical mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations, and first-principles calculations of optical properties, that the optical shifts in the early steps of the PYP photocycle originate from the conversion of light energy into molecular strain, stored in the pR0 state, and its relaxation in subsequent reaction steps. Our calculations quantitatively reproduce experimental data, which enables us to identify molecular origins of the optical shifts. Our combined approach suggests that the short-lived pR0 intermediate stores ∼1/3 of the photon energy as molecular strain, thus providing the thermodynamic driving force for later conformational changes in the protein.

  2. Differential responses to different light spectral ranges of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and accumulation of Cbr, an algal homologue of plant early light inducible proteins, in two strains of Dunaliella.

    PubMed

    Banet; Pick; Malkin; Zamir

    1999-11-01

    Unicellular green algae of the genus Dunaliella, similar to higher plants, respond to light stress by enhanced de-epoxidation of violaxanthin and accumulation of Cbr, a protein homologous to early light inducible proteins (Elips) in plants. These proteins belong to the superfamily of chlorophyll a/b binding proteins. Two Dunaliella strains, D. bardawil and D. salina, were compared for these two responses under light in the UVA, blue, green and red spectral ranges. In D. bardawil, the two stress responses were similarly induced under UVA, blue or red light and to a lesser extent under green light. In D. salina, a similar spectral range dependence was exhibited for violaxanthin de-epoxidation. However, Cbr accumulated only under UVA or blue light but not under green or red light. A strong synergistic effect of a low dose of blue light superimposed on red light resulted in Cbr accumulation. These results reveal strain-specific differences in spectral range requirements of the two light-stress responses. In the two strains, violaxanthin de-epoxidation is triggered under photosynthetically-active spectral ranges but at least in D. salina, Cbr accumulation appears to require a specific light signal additionally to a signal(s) generated by light stress.

  3. The energy expenditure of 2 Holstein cow strains in an organic grazing system.

    PubMed

    Thanner, S; Dohme-Meier, F; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Schori, F

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare EE, which can be affected by differences in body weight (BW), body composition, grazing behavior, physical activity, and milk production level, in 2 Holstein cow strains. Twelve Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH; 616 kg of BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ; 570 kg of BW) cows in the third stage of lactation were paired according to their stage of lactation and kept in a rotational, full-time grazing system without concentrate supplementation. After adaption, the daily milk yield, grass intake using the alkane double-indicator technique, nutrient digestibility, physical activity, and grazing behavior recorded by an automatic jaw movement recorder were investigated over 7d. Using the (13)C bicarbonate dilution technique in combination with an automatic blood sampling system, EE based on measured carbon dioxide production was determined in 1 cow pair per day between 0800 to 1400 h. The HCH were heavier and had a lower body condition score compared with HNZ, but the difference in BW was smaller compared with former studies. Milk production, grass intake, and nutrient digestibility did not differ between the 2 cow strains, but HCH grazed for a longer time during the 6-h measurement period and performed more grazing mastication compared with the HNZ. No difference was found between the 2 cow strains with regard to EE (291 ± 15.6 kJ) per kilogram of metabolic BW, mainly due to a high between-animal variation in EE. As efficiency and energy use are important in sustainable, pasture-based, organic milk production systems, the determining factors for EE, such as methodology, genetics, physical activity, grazing

  4. Refined models of gravitational potential energy compared with stress and strain rate patterns in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Maria C.; Fernandes, Rui M.; Adam, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the role of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in generating second-order (spatial scale ∼102 km) variations in the Iberia stress and strain-rate patterns. We present a new map of present-day strain rate field derived from the secular velocity field computed using all available continuously operating Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations in Iberia. The estimated strain rate field is generally consistent with the tectonic framework of the Iberian region, even though sporadic sharp local variations downgrade its correlation with the regional stress patterns. Many of the sharp spatial variations in the strain rate map are consistent with local changes of deformation style determined by prevailing faults. To obtain a more accurate estimate of GPE we use new data on the structure of the crust and apply a thin sheet approach using a 3-D definition of deviatoric stress. The GPE is derived from two isostatically compensated models (GPEd and GPEe compensated by density and elevation adjustment, respectively) and from the truncated geoid (GPEg). The GPE stresses are then summed with the first-order stress field due to the Eurasia-Nubia (EU-NU) convergence and the results compared with both the stress and strain rate data. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the GPE does not significantly change the NW-SE average direction of the most compressive stress (SHmax) imposed by the EU-NU collision, its main effect being to cause spatially changing stress regimes. From the analysis of the different GPE models we find: (1) in the Pyrenees, the tectonic forces have a secondary role when compared to the GPE. In this region, the model that best correlates with observations is the one emphasizing the role of surface elevation as a source of GPE (GPEe); (2) in the Iberian Chain and the Betics, the GPE imposes NE-SW extension consistent with a strike-slip regime and is equally (GPEe) or more (GPEg) important than the tectonic forces. In

  5. Inoculation with endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31 increases Mn accumulation and induces the growth and energy metabolism-related differentially-expressed proteome in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-hui; He, Lin-yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to investigate the molecular and microbial mechanisms involved in the endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31-enhanced Mn tolerance and accumulation in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum. Strain 1Y31 significantly increased the dry weights (ranging from 28% to 94%) and total Mn uptake (ranging from 23% to 112%) of hybrid pennisetum treated with 0, 2, and 10mM Mn compared to the control. Total 98 leaf differentially expressed proteins were identified between the live and dead bacterial inoculated hybrid pennisetum. The major leaf differentially expressed proteins were involved in energy generation, photosynthesis, response to stimulus, metabolisms, and unknown function. Furthermore, most of the energy generation and photosynthesis-related proteins were up-regulated, whereas most of the response to stimulus and metabolism-related proteins were down-regulated under Mn stress. Notably, the proportion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing endophytic bacteria was significantly higher in the bacterial inoculated plants under Mn stress. The results suggested that strain 1Y31 increased the growth and Mn uptake of hybrid pennisetum through increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis and energy metabolism as well as the proportion of plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria in the plants.

  6. A strain energy filter for 3D vessel enhancement with application to pulmonary CT images.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changyan; Staring, Marius; Shamonin, Denis; Reiber, Johan H C; Stolk, Jan; Stoel, Berend C

    2011-02-01

    The traditional Hessian-related vessel filters often suffer from detecting complex structures like bifurcations due to an over-simplified cylindrical model. To solve this problem, we present a shape-tuned strain energy density function to measure vessel likelihood in 3D medical images. This method is initially inspired by established stress-strain principles in mechanics. By considering the Hessian matrix as a stress tensor, the three invariants from orthogonal tensor decomposition are used independently or combined to formulate distinctive functions for vascular shape discrimination, brightness contrast and structure strength measuring. Moreover, a mathematical description of Hessian eigenvalues for general vessel shapes is obtained, based on an intensity continuity assumption, and a relative Hessian strength term is presented to ensure the dominance of second-order derivatives as well as suppress undesired step-edges. Finally, we adopt the multi-scale scheme to find an optimal solution through scale space. The proposed method is validated in experiments with a digital phantom and non-contrast-enhanced pulmonary CT data. It is shown that our model performed more effectively in enhancing vessel bifurcations and preserving details, compared to three existing filters.

  7. Time series and MinTS analysis of strain accumulation along the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) over the 2003-2010 period, from ENVISAT InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Lin, N.; Simons, M.; Doin, M.; Hetland, E. A.; Muse, P.; Peltzer, G.; Jianbao, S.; Dailu, R.

    2010-12-01

    We use SAR interferometry to measure the strain accumulation along the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (hereafter HFS), that marks the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a thrust fault system. There has been no known large earthquake on the central section of the HFS, the “Tianzhu seismic gap”, in the last ~1000 years. We first analyze the complete ENVISAT SAR data archive along three descending and two ascending tracks for the 2003-2009 period and construct an InSAR-based mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity map around the HFS from the eastern end of the Qilian Shan (102° E), to the west, to the Liupan Shan (106° E), to the east. We empirically correct our interferograms for propagation delays associated with changes on the stratified atmospheric structure. We then estimate the mean LOS velocity for each track using a time series analysis which reveals the existence of a 40 km long creeping segment located at the western end of the 1920 rupture. Extending from the Jingtai pull-apart basin, which shows a 2-3 mm/yr subsidence rate, to the Mao Mao Shan, the creep rate is estimated to reach 8 mm/yr locally and is higher than the long term loading rate of the Haiyuan fault, estimated geodetically at 5±1 mm/yr. The surface extension of the creeping segment is colocated with strong micro- and moderate seismic activity. We also explore the possibility of transient creep during the 2003-2010 time period, using a SBAS style, smoothed, time series analysis and the Multiscale Interferometric Time Series method (MinTS, CalTech, see Hetland et al. 2010 AGU abstract). While classic time series methods are based on a pixel-by-pixel approach and do not consider spatial data covariances, due to residual atmospheric noise, the wavelet decomposition of each interferograms and the time inversion in the

  8. High-power density piezoelectric energy harvesting using radially strained ultrathin trigonal tellurium nanowire assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Sangmin; Lee, Eungkyu; Sohn, Sungwoo; Lee, Yean; Lee, Sujeong; Moon, Geondae; Kim, Dohyang; Kim, Youn Sang; Myoung, Jae Min; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-06-04

    A high-yield solution-processed ultrathin (<10 nm) trigonal tellurium (t-Te) nanowire (NW) is introduced as a new class of piezoelectric nanomaterial with a six-fold higher piezoelectric constant compared to conventional ZnO NWs for a high-volume power-density nanogenerator (NG). While determining the energy-harvesting principle in a NG consisting of t-Te NW, it is theoretically and experimentally found that t-Te NW is piezoelectrically activated only by creating strain in its radial direction, along which it has an asymmetric crystal structure. Based upon this mechanism, a NG with a monolayer consisting of well-aligned t-Te NWs and a power density of 9 mW/cm(3) is fabricated.

  9. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  10. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  11. Adhesive-Bonded Composite Joint Analysis with Delaminated Surface Ply Using Strain-Energy Release Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadegani, Alireza; Yang, Chihdar; Smeltzer, Stanley S. III

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to determine the strain energy release rate due to an interlaminar crack of the surface ply in adhesively bonded composite joints subjected to axial tension. Single-lap shear-joint standard test specimen geometry with thick bondline is followed for model development. The field equations are formulated by using the first-order shear-deformation theory in laminated plates together with kinematics relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. The system of second-order differential equations is solved to using the symbolic computation tool Maple 9.52 to provide displacements fields. The equivalent forces at the tip of the prescribed interlaminar crack are obtained based on interlaminar stress distributions. The strain energy release rate of the crack is then determined by using the crack closure method. Finite element analyses using the J integral as well as the crack closure method are performed to verify the developed analytical model. It has been shown that the results using the analytical method correlate well with the results from the finite element analyses. An attempt is made to predict the failure loads of the joints based on limited test data from the literature. The effectiveness of the inclusion of bondline thickness is justified when compared with the results obtained from the previous model in which a thin bondline and uniform adhesive stresses through the bondline thickness are assumed.

  12. Effects of Trophic Modes, Carbon Sources, and Salinity on the Cell Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Tropic Ocean Oilgae Strain Desmodesmus sp. WC08.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenyu; Ma, Shasha; Li, Ang; Liu, Pinghuai; Wang, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The effects of trophic modes, carbon sources, and salinity on the growth and lipid accumulation of a marine oilgae Desmodesmus sp. WC08 in different trophic cultures were assayed by single factor experiment based on the blue-green algae medium (BG-11). The results implied that biomass and lipid accumulation culture process were optimized depending on the tophic modes, sorts, and concentration of carbon sources and salinity in the cultivation. There was no significant difference in growth or lipid accumulation with Na2CO3 amendment or NaHCO3 amendment. However, Na2CO3 amendment did enhance the biomass and lipid accumulation to some extent. The highest Desmodesmus sp. WC08 biomass and lipid accumulation was achieved in the growth medium with photoautotrophic cultivation, 0.08 g L(-1) Na2CO3 amendment and 15 g L(-1) sea salt, respectively.

  13. Edge effects on band gap energy in bilayer 2H-MoS2 under uniaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Wang, Jin; Namburu, Raju; O'Regan, Terrance P.; Dubey, Madan; Dongare, Avinash M.

    2015-06-01

    The potential of ultrathin MoS2 nanostructures for applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices requires a fundamental understanding in their electronic structure as a function of strain. Previous experimental and theoretical studies assume that an identical strain and/or stress state is always maintained in the top and bottom layers of a bilayer MoS2 film. In this study, a bilayer MoS2 supercell is constructed differently from the prototypical unit cell in order to investigate the layer-dependent electronic band gap energy in a bilayer MoS2 film under uniaxial mechanical deformations. The supercell contains an MoS2 bottom layer and a relatively narrower top layer (nanoribbon with free edges) as a simplified model to simulate the as-grown bilayer MoS2 flakes with free edges observed experimentally. Our results show that the two layers have different band gap energies under a tensile uniaxial strain, although they remain mutually interacting by van der Waals interactions. The deviation in their band gap energies grows from 0 to 0.42 eV as the uniaxial strain increases from 0% to 6% under both uniaxial strain and stress conditions. The deviation, however, disappears if a compressive uniaxial strain is applied. These results demonstrate that tensile uniaxial strains applied to bilayer MoS2 films can result in distinct band gap energies in the bilayer structures. Such variations need to be accounted for when analyzing strain effects on electronic properties of bilayer or multilayered 2D materials using experimental methods or in continuum models.

  14. Creation of an Empirical Energy-Balance Based Snow Module Simulating Both Snowmelt and Snow Accumulation for Mountain Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboust, P.; Le Moine, N.; Thirel, G.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-12-01

    In Nordic and mountainous regions, hydrological processes are more complex than for regular rainfall-driven watersheds. Snow accumulates in winter, acting as a reservoir, and melts during late spring and summer. In order to take into account these additional natural processes present in mountainous watersheds, snow modules have been created in order to help rainfall-runoff models to simulate river discharge. Many empirical degree-day snow models have been designed to simulate snowmelt and river discharge when coupled to a rainfall runoff model, but few of them simulate correctly the amount of snow water equivalent (SWE) at point scale. Simulating correctly not only the amount of snowmelt but also the water content of the snowpack has several potential advantages: it allows improving the model reliability and performance for short-term and long-term prediction, spatial regionalization, and it makes it possible to perform data assimilation using observed snow measurements. The objective of our study is to create a new simple empirical snow module, with a structure allowing the use of snow data for calibration or assimilation. We used a model structure close to the snow model defined by M.T. Walter (2005) where each of the processes of the energy balance is parameterized using only temperature and precipitation data. The conductive fluxes into the snowpack have been modeled using analyticalsolutions to the heat equation with phase change. This model which is in-between the degree-day and the physical energy-balance approaches. It has the advantages to use only temperature and precipitation which arewidely available data and to take account of energy balance processes without being computationally intensive. Another advantage is that all state variables of the model should be comparable with observable measurements.For the moment, the snow module has been parameterized at point scale and has been tested over Switzerland and the US, using MeteoSwiss and SNOTEL USGS

  15. A new strain energy function for modelling ligaments and tendons whose fascicles have a helical arrangement of fibrils.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Tom

    2015-09-18

    A new strain energy function for the hyperelastic modelling of ligaments and tendons whose fascicles have a helical arrangement of fibrils is derived. The stress-strain response of a single fascicle whose fibrils exhibit varying levels of crimp throughout its radius is calculated and used to determine the form of the strain energy function. The new constitutive law is used to model uniaxial extension test data for human patellar tendon and is shown to provide an excellent fit, with the average relative error being 9.8%. It is then used to model shear and predicts that the stresses required to shear a tendon are much smaller than those required to uniaxially stretch it to the same strain level. Finally, the strain energy function is used to model ligaments and tendons whose fascicles are helical, and the relative effects of the fibril helix angle, the fascicle helix angle and the fibril crimp variable are compared. It is shown that they all have a significant effect; the fibril crimp variable governs the non-linearity of the stress-strain curve, whereas the helix angles primarily affect its stiffness. Smaller values of the helix angles lead to stiffer tendons; therefore, the model predicts that one would expect to see fewer helical sub-structures in stiff positional tendons, and more in those that are required to be more flexible.

  16. Optimization of Stability Constrained Geometrically Nonlinear Shallow Trusses Using an Arc Length Sparse Method with a Strain Energy Density Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2008-01-01

    A technique for the optimization of stability constrained geometrically nonlinear shallow trusses with snap through behavior is demonstrated using the arc length method and a strain energy density approach within a discrete finite element formulation. The optimization method uses an iterative scheme that evaluates the design variables' performance and then updates them according to a recursive formula controlled by the arc length method. A minimum weight design is achieved when a uniform nonlinear strain energy density is found in all members. This minimal condition places the design load just below the critical limit load causing snap through of the structure. The optimization scheme is programmed into a nonlinear finite element algorithm to find the large strain energy at critical limit loads. Examples of highly nonlinear trusses found in literature are presented to verify the method.

  17. Damage and strain in single-layer graphene induced by very-low-energy electron-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Katsuhisa; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Kadowaki, Takuya

    2013-01-28

    From the analysis of the ratio of D peak intensity to G peak intensity in Raman spectroscopy, electron beam irradiation with energies of 100 eV was found to induce damage in single-layer graphene. The damage becomes larger with decreasing electron beam energy. Internal strain in graphene induced by damage under irradiation is further evaluated based on G peak shifts. The dose-dependent internal strain was approximately 2.22% cm{sup 2}/mC at 100 eV and 2.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}% cm{sup 2}/mC at 500 eV. The strain induced by the irradiation showed strong dependence on electron energy.

  18. Lung stress, strain, and energy load: engineering concepts to understand the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).

    PubMed

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2016-12-01

    It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung tissue using engineering methods in normal pigs ventilated for 54 h. They used these methods to assess the impact of a mechanical breath on dynamic and static global lung strain and energy load. Strain is the change in lung volume in response to an applied stress (i.e., Tidal Volume-Vt). This study has yielded a number of exciting new concepts including the following: (1) Individual mechanical breath parameters (e.g., Vt or Plateau Pressure) are not directly correlated with VILI but rather any combination of parameters that subject the lung to excessive dynamic strain and energy/power load will cause VILI; (2) all strain is not equal; dynamic strain resulting in a dynamic energy load (i.e., kinetic energy) is more damaging to lung tissue than static strain and energy load (i.e., potential energy); and (3) a critical consideration is not just the size of the Vt but the size of the lung that is being ventilated by this Vt. This key concept merits attention since our current protective ventilation strategies are fixated on the priority of keeping the Vt low. If the lung is fully inflated, a large Vt is not necessarily injurious. In conclusion, using engineering concepts to analyze the impact of the mechanical breath on the lung is a novel new approach to investigate VILI mechanisms and to help design the optimally protective breath. Data generated using these methods have challenged some of the current dogma surrounding the mechanisms of VILI and of the components in the mechanical breath necessary for lung protection.

  19. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  20. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  1. Strain energy density gradients in bone marrow predict osteoblast and osteoclast activity: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2015-03-18

    Huiskes et al. hypothesized that mechanical strains sensed by osteocytes residing in trabecular bone dictate the magnitude of load-induced bone formation. More recently, the mechanical environment in bone marrow has also been implicated in bone׳s response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesize that trabecular load-induced bone formation can be predicted by mechanical signals derived from an integrative µFE model, incorporating a description of both the bone and marrow phase. Using the mouse tail loading model in combination with in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) we tracked load induced changes in the sixth caudal vertebrae of C57BL/6 mice to quantify the amount of newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes. To identify the mechanical signals responsible for adaptation, local morphometric changes were compared to micro-finite element (µFE) models of vertebrae prior to loading. The mechanical parameters calculated were strain energy density (SED) on trabeculae at bone forming and resorbing surfaces, SED in the marrow at the boundary between bone forming and resorbing surfaces, along with SED in the trabecular bone and marrow volumes. The gradients of each parameter were also calculated. Simple regression analysis showed mean SED gradients in the trabecular bone matrix to significantly correlate with newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes R(2)=0.57 and 0.41, respectively, p<0.001). Nevertheless, SED gradients in the marrow were shown to be the best predictor of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity (R(2)=0.83 and 0.60, respectively, p<0.001). These data suggest that the mechanical environment of the bone marrow plays a significant role in determining osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  2. An analysis based on plastic strain energy for bilinearity in Coffin-Manson plots in an Al-Li alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, N.E.; Paradkar, A.G.; Malakondaiah, G. ); Kutumbarao, V.V. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-06-15

    Fatigue failure of a component occurs through an irrecoverable energy dissipating process. The alloy dissipates most of the plastic strain energy as heat, the other forms being vibration and acoustic emission. Some energy will be absorbed by immobile life defects and by surface damage processes. In order to gain greater understanding of the material response to fatigue damage, it is necessary to propose a physical quantity with energy dissipation as a fatigue damage parameter. Two such widely used fatigue damage parameters are the average plastic strain energy per cycle ([Delta]W[sub p]), the area under the hysteresis loop during low cycle fatigue and the total dissipated energy (W[sub f]), the sum of the areas of all the loops before failure. Each alloy has a certain capacity to dissipate the plastic strain energy. When this limit is attained, the cracks which originated during the earlier cycling will propagate and failure occurs. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the low cycle fatigue data obtained in the case of a quaternary Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy. The aim of this analysis is to provide further understanding on the bilinear nature of the Coffin-Manson power law relationship, which has already been reported by several researchers.

  3. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots.

  4. Density Functional Study of the Optimized Structure, Enthalpy of Formation, Strain Energy, and Vibrational Properties of the Highly-Strained Carbon Complex: [15]Triangulane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Steven L.; Pederson, Mark R.

    2002-03-01

    In organic chemistry, cyclopropane (C_3H_6) is a highly-strained three-membered carbon ring which can be networked to form [n]triangulanes, which are branched hydrocarbons consisting entirely of spiroannulated cyclopropyl groups. The C_2v-symmetric branched [15]triangulane (C_31H_34) have been recently synthesized (M. von Seebach, S. I. Kozhushkov, R. Boese, J. Benet-Buchholz, D. S. Yufit, J. A. K. Howard, and A. de Meijere, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39,) 2495 (2001). and is the largest triangulane molecule experimentally known to date. We report accurate density functional studies(M. R. Pederson and K. A. Jackson, Phys. Rev. B41,) 7453 (1990). of [15]triangulane which determine its optimized geometry and have calculated an enthalpy of formation and strain energy, using the appropriate isodesmic and homodesmotic reactions. The vibrational frequencies of [15]triangulane are also computed and our results are compared to experimental results, where available.

  5. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  6. The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kovchavtsev, A. P. Tsarenko, A. V.; Guzev, A. A.; Polovinkin, V. G.; Nastovjak, A. E.; Valisheva, N. A.; Aksenov, M. S.

    2015-09-28

    The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of the InAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) has been investigated by modeling and comparison with the experimental data from Au/anodic layer(4-20 nm)/n-InAs(111)A MOSCAPs. The accumulation capacitance for MOSCAPs has been calculated by the solution of Poisson equation with different assumptions and the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations with quantization taken into account. It was shown that the quantization during the MOSCAPs accumulation capacitance calculations should be taken into consideration for the correct interface states density determination by Terman method and the evaluation of gate dielectric thickness from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  7. Microbial uptake and accumulation of (/sup 14/C Carbofuran) 1,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7 benzofuranylmethyl carbamate in twenty fungal strains isolated by miniecosystem studies

    SciTech Connect

    Arunachalam, K.D.; Lakshmanan, M.

    1988-07-01

    Studies have amply demonstrated that members of the microbial world vary widely in their response to pesticides and that several factors may influence the toxicity of pesticides. Similarly, the microbial tolerance of pesticides may be affected by growth conditions, physiological conditions of cells and various stress factors which might exist in natural population. The pesticides are incorporated into microorganisms by an active or passive accumulation mechanism. Most observations of pesticide accumulation within the cells were recorded with chlorinated hydrocarbons. It was found that not only live bacterial cells, but autoclaved cells also, show a similar uptake of pesticides. Since aquatic microorganisms and plankton in freshwater and marine environments are an important nutrient source for a broad spectrum of aquatic filter-feeding organisms, their accumulation of pesticides can constitute a hazardous link in the food chain to fish and higher vertebrates.

  8. The strain energy release approach for modeling cracks in rotors: A state of the art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Chris A.

    2008-05-01

    The strain energy release rate (SERR) theory, combined with Linear Fracture Mechanics and Rotordynamics theories, has been widely used over the last three decades in order to calculate the compliance that causes a transverse surface crack in a rotating shaft. In this paper, the basic theory of this approach is presented, along with some extensions and limitations of its usage. The SERR theory is applied to a rotating crack and gives good results. The linear or nonlinear cracked rotor behavior depends on the mechanism of opening and closure of the crack during the shaft rotation. A brief history of the SERR theory is presented. In the 1970s, this theory met with rotordynamics as a result of research conducted on the causes of rotor failures in power industries. The main goal of this research was to give the engineer an early warning about the cracked situation of the rotor—in other words, to make the identification of the crack possible. Different methods of crack identification are presented here as well as those for multi-crack identification.

  9. Preferred orientation in carbon and boron nitride: Does a thermodynamic theory of elastic strain energy get it right. [C; BN

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, K.F. )

    1999-09-01

    We address whether the elastic strain-energy theory (minimizing the Gibbs energy of a stressed crystal) of McKenzie and co-workers [D. R. McKenzie and M. M. M. Bilek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 16], 2733 (1998)] adequately explains the preferred orientation observed in carbon and BN films. In the formalism, the Gibbs energy of the cubic materials diamond and cubic boron includes the strain that occurs when the phases form, through specific structural transformations, from graphitic precursors. This treatment violates the requirement of thermodynamics that the Gibbs energy be a path-independent, state function. If the cubic phases are treated using the same (path-independent) formalism applied to the graphitic materials, the crystallographic orientation of lowest Gibbs energy is not that observed experimentally. For graphitic (hexagonal) carbon and BN, an elastic strain approach seems inappropriate because the compressive stresses in energetically deposited films are orders of magnitude higher than the elastic limit of the materials. Furthermore, using the known elastic constants of either ordered or disordered graphitic materials, the theory does not predict the orientation observed by experiment. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  10. The Homogenized Energy Model (HEM) for Characterizing Polarization and Strains in Hysteretic Ferroelectric Materials: Implementation Algorithms and Data-Driven Parameter Estimation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    energy density of α-variant (CV/m 3) P Polarization (C/m2) P Polarization kernel (C/m2) Pα Polarization of α-variant (C/m2) PαR Remanent polarization...Permittivity (F/m = C/Vm) ε Strain (Unitless) ε Strain kernel εα Strain of α-variant εαR Remanence strain of α-variant εαm Minimum strain of α...at the beginning of the paper, PαR , ε α R, η ε α, Y P α and hα denote the remanence polarization, rema- nence strain, inverse susceptibility at

  11. Soft tissue strain energy minimization: a candidate control scheme for intra-finger normal-tangential force coordination.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C

    2005-08-01

    The safety margin (SM) measure has been used to quantify the phenomenon that humans grasp objects more firmly than is necessary to prevent slip. The biomechanical basis for the SM phenomenon is addressed herein. A hypothesis is proposed regarding intra-finger normal-tangential force coordination. The idea is that the central nervous system (CNS) minimizes the strain energy of the soft finger pad tissue by varying normal force when presented with a certain tangential force. This control scheme requires no knowledge of the frictional conditions at the finger-object interface; the CNS needs only to detect the strain energy in the contact region, an area abundant with strain-sensitive mechanoreceptors. The scheme is not independent, but is rather a possible component of a more complicated system. The strain energy minimization problem was solved using the finite element model (FEM) of Wu et al. (Med. Eng. Phys. 24(4)(2002) 253). Optimization results revealed that the suggested control scheme produced SM values of 30-50%, corresponding closely to those reported experimentally. Slip prevention naturally emerges from the control scheme provided that the friction coefficient exceeds 0.7, a value lower than typically encountered.

  12. Strain-energy-release rate analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen using the finite-element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; Obrien, T. K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen was performed using 8-node isoparametric, parabolic elements to evaluate compliance and mode II strain energy release rates, G sub II. The G sub II values were computed using two different techniques: the virtural crack-closure technique (VCCT) and the rate of change of compliance with crack length (compliance derivative method). The analysis was performed for various crack-length-to-semi-span (a/L) ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.9. Three material systems representing a wide range of material properties were analyzed. The compliance and strain energy release rates of the specimen calculated with the present finite-element analysis agree very well with beam theory equations including transverse shear. The G sub II values calculated using the compliance derivative method compared extremely well with those calculated using the VCCT. The G sub II values obtained by the compliance derivative method using the top or bottom beam deflections agreed closely with each other. The strain energy release rates from a plane-stress analysis were higher than the plane-strain values by only a small percentage, indicating that either assumption may be used in the analysis. The G sub II values for one material system calculated from the finite-element analysis agreed with one solution in the literature and disagreed with the other solution in the literature.

  13. Strain energy release rate analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen using the finite-element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.; Raju, I. S.; O'Brien, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen was performed using 8-node isoparametric, parabolic elements to evaluate compliance and mode II strain energy release rates, G sub II. The G sub II values were computed using two different techniques: the virtual crack-closure technique (VCCT) and the rate of change of compliance with crack length (compliance derivative method). The analysis was performed for various crack-length-to-semi-span (a/L) ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.9. Three material systems representing a wide range of material properties were analyzed. The compliance and strain energy release rates of the specimen calculated with the present finite-element analysis agree very well with beam theory equations including transverse shear. The G sub II values calculated using the compliance derivative method compared extremely well with those calculated using the VCCT. The G sub II values obtained by the compliance derivative method using the top or bottom beam deflections agreed closely with each other. The strain energy release rates from a plane-stress analysis were higher than the plane-strain values by only a small percentage, indicating that either assumption may be used in the analysis. The G sub II values for one material system calculated from the finte-element analysis agreed with one solution in the literature and disagreed with the other solution in the literature.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Sedimenticola thiotaurini Strain SIP-G1, a Polyphosphate- and Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Sulfur-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Isolated from Salt Marsh Sediments.

    PubMed

    Flood, Beverly E; Jones, Daniel S; Bailey, Jake V

    2015-06-18

    We report the closed genome sequence of Sedimenticola thiotaurini strain SIP-G1 and an unnamed plasmid obtained through PacBio sequencing with 100% consensus concordance. The genome contained several distinctive features not found in other published Sedimenticola genomes, including a complete nitrogen fixation pathway, a complete ethanolamine degradation pathway, and an alkane-1-monooxygenase.

  15. Reactivity and regioselectivity in reactions of methyl and ethyl azides with cyclooctynes: activation strain model and energy decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    de S Vilhena, Felipe; de M Carneiro, José Walkimar

    2017-01-01

    The structures and energies for the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of methyl and ethyl azides with some cyclooctynes and dibenzocyclooctynes were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The activation strain model (ASM) and quantitative molecular orbital (MO) theory were used to investigate the reactivity and regiochemistry in these reactions. The energy decomposition analysis (EDA) was used to identify the intrinsic electronic factor that lead to the preferential formation of 1,7-regiochemistry products. The reactivity order agrees with formation of more synchronous transition states and lower distortion energies. For the reaction of N3Met with azacyclooctyne, the 1,7-regiochemistry preference is attributed to a lower FMO gap and a higher contribution of the polarization term of the interaction energy than for the 1,8-transition state. For the reaction with aza-dibenzocyclooctyne, the 1,7-preference is due to a lower strain energy and a more pronounced contribution of the exchange term of the interaction energy. Graphical Abstract In the reactions between methyl and ethyl azides with azacyclooctynes the regiochemistry is governed by the intrinsic electronic factors.

  16. Substrate-level phosphorylation is the primary source of energy conservation during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kristopher A; Flynn, Jeffrey M; Naranjo, Belén; Shikhare, Indraneel D; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that respiratory organisms use proton motive force to produce ATP via F-type ATP synthase aerobically and that this process may reverse during anaerobiosis to produce proton motive force. Here, we show that Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a nonfermentative, facultative anaerobe known to respire exogenous electron acceptors, generates ATP primarily from substrate-level phosphorylation under anaerobic conditions. Mutant strains lacking ackA (SO2915) and pta (SO2916), genes required for acetate production and a significant portion of substrate-level ATP produced anaerobically, were tested for growth. These mutant strains were unable to grow anaerobically with lactate and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with substrate-level phosphorylation yielding a significant amount of ATP. Mutant strains lacking ackA and pta were also shown to grow slowly using N-acetylglucosamine as the carbon source and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with some ATP generation deriving from the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with this substrate. A deletion strain lacking the sole F-type ATP synthase (SO4746 to SO4754) demonstrated enhanced growth on N-acetylglucosamine and a minor defect with lactate under anaerobic conditions. ATP synthase mutants grown anaerobically on lactate while expressing proteorhodopsin, a light-dependent proton pump, exhibited restored growth when exposed to light, consistent with a proton-pumping role for ATP synthase under anaerobic conditions. Although S. oneidensis requires external electron acceptors to balance redox reactions and is not fermentative, we find that substrate-level phosphorylation is its primary anaerobic energy conservation strategy. Phenotypic characterization of an ackA deletion in Shewanella sp. strain MR-4 and genomic analysis of other sequenced strains suggest that this strategy is a common feature of Shewanella.

  17. Scaled free energies, power-law potentials, strain pseudospins, and quasiuniversality for first-order structural transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, S. R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2010-10-01

    We consider ferroelastic first-order phase transitions with N{sub OP} order-parameter strains entering Landau free energies as invariant polynomials that have N{sub V} structural-variant Landau minima. The total free energy includes (seemingly innocuous) harmonic terms, in the n=6-N{sub OP} nonorder-parameter strains. Four three-dimensional (3D) transitions are considered, tetragonal/orthorhombic, cubic/tetragonal, cubic/trigonal, and cubic/orthorhombic unit-cell distortions, with, respectively, N{sub OP}=1, 2, 3, and 2; and N{sub V}=2, 3, 4, and 6. Five two-dimensional (2D) transitions are also considered, as simpler examples. Following Barsch and Krumhansl, we scale the free energy to absorb most material-dependent elastic coefficients into an overall prefactor, by scaling in an overall elastic energy density; a dimensionless temperature variable; and the spontaneous-strain magnitude at transition {lambda}<<1. To leading order in {lambda} the scaled Landau minima become material independent, in a kind of ''quasiuniversality.'' The scaled minima in N{sub OP}-dimensional order-parameter space, fall at the center and at the N{sub V} corners, of a transition-specific polyhedron inscribed in a sphere, whose radius is unity at transition. The ''polyhedra'' for the four 3D transitions are, respectively, a line, a triangle, a tetrahedron, and a hexagon. We minimize the n terms harmonic in the nonorder-parameter strains, by substituting solutions of the ''no dislocation'' St Venant compatibility constraints, and explicitly obtain power-law anisotropic, order-parameter interactions, for all transitions. In a reduced discrete-variable description, the competing minima of the Landau free energies induce unit-magnitude pseudospin vectors, with N{sub V}+1 values, pointing to the polyhedra corners and the (zero-value) center. The total scaled free energies then become Z{sub N{sub V+1}} clocklike pseudospin Hamiltonians, with temperature-dependent local Landau terms, nearest

  18. Impact comminution of solids due to local kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: II-Microplane model and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caner, Ferhun C.; Bažant, Zdeněk P.

    2014-03-01

    The new theory presented in the preceding paper, which models the dynamic comminution of concrete due to very high shear strain rate, is now compared to recent test data on the penetration of projectiles through concrete walls of different thicknesses, ranging from 127 to 254 mm. These data are analyzed by an explicit finite element code using the new microplane constitutive model M7 for concrete, which was previously shown to provide the most realistic description of the quasi-static uni-, bi- and tri-axial test data with complex loading path and unloading. Model M7 incorporates the quasi-static strain rate effects due viscoelasticity and to the rate of cohesive crack debonding based on activation energy of bond ruptures, which are expected to extend to very high rates. Here model M7 is further enhanced by apparent viscosity capturing the energy dissipation due to the strain-rate effect of comminution. The maximum shear strain rates in the computations are of the order of 105 s-1. The simulations document that, within the inevitable uncertainties, the measured exit velocities of the projectiles can be matched quite satisfactorily and the observed shapes of the entry and exit craters can be reproduced correctly.

  19. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process.

  20. Self-Powered energy harvester strain sensing device for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, A.; Bafleur, M.; Dilhac, J.-M.; Colomer, J.; Dragomirescu, D.; Lopez, J.; Zhu, M.; Miribel, P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an envisaged autonomous strain sensor device, which is dedicated to structural health monitoring applications. The paper introduces the ASIC approach that replaces the discrete approach of some of the main modules.

  1. Strain-engineered artificial atom as a broad-spectrum solar energy funnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ji; Qian, Xiaofeng; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Li, Ju

    2012-12-01

    An optoelectronic material with a spatially varying bandgap that is tunable is highly desirable for use in photovoltaics, photocatalysis and photodetection. Elastic strain has the potential to be used to achieve rapid and reversible tuning of the bandgap. However, as a result of plasticity or fracture, conventional materials cannot sustain a high enough elastic strain to create sufficient changes in their physical properties. Recently, an emergent class of materials--named `ultrastrength materials'--have been shown to avoid inelastic relaxation up to a significant fraction of their ideal strength. Here, we illustrate theoretically and computationally that elastic strain is a viable agent for creating a continuously varying bandgap profile in an initially homogeneous, atomically thin membrane. We propose that a photovoltaic device made from a strain-engineered MoS2 monolayer will capture a broad range of the solar spectrum and concentrate excitons or charge carriers.

  2. All-electron formalism for total energy strain derivatives and stress tensor components for numeric atom-centered orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Franz; Carbogno, Christian; Atalla, Viktor; Blum, Volker; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    We derive and implement the strain derivatives of the total energy of solids, i.e., the analytic stress tensor components, in an all-electron, numeric atom-centered orbital based density-functional formalism. We account for contributions that arise in the semi-local approximation (LDA/GGA) as well as in the generalized Kohn-Sham case, in which a fraction of exact exchange (hybrid functionals) is included. In this work, we discuss the details of the implementation including the numerical corrections for sparse integrations grids which allow to produce accurate results. We validate the implementation for a variety of test cases by comparing to strain derivatives performed via finite differences. Additionally, we include the detailed definition of the overlapping atom-centered integration formalism used in this work to obtain total energies and their derivatives.

  3. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Energy-Dependent Efflux of Sb in Laboratory-Selected Resistant Strains of Leishmania (Viannia) Subgenus

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Priscila G.; do Monte-Neto, Rubens L.; Melo, Maria N.; Frézard, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The growing resistance of leishmaniasis to first-line drugs like antimonials in some regions limits the control of this parasitic disease. The precise mechanisms involved in Leishmania antimony resistance are still subject to debate. The reduction of intracellular SbIII accumulation is a common change observed in both laboratory-selected and field isolated resistant Leishmania strains, but the exact transport pathways involved in antimony resistance have not yet been elucidated. In order to functionally characterize the antimony transport routes responsible for resistance, we performed systematic transport studies of SbIII in wild-type and resistant strains of L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. Those include influx and efflux assays and the influence of ABC transporters and metabolism inhibitors: prochlorperazine, probenecid, verapamil, BSO, and sodium azide. The mRNA levels of genes associated with antimony resistance (MRPA, GSH1, ODC, AQP1, ABCI4, and ARM58) were also investigated in addition to intracellular thiol levels. A strong reduction of Sb influx was observed in L. guyanensis resistant mutant (LgSbR), but not in L. braziliensis (LbSbR). Both mutants showed increased energy-dependent efflux of SbIII, when compared to their respective parental strains. In LgSbR, BSO and prochlorperazine inhibited antimony efflux and resistance was associated with increased MRPA and GSH1 mRNA levels, while in LbSbR antimony efflux was inhibited by probenicid and prochlorperazine in absence of resistance-associated gene modulation. Intracellular thiol levels were increased in both Sb-resistant mutants. An energy-dependent SbIII efflux pathway sensitive to prochlorperazine was clearly evidenced in both Sb-resistant mutants. In conclusion, the present study allowed the biophysical and pharmacological characterization of energy-dependent Sb efflux pathway apparently independent of MRPA, ABCI4, and ARM58 upregulation, in Leishmania (Vianna) mutant selected in vitro

  4. Effects of the volume changes and elastic-strain energies on the phase transition in the Li-Sn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jianchuan; Liu, Shuhong; Du, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Sn and Sn-based compounds have been attracting a great interest as promising alternative materials for commercial anodes in lithium ion batteries. In this study, the phase evolution of the Li-Sn system during the lithiated processes and the effect of the elastic-strain energies caused by volume change on the phase transition are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that the distorted Li7Sn3 crystal tends to be formed in order to decrease the elastic-strain energy. In addition, our work indicates that the whole lithiated processes under the elastically constrained condition could be classified into two steps. The first step is the two-phase equilibrium process, in which the thermodynamic driving force is large enough to facilitate the phase transition and the plateau voltage could be established. The second step is considered to be the selective equilibrium, in which the thermodynamic driving force is not enough to facilitate the nucleation of the new equilibrium phase due to the elastically constrained conditions and the plateau voltage unformed. Besides, we find that in the Li0.4Sn matrix the nucleation of the αSn is more preferential than the βSn due to the effects of the elastic-strain energies.

  5. Enhanced spin polarization in graphene with spin energy gap induced by spin-orbit coupling and strain

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng-Fang; Wu, Qing-Ping E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn; Chen, Ai-Xi E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Liu, Nian-Hua

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the possibility of spin polarization in graphene. The result shows that a spin energy gap can be opened in the presence of both spin-orbit coupling and strain. We find that high spin polarization with large spin-polarized current is achieved in the spin energy gap. However, only one of the two modulations is present, no spin polarization can be generated. So the combination of the two modulations provides a way to design tunable spin polarization without need for a magnetic element or an external magnetic field.

  6. Rapamycin causes down-regulation of CCR5 and accumulation of anti-HIV beta-chemokines: an approach to suppress R5 strains of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Heredia, A; Amoroso, A; Davis, C; Le, N; Reardon, E; Dominique, J K; Klingebiel, E; Gallo, R C; Redfield, R R

    2003-09-02

    Propagation of R5 strains of HIV-1 on CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages requires expression of the CCR5 coreceptor on the cell surface. Individuals lacking CCR5 (CCR5 Delta 32 homozygous genotype) are phenotypically normal and resistant to infection with HIV-1. CCR5 expression on lymphocytes depends on signaling through the IL-2 receptor. By FACS analysis we demonstrate that rapamycin (RAPA), a drug that disrupts IL-2 receptor signaling, reduces CCR5 surface expression on T cells at concentrations as low as 1 nM. In addition, lower concentrations of RAPA (0.01 nM) were sufficient to reduce CCR5 surface expression on maturing monocytes. PCR analysis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed that RAPA interfered with CCR5 expression at the transcriptional level. Reduced expression of CCR5 on PBMCs cultured in the presence of RAPA was associated with increased extracellular levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta. In infectivity assays, RAPA suppressed the replication of R5 strains of HIV-1 both in PBMC and macrophage cultures. In total PBMC cultures, RAPA-mediated inhibition of CCR5-using strains of HIV-1 occurred at 0.01 nM, a concentration of drug that is approximately 103 times lower than therapeutic through levels of drug in renal transplant recipients. In addition, RAPA enhanced the antiviral activity of the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. These results suggest that low concentrations of RAPA may have a role in both the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

  7. Analytical and finite-element study of optimal strain distribution in various beam shapes for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, B. L.; Gilbert, J. M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.

    2016-08-01

    Owing to the increasing demand for harvesting energy from environmental vibration for use in self-powered electronic applications, cantilever-based vibration energy harvesting has attracted considerable interest from various parties and has become one of the most common approaches to converting redundant mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the output voltage produced from a piezoelectric material depends largely on the geometric shape and the size of the beam, there is a need to model and compare the performance of cantilever beams of differing geometries. This paper presents the study of strain distribution in various shapes of cantilever beams, including a convex and concave edge profile elliptical beam that have not yet been discussed in any prior literature. Both analytical and finite-element models are derived and the resultant strain distributions in the beam are computed based on a MATLAB solver and ANSYS finite-element analysis tools. An optimum geometry for a vibration-based energy harvesting system is verified. Finally, experimental results comparing the power density for triangular and rectangular piezoelectric beams are also presented to validate the findings of the study, and the claim, as suggested in the literature, is verified.

  8. Self-correcting models driven by seismic strain, moment or energy. Applications to the Italian seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varini, Elisa; Rotondi, Renata; Basili, Roberto; Barba, Salvatore; Betrò, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The stress release model (Vere-Jones, 1978) provides a stochastic version of the Reid's elastic-rebound theory, which is commonly accepted as the most feasible physical description of the long-term evolution of the earthquake process. It assumes that the stress X, which governs the state of the system in a region, increases linearly with time at a constant loading rate ? imposed by external tectonic forces until it exceeds the strength of the medium and decreases abruptly generating an earthquake. This hypothesis is formalised by a self-correcting point process with conditional intensity function ?(t | Ht) = exp{α + β[?t - S(t)]}, where Ht is the seismic history up to time t, S(t) is the cumulative stress release due to all the earthquakes up to t and α, β and ? are model parameters. X can be any physical parameter that constitutes a proxy measure of the strength of an earthquake, therefore we propose four possible definitions of X and consequently four versions of the stress release model. Let mw denote the moment magnitude of an earthquake and A be its rupture area. We consider two classical versions of the model: in the former X = 100.75(mw-5.3) is the Benioff strain, in the latter X = 101.5(mw-5.3) is the seismic moment. Then we propose two new versions: the third model is based on seismic energy X = 102.25(mw-5.3)-A, the fourth one on the scaled energy X = 100.75(mw-5.3)-A, as defined by Senatorski (2005, 2012). The rupture area A is evaluated by the Wells and Coppersmith regression with parameters depending on the faulting type of the earthquake. We analyse the Italian historical seismicity on a regional basis by subdividing the Italian territory into eight tectonically-coherent large regions. For each model and region, a fully Bayesian analysis is carried out in order to estimate the posterior distributions of the model parameters. We also deal with the forecast problem by evaluating, for each region, the probability distribution F(t | Hs) of the time t

  9. [Effects of different iron concentrations on the growths of a unicellular strain and a colonial strain of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-wen; Li, Jian-hong; Fu, Lu; Wu, Min; Weng, Yong-ping; Zhou, Yao-ming

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the growth, photosynthetic efficiency, siderophore production and iron accumulation of two strains of M. aeruginosa, a unicellular strain M. aeruginosa PCC7806 and a colonial strain M. aeruginosa XW01, under iron-limited and iron-replete conditions. The identities of ITS and fur gene sequences of two strains were 95% and 98% respectively.That implied the two strains should be close relatives. Results showed the growths of two strains were severely inhibited under an iron-limited condition. The unicellular strain died in 6 days,whereas the colonial strain could maintain a weak growth in 10 days under the iron-limited condition. PSII maximum light energy transformation (Fv/Fm) of the colonial strain and the unicellular strain were 0.182 +/- 0.014 and 0.160 +/- 0.017, respectively. The colonial strain displayed a higher photosynthetic oxygen evolution than the unicellular strain. Two strains could produce siderophores, which were hydroxamate type. The colonial strain produced more siderophores than unicellular strain under the iron-limited condition.Iron contents of two strains were less than 1/3 cultured in the iron-limited condition than in iron-replete condition, but no obvious difference appeared between the two strains. Our result demonstrated that the colonial strain have a stronger endurance than unicellular strain under the iron-limited condition. As two strains had almost same abilities of iron accumulation, the other physiological mechanisms in the unicellular strain should be more sensitive to lower iron level.

  10. Energy reserves and accumulation of metals in the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus from two metal-polluted gradients.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Stachowicz, Izabela; Kuriańska, Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Living in an area chronically polluted with metals is usually associated with changes in the energy distribution in organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These expenses may be reflected in the available energy resources, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. In this context, the energy status of Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied in two metal pollution gradients near Olkusz and Miateczko Śląskie in southern Poland. Both regions are rich in metal ores, and the two largest Polish zinc smelters have been operating there since the 1970s. Beetles were collected from five sites at each gradient. Zinc and cadmium concentrations were measured in both the soil and the beetles. The possible reduction in energy reserves as a cost of detoxifying assimilated metals was evaluated biochemically by determining the total lipid, carbohydrates, and protein contents. At the most polluted sites, the Zn concentration in the soil organic layer reached 2,906 mg/kg, and the Cd concentration reached 55 mg/kg. Body Zn and Cd concentrations increased with increasing soil Zn and Cd concentrations (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0001, respectively). However, no relationship between pollution level and energetic reserves was found. The results suggest that populations of P. oblongopunctatus inhabiting highly metal-polluted sites are able to survive without any serious impact on their energy reserves, though they obviously have to cope with elevated body metal concentrations.

  11. Giant strain-sensitivity of acoustic energy dissipation in solids containing dry and saturated cracks with wavy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, V Yu; Matveev, L A

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of acoustic energy dissipation in heterogeneous solids attract much attention in view of their importance for material characterization, nondestructive testing, and geophysics. Due to the progress in measurement techniques in recent years, it has been revealed that rocks can demonstrate extremely high strain sensitivity of seismoacoustic loss. In particular, it has been found that strains of order 10(-8) produced by lunar and solar tides are capable of causing variations in the seismoacoustic decrement on the order of several percent. Some laboratory data (although obtained for higher frequencies) also indicate the presence of very high dissipative nonlinearity. Conventionally discussed dissipation mechanisms (thermoelastic loss in dry solids, Biot and squirt-type loss in fluid-saturated ones) do not suffice to interpret such data. Here the dissipation at individual cracks is revised taking into account the influence of wavy asperities of their surfaces quite typical of real cracks, which can drastically change the values of the relaxation frequencies and can result in giant strain sensitivity of the dissipation without the necessity of assuming the presence of unrealistically thin (and, therefore, unrealistically soft) cracks. In particular, these mechanisms suggest interpretation for observations of pronounced amplitude modulation of seismo-acoustic waves by tidal strains.

  12. Low energy emulsion-based fermentation enabling accelerated methane mass transfer and growth of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-accumulating methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Myung, Jaewook; Kim, Minkyu; Pan, Ming; Criddle, Craig S; Tang, Sindy K Y

    2016-05-01

    Methane is a low-cost feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymers, but methanotroph fermentations are limited by the low solubility of methane in water. To enhance mass transfer of methane to water, vigorous mixing or agitation is typically used, which inevitably increases power demand and operational costs. This work presents a method for accelerating methane mass transfer without agitation by growing methanotrophs in water-in-oil emulsions, where the oil has a higher solubility for methane than water does. In systems without agitation, the growth rate of methanotrophs in emulsions is five to six times that of methanotrophs in the medium-alone incubations. Within seven days, cells within the emulsions accumulate up to 67 times more P3HB than cells in the medium-alone incubations. This is achieved due to the increased interfacial area of the aqueous phase, and accelerated methane diffusion through the oil phase.

  13. Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk Using Cross-Section Strain Energy Determined by QCT-Based Finite Element Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahi, Hossein; Luo, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of hip fracture risk is very important to prevent hip fracture and to monitor the effect of a treatment. A subject-specific QCT-based finite element model was constructed to assess hip fracture risk at the critical locations of femur during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. The aim of this study was to improve the prediction of hip fracture risk by introducing a novel failure criterion to more accurately describe bone failure mechanism. Hip fracture risk index was defined using cross-section strain energy, which is able to integrate information of stresses, strains, and material properties affecting bone failure. It was found that the femoral neck and the intertrochanteric region have higher fracture risk than other parts of the femur, probably owing to the larger content of cancellous bone in these regions. The study results also suggested that women are more prone to hip fracture than men. The findings in this study have a good agreement with those clinical observations reported in the literature. The proposed hip fracture risk index based on strain energy has the potential of more accurate assessment of hip fracture risk. However, experimental validation should be conducted before its clinical applications. PMID:26601105

  14. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from Southwestern States: Final Report Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerfield, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 1,400 individual isolates of microalgae were obtained from surface waters in the Southwest. Of the initial 23 algae screened for growth characteristics, the majority grew best at the lower salinities in both SERI Type I and Type II Media. Growth rates for selected strains approached three doublings per day.

  15. Impact of local strain on Ti-L₂,₃ electron energy-loss near-edge structures of BaTiO₃: a first-principles multiplet study.

    PubMed

    Ootsuki, Shirou; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Umeda, Yuji; Yonezawa, Yu; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kuwabara, Akihide; Kido, Osamu; Ueda, Satoko; Tanaka, Isao; Fujikawa, Yoshinori; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2014-06-01

    Identification of local strains is crucial because the local strains largely influence the ferroelectric property of BaTiO₃. The effects of local strains induced by external pressures on the Ti-L₂,₃ electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of BaTiO₃ were theoretically investigated using first-principles multiplet calculations. We revealed that the effects appear in the position of the spectral threshold, namely the spectrum shifts to lower and higher energy sides by the tensile and compressive pressures, respectively. We concluded that conventional ELNES observations can identify only large strains induced by -10 GPa, and 0.1 eV energy resolution is required to identify ±2% of strains.

  16. High-energy x-ray scattering quantification of in-situ-loading-related strain gradients spanning the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in bovine tooth specimens.

    SciTech Connect

    Almer, J. D.; Stock, S. R.; Northeastern Univ.

    2010-08-26

    High energy X-ray scattering (80.7keV photons) at station 1-ID of the Advanced Photon Source quantified internal strains as a function of applied stress in mature bovine tooth. These strains were mapped from dentin through the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) into enamel as a function of applied compressive stress in two small parallelepiped specimens. One specimen was loaded perpendicular to the DEJ and the second parallel to the DEJ. Internal strains in enamel and dentin increased and, as expected from the relative values of the Young's modulus, the observed strains were much higher in dentin than in enamel. Large strain gradients were observed across the DEJ, and the data suggest that the mantle dentin-DEJ-aprismatic enamel structure may shield the near-surface volume of the enamel from large strains. In the enamel, drops in internal strain for applied stresses above 40MPa also suggest that this structure had cracked.

  17. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation.

  18. Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces strains co-fermentation increases acetaldehyde accumulation: effect on anthocyanin-derived pigments in Tannat red wines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    During fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae releases into the medium secondary metabolic products, such as acetaldehyde, able to react with anthocyanins, producing more stable derived pigments. However, very limited reports are found about non-Saccharomyces effects on grape fermentation. In this study, six non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, belonging to the genera Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora, were screened for their effect on red wine colour and wine-making capacity under pure culture conditions and mixed with Saccharomyces. An artificial red grape must was prepared, containing a phenolic extract of Tannat grapes that allows monitoring changes of key phenol parameters during fermentation, but without skin solids in the medium. When fermented in pure cultures, S. cerevisiae produced higher concentrations of acetaldehyde and vitisin B (acetaldehyde reaction-dependent) compared to M. pulcherrima M00/09G, Hanseniaspora guillermondii T06/09G, H. opuntiae T06/01G, H. vineae T02/05F and H. clermontiae (A10/82Fand C10/54F). However, co-fermentation of H. vineae and H. clermontiae with S. cerevisiae resulted in a significantly higher concentration of acetaldehyde compared with the pure S. cerevisiae control. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis confirmed an increased formation of vitisin B in co-fermentation treatments when compared to pure Saccharomyces fermentation, suggesting the key role of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Evidence of Cholesterol Accumulated in High Curvature Regions: Implication ot the Curvature Elastic Energy for Lipid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,W.; Yang, L.; Huang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent experiments suggested that cholesterol and other lipid components of high negative spontaneous curvature facilitate membrane fusion. This is taken as evidence supporting the stalk-pore model of membrane fusion in which the lipid bilayers go through intermediate structures of high curvature. How do the high-curvature lipid components lower the free energy of the curved structure? Do the high-curvature lipid components modify the average spontaneous curvature of the relevant monolayer, thereby facilitate its bending, or do the lipid components redistribute in the curved structure so as to lower the free energy? This question is fundamental to the curvature elastic energy for lipid mixtures. Here we investigate the lipid distribution in a monolayer of a binary lipid mixture before and after bending, or more precisely in the lamellar, hexagonal, and distorted hexagonal phases. The lipid mixture is composed of 2:1 ratio of brominated di18:0PC and cholesterol. Using a newly developed procedure for the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method, we are able to isolate the bromine distribution and reconstruct the electron density distribution of the lipid mixture in the three phases. We found that the lipid distribution is homogenous and uniform in the lamellar and hexagonal phases. But in the distorted hexagonal phase, the lipid monolayer has nonuniform curvature, and cholesterol almost entirely concentrates in the high curvature region. This finding demonstrates that the association energies between lipid molecules vary with the curvature of membrane. Thus, lipid components in a mixture may redistribute under conditions of nonuniform curvature, such as in the stalk structure. In such cases, the spontaneous curvature depends on the local lipid composition and the free energy minimum is determined by lipid distribution as well as curvature.

  20. Tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Takeshi Furukawa, Takuro; Toma, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Susumu

    2015-09-14

    By means of a hybrid density-functional method, we investigate the tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge. We consider [001], [111], and [110] uniaxial tensility and (001), (111), and (110) biaxial tensility. Under the condition of no normal stress, we determine both normal compression and internal strain, namely, relative displacement of two atoms in the primitive unit cell, by minimizing the total energy. We identify those strain types which can induce the band-gap transition, and evaluate the critical strain coefficient where the gap transition occurs. Either normal compression or internal strain operates unfavorably to induce the gap transition, which raises the critical strain coefficient or even blocks the transition. We also examine how each type of tensile strain decreases the band-gap energy, depending on its orientation. Our analysis clearly shows that synergistic operation of strain orientation and band anisotropy has a great influence on the gap transition and the gap energy.

  1. Dislocation Modeling and Comparison With GPS Data to Assess Possible Elastic Strain Accumulation in the Central Lesser Antilles: New Constraints From the NSF REU Site in Dominica Between 2001 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staisch, L.; Styron, R. H.; James, S.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C. L.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Murphy, R.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Caribbean, North and South American plates are converging at a rate of 2 cm/yr in the central region of the Lesser Antilles arc. Here we report high-precision GPS data in concert with forward modeling of a simplified subduction zone geometry to assess strain accumulation for the Lesser Antilles trench. We are able to constrain both vertical and horizontal surface deformation from campaign and continuous GPS observations from 28 geodetic benchmarks located in Guadeloupe, Dominica and Aves Island. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASIS II using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Surface displacements for each site were estimated over 2-7 years. CAR-fixed velocities are projected onto a 500 kilometer transect from the LA trench to Aves Island and compared to calculated displacements for 88 different subduction models. Finite dislocations within an elastic half-space with variable parameters such as angle of the subducting slab, the downdip extent of the locked zone, and percentage of plate interface locking were investigated. Other parameters, such as trench length and slip remained constant. Using a chi-squared, best-fit statistical criterion, the GPS data constrain the subduction interface to a 75 kilometer downdip extent, a 10° dip angle, and near 50% locking. This implies that the subduction zone offshore Dominica is in an interseismic state, thus accumulating strain and causing small westward and upward displacement of the Lesser Antilles relative to the stable Caribbean interior.

  2. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fang, Evandro; Aon, Miguel; González-Reyes, José A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kaushik, Susmita; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Patel, Bindi; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, María I; Guiterrez, Vincent; Ward, Theresa M; Palacios, Hector H; Cai, Huan; Frederick, David W; Hine, Christopher; Broeskamp, Filomena; Habering, Lukas; Dawson, John; Beasley, T Mark; Wan, Junxiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Becker, Kevin G; Zhang, Yongqing; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Longo, Dan L; Navas, Placido; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sinclair, David A; Cohen, Pinchas; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, James R; Baur, Joseph A; Allison, David B; Anson, R Michael; Villalba, José M; Madeo, Frank; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pearson, Kevin J; Ingram, Donald K; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-06-14

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with lifespan extension, although it consistently improved health across strains and sexes. Transcriptional and metabolomics changes driven by CR in liver indicated anaplerotic filling of the Krebs cycle together with fatty acid fueling of mitochondria. CR prevented age-associated decline in the liver proteostasis network while increasing mitochondrial number, preserving mitochondrial ultrastructure and function with age. Abrogation of mitochondrial function negated life-prolonging effects of CR in yeast and worms. Our data illustrate the complexity of CR in the context of aging, with a clear separation of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions.

  3. Grain fragmentation in sheared granular flow: weakening effects, energy dissipation, and strain localization.

    PubMed

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-02-01

    We describe the shear flow of a disordered granular material in the presence of grain fracture using the shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity adapted to systems with a hard-core interparticle interaction. To this end, we develop the equations of motion for this system within a statistical-thermodynamic framework analogous to that used in the analysis of molecular glasses. For hard-core systems, the amount of internal, configurational disorder is characterized by the compactivity X = ∂V / ∂S(C), where V and S(C) are, respectively, the volume and configurational entropy. Grain breakage is described by a constitutive equation for the temporal evolution of a characteristic grain size a, based on fracture mechanics. We show that grain breakage is a weakening mechanism, significantly lowering the flow stress at large strain rates, if the material is rate strengthening in character. We show in addition that if the granular material is sufficiently aged, spatial inhomogeneity in configurational disorder results in strain localization. We also show that grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at small shear strains, while grain abrasion becomes dominant at large shear displacements.

  4. Grain fragmentation in sheared granular flow: weakening effects, energy dissipation, and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-03-01

    We describe the shear flow of a disordered granular material subject to grain fracture using the shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of amorphous plasticity adapted to systems with a hard-core inter-particle interaction. To this end, we develop the equations of motion for this system within a statistical-thermodynamic framework analogous to that used in the analysis of molecular glasses. For hard-core systems, the amount of internal, configurational disorder is characterized by the compactivity X = ∂V / ∂SC , where V and SC are respectively the volume and configurational entropy. Grain breakage is described by a constitutive equation for the temporal evolution of a characteristic grain size a, based on fracture mechanics. We show that grain breakage is a weakening mechanism, significantly lowering the flow stress at large strain rates, if the material is rate-strengthening in character. We show in addition that if the granular material is sufficiently aged, spatial inhomogeneity in configurational disorder results in strain localization. We also show that grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at small shear strains, while grain abrasion becomes dominant at large shear displacements.

  5. Grain fragmentation in sheared granular flow: Weakening effects, energy dissipation, and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-02-01

    We describe the shear flow of a disordered granular material in the presence of grain fracture using the shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity adapted to systems with a hard-core interparticle interaction. To this end, we develop the equations of motion for this system within a statistical-thermodynamic framework analogous to that used in the analysis of molecular glasses. For hard-core systems, the amount of internal, configurational disorder is characterized by the compactivity X =∂V/∂SC, where V and SC are, respectively, the volume and configurational entropy. Grain breakage is described by a constitutive equation for the temporal evolution of a characteristic grain size a, based on fracture mechanics. We show that grain breakage is a weakening mechanism, significantly lowering the flow stress at large strain rates, if the material is rate strengthening in character. We show in addition that if the granular material is sufficiently aged, spatial inhomogeneity in configurational disorder results in strain localization. We also show that grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at small shear strains, while grain abrasion becomes dominant at large shear displacements.

  6. Conjunction of standing wave and resonance in asymmetric nanowires: a mechanism for thermal rectification and remote energy accumulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Yang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2015-12-02

    As an important way to control and manage heat transport, thermal rectification has become an elementary issue in the field of phononics and plays a key role in the designing of thermal devices. Here we investigate systematically the standing wave and the accompanying resonance process in asymmetric nanowires to understand the standing wave itself and its great effect on thermal rectification. Results show that the standing wave is sensitive to both the structural and thermal properties of the material, and its great effect on enhancing the thermal rectification is realized not only by the energy-localization nature of the standing wave, but also by the resonance-caused large amplitude and high energy of the standing wave.

  7. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

  8. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a coupled water-carbon-energy balance model in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zun; Dekker, Stefan; van den Hurk, Bart; Dijkstra, Henk

    2013-04-01

    A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have enormous impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure on equilibrium biomass states. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, as the vegetation can also engineer its environment by extracting water from the surrounding bare soil (thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation) it can also minimize its vegetation cover. With increasing precipitation, the vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a 'survival' regime to a 'growing' regime. The new modeling framework is useful to represent the effects of dynamic vegetation structure in coupled land-atmosphere feedback models.

  9. Interseismic strain accumulation measured by GPS in the seismic gap between Constitución and Concepción in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, J. C.; Rudloff, A.; Vigny, C.; Madariaga, R.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Campos, J.; Kausel, E.; Barrientos, S.; Dimitrov, D.

    2009-06-01

    The Concepción-Constitución area [35-37°S] in South Central Chile is very likely a mature seismic gap, since no large subduction earthquake has occurred there since 1835. Three campaigns of global positioning system (GPS) measurements were carried out in this area in 1996, 1999 and 2002. We observed a network of about 40 sites, including two east-west transects ranging from the coastal area to the Argentina border and one north-south profile along the coast. Our measurements are consistent with the Nazca/South America relative angular velocity (55.9°N, 95.2°W, 0.610°/Ma) discussed by Vigny et al. (2008, this issue) which predicts a convergence of 68 mm/year oriented 79°N at the Chilean trench near 36°S. With respect to stable South America, horizontal velocities decrease from 45 mm/year on the coast to 10 mm/year in the Cordillera. Vertical velocities exhibit a coherent pattern with negative values of about 10 mm/year on the coast and slightly positive or near zero in the Central Valley or the Cordillera. Horizontal velocities have formal uncertainties in the range of 1-3 mm/year and vertical velocities around 3-6 mm/year. Surface deformation in this area of South Central Chile is consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading on the subduction interface at depth. The best fit to our data is obtained with a dip of 16 ± 3°, a locking depth of 55 ± 5 km and a dislocation corresponding to 67 mm/year oriented 78°N. However in the northern area of our network the fit is improved locally by using a lower dip around 13°. Finally a convergence motion of about 68 mm/year represents more than 10 m of displacement accumulated since the last big interplate subduction event in this area over 170 years ago (1835 earthquake described by Darwin). Therefore, in a worst case scenario, the area already has a potential for an earthquake of magnitude as large as 8-8.5, should it happen in the near future.

  10. Don't soil your chances with solar energy: Experiments of natural dust accumulation on solar modules and the effect on light transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Liza

    Dust accumulation, or soiling, on solar energy harvesting systems can cause significant losses that reduce the power output of the system, increase pay-back time of the system, and reduce confidence in solar energy overall. Developing a method of estimating soiling losses could greatly improve estimates of solar energy system outputs, greatly improve operation and maintenance of solar systems, and improve siting of solar energy systems. This dissertation aims to develop a soiling model by collecting ambient soiling data as well as other environmental data and fitting a model to these data. In general a process-level approach is taken to estimating soiling. First a comparison is made between mass of deposited particulates and transmission loss. Transmission loss is the reduction in light that a solar system would see due to soiling, and mass accumulation represents the level of soiling in the system. This experiment is first conducted at two sites in the Front Range of Colorado and then expanded to three additional sites. Second mass accumulation is examined as a function of airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations, airborne size distributions, and meteorological data. In depth analysis of this process step is done at the first two sites in Colorado, and a more general analysis is done at the three additional sites. This step is identified as less understood step, but with results still allowing for a general soiling model to be developed. Third these two process steps are combined, and spatial variability of these steps are examined. The three additional sites (an additional site in the Front Range of Colorado, a site in Albuquerque New Mexico, and a site in Cocoa Florida) represent a much more spatially and climatically diverse set of locations than the original two sites and provide a much broader sample space in which to develop the combined soiling model. Finally a few additional parameters, precipitation, micro-meteorology, and some sampling artifacts

  11. Development and applications of a multi-level strain energy method for detecting finite element modeling errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashemi-Kia, Mostafa; Kilroy, Kevin L.; Parker, G.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure is described which can be used efficiently in identifying modeling errors which may arise from development of a structural finite element model. The procedure, which is referred to as the multi-level strain energy check, is set up in the form of a set of NASTRAN DMAP alters which provide sufficient information about the modeling errors at G-Set, N-Set, and F-Set levels. This technique was applied to two NASTRAN models, namely, the AH-64A and AH-1G models. Two modeling errors were identified for the AH-1G, which were then corrected.

  12. Strain energy release rate as a function of temperature and preloading history utilizing the edge delamination fatique test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Static laminate and tension-tension fatigue tests of IM7/8551-7 composite materials was performed. The Edge Delamination Test (EDT) was utilized to evaluate the temperature and preloading history effect on the critical strain energy release rate. Static and fatigue testing was performed at room temperature and 180 F (82 C). Three preloading schemes were used to precondition fatigue test specimens prior to performing the normal tension-tension fatigue EDT testing. Computer software was written to perform all fatigue testing while monitoring the dynamic modulus to detect the onset of delamination and record the test information for later retrieval and reduction.

  13. Fracture angle and strain-energy-density-factor of a crack at hole at an arbitrary angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y. C.; Forman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    For both the maximum stress criterion and strain-energy-density-factor (S) theory, fracture angle (the initial angle of crack growth) is predicted by using opening and sliding mode stress intensity factors. These theoretical predictions are consistent with experimental fracture angles. For the S theory, the crack spreads in the direction of the negative fracture angle in a plane for which S is a minimum. This quantity was obtained analytically. The experimental data of the critical S on plexiglass fracture specimens remains essentially constant.

  14. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  15. Misfit strain of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski silicon studied with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gröschel, A. Will, J.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A.

    2014-06-21

    Annealed Czochralski Silicon wafers containing SiO{sub x} precipitates have been studied by high energy X-ray diffraction in a defocused Laue setup using a laboratory tungsten tube. The energy dispersive evaluation of the diffracted Bragg intensity of the 220 reflection within the framework of the statistical dynamical theory yields the static Debye-Waller factor E of the crystal, which gives access to the strain induced by the SiO{sub x} precipitates. The results are correlated with precipitate densities and sizes determined from transmission electron microscopy measurements of equivalent wafers. This allows for the determination of the constrained linear misfit ε between precipitate and crystal lattice. For samples with octahedral precipitates the values ranging from ε = 0.39 (+0.28/−0.12) to ε = 0.48 (+0.34/−0.16) indicate that self-interstitials emitted into the matrix during precipitate growth contribute to the lattice strain. In this case, the expected value calculated from literature values is ε = 0.26 ± 0.05. Further, the precise evaluation of Pendellösung oscillations in the diffracted Bragg intensity of as-grown wafers reveals a thermal Debye-Waller parameter for the 220 reflection B{sup 220}(293 K) of 0.5582 ± 0.0039 Å{sup 2} for a structure factor based on spherically symmetric scattering contributions.

  16. Q3DG: A computer program for strain-energy-release rates for delamination growth in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Q3DG is a computer program developed to perform a quasi-three-dimensional stress analysis for composite laminates which may contain delaminations. The laminates may be subjected to mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic loads. The program uses the finite element method and models the laminates with eight-noded parabolic isoparametric elements. The program computes the strain-energy-release components and the total strain-energy release in all three modes for delamination growth. A rectangular mesh and data file generator, DATGEN, is included. The DATGEN program can be executed interactively and is user friendly. The documentation includes sections dealing with the Q3D analysis theory, derivation of element stiffness matrices and consistent load vectors for the parabolic element. Several sample problems with the input for Q3DG and output from the program are included. The capabilities of the DATGEN program are illustrated with examples of interactive sessions. A microfiche of all the examples is included. The Q3DG and DATGEN programs have been implemented on CYBER 170 class computers. Q3DG and DATGEN were developed at the Langley Research Center during the early eighties and documented in 1984 to 1985.

  17. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  18. Strontium isotope record of seasonal scale variations in sediment sources and accumulation in low-energy, subtidal areas of the lower Hudson River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.P.; Bullen, T.D.; Brabander, D.J.; Olsen, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) profiles in sediment cores collected from two subtidal harbor slips in the lower Hudson River estuary in October 2001 exhibit regular patterns of variability with depth. Using additional evidence from sediment Ca/Sr ratios, 137Cs activity and Al, carbonate (CaCO3), and organic carbon (OCsed) concentration profiles, it can be shown that the observed variability reflects differences in the relative input and trapping of fine-grained sediment from seaward sources vs. landward sources linked to seasonal-scale changes in freshwater flow. During high flow conditions, the geochemical data indicate that most of the fine-grained sediments trapped in the estuary are newly eroded basin materials. During lower (base) flow conditions, a higher fraction of mature materials from seaward sources with higher carbonate content is trapped in the lower estuary. Results show that high-resolution, multi-geochemical tracer approaches utilizing strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) can distinguish sediment sources and constrain seasonal scale variations in sediment trapping and accumulation in dynamic estuarine environments. Low-energy, subtidal areas such as those in this study are important sinks for metastable, short-to-medium time scale sediment accumulation. These results also show that these same areas can serve as natural recorders of physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect particle and particle-associated material dynamics over seasonal-to-yearly time scales. ?? 2009.

  19. Heteroepitaxial growth on thin sheets and bulk material: exploring differences in strain relaxation via low-energy electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euaruksakul, Chanan; Kelly, Michelle M.; Yang, Bin; Savage, Donald E.; Celler, George K.; Lagally, Max G.

    2014-01-01

    Extremely thin single-crystal sheets have unique mechanical properties, which may influence the generation and behaviour of extended defects during heteroepitaxial growth. Using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) we investigate the earliest stages of inelastic strain relaxation in SiGe grown heteroepitaxially on Si-on-insulator (SOI) at a sensitivity not possible with other methods, employing a structure that forces dislocations, if they can form at all, to reside at the Si/oxide interface of SOI(0 0 1). LEEM confirms a lower dislocation line energy at the Si/amorphous oxide (SiO2) interface than at the crystalline SiGe/Si interface. The line energy is, however, nonzero, in contrast with earlier assumptions. The lower line energy makes the thermodynamic critical thickness for growth on SOI(0 0 1) lower than on bulk Si(0 0 1) for otherwise identical growth conditions. Nevertheless we can grow heteroepitaxial SiGe films on SOI(0 0 1) that are much thicker than even the thermodynamic critical thickness for growth on bulk Si(0 0 1), suggesting high kinetic barriers for dislocation formation or motion.

  20. Finite strain effects in piezoelectric energy harvesters under direct and parametric excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mam, Koliann; Peigney, Michaël; Siegert, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    This paper addresses the dynamic behavior of piezoelectric cantilevers under base excitations. Such devices are frequently used for applications in energy harvesting. An Euler-Bernoulli model that accounts for large-deflection effects and piezoelectric nonlinearities is proposed. Closed-form expressions of the frequency response are derived, both for direct excitation (i.e. with a base acceleration transverse to the axis of the cantilever) and parametric excitation (i.e. with a base acceleration along the axis of the cantilever). Experimental results are reported and used for assessing the validity of the proposed model. Building on the model presented, some critical issues related to energy-harvesting are investigated, such as the influence of nonlinearities on the optimal load resistance, the limits of validity of linear models, and hysteresis effects in the electrical power. The efficiency of direct and parametric excitation is also compared in detail.

  1. Effect of structural strain on magnetic anisotropy energy of each element in alternately layered FeNi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamaki, Masako; Amemiya, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    Structure and magnetic anisotropy of alternately layered FeNi thin films grown on Ni (x=3-21 ML)/Cu(001) are investigated by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the RHEED analysis, we find that n ML FeNi films grow with a similar in-plane lattice constant, a, to that of Cu up to the total film thickness, n+x, of ˜13 ML, from which the decrease in a occurs. For the Ni-sandwiched Fe layer, we find from the XMCD analysis that the perpendicular component of the orbital magnetic moment increases and the in-plane component decreases as the in-plane lattice constant gets smaller. This suggests that perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is enhanced when the compressive strain in the in-plane direction is applied to the Fe layer. On the other hand, in the case of the Fe-sandwiched Ni layer, the orbital magnetic moment in both directions shows a small dependence on a. The change in magnetic anisotropy of Ni as a function of the structural strain is within the error margins.

  2. Evidence that the major metabolites accumulating in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency disturb mitochondrial energy homeostasis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Ferreira, Gustavo da Costa; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Zanatta, Angela; Klamt, Fábio; Wajner, Moacir

    2009-11-03

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation in which the affected patients predominantly present high levels of octanoic (OA) and decanoic (DA) acids and their glycine and carnitine by-products in tissues and body fluids. It is clinically characterized by episodic encephalopathic crises with coma and seizures, as well as by progressive neurological involvement, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. In the present work, we investigated the in vitro effects of OA and DA on various parameters of energy homeostasis in mitochondrial preparations from brain of young rats. We found that OA and DA markedly increased state 4 respiration and diminished state 3 respiration as well as the respiratory control ratio, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the matrix NAD(P)H levels. In addition, DA-elicited increase in oxygen consumption in state 4 respiration was partially prevented by atractyloside, indicating the involvement of the adenine nucleotide translocator. OA and DA also reduced ADP/O ratio, CCCP-stimulated respiration and the activities of respiratory chain complexes. The data indicate that the major accumulating fatty acids in MCADD act as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and as metabolic inhibitors. Furthermore, DA, but not OA, provoked a marked mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, reflecting a permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Taken together, these data suggest that OA and DA impair brain mitochondrial energy homeostasis that could underlie at least in part the neuropathology of MCADD.

  3. A Predictive Framework for Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron Based on Considerations of Strain Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Katherine R.

    Isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and anisothermal thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a high silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) cast iron for temperatures up to 1073K. LCF and out-of-phase (OP) TMF lives were significantly reduced when the temperature was near 673K due to an embrittlement phenomenon which decreases the ductility of HiSiMo at this temperature. In this case, intergranular fracture was predominant, and magnesium was observed at the fracture surface. When the thermal cycle did not include 673K, the failure mode was predominantly transgranular, and magnesium was not present on the fracture surface. The in-phase (IP) TMF lives were unaffected when the thermal cycle included 673K, and the predominant failure mode was found to be transgranular fracture, regardless of the temperature. No magnesium was present on the IP TMF fracture surfaces. Thus, the embrittlement phenomenon was found to contribute to fatigue damage only when the temperature was near 673K and a tensile stress was present. To account for the temperature- and stress-dependence of the embrittlement phenomenon on the TMF life of HiSiMo cast iron, an original model based on the cyclic inelastic energy dissipation is proposed which accounts for temperature-dependent differences in the rate of fatigue damage accumulation in tension and compression. The proposed model has few empirical parameters. Despite the simplicity of the model, the predicted fatigue life shows good agreement with more than 130 uniaxial low cycle and thermomechanical fatigue tests, cyclic creep tests, and tests conducted at slow strain rates and with hold times. The proposed model was implemented in a multiaxial formulation and applied to the fatigue life prediction of an exhaust manifold subjected to severe thermal cycles. The simulation results show good agreement with the failure locations and number of cycles to failure observed in a component-level experiment.

  4. On the relation between the energy of a distorted crystal lattice and the bending modulus of strain gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, M.; Khatibi, G.

    2017-01-01

    It is a well known fact that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) predicts stress singularities at the tips of sharp cracks, at sharp edges, at corners and at the surface of material transitions. However, from the viewpoint of the strengths of atomic bonds it is clear that only finite forces may be present at the tip of a stable crack. Therefore, theories of strain gradient elasticity were developed which reduce the values of stress concentrations. Within these theories a bending modulus is postulated which introduces an increased stiffness of the crystal lattice against bending. In the present study, the value of this bending modulus is evaluated on the basis of the electrostatic energy of a bent crystal lattice. This is done for the face centred cubic structure of NaCl. In fact, results for the bending modulus could be obtained although they depend on the crystal size.

  5. Monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, ultra-thin, strain-counterbalanced, photovoltaic energy converters with optimal subcell bandgaps

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W [Golden, CO; Mascarenhas, Angelo [Lakewood, CO

    2012-05-08

    Modeling a monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, solar photovoltaic converter or thermophotovoltaic converter by constraining the bandgap value for the bottom subcell to no less than a particular value produces an optimum combination of subcell bandgaps that provide theoretical energy conversion efficiencies nearly as good as unconstrained maximum theoretical conversion efficiency models, but which are more conducive to actual fabrication to achieve such conversion efficiencies than unconstrained model optimum bandgap combinations. Achieving such constrained or unconstrained optimum bandgap combinations includes growth of a graded layer transition from larger lattice constant on the parent substrate to a smaller lattice constant to accommodate higher bandgap upper subcells and at least one graded layer that transitions back to a larger lattice constant to accommodate lower bandgap lower subcells and to counter-strain the epistructure to mitigate epistructure bowing.

  6. A Novel Method for Calculation of Strain Energy Release Rate of Asymmetric Double Cantilever Laminated Composite Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Zeinedini, A.

    2014-06-01

    In this research, a novel data reduction method for calculation of the strain energy release rate ( SERR) of asymmetric double cantilever beams ( ADCB) is presented. For this purpose the elastic beam theory ( EBT) is modified and the new method is called as the modified elastic beam theory ( MEBT). Also, the ADCB specimens are modeled using ABAQUS/Standard software. Then, the initiation of delamination of ADCB specimens is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique ( VCCT). Furthermore, magnitudes of the SERR for different samples are also calculated by an available data reduction method, called modified beam theory ( MBT). Using the hand lay-up method, different laminated composite samples are manufactured by E-glass/epoxy unidirectional plies. In order to measure the SERR, all samples are tested using an experimental setup. The results determined by the new data reduction method ( MEBT) show good agreements with the results of the VCCT and the MBT.

  7. Promotion of growth and Cu accumulation of bio-energy crop (Zea mays) by bacteria: implications for energy plant biomass production and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiafang; Sun, Leni; Huang, Zhi; He, Linyan; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Zhaojin

    2012-07-30

    Three metal-resistant and plant growth-promoting bacteria (Burkholderia sp. GL12, Bacillus megaterium JL35 and Sphingomonas sp. YM22) were evaluated for their potential to solubilize Cu(2) (OH)(2)CO(3) in solution culture and their plant growth promotion and Cu uptake in maize (Zea mays, an energy crop) grown in a natural highly Cu-contaminated soil. The impacts of the bacteria on the Cu availability and the bacterial community in rhizosphere soils of maize were also investigated. Inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer analysis showed variable amounts of water-soluble Cu (ranging from 20.5 to 227 mgL(-1)) released by the bacteria from Cu(2) (OH)(2)CO(3) in solution culture. Inoculation with the bacteria was found to significantly increase root (ranging from 48% to 83%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 33% to 56%) dry weights of maize compared to the uninoculated controls. Increases in Cu contents of roots and above-ground tissues varied from 69% to 107% and from 16% to 86% in the bacterial-inoculated plants compared to the uninoculated controls, respectively. Inoculation with the bacteria was also found to significantly increase the water-extractive Cu concentrations (ranging from 63 to 94%) in the rhizosphere soils of the maize plants compared to the uninoculated controls in pot experiments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses showed that the bacteria could colonize the rhizosphere soils and significantly change the bacterial community compositions in the rhizosphere soils. These results suggest that the metal-resistant and plant growth-promoting bacteria may be exploited for promoting the maize (energy crop) biomass production and Cu phytoremediation in a natural highly Cu-contaminated soil.

  8. High energy white beam x-ray diffraction studies of residual strains in engineering components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Vorster, W.; Jun, T. S.; Song, X.; Golshan, M.; Laundy, D.; Walsh, M. J.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2008-09-01

    In order to predict the durability of engineering components and improve performance, it is mandatory to understand residual stresses. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase of residual stress evaluation using diffraction of penetrating radiation, such as neutrons or high energy X-rays. They provide a powerful non-destructive method for determining the level of residual stresses in engineering components through precise characterisation of interplanar crystal lattice spacing. The unique non-destructive nature of these measurement techniques is particularly beneficial in the context of engineering design, since it allows the evaluation of a variety of structural and deformational parameters inside real components without material removal, or at worst with minimal interference. However, while most real engineering components have complex shape and are often large in size, leading to measurement and interpretation difficulties, since experimental facilities usually have limited space for mounting the sample, limited sample travel range, limited loading capacity of the sample positioning system, etc. Consequently, samples often have to be sectioned, requiring appropriate corrections on measured data; or facilities must be improved. Our research group has contributed to the development of engineering applications of high-energy X-ray diffraction methods for residual stress evaluation, both at synchrotron sources and in the lab setting, including multiple detector setup, large engineering component manipulation and measurement at the UK Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS Daresbury), and in our lab at Oxford. A nickel base superalloy combustion casing and a large MIG welded Al alloy plate were successfully studied.

  9. Role of strain relaxation in exciton resonance energies of ZnO epitaxial layers grown on SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almamun Ashrafi, Abm

    2004-03-01

    The wide bandgap ZnO semiconductor is currently the subject of interest for the study of physics as well as investigations in response to the industrial demand for applications in optoelectronics devices. The most exciting physical properties of ZnO are the largest exciton binding energy of 60 meV and this can be tuned up to 120 meV by controlling the ZnO active layers1. Towards these goals, a great deal of efforts has been made on ZnO layers grown mostly on Al2O3 substrates. It is noted that the lattice mismatch in ZnO/Al2O3 is 18structural defects, and higher residual carrier concentration. To overcome these basic but unavoidable problems for crystalline quality, nearly-matched SiC substrate may play a role including reproducible p-type conductivity in ZnO layers2. Considering the ZnO lattice constant, the estimated lattice mismatch between the ZnO and SiC is to be 5may explore the ZnO epitaxy with the superior crystalline as well as optical properties towards the study of quantum physics in nanoscale level where strain governs the local atomic mechanisms in principle. Recently, we have reported the superior ZnO crystalline quality grown on SiC substrates compared to the ZnO/Al2O3 samples by MOCVD3. In progress to these results, strain relaxation effects in exciton resonance energies of ZnO layers have been addressed in this letter. The surface morphology of ZnO layers grown on SiC exhibited hexagons geometry for the VI/II falux raio of 4 by reflecting the +c ZnO surface. From these layers, therefore, free exciton (FX) emission was appeared with A and B bands to the corresponding energies of 3.377 and 3.390 eV4. With the increase of temperature, however, the FXs emission showed the quenching of excitons energy as well as intensity which may be a subject of overlapping the A and donor-bound (D0X) excitons4. The deduced activation energies of A and D0X exciton emissions suggested a consistency with an inclusion of exciton-defect binding energy in optical bands. The

  10. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile “non-toggle” memory.

  11. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile “non-toggle” memory. PMID:26657829

  12. Strain in epitaxial Bi2Se3 grown on GaN and graphene substrates: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin; Xie, Maohai

    2015-08-01

    Topological insulator (TI) has been one of the focus research themes in condensed matter physics in recent years. Due to the relatively large energy bandgap, Bi2Se3 has been identified as one of the most promising three-dimensional TIs with application potentials. Epitaxial Bi2Se3 by molecular-beam epitaxy has been reported by many groups using different substrates. A common feature is that Bi2Se3 grows readily along the c-axis direction irrespective of the type and condition of the substrate. Because of the weak van deer Waals interaction between Bi2Se3 quintuple layers, the grown films are reported to be strain-free, taking the lattice constant of the bulk crystal. At the very initial stage of Bi2Se3 deposition, however, strain may still exist depending on the substrate. Strain may bring some drastic effects to the properties of the TIs and so achieving strained TIs can be of great fundamental interests as well as practical relevance. In this work, we employ reflection high-energy electron diffraction to follow the lattice constant evolution of Bi2Se3 during initial stage depositions on GaN and graphene, two very different substrates. We reveal that epitaxial Bi2Se3 is tensile strained on GaN but strain-free on graphene. Strain relaxation on GaN is gradual.

  13. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a

  14. Recovery of electric energy from formate by using a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Yoshihiro; Kawata, Teruyoshi; Matsuo, Nahoko; Nishinoue, Yosuke; Taya, Masahito

    2014-10-01

    Recombinant Escherichia coli cells were applied for the recovery of electric energy from formate. Initially, the fdh gene, which encodes formate dehydrogenase (FDH) of Mycobacterium vaccae, was introduced into E. coli cells to allow efficient degradation of formate. The constructed microbial fuel cell (MFC) with E. coli BW25113 cells carrying fdh gene showed appreciable generation of current density in the presence of formate as a substrate. Current density and polarization curves revealed that the performance of MFC under examined conditions was limited by the electron transfer from bulk liquid to the electrode surface; accordingly, agitation resulted in an increase in the current density and achieved a coulombic efficiency of 21.7 % on the basis of formate consumed. Thus, gene recombination enables E. coli cells to utilize formate as a fuel for MFC.

  15. A Technique for Mapping Characteristic Lengths to Preserve Energy Dissipated via Strain Softening in a Multiscale Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often advantageous to account for the microstructure of the material directly using multiscale modeling. For computational tractability, an idealized repeating unit cell (RUC) is used to capture all of the pertinent features of the microstructure. Typically, the RUC is dimensionless and depends only on the relative volume fractions of the different phases in the material. This works well for non-linear and inelastic behavior exhibiting a positive-definite constitutive response. Although, once the material exhibits strain softening, or localization, a mesh objective failure theories, such as smeared fracture theories, nodal and element enrichment theories (XFEM), cohesive elements or virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), can be utilized at the microscale, but the dimensions of the RUC must then be defined. One major challenge in multiscale progressive damage modeling is relating the characteristic lengths across the scales in order to preserve the energy that is dissipated via localization at the microscale. If there is no effort to relate the size of the macroscale element to the microscale RUC, then the energy that is dissipated will remain mesh dependent at the macroscale, even if it is regularized at the microscale. Here, a technique for mapping characteristic lengths across the scales is proposed. The RUC will be modeled using the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, and local failure in the matrix constituent subcells will be modeled using the crack band theory. The subcell characteristic lengths used in the crack band calculations will be mapped to the macroscale finite element in order to regularize the local energy in a manner consistent with the global length scale. Examples will be provided with and without the regularization, and they will be compared to a baseline case where the size and shape of the element and RUC are coincident (ensuring energy is preserved across the scales).

  16. True polar wander of a quasi-fluid planet with a fossil shape: Effect of strain energy due to tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, temporal variation of a paleo-pole position due to TPW is formulated and calculated based on strain energy in a previous study. Especially, quasi-fluid approximation is suitable to deal with large-scale and long-term variation of a paleo-pole position. Thus, an orientation of a paleo-rotation axis in each time step is estimated in here by following conventional formulation with the quasi-fluid approximation for TPW, and simultaneously by taking total energy minimization into account. In practice, this procedure is physically same as to incorporate elastic torque due to tidal deformation of a lithosphere into the Liouville equation including the quasi-fluid approximation. In this study, like the previous one, only one symmetric surface load is regarded as a driving force of TPW for convenience sake. In this calculation, variable parameters are defined as follows: a location of emplacement, duration of formation, and maximum of intensity of a load. The result with strain energy is compared with that without strain energy. As a result, the case with the strain energy indicates different characteristics from that without the strain energy in the following points. First, the paleo-poles under steady states are different each other in the cases for same parameters. These results are not consistent even with the previous results concerning just the final condition. Second, also in the cases for same parameters, time scales when the paleo-poles reach the static limits are different. These results demonstrate the fact that strain energy within a lithosphere effectively weakens influence of a load on TPW. Although this kind of influence has already been pointed out by the previous results just in the cases of the steady states, the present results further revealed similar effect also on a characteristic time scale of TPW. Strictly speaking, however, it is impossible to estimate this exact time scale only by reducing an effective size of a load. This is

  17. In situ strain profiling of elastoplastic bending in Ti-6Al-4V alloy by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, M.; Shukla, V.; Akdogan, E. K.; Sadangi, R.; Ignatov, A.; Balarinni, L.; Tsakalakos, T.; Jisrawi, N.; Zhong, Z.; Horvath, K.

    2009-05-01

    Elastic and plastic strain evolution under four-point bending has been studied by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Measured strain profiles across the specimen thickness showed an increasing linear elastic strain gradient under increasing four-point bending load up to approx2 kN. The bulk elastic modulus of Ti-6Al-4V was determined as 118 GPa. The onset of plastic deformation was found to set in at a total in-plane strain of approx0.008, both under tension and compression. Plastic deformation under bending is initiated in the vicinity of the surface and at a stress of 1100 MPa, and propagates inward, while a finite core region remains elastically deformed up to 3.67 kN loading. The onset of the plastic regime and the plastic regime itself has been verified by monitoring the line broadening of the (100) peak of alpha-Ti. The effective compression/tension stress-strain curve has been obtained from the scaling collapse of strain profile data taken at seven external load levels. A similar multiple load scaling collapse of the plastic strain variation has also been obtained. The level of precision in strain measurement reported herein was evaluated and found to be 1.5x10{sup -5} or better.

  18. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  19. Catalytically Triggered Energy Release from Strained Organic Molecules: The Surface Chemistry of Quadricyclane and Norbornadiene on Pt(111).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Udo; Mohr, Susanne; Döpper, Tibor; Bachmann, Philipp; Späth, Florian; Düll, Fabian; Schwarz, Matthias; Brummel, Olaf; Fromm, Lukas; Pinkert, Ute; Görling, Andreas; Hirsch, Andreas; Bachmann, Julien; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Libuda, Jörg; Papp, Christian

    2017-01-31

    We have investigated the surface chemistry of the polycyclic valence-isomer pair norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) on Pt(111). The NBD/QC system is considered to be a prototype for energy storage in strained organic compounds. By using a multimethod approach, including UV photoelectron, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron, and IR reflection-absorption spectroscopic analysis and DFT calculations, we could unambiguously identify and differentiate between the two molecules in the multilayer phase, which implies that the energy-loaded QC molecule is stable in this state. Upon adsorption in the (sub)monolayer regime, the different spectroscopies yielded identical spectra for NBD and QC at 125 and 160 K, when multilayer desorption takes place. This behavior is explained by a rapid cycloreversion of QC to NBD upon contact with the Pt surface. The NBD adsorbs in a η(2) :η(1) geometry with an agostic Pt-H interaction of the bridgehead CH2 subunit and the surface. Strong spectral changes are observed between 190 and 220 K because the hydrogen atom that forms the agostic bond is broke. This reaction yields a norbornadienyl intermediate species that is stable up to approximately 380 K. At higher temperatures, the molecule dehydrogenates and decomposes into smaller carbonaceous fragments.

  20. Strain localization parameters of AlCu4MgSi processed by high-energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lunev, A. G. Nadezhkin, M. V.; Konovalov, S. V.; Teresov, A. D.

    2015-10-27

    The influence of the electron beam surface treatment of AlCu4MgSi on the strain localization parameters and on the critical strain value of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect has been considered. The strain localization parameters were measured using speckle imaging of the specimens subjected to the constant strain rate uniaxial tension at a room temperature. Impact of the surface treatment on the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect has been investigated.

  1. Creep and the characteristic length scale of strain-energy dissipation in polycrystalline ice; implications for tidal dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, T. E.; Cooper, R. F.; Goldsby, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Many outer planet satellites possess thick, icy crusts over an ocean of liquid water. Maintaining an ocean over geologic time requires internal heating by tidal dissipation, but the mechanisms of tidal dissipation in ice are poorly resolved. The physics of dissipation in the geological context (the "high temperature background") are dominated by stress-induced chemical diffusion, which has a distinct length-scale dependence that is frequently cited as the grain size. The experiments of McCarthy [2009], however, measured attenuation simultaneously with steady-state creep in polycrystalline ice and showed distinctly grain size-insensitive dissipation. These data can instead be normalized by the steady-state creep stress, implying that the deformation-induced microstructure dominates the length scale of diffusion. Thus, the relationship between deformation-induced microstructure and dissipation is critical to understanding how tidal dissipation affects (or, perhaps, effects) the geodynamics of icy satellites. To characterize the role of deformation microstructure in strain-energy dissipation, we conducted creep and stress-reduction experiments on polycrystalline ice. The stress (0.5-5 MPa), grain size (30 & 245 μm) and temperature (233K) of the experiments place our specimens in the rheological regimes of grain boundary sliding (geometrically accommodated by basal glide) or dislocation creep, both of which accrue significant plastic strain by the motion of lattice dislocations. Stress-reductions allow a specific deformation-induced microstructure—that produced in steady-state creep—to be probed for its effective viscosity (or "hardness") at a variety of stresses. This "constant-hardness creep compliance" is affected by deviatoric stress, but not by grain size, confirming a characteristic length scale for relaxation that is dictated by deformation. The microstructures of deformed samples, analyzed via cryogenic electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and reflected

  2. Plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone during prolonged physical strain. The significance of sleep and energy deprivation.

    PubMed

    Opstad, P K; Oktedalen, O; Aakvaag, A; Fonnum, F; Lund, P K

    1985-01-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone and the serum and urinary levels of sodium and potassium have been investigated in 24 young men participating in a 5-day military training course with heavy continuous physical exercise, energy and sleep deprivation. The subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1 did not get any extra sleep or food, group 2 were compensated for the energy deficiency, and group 3 slept 3 h each night. The basic diet given to all the subjects was about 5,000 kJ and 2 g NaCl X 24 h-1 X cadet-1. The high calorie diet contained approximately 25,000-35,000 kJ and 20 g of NaCl X 24 h-1 X cadet-1. The study showed that serum aldosterone and PRA were extremely activated during such prolonged physical strain combined with lack of food and salt, whereas sleep deprivation did not seem to have any large influence. Only small variations were found in the serum levels of sodium and potassium and the urinary level of potassium during the course, whereas a decrease was seen in urinary sodium concentration. The fairly good correlations between the decrease in urinary sodium levels and the increase in PRA (r = 0.7) and further between PRA and serum aldosterone (r = 0.8) during the course indicate that there is a causal connection between the decrease in urinary sodium excretion and the increase in PRA and serum aldosterone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The Homogenized Energy Model (HEM) for Characterizing Polarization and Strains in Hysteretic Ferroelectric Materials: Material Properties and Uniaxial Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    density of α-variant (CV/m 3) P Polarization (C/m2) P Polarization kernel (C/m2) Pα Polarization of α-variant (C/m2) PαR Remanent polarization of α...Permittivity (F/m = C/Vm) ε Strain (Unitless) ε Strain kernel εα Strain of α-variant εαR Remanence strain of α-variant εαm Minimum strain of α-variant γ γ...designates the dipole variant — e.g., ±180, 90 for tetragonal materials — and PαR , εαR are remanent values of the polarization and strain. At larger

  4. Breeding of D(-)-lactic acid high producing strain by low-energy ion implantation and preliminary analysis of related metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting-Ting; Bai, Zhong-Zhong; Wang, Li-Juan; He, Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The low-energy nitrogen ion beam implantation technique was used in the breeding of mutant D(-)-lactic-acid-producing strains. The wild strain Sporolactobacillus sp. DX12 was mutated by an N(+) ion beam with energy of 10keV and doses ranging from 0.4 x 10(15) to 6.60 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). Combined with an efficient screening method, an efficient mutant Y2-8 was selected after two times N(+) ion beam implantation. By using the mutant Y2-8, 121.6g/l of D-lactic acid was produced with the molar yields of 162.1% to the glucose. The yield of D-lactic acid by strain Y2-8 was 198.8% higher than the wild strain. Determination of anaerobic metabolism by Biolog MT2 was used to analyze the activities of the concerned enzymes in the lactic acid metabolic pathway. The results showed that the activities of the key enzymes responded on the substrates such as 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and D-lactate dehydrogenase were considerably higher in the mutants than the wild strain. These might be affected by ion beam implantation.

  5. Strain in epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} grown on GaN and graphene substrates: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin; Xie, Maohai

    2015-08-24

    Topological insulator (TI) has been one of the focus research themes in condensed matter physics in recent years. Due to the relatively large energy bandgap, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been identified as one of the most promising three-dimensional TIs with application potentials. Epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by molecular-beam epitaxy has been reported by many groups using different substrates. A common feature is that Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} grows readily along the c-axis direction irrespective of the type and condition of the substrate. Because of the weak van der Waals interaction between Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} quintuple layers, the grown films are reported to be strain-free, taking the lattice constant of the bulk crystal. At the very initial stage of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} deposition, however, strain may still exist depending on the substrate. Strain may bring some drastic effects to the properties of the TIs and so achieving strained TIs can be of great fundamental interests as well as practical relevance. In this work, we employ reflection high-energy electron diffraction to follow the lattice constant evolution of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} during initial stage depositions on GaN and graphene, two very different substrates. We reveal that epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is tensile strained on GaN but strain-free on graphene. Strain relaxation on GaN is gradual.

  6. Humidity and temperature doubly shifted fracture energy master curves for the prediction of sealant adhesion to aluminum under climate induced cyclic strain

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, N.E.; Wightman, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research was to construct fracture energy master curves for the sealant/aluminum interphase using a 45{degrees} peel test; and use these curves to predict the annual crack growth of a sealant/aluminum butt Joint exposed to various climates. The shifting variables were humidity and temperature. The crack speed vs. fracture energy was measured using a 45{degrees} peel test and master curves were constructed. The location and mechanism of the failure zone was related to the shifting variables. For the butt joint, a pure shear (a thin long butt joint) adhesion test was used to measure the crack speed vs. strain energy as a function of temperature, relative humidity was held constant. An equation was constructed which relates the crack speed in the butt joint to the strain energy, temperature and relative humidity using the shift factor equation from the peel test. Climate data for Wittman, Arizona and Miami, Florida was used to determine the daily strain energy, temperature and relative humidity for the hypothetical butt joint. Finally, this data was combined with the master curve equations and butt joint equations to calculate the crack length at any time for the two climates.

  7. Three-dimensional elastic image registration based on strain energy minimization: application to prostate magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Arola, Dwayne D; Roys, Steve; Gullapalli, Rao P

    2011-08-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in conjunction with an endorectal coil is currently the clinical standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer because of the increased sensitivity and specificity of this approach. However, imaging in this manner provides images and spectra of the prostate in the deformed state because of the insertion of the endorectal coil. Such deformation may lead to uncertainties in the localization of prostate cancer during therapy. We propose a novel 3-D elastic registration procedure that is based on the minimization of a physically motivated strain energy function that requires the identification of similar features (points, curves, or surfaces) in the source and target images. The Gauss-Seidel method was used in the numerical implementation of the registration algorithm. The registration procedure was validated on synthetic digital images, MR images from prostate phantom, and MR images obtained on patients. The registration error, assessed by averaging the displacement of a fiducial landmark in the target to its corresponding point in the registered image, was 0.2 ± 0.1 pixels on synthetic images. On the prostate phantom and patient data, the registration errors were 1.0 ± 0.6 pixels (0.6 ± 0.4 mm) and 1.8 ± 0.7 pixels (1.1 ± 0.4 mm), respectively. Registration also improved image similarity (normalized cross-correlation) from 0.72 ± 0.10 to 0.96 ± 0.03 on patient data. Registration results on digital images, phantom, and prostate data in vivo demonstrate that the registration procedure can be used to significantly improve both the accuracy of localized therapies such as brachytherapy or external beam therapy and can be valuable in the longitudinal follow-up of patients after therapy.

  8. Energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Yu; Lu, Xingye; Abernathy, Douglas L.; ...

    2015-11-06

    In this study, we use inelastic neutron scattering to study the temperature and energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained electron-doped iron pnictide BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 near optimal superconductivity (Tc = 20K). Our work has been motivated by the observation of in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase of electron-underdoped iron pnictides under uniaxial pressure, which has been attributed to a spin-driven Ising-nematic state or orbital ordering. Here we show that the spin excitation anisotropy, a signature of the spin-driven Ising-nematic phase, exists for energies below 60 meV in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2. Since this energy scale is considerably larger thanmore » the energy splitting of the dxz and dyz bands of uniaxial-strained Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2 near optimal superconductivity, spin Ising-nematic correlations are likely the driving force for the resistivity anisotropy and associated electronic nematic correlations.« less

  9. A novel strain energy relationship for red blood cell membrane skeleton based on spectrin stiffness and its application to micropipette deformation.

    PubMed

    Svetina, Saša; Kokot, Gašper; Kebe, Tjaša Švelc; Žekš, Boštjan; Waugh, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton is a closed two-dimensional elastic network of spectrin tetramers with nodes formed by short actin filaments. Its three-dimensional shape conforms to the shape of the bilayer, to which it is connected through vertical linkages to integral membrane proteins. Numerous methods have been devised over the years to predict the response of the RBC membrane to applied forces and determine the corresponding increase in the skeleton elastic energy arising either directly from continuum descriptions of its deformation, or seeking to relate the macroscopic behavior of the membrane to its molecular constituents. In the current work, we present a novel continuum formulation rooted in the molecular structure of the membrane and apply it to analyze model deformations similar to those that occur during aspiration of RBCs into micropipettes. The microscopic elastic properties of the skeleton are derived by treating spectrin tetramers as simple linear springs. For a given local deformation of the skeleton, we determine the average bond energy and define the corresponding strain energy function and stress-strain relationships. The lateral redistribution of the skeleton is determined variationally to correspond to the minimum of its total energy. The predicted dependence of the length of the aspirated tongue on the aspiration pressure is shown to describe the experimentally observed system behavior in a quantitative manner by taking into account in addition to the skeleton energy an energy of attraction between RBC membrane and the micropipette surface.

  10. Tuning the terahertz low-energy charge dynamics by simultaneous effect of epitaxial and anisotropic strain in PrNi O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanindra, V. Eswara; Das, Sarmistha; Kumar, K. Santhosh; Agarwal, Piyush; Rana, Rakesh; Rana, D. S.

    2017-02-01

    The interplay of charge, spin, and lattice correlations strongly influence the insulator-metal (I-M) transition and magnetic ordering in rare earth nickelates. In this context, we explored the low-energy charge dynamics in structurally modulated PrNi O3 (PNO) thin films to unravel the complexity of ground state across I-M transition using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. The THz optical constants of compressive film on LaAl O3 (100) substrate and the tensile films on NdGa O3 (100), (001), (110), and (111) substrates with varying orthorhombic distortion exhibit remarkably distinct features as a function of frequency and temperature. The THz conductivity of compressive film sans any I-M transition follows the Drude model. In contrast, the tensile strained films exhibit non-Drude THz conductivity, a giant positive dielectric permittivity, and negative imaginary conductivity, all of which can be explained by the Drude-Smith model. This rich variety of low-energy dynamics manifests as a function of temperature, strain, and crystal orientation. Such distinct THz spectral features, as induced by a subtle variation in strain while crossing over from tensile to compressive strain and with varying degree of orthorhombicity coupled with oxygen vacancies, reveal a novel facet of structure-property relationship of PNO.

  11. Giant voltage manipulation of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions via localized anisotropic strain: A potential pathway to ultra-energy-efficient memory technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; D'Souza, Noel; Zhang, Delin; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Voltage control of magnetization via strain in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient straintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 piezoelectric substrate with (001) orientation. It is found that the magnetic easy axis, switching field, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the MTJ can be efficiently controlled by strain from the underlying piezoelectric layer upon the application of a gate voltage. Repeatable voltage controlled MTJ toggling between high/low-resistance states is demonstrated. More importantly, instead of relying on the intrinsic anisotropy of the piezoelectric substrate to generate the required strain, we utilize anisotropic strain produced using a local gating scheme, which is scalable and amenable to practical memory applications. Additionally, the adoption of crystalline MgO-based MTJ on piezoelectric layer lends itself to high TMR in the strain-mediated MRAM devices.

  12. A Method for Calculating Strain Energy Release Rates in Preliminary Design of Composite Skin/Stringer Debonding Under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Minguet, Pierre J.; OBrien, T. Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Three simple procedures were developed to determine strain energy release rates, G, in composite skin/stringer specimens for various combinations of unaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. These procedures may be used for parametric design studies in such a way that only a few finite element computations will be necessary for a study of many load combinations. The results were compared with mixed mode strain energy release rates calculated directly from nonlinear two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analyses using the virtual crack closure technique. The first procedure involved solving three unknown parameters needed to determine the energy release rates. Good agreement was obtained when the external loads were used in the expression derived. This superposition technique was only applicable if the structure exhibits a linear load/deflection behavior. Consequently, a second technique was derived which was applicable in the case of nonlinear load/deformation behavior. The technique involved calculating six unknown parameters from a set of six simultaneous linear equations with data from six nonlinear analyses to determine the energy release rates. This procedure was not time efficient, and hence, less appealing. A third procedure was developed to calculate mixed mode energy release rates as a function of delamination lengths. This procedure required only one nonlinear finite element analysis of the specimen with a single delamination length to obtain a reference solution for the energy release rates and the scale factors. The delamination was extended in three separate linear models of the local area in the vicinity of the delamination subjected to unit loads to obtain the distribution of G with delamination lengths. This set of sub-problems was Although additional modeling effort is required to create the sub- models, this local technique is efficient for parametric studies.

  13. Temperature dependence of strain energy and thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based single-walled nanotubes: Zone-folding approach.

    PubMed

    Porsev, Vitaly V; Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    A zone-folding approach is applied to estimate the thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based nanotubes. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculations. It is shown that the zone-folding approximation allows an accurate estimation of nanotube thermodynamic properties and gives a gain in computation time compared to their direct calculations. Both approaches show that temperature effects do not change the relative stability of V2 O5 free layers and nanotubes derived from the α- and γ-phase. The internal energy thermal contributions into the strain energy of nanotubes are small and can be ignored. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Energy release, beam attenuation radiation damage, gas production and accumulation of long-lived activity in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.

    1996-06-01

    The calculation and analysis of the nuclei concentrations and long-lived residual radioactivity accumulated in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets irradiated by 800 MeV, 30 mA proton beam have been performed. The dominating components to the total radioactivity of radionuclides resulting from fission and spallation reactions and radiative capture by both target nuclei and accumulated radioactive nuclei for various irradiation and cooling times were analyzed. The estimations of spectral component contributions of neutron and proton fluxes to the accumulated activity were carried out. The contributions of fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products were evaluated. The accumulation of Po isotopes due to reactions induced by secondary alpha-particles were found to be important for the Pb target as compared with two-step radiative capture. The production of Tritium in the targets and its contribution to the total targets activity was considered in detail. It is found that total activities of both targets are close to one another.

  15. Effect of Low Energy Waves on the Accumulation and Transport of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sand and Pore Water at Freshwater Beaches.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming Zhi; O'Carroll, Denis M; Vogel, Laura J; Robinson, Clare E

    2017-03-07

    Elevated fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach sand and pore water represent an important nonpoint source of contamination to surface waters. This study examines the physical processes governing the accumulation and distribution of FIB in a beach aquifer. Field data indicate E. coli and enterococci can be transported 1 and 2 m, respectively, below the water table. Data were used to calibrate a numerical model whereby FIB are delivered to a beach aquifer by wave-induced infiltration across the beach face. Simulations indicate FIB rapidly accumulate in a beach aquifer with FIB primarily associated with sand rather than freely residing in the pore water. Simulated transport of E. coli in a beach aquifer is complex and does not correlate with conservative tracer transport. Beaches with higher wave-induced infiltration rate and vertical infiltration velocity (i.e., beaches with higher beach slope and wave height, and lower terrestrial groundwater discharge) had greater E. coli accumulation and E. coli was transported deeper below the beach face. For certain beach conditions, the amount of FIB accumulated in sand over 5-6 days was found to be sufficient to trigger a beach advisory if eroded to surface water.

  16. Breeding of Coenzyme Q10 Produced Strain by Low-Energy Ion Implantation and Optimization of Coenzyme Q10 Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dejun; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Wang, Li; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-12-01

    In order to increase the production efficiency of coenzyme Q10, the original strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens ATCC 4452 was mutated by means of Nitrogen ions implantation. A mutant strain, ATX 12, with high contents of coenzyme Q10 was selected. Subsequently, the conditions such as carbohydrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum's size, seed age, aeration and temperature which might affect the production of CoQ10 were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of the intracellular CoQ10 reached 200.3 mg/L after 80 h fed-batch fermentation, about 245% increasing in CoQ10 production after ion implantation, compared to the original strain.

  17. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Omar; Matinmanesh, Ali; Phull, Sunjeev; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Clarkin, Owen M; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO₂ incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) closer to the substrate's (Ti6Al4V) CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO₂ in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO₂ to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO₂ incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass(®) and Pyrex.

  18. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Omar; Matinmanesh, Ali; Phull, Sunjeev; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Zalzal, Paul; Clarkin, Owen M.; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V) CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex. PMID:27916951

  19. Natural osmolytes are much less effective substrates than glycogen for catabolic energy production in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Guerra, L Tiago; Xu, Yu; Bennette, Nicholas; McNeely, Kelsey; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2013-07-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, encoded by glgC, catalyzes the first step of glycogen and glucosylglycer(ol/ate) biosynthesis. Here we report the construction of the first glgC null mutant of a marine cyanobacterium (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and investigate its impact on dark anoxic metabolism (autofermentation). The glgC mutant had 98% lower ADP-glucose, synthesized no glycogen and produced appreciably more soluble sugars (mainly sucrose) than wild type (WT). Some glucosylglycerol was still observed, which suggests that the mutant has another, inefficient ADP-glucose synthesis pathway. In contrast, hypersaline conditions (1M NaCl) were lethal to the mutant strain, indicating that, unlike other strains, the elevated sucrose does not compensate for the reduced GG as osmolyte. In contrast to WT, nitrate limitation did not cause bleaching of N-containing pigments or carbohydrate accumulation in the glgC mutant, indicating impaired recycling of nitrogen stores. Despite the 2-fold increase in osmolytes, both the respiration and autofermentation rates of the glgC mutant were appreciably slower (2-4-fold) and correlated quantitatively with the lower fraction of insoluble carbohydrates relative to WT (85% vs. 12%). However, the remaining insoluble carbohydrates still accounted for a high fraction of the carbohydrate catabolized (38%), indicating that insoluble carbohydrates rather than osmolytes were the preferred substrate for autofermentation.

  20. Enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Halomonas spp. in artificial biofilms of alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Miñana-Galbis, David; Domènech, Oscar; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Microbial mats are complex but stable, multi-layered and multi-functional biofilms, which are the most frequent bacterial formations in nature. The functional strategies and physiological versatility of the bacterial populations growing in microbial mats allow bacteria to resist changing conditions within their environment. One of these strategies is the accumulation of carbon- and energy-rich polymers that permit the recovery of metabolic activities when favorable conditions are restored. In the present study, we systematically screened microbial mats for bacteria able to accumulate large amounts of the ester carbon polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Several of these strains were isolated from Ebro Delta microbial mats and their ability to accumulate PHA up to 40-60% of their dry weight was confirmed. According to two identification approaches (16S rRNA and rpoD genes), these strains were identified as Halomonas alkaliphila (MAT-7, -13, -16), H. neptunia (MAT-17), and H. venusta (MAT-28). To determine the mode of growth yielding maximum PHA accumulation, these three different species were cultured in an artificial biofilm in which the cells were immobilized on alginate beads. PHA accumulation by cells that had detached from the biofilm was compared with that of their planktonic counterparts. Experiments in different culture media showed that PHA accumulation, measured as the relative fluorescence intensity after 48 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, was higher in immobilized than in planktonic cells, with the exception of cells growing in 5% NaCl, in which PHA accumulation was drastically lower in both. Therefore, for obtaining high PHA concentrations, the use of immobilized cells may be a good alternative to the PHA accumulation by bacteria growing in the classical, planktonic mode. From the ecological point of view, increased PHA accumulation in detached cells from biofilms would be a natural strategy to improve bacterial dispersion capacity and, consequently

  1. Strain monitoring in power cables of offshore wind energy plants with femtosecond laser inscribed fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgmeier, Jörg; Funken, Peter; Schade, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    A fibre Bragg grating sensor system used for monitoring of strain being effective on the power cable of an offshore wind turbine is presented. The Bragg grating structure was inscribed in coated non-photosensitive standard telecommunication fibres using an infrared femtosecond laser and the point-by-point writing technique. Due to the presence of the protective coating of the fibre, the mechanical stability of the resultant sensor device is better than that of a sensor consisting of a bare fibre. A system containing this sensing element was successfully installed and tested in an offshore wind turbine prototype (REpower 6M) in February 2010, near Ellhöft, Germany). The fabrication process of the fibre Bragg gratings, a comparison between the sensor signal and a commonly used strain gauge and measurement results of the online monitoring are presented.

  2. Iodide Accumulation by Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Subsurface Sediments of a 129I-Contaminated Aquifer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsiu-Ping; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Jones, Whitney L.; Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy A.; Santschi, Peter H.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris M.

    2011-01-01

    129I is of major concern because of its mobility in the environment, excessive inventory, toxicity (it accumulates in the thyroid), and long half-life (∼16 million years). The aim of this study was to determine if bacteria from a 129I-contaminated oxic aquifer at the F area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, SC, could accumulate iodide at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 μM I−). Iodide accumulation capability was found in 3 out of 136 aerobic bacterial strains isolated from the F area that were closely related to Streptomyces/Kitasatospora spp., Bacillus mycoides, and Ralstonia/Cupriavidus spp. Two previously described iodide-accumulating marine strains, a Flexibacter aggregans strain and an Arenibacter troitsensis strain, accumulated 2 to 50% total iodide (0.1 μM), whereas the F-area strains accumulated just 0.2 to 2.0%. Iodide accumulation by FA-30 was stimulated by the addition of H2O2, was not inhibited by chloride ions (27 mM), did not exhibit substrate saturation kinetics with regard to I− concentration (up to 10 μM I−), and increased at pH values of <6. Overall, the data indicate that I− accumulation likely results from electrophilic substitution of cellular organic molecules. This study demonstrates that readily culturable, aerobic bacteria of the F-area aquifer do not accumulate significant amounts of iodide; however, this mechanism may contribute to the long-term fate and transport of 129I and to the biogeochemical cycling of iodine over geologic time. PMID:21278282

  3. Algal swimming velocities signal fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Travis J; Hondzo, Miki; Mashek, Mara T; Mashek, Douglas G; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The use of microalgae for biofuel production will be beneficial to society if we can produce biofuels at large scales with minimal mechanical energy input in the production process. Understanding micro-algal physiological responses under variable environmental conditions in bioreactors is essential for the optimization of biofuel production. We demonstrate that measuring micro-algal swimming speed provides information on culture health and total fatty acid accumulation. Three strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown heterotrophically on acetate and subjected to various levels of nitrogen starvation. Other nutrient levels were explored to determine their effect on micro-algal kinetics. Swimming velocities were measured with two-dimensional micro-particle tracking velocimetry. The results show an inverse linear relationship between normalized total fatty acid mass versus swimming speed of micro-algal cells. Analysis of RNA sequencing data confirms these results by demonstrating that the biological processes of cell motion and the generation of energy precursors are significantly down-regulated. Experiments demonstrate that changes in nutrient concentration in the surrounding media also affect swimming speed. The findings have the potential for the in situ and indirect assessment of lipid content by measuring micro-algal swimming kinetics.

  4. Betaine Transport Imparts Osmotolerance on a Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Hutkins, Robert W.; Ellefson, William L.; Kashket, Eva R.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike most Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, a specific strain, L. acidophilus IFO 3532, was found to grow in rich medium containing 1 M sodium acetate, KCl, or NaCl. This strain could also grow with up to 1.8 M NaCl or 3 M nonelectrolytes (fructose, xylose, or sorbitol) added. Thus, this strain was tolerant to osmotic pressures up to 2.8 osM. A search for an intracellular solute which conferred osmoprotection led to the identification of glycine betaine (betaine). Betaine was accumulated to high concentrations in cells growing in MRS medium supplemented with 1 M KCl or NaCl. Uptake of [14C]betaine by L. acidophilus 3532 cells suspended in buffer was stimulated by increasing the medium osmotic pressure with 1 M KCl or NaCl. The accumulated betaine was not metabolized further; transport was relatively specific for betaine and was dependent on an energy source. Other lactobacilli, more osmosensitive than strain 3532, including L. acidophilus strain E4356, L. bulgaricus 8144, and L. delbrueckii 9649, showed lower betaine transport rates in response to an osmotic challenge than L. acidophilus 3532. Experiments with chloramphenicol-treated L. acidophilus 3532 cells indicated that the transport system was not induced but appeared to be activated by an increase in osmotic pressure. PMID:16347448

  5. High spatial resolution, high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction characterization of residual strains and stresses in laser shock peened Inconel 718SPF alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Amrinder S.; Zhou, Zhong; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Lahrman, David F.; Mannava, S. R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced surface enhancement technique used to enhance the fatigue strength of metal parts by imparting deep compressive residual stresses. In the present study, LSP was performed on IN718 SPF alloy, a fine grained nickel-based superalloy, with three different power densities and depth resolved residual strain and stress characterization was conducted using high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction in beam line 1-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National laboratory. A fine probe size and conical slits were used to non-destructively obtain data from specific gauge volumes in the samples, allowing for high-resolution strain measurements. The results show that LSP introduces deep compressive residual stresses and the magnitude and depth of these stresses depend on the energy density of the laser. The LSP induced residual stresses were also simulated using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis, with employment of the Johnson-Cook model for describing the nonlinear materials constitutive behavior. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated data was obtained. These various results are presented and discussed.

  6. Strain powered antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Carman, Greg P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of strain powered antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy by mechanically vibrating a piezoelectric or piezomagnetic material. A closed form analytic model of electromagnetic radiation from a strain powered electrically small antenna is derived and analyzed. Fundamental scaling laws and the frequency dependence of strain powered antennas are discussed. The radiation efficiency of strain powered electrically small antennas is contrasted with a conventional electric dipole. Analytical results show that operating at the first mechanical resonance produces the most efficient strain powered radiation relative to electric dipole antennas. A resonant analysis is exploited to determine the material property space that produces efficient strain powered antennas. These results show how a properly designed strain powered antenna can radiate more efficiently than an equally sized electric dipole antenna.

  7. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  9. Astrocytic and neuronal accumulation of elevated extracellular K(+) with a 2/3 K(+)/Na(+) flux ratio-consequences for energy metabolism, osmolarity and higher brain function.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Leif; Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Yan, Enzhi; Gu, Li; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Brain excitation increases neuronal Na(+) concentration by 2 major mechanisms: (i) Na(+) influx caused by glutamatergic synaptic activity; and (ii) action-potential-mediated depolarization by Na(+) influx followed by repolarizating K(+) efflux, increasing extracellular K(+) concentration. This review deals mainly with the latter and it concludes that clearance of extracellular K(+) is initially mainly effectuated by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-mediated K(+) uptake into astrocytes, at K(+) concentrations above ~10 mM aided by uptake of Na(+),K(+) and 2 Cl(-) by the cotransporter NKCC1. Since operation of the astrocytic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase requires K(+)-dependent glycogenolysis for stimulation of the intracellular ATPase site, it ceases after normalization of extracellular K(+) concentration. This allows K(+) release via the inward rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.1, perhaps after trans-astrocytic connexin- and/or pannexin-mediated K(+) transfer, which would be a key candidate for determination by synchronization-based computational analysis and may have signaling effects. Spatially dispersed K(+) release would have little effect on extracellular K(+) concentration and allow K(+) accumulation by the less powerful neuronal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which is not stimulated by increases in extracellular K(+). Since the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase exchanges 3 Na(+) with 2 K(+), it creates extracellular hypertonicity and cell shrinkage. Hypertonicity stimulates NKCC1, which, aided by β-adrenergic stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, causes regulatory volume increase, furosemide-inhibited undershoot in [K(+)]e and perhaps facilitation of the termination of slow neuronal hyperpolarization (sAHP), with behavioral consequences. The ion transport processes involved minimize ionic disequilibria caused by the asymmetric Na(+),K(+)-ATPase fluxes.

  10. The Effect of Copper and Selenium Nanocarboxylates on Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthetic Energy Transduction Efficiency of the Green Algae Chlorella Vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhaylenko, Natalia F.; Zolotareva, Elena K.

    2017-02-01

    Nanoaquachelates, the nanoparticles with the molecules of water and/or carboxylic acids as ligands, are used in many fields of biotechnology. Ultra-pure nanocarboxylates of microelements are the materials of spatial perspective. In the present work, the effects of copper and selenium nanoaquachelates carboxylated with citric acid on biomass accumulation of the green algae Chlorella vulgaris were examined. Besides, the efficiency of the reactions of the light stage of photosynthesis was estimated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence. The addition of 0.67-4 mg L-1 of Cu nanocarboxylates resulted in the increase in Chlorella biomass by ca. 20%; however, their concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 mg L-1 strongly inhibited algal growth after the 12th day of cultivation. Se nanocarboxylates at 0.4-4 mg L-1 concentrations also stimulated the growth of C. vulgaris, and the increase in biomass came up to 40-45%. The addition of Se nanocarboxylates at smaller concentrations (0.07 or 0.2 mg L-1) at first caused the retardation of culture growth, but that effect disappeared after 18-24 days of cultivation. The addition of 2-4 mg L-1 of Cu nanocarboxylates or 0.4-4 mg L-1 of Se nanocarboxylates caused the evident initial increase in such chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters as maximal quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry ( F v/ F m) and the quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry in the light-adapted state ( F v'/ F m'). Photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficients declined after 24 days of growth with Cu nanocarboxylates, but they increased after 6 days of the addition of 2 or 4 mg L-1 Se nanocarboxylates. Those alterations affected the overall quantum yield of the photosynthetic electron transport in photosystem II.

  11. Strain-Induced Reactivity in the Dynamic Covalent Chemistry of Macrocyclic Imines.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, Lars; Vantomme, Ghislaine; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2015-07-06

    The displacement of molecular structures from their thermodynamically most stable state by imposition of various types of electronic and conformational constraints generates highly strained entities that tend to release the accumulated strain energy by undergoing either structural changes or chemical reactions. The latter case amounts to strain-induced reactivity (SIR) that may enforce specific chemical transformations. A particular case concerns dynamic covalent chemistry which may present SIR, whereby reversible reactions are activated by coupling to a high-energy state. We herewith describe such a dynamic covalent chemical (DCC) system involving the reversible imine formation reaction. It is based on the formation of strained macrocyclic bis-imine metal complexes in which the macrocyclic ligand is in a high energy form enforced by the coordination of the metal cation. Subsequent demetallation generates a highly strained free macrocycle that releases its accumulated strain energy by hydrolysis and reassembly into a resting state. Specifically, the metal-templated condensation of a dialdehyde with a linear diamine leads to a bis-imine [1+1]-macrocyclic complex in which the macrocyclic ligand is in a coordination-enforced strained conformation. Removal of the metal cation by a competing ligand yields a highly reactive [1+1]-macrocycle, which then undergoes hydrolysis to transient non-cyclic aminoaldehyde species, which then recondense to a strain-free [2+2]-macrocyclic resting state. The process can be monitored by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Energy differences between different conformational states have been evaluated by Hartree-Fock (HF) computations. One may note that the stabilisation of high-energy molecular forms by metal ion coordination followed by removal of the latter, offers a general procedure for producing out-of-equilibrium molecular states, the fate of which may then be examined, in particular when coupled to dynamic covalent chemical processes.

  12. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  13. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results for energy states of two-dimensional electron gas in pseudomorphically strained InAs high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Yui; Tange, Takahiro; Hirayama, Naomi; Iida, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    The energy states of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in high-electron-mobility transistors with a pseudomorphically strained InAs channel (PHEMTs) were analyzed rigorously using a recently established theory that takes into account the nonparabolicity of the conduction band of the channel layer. The sheet density of the 2DEG in InxGa1-xAs-PHEMTs and the drain I-V characteristics of those devices were calculated theoretically and compared with the density and characteristics obtained experimentally. Not only the calculated threshold voltage (VTH) but also the calculated transconductance agreed fairly well with the corresponding values obtained experimentally. When the effects of the compositions of the InxGa1-xAs subchannel layer in the composite channel and the channel layer on energy states of 2DEG were investigated in order to establish a guiding principle for a design of the channel structure in PHEMTs, it was found that VTH is determined by the effective conduction-band offset energy ΔEC between the InAlAs barrier and the channel layers.

  14. Finite element analysis of equine incisor teeth. Part 2: investigation of stresses and strain energy densities in the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone during tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Schrock, P; Lüpke, M; Seifert, H; Staszyk, C

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the hypothetical contribution of biomechanical loading to the onset of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) and to elucidate the physiological age-related positional changes of the equine incisors. Based on high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) datasets, 3-dimensional models of entire incisor arcades and the canine teeth were constructed representing a young and an old incisor dentition. Special attention was paid to constructing an anatomically correct model of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Using previously determined Young's moduli for the equine incisor PDL, finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Resulting strains, stresses and strain energy densities (SEDs), as well as the resulting regions of tension and compression within the PDL and the surrounding bone were investigated during occlusion. The results showed a distinct distribution pattern of high stresses and corresponding SEDs in the PDL and bone. Due to the tooth movement, peaks of SEDs were obtained in the PDL as well as in the bone on the labial and palatal/lingual sides of the alveolar crest. At the root, highest SEDs were detected in the PDL on the palatal/lingual side slightly occlusal of the root tip. This distribution pattern of high SEDs within the PDL coincides with the position of initial resorptive lesions in EOTRH affected teeth. The position of high SEDs in the bone can explain the typical age-related alteration of shape and angulation of equine incisors.

  15. Interface simulation of strained and non-abrupt III-V quantum wells. Part 2: energy level calculation versus experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, C.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a program able to compute the allowed energy levels and the respective wavefunctions of strained {In1 - xGaxAsyP1 - y}/{In1 - zGazAswP1 - w} for electrons, light and heavy holes in single- and multi-quantum wells and superlattices. Ground and excited states can be detected. The problem of non-abrupt interfaces has been taken into account. The computation on intentionally strained QW structures can be performed. The simulation of coupled wells may also be done, allowing theoretical prediction on the 4 K photoluminescence emission of superlattices. The adopted mathematical approach has been treated in details. The results of the presented simulations performed on heterostructures grown by low-pressure metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy and by chemical beam epitaxy heterostructures are compared with 4 K Fourier transform photoluminescence and with room temperature IR absorption data. The data used as input by this program are previously computed by the program BANDSTRAIN (described in a previous paper). In this work also the simulation of high resolution X-ray diffraction patterns is briefly presented and compared with the experimental curves; it is shown how the combined simulations of PL and X-ray data is a powerful tool in the interfaces characterization. Finally, qualitative information is extracted from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs.

  16. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  17. Influence of dietary cereal and energy content on the accumulation of lipids in the liver in fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome in the fowl.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A W; Arkhipov, A V; Butler, E J; Laursen-Jones, A P

    1978-01-01

    Isocaloric diets supplying about 2900 kcal/kg and based on maize, wheat and barley respectively, were fed to pullets for 13 weeks from point of lay. The number of cases of subclinical fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome and the mean total lipid, triglyceride and monoglyceride content of the liver decreased in the above order of diets. The final body weight, weight gain and abdominal fat score followed the order wheat greater than maize greater than barley. Reduction of the energy content of the wheat and barley diets to 2670 and 2490 kcal/kg respectively by the omission of animal fat was associated with a reduction in the lipid content of the liver only in the case of the wheat diets. Egg production and quality were uniformly high and no difference was detected in plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels.

  18. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-01-21

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation.

  19. The energy-conserving electron transfer system used by Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20 during pyruvate fermentation involves reduction of endogenously formed fumarate and cytoplasmic and membrane-bound complexes, Hdr-Flox and Rnf.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Price, Morgan N; Ray, Jayashree; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Stahl, David A

    2014-11-01

    The adaptation capability of Desulfovibrio to natural fluctuations in electron acceptor availability was evaluated by studying Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20 under varying respiratory, fermentative and methanogenic coculture conditions in chemostats. Transition from lactate to pyruvate in coculture resulted in a dramatic shift in the population structure and closer interspecies cell-to-cell interactions. Lower methane production rates in coculture than predicted from pyruvate input was attributed to redirection of electron flow to fumarate reduction. Without a methanogenic partner, accumulation of H₂and formate resulted in greater succinate production. Comparative transcript and gene fitness analysis in concert with physiological data of G20 wildtype and mutants demonstrated that pyruvate fermentation involves respiration of cytoplasmically formed fumarate using cytoplasmic and membrane-bound energy-conserving complexes, Rnf, Hdr-Flox-1 and Hmc. At the low H₂/formate levels maintained in coculture, Rnf likely functions as proton-pumping ferredoxin (Fd): type-I cytochrome c oxidoreductase, which transitions to a proton-pumping Fd(red):  nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) oxidoreductase at high H₂/formate levels during fermentation in monoculture. Hdr-Flox-1 is postulated to recycle Fd(red) via a flavin-based electron bifurcation involving NADH, Fdox and the thiol/disulphide-containing DsrC. In a menaquinone (MQ)-based electron confurcation reaction, the high-molecular-weight cytochrome-c₃complex, Hmc, is proposed to then couple DsrC(red) and periplasmic H₂/formate oxidation using the MQ pool to fuel a membrane-bound fumarate reductase.

  20. Microstructure of highly strained BiFeO{sub 3} thin films: Transmission electron microscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heon Kim, Young; Bhatnagar, Akash; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2014-01-28

    Microstructure and electronic structure of highly strained bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films grown on lanthanum aluminate substrates are studied using high-resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopies and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Monoclinic and tetragonal phases were observed in films grown at different temperatures, and a mix of both phases was detected in a film grown at intermediate temperature. In this film, a smooth transition of the microstructure was found between the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. A considerable increase in the c-axis parameters was observed in both phases compared with the rhombohedral bulk phase. The off-center displacement of iron (Fe) ions was increased in the monoclinic phase as compared with the tetragonal phase. EEL spectra show different electronic structures in the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. These experimental observations are well consistent with the results of theoretical first-principle calculations performed.

  1. Microstructure of highly strained BiFeO3 thin films: Transmission electron microscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heon Kim, Young; Bhatnagar, Akash; Pippel, Eckhard; Alexe, Marin; Hesse, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure and electronic structure of highly strained bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) thin films grown on lanthanum aluminate substrates are studied using high-resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopies and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Monoclinic and tetragonal phases were observed in films grown at different temperatures, and a mix of both phases was detected in a film grown at intermediate temperature. In this film, a smooth transition of the microstructure was found between the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. A considerable increase in the c-axis parameters was observed in both phases compared with the rhombohedral bulk phase. The off-center displacement of iron (Fe) ions was increased in the monoclinic phase as compared with the tetragonal phase. EEL spectra show different electronic structures in the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. These experimental observations are well consistent with the results of theoretical first-principle calculations performed.

  2. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  3. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  4. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness.

    PubMed

    Vivek, A; Hansen, S R; Daehn, Glenn S

    2014-07-01

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  5. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, A.; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2014-07-01

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  6. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek, A. Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2014-07-15

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  7. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  8. Consequence of doping mediated strain and the activation energy on the structural and optical properties of ZnO:Cr nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, Richa; Sharma, Prashant K.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pandey, Avinash C.; Kumar, Naresh

    2010-06-15

    We report on the sol-gel synthesis of Zn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were characterized by using thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and Photoluminescence (PL). Electronegativity of Cr ions (Cr{sup 3+}) reduces the final decomposition temperature by 40 {sup o}C and activation energy of the reaction when Cr is doped into ZnO. Doping of higher Cr concentration (x{>=}0.10) into ZnO shows formation of secondary spinel (ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}) phase along with the hexagonal (ZnO) and is revealed by XRD. Formation of secondary phase changes the activation energy of the reaction and thus the strain in ZnO lattice. In Raman spectra, additional Raman modes have been observed for Zn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O nanoparticles, which can be assigned to the modes generated due to Cr doping. The Cr doping into ZnO is also supported by PL, in which vacancies are formed with Cr ion incorporation and emission band shifts towards higher wavelength. - Graphical abstract: Cr-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by sol-gel. XRD (a) revealed secondary phase of ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} with increase in Cr concentration. The Cr concentration also changes activation energy of the reaction (b).

  9. Photo-Oxidative Stress-Driven Mutagenesis and Adaptive Evolution on the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for Enhanced Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhiqian; Xu, Maonian; Magnusdottir, Manuela; Zhang, Yuetuan; Brynjolfsson, Sigurdur; Fu, Weiqi

    2015-09-29

    Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve diatoms for value-added products. In this study, we utilized UVC radiation to induce mutations in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and screened strains with enhanced accumulation of neutral lipids and carotenoids. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was also used in parallel to develop altered phenotypic and biological functions in P. tricornutum and it was reported for the first time that ALE was successfully applied on diatoms for the enhancement of growth performance and productivity of value-added carotenoids to date. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was utilized to study the composition of major pigments in the wild type P. tricornutum, UV mutants and ALE strains. UVC radiated strains exhibited higher accumulation of fucoxanthin as well as neutral lipids compared to their wild type counterpart. In addition to UV mutagenesis, P. tricornutum strains developed by ALE also yielded enhanced biomass production and fucoxanthin accumulation under combined red and blue light. In short, both UV mutagenesis and ALE appeared as an effective approach to developing desired phenotypes in the marine diatoms via electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Photo-Oxidative Stress-Driven Mutagenesis and Adaptive Evolution on the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for Enhanced Carotenoid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhiqian; Xu, Maonian; Magnusdottir, Manuela; Zhang, Yuetuan; Brynjolfsson, Sigurdur; Fu, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve diatoms for value-added products. In this study, we utilized UVC radiation to induce mutations in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and screened strains with enhanced accumulation of neutral lipids and carotenoids. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was also used in parallel to develop altered phenotypic and biological functions in P. tricornutum and it was reported for the first time that ALE was successfully applied on diatoms for the enhancement of growth performance and productivity of value-added carotenoids to date. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was utilized to study the composition of major pigments in the wild type P. tricornutum, UV mutants and ALE strains. UVC radiated strains exhibited higher accumulation of fucoxanthin as well as neutral lipids compared to their wild type counterpart. In addition to UV mutagenesis, P. tricornutum strains developed by ALE also yielded enhanced biomass production and fucoxanthin accumulation under combined red and blue light. In short, both UV mutagenesis and ALE appeared as an effective approach to developing desired phenotypes in the marine diatoms via electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26426027

  11. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction study of growth and interface formation of the Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb/InAs strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, W. C.; Zborowski, J. T.; Golding, T. D.; Shih, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) during molecular beam epitaxy is used to study the growth and interface formation of the Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb/InAs (x is not greater than 0.4) strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) on GaSb(100) substrates. A number of surface atomic structures were observed in the growth of the SLS: a (1 x 3) phase from the InAs epilayer surface, a (2 x 3) phase, a (2 x 4) phase, and diffuse (1 x 1)-like phases from the InAs epilayer surface. It is suggested that the long-range order quality of the interface of Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb on InAs may be better than that of the interface of InAs on Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb, but the abruptness of the interfaces would still be compatible. The RHEED intensity variations in the formation of the interfaces are discussed in terms of interface chemical reactions.

  12. Impacts of core-shell structures on properties of lanthanide-based nanocrystals: crystal phase, lattice strain, downconversion, upconversion and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Kar, Arik; Patra, Amitava

    2012-06-21

    This feature article highlights the new development and current status of rare-earth (RE) based core-shell nanocrystals, which is one of the new classes of hybrid nanostructures. Attractive properties of rare-earth based nanomaterials include extremely narrow emission bands, long lifetimes, large Stoke's shifts, photostability and absence of blinking that can be exploited for biophotonic and photonic applications. Core-shell nanostructures have been attracting a great deal of interest to improve the luminescence efficiency by the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. The main focus of this feature article is to address the impacts of core-shell structures on the properties of lanthanide based nanocrystals including crystal phase, lattice strain, downconversion emission, upconversion emission and energy transfer. We describe general synthetic methodologies to design core-shell nanostructure materials. An interesting finding reported is that the local environment of an ion in the core-shell structure significantly affects the modifications of radiative and nonradiative relaxation mechanisms. Finally, a tentative outlook on future developments of this research field is given. Here, we attempt to identify the critical parameters governing the design of luminescent lanthanide based core-shell nanostructures.

  13. Strain energy release rates of composite interlaminar end-notch and mixed-mode fracture: A sublaminate/ply level analysis and a computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valisetty, R. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code is presented for the sublaminate/ply level analysis of composite structures. This code is useful for obtaining stresses in regions affected by delaminations, transverse cracks, and discontinuities related to inherent fabrication anomalies, geometric configurations, and loading conditions. Particular attention is focussed on those layers or groups of layers (sublaminates) which are immediately affected by the inherent flaws. These layers are analyzed as homogeneous bodies in equilibrium and in isolation from the rest of the laminate. The theoretical model used to analyze the individual layers allows the relevant stresses and displacements near discontinuities to be represented in the form of pure exponential-decay-type functions which are selected to eliminate the exponential-precision-related difficulties in sublaminate/ply level analysis. Thus, sublaminate analysis can be conducted without any restriction on the maximum number of layers, delaminations, transverse cracks, or other types of discontinuities. In conjunction with the strain energy release rate (SERR) concept and composite micromechanics, this computational procedure is used to model select cases of end-notch and mixed-mode fracture specimens. The computed stresses are in good agreement with those from a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Also, SERRs compare well with limited available experimental data.

  14. Fabrication of pure and Ag-doped TiO2 nanorods and study of the lattice strain and the activation energy of the crystalline phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazian, Mehran; Rad, Shima Daliri; Azinabadi, Reza Ramezani

    2013-02-01

    TiO2 nanorods can be used as dye-sensitized solar cells and as various sensors and photocatalysts. These nanorods are synthesized by using a thermal corrosion process in a NaOH solution at 200 °C with TiO2 powder as a source material. In the present work, the synthesis of TiO2 nanorods in anatase, rutile and Ti8O15 phases and the synthesis of TiO2 nanorods by using the sol-gel method and alkaline corrosion to incorporate silver and silver-oxide dopants are reported. The morphologies and the crystalline structures of the TiO2 nanorods are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The obtained results show an aggregation structure at high calcining temperatures with spherical particles and with Ti-O-Ti, Ti-O and Ag-O bonds. The effects of the chemical composition and the calcining temperature on the surface topography, lattice strain and phase crystallization are studied. The activation energy (E) of nanoparticle formation in a pure state during thermal treatment is calculated.

  15. Damage Accumulation in Cyclically-Loaded Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites Monitored by Acoustic Emission

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, D. G.; Dassios, K. G.; Kordatos, E. Z.; Matikas, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Barium osumilite (BMAS) ceramic matrix composites reinforced with SiC-Tyranno fibers are tested in a cyclic loading protocol. Broadband acoustic emission (AE) sensors are used for monitoring the occurrence of different possible damage mechanisms. Improved use of AE indices is proposed by excluding low-severity signals based on waveform parameters, rather than only threshold criteria. The application of such improvements enhances the accuracy of the indices as accumulated damage descriptors. RA-value, duration, and signal energy follow the extension cycles indicating moments of maximum or minimum strain, while the frequency content of the AE signals proves very sensitive to the pull-out mechanism. PMID:24381524

  16. Damage accumulation in cyclically-loaded glass-ceramic matrix composites monitored by acoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, D G; Dassios, K G; Kordatos, E Z; Matikas, T E

    2013-01-01

    Barium osumilite (BMAS) ceramic matrix composites reinforced with SiC-Tyranno fibers are tested in a cyclic loading protocol. Broadband acoustic emission (AE) sensors are used for monitoring the occurrence of different possible damage mechanisms. Improved use of AE indices is proposed by excluding low-severity signals based on waveform parameters, rather than only threshold criteria. The application of such improvements enhances the accuracy of the indices as accumulated damage descriptors. RA-value, duration, and signal energy follow the extension cycles indicating moments of maximum or minimum strain, while the frequency content of the AE signals proves very sensitive to the pull-out mechanism.

  17. Effect of Enzymatic Adenylylation on Dihydrostreptomycin Accumulation in Escherichia coli Carrying an R-Factor: Model Explaining Aminoglycoside Resistance by Inactivating Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, P.; Bryan, L. E.; Pickard, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli carrying R-factor R71(a), which codes for a streptomycin-spectinomycin adenylyltransferase, have elevated levels of resistance to dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) compared with isogenic R− bacteria. DHS accumulated by whole cells and spheroplasts of R+ bacteria is lower than that observed for R− strains, a result of the absence of the second and more rapid of the two energy-dependent phases of DHS uptake seen in susceptible E. coli. A mutant of R+E. coli with reduced DHS resistance has been shown to have reduced levels of streptomycin-spectinomycin adenylyltransferase activity as well as enhanced drug accumulation. Actively accumulated DHS was recovered from R+ cells as the adenylylated derivative. Neither was inactivated antibiotic detected in culture filtrates, nor was actively accumulated drug lost from R+ cells under normal conditions. The cellular distribution of actively accumulated DHS in R+ and R− cells was found to be the same. Membranes isolated from these cells retained only a small fraction (≃1%) of the total cell-associated drug. The R+ derivative of a mutant with defective energy transduction (E. coli NR-70) and reduced ability to transport aminoglycosides has a significantly higher minimal inhibitory concentration of DHS than its R+ parent (strain 7). Streptomycin-spectinomycin adenylyltransferase activity, from comparisons of Km values and total activities of enzyme, was the same in both strains. The enzyme has been localized to the exterior surface of the bacterial inner membrane, although isolated membranes lacked detectable enzyme activity. The preceding observations are consistent with the proposal that the level of R71(a)-mediated DHS resistance is the outcome of competition between the rate of adenylylation and the rate of the first energy-dependent phase of DHS transport. When the rate of adenylylation exceeds the first energy-dependent phase, adenylylated DHS is accumulated, apparently in a manner identical to

  18. High-energy transmission Laue micro-beam X-ray diffraction: a probe for intra-granular lattice orientation and elastic strain in thicker samples.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Abbey, Brian; Jun, Tea-Sung; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2012-05-01

    An understanding of the mechanical response of modern engineering alloys to complex loading conditions is essential for the design of load-bearing components in high-performance safety-critical aerospace applications. A detailed knowledge of how material behaviour is modified by fatigue and the ability to predict failure reliably are vital for enhanced component performance. Unlike macroscopic bulk properties (e.g. stiffness, yield stress, etc.) that depend on the average behaviour of many grains, material failure is governed by `weakest link'-type mechanisms. It is strongly dependent on the anisotropic single-crystal elastic-plastic behaviour, local morphology and microstructure, and grain-to-grain interactions. For the development and validation of models that capture these complex phenomena, the ability to probe deformation behaviour at the micro-scale is key. The diffraction of highly penetrating synchrotron X-rays is well suited to this purpose and micro-beam Laue diffraction is a particularly powerful tool that has emerged in recent years. Typically it uses photon energies of 5-25 keV, limiting penetration into the material, so that only thin samples or near-surface regions can be studied. In this paper the development of high-energy transmission Laue (HETL) micro-beam X-ray diffraction is described, extending the micro-beam Laue technique to significantly higher photon energies (50-150 keV). It allows the probing of thicker sample sections, with the potential for grain-level characterization of real engineering components. The new HETL technique is used to study the deformation behaviour of individual grains in a large-grained polycrystalline nickel sample during in situ tensile loading. Refinement of the Laue diffraction patterns yields lattice orientations and qualitative information about elastic strains. After deformation, bands of high lattice misorientation can be identified in the sample. Orientation spread within individual scattering volumes is

  19. Pre-strain effect on frequency-based impact energy dissipation through a silicone foam pad for shock mitigation [Pre-strain effect on the frequency response of shock mitigation through a silicone foam pad

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Brett; Song, Bo; Smith, Scott

    2015-12-29

    Silicone foams have been used in a variety of applications from gaskets to cushioning pads over a wide range of environments. Particularly, silicone foams are used as a shock mitigation material for shock and vibration applications. Understanding the shock mitigation response, particularly in the frequency domain, is critical for optimal designs to protect internal devices and components more effectively and efficiently. The silicone foams may be subjected to pre-strains during the assembly process which may consequently influence the frequency response with respect to shock mitigation performance. A Kolsky compression bar was modified with pre-compression capabilities to characterize the shock mitigation response of silicone foam in the frequency domain to determine the effect of pre-strain. Lastly, a silicone sample was also intentionally subjected to repeated pre-strain and dynamic loadings to explore the effect of repeated loading on the frequency response of shock mitigation.

  20. Pre-strain effect on frequency-based impact energy dissipation through a silicone foam pad for shock mitigation [Pre-strain effect on the frequency response of shock mitigation through a silicone foam pad

    DOE PAGES

    Sanborn, Brett; Song, Bo; Smith, Scott

    2015-12-29

    Silicone foams have been used in a variety of applications from gaskets to cushioning pads over a wide range of environments. Particularly, silicone foams are used as a shock mitigation material for shock and vibration applications. Understanding the shock mitigation response, particularly in the frequency domain, is critical for optimal designs to protect internal devices and components more effectively and efficiently. The silicone foams may be subjected to pre-strains during the assembly process which may consequently influence the frequency response with respect to shock mitigation performance. A Kolsky compression bar was modified with pre-compression capabilities to characterize the shock mitigationmore » response of silicone foam in the frequency domain to determine the effect of pre-strain. Lastly, a silicone sample was also intentionally subjected to repeated pre-strain and dynamic loadings to explore the effect of repeated loading on the frequency response of shock mitigation.« less

  1. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  2. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  3. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  4. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  5. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  6. Strain accumulation across the Prince William Sound asperity, Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The surface velocities predicted by the conventional subduction model are compared to velocities measured in a GPS array (surveyed in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2004) spanning the Prince William Sound asperity. The observed velocities in the comparison have been corrected to remove the contributions from postseismic (1964 Alaska earthquake) mantle relaxation. Except at the most seaward monument (located on Middleton Island at the seaward edge of the continental shelf, just 50 km landward of the deformation front in the Aleutian Trench), the corrected velocities qualitatively agree with those predicted by an improved, two-dimensional, back slip, subduction model in which the locked megathrust coincides with the plate interface identified by seismic refraction surveys, and the back slip rate is equal to the plate convergence rate. A better fit to the corrected velocities is furnished by either a back slip rate 20% greater than the plate convergence rate or a 30% shallower megathrust. The shallow megathrust in the latter fit may be an artifact of the uniform half-space Earth model used in the inversion. Backslip at the plate convergence rate on the megathrust mapped by refraction surveys would fit the data as well if the rigidity of the underthrust plate was twice that of the overlying plate, a rigidity contrast higher than expected. The anomalous motion at Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip at near the plate convergence rate on a postulated, listric fault that splays off the megathrust at depth of about 12 km and outcrops on the continental slope south-southeast of Middleton Island.

  7. Energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yu; Lu, Xingye; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Tam, David W.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Tian, Wei; Si, Qimiao; Dai, Pengcheng; Luo, Huiqian

    2015-11-06

    In this study, we use inelastic neutron scattering to study the temperature and energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained electron-doped iron pnictide BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 near optimal superconductivity (Tc = 20K). Our work has been motivated by the observation of in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase of electron-underdoped iron pnictides under uniaxial pressure, which has been attributed to a spin-driven Ising-nematic state or orbital ordering. Here we show that the spin excitation anisotropy, a signature of the spin-driven Ising-nematic phase, exists for energies below 60 meV in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2. Since this energy scale is considerably larger than the energy splitting of the dxz and dyz bands of uniaxial-strained Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2 near optimal superconductivity, spin Ising-nematic correlations are likely the driving force for the resistivity anisotropy and associated electronic nematic correlations.

  8. Evaluation of fatigue damage accumulation in composites via linear and nonlinear guided wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinling; Chillara, Vamshi; Cho, Hwanjeong; Qiu, Jinhao; Lissenden, Cliff

    2016-02-01

    For non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fatigue damage accumulation in composites, this research proposed a combined linear and a nonlinear ultrasonic guided wave method. For the linear Lamb waves approach, a laser-generation based imaging system (LGBI) is utilized to measure the phase velocities of guided waves in composites. The elastic moduli of the specimen are then obtained by inverting the measured phase velocities using genetic algorithms (GAs). The variation of the above two parameters (phase velocity and elastic moduli), together with the guided wave amplitudes, are then observed during the fatigue process. Nonlinear second harmonics in composites are studied theoretically and numerically. A third-order strain energy function of transversely isotropic materials is expressed by five invariants of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. Results enable intelligent selection of primary modes for cumulative second harmonics generation. Meanwhile, finite element simulations are conducted to characterize second harmonics in light of the theory.

  9. Strain balanced quantum posts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Alen, B.; Ripalda, J. M.; Llorens, J. M.; Taboada, A. G.; Briones, F.; Roldan, M. A.; Hernandez-Saz, J.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Herrera, M.; Molina, S. I.

    2011-04-25

    Quantum posts are assembled by epitaxial growth of closely spaced quantum dot layers, modulating the composition of a semiconductor alloy, typically InGaAs. In contrast with most self-assembled nanostructures, the height of quantum posts can be controlled with nanometer precision, up to a maximum value limited by the accumulated stress due to the lattice mismatch. Here, we present a strain compensation technique based on the controlled incorporation of phosphorous, which substantially increases the maximum attainable quantum post height. The luminescence from the resulting nanostructures presents giant linear polarization anisotropy.

  10. Accumulation of cadmium ions in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Blazhenko, Oleksandra V; Zimmermann, Martin; Kang, Hyun Ah; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Penninckx, Michel J; Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2006-12-01

    Intracellular cadmium (Cd(2+)) ion accumulation and the ability to produce specific Cd(2+) ion chelators was studied in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Only one type of Cd(2+) intracellular chelators, glutathione (GSH), was identified, which suggests that sequestration of this heavy metal in H. polymorpha occurs similarly to that found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but different to Schizosaccharomys pombe and Candida glabrata which both synthesize phytochelatins. Cd(2+) ion uptake in the H. polymorpha wild-type strains appeared to be an energy dependent process. It was found that Deltagsh2 mutants, impaired in the first step of GSH biosynthesis, are characterized by increase in net Cd(2+) ion uptake by the cells, whereas Deltagsh1/Deltamet1 and Deltaggt1 mutants impaired in sulfate assimilation and GSH catabolism, respectively, lost the ability to accumulate Cd(2+) intracellularly. Apparently H. polymorpha, similarly to S. cerevisiae, forms a Cd-GSH complex in the cytoplasm, which in turn regulates Cd(2+) uptake. Genes GSH1/MET1 and GGT1 are involved in maturation and metabolism of cellular Cd-GSH complex, respectively. Transport of [(3)H]N-ethylmaleimide-S-glutathione ([(3)H]NEM-SG) conjugate into crude membrane vesicules, purified from the wild-type cells of H. polymorpha appeared to be MgATP dependent, uncoupler insensitive and vanadate sensitive. We suggest that MgATP dependent transporter involved in Cd-GSH uptake in H. polymorpha, is similar to S. cerevisiae Ycf1-mediated vacuolar transporter responsible for accumulation of organic GS-conjugates and Cd-GSH complex.

  11. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  12. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  13. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  14. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  15. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  16. Bioprocessing of Stichococcus bacillaris strain siva2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, the development of a cost-effective long-term renewable energy infrastructure is one of the most challenging problems faced by society today. Microalgae are rich in potential biofuel substrates such as lipids, including triacylglycerols (TAGs). Some of these algae also biosynthesize small molecule hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons can often be used as liquid fuels, often with more versatility and by a more direct approach than some TAGs. However, the appropriate TAGs, accumulated from microalgae biomass, can be used as substrates for different kinds of renewable liquid fuels such as biodiesel and jet fuel. Results This article describes the isolation and identification of a lipid-rich, hydrocarbon-producing alga, Stichococcus bacillaris strain siva2011, together with its bioprocessing, hydrocarbon and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. The S. bacillaris strain siva2011 was scaled-up in an 8 L bioreactor with 0.2% CO2. The C16:0, C16:3, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were 112.2, 9.4, 51.3, 74.1 and 69.2 mg/g dry weight (DW), respectively. This new strain produced a significant amount of biomass of 3.79 g/L DW on day 6 in the 8 L bioreactor and also produced three hydrocarbons. Conclusions A new oil-rich microalga S. bacillaris strain siva2011 was discovered and its biomass has been scaled-up in a newly designed balloon-type bioreactor. The TAGs and hydrocarbons produced by this organism could be used as substrates for jet fuel or biodiesel. PMID:24731690

  17. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  18. Strain avalanches in plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argon, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Plastic deformation at the mechanism level in all solids occurs in the form of discrete thermally activated individual stress relaxation events. While there are clear differences in mechanisms between dislocation mediated events in crystalline solids and by individual shear transformations in amorphous metals and semiconductors, such relaxation events interact strongly to form avalanches of strain bursts. In all cases the attendant distributions of released energy as amplitudes of acoustic emissions, or in serration amplitudes in flow stress, the levels of strain bursts are of fractal character with fractal exponents in the range from -1.5 to -2.0, having the character of phenomena of self-organized criticality, SOC. Here we examine strain avalanches in single crystals of ice, hcp metals, the jerky plastic deformations of nano-pillars of fcc and bcc metals deforming in compression, those in the plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, all demonstrating the remarkable universality of character of plastic relaxation events.

  19. Performance of the auxotrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 as host for the production of IL-1β in aerated fed-batch reactor: role of ACA supplementation, strain viability, and maintenance energy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    maintenance, rather than for further proliferation. The mathematical model used evidenced that the energy demand for maintenance was even higher in the case of the Δyca1 mutant, accounting for the growth arrest observed despite the fact that cell viability remained comparatively high. Conclusions The paper points out the relevance of a proper ACA formulation for the outcome of a fed-batch reactor growth carried out with S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] strain and shows the sensitivity of this commonly used auxotrophic strain to aerated fed-batch operations. A Δyca1 disruption was able to reduce the loss of viability, but not to improve the overall performance of the process. A mathematical model has been developed that is able to describe the behaviour of both the parental and mutant producer strain during fed-batch runs, and evidence the role played by the energy demand for maintenance in the outcome of the process. PMID:20042083

  20. Comprehensive model of damage accumulation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, K. R. C.; Benistant, F.; Jaraiz, M.; Rubio, J. E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Ion implantation induced damage accumulation is crucial to the simulation of silicon processing. We present a physically based damage accumulation model, implemented in a nonlattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, that can simulate a diverse range of interesting experimental observations. The model is able to reproduce the ion-mass dependent silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature of a range of ions from C to Xe, the amorphous layer thickness for a range of amorphizing implants, the superlinear increase in damage accumulation with dose, and the two-layered damage distribution observed along the path of a high-energy ion. In addition, this model is able to distinguish between dynamic annealing and post-cryogenic implantation annealing, whereby dynamic annealing is more effective in removing damage than post-cryogenic implantation annealing at the same temperature.

  1. Uptake and accumulation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid by Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Yukino, T; Maruyama, I; Kido, S; Kitaoka, S

    2001-01-01

    Tuna oil or its hydrolysate was added to a culture of Chlorella for its nutritional fortification as a feed for rotifer. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in its free form was taken up by the cells of Chlorella vulgaris strain K-22 and by other strains, but tuna oil was not taken up by the cells. Accumulated DHA was found by electron microscopy in the cells in oil droplets. All strains of Chlorella used in these experiments took up exogenous DHA into the cells. It seems that the structure of the cell wall did not affect the uptake of DHA into the Chlorella cells.

  2. Lipid Accumulation in Hypoxic Tissue Culture Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gerald B.; Barcza, Maureen A.; Bush, Marilyn E.

    1977-01-01

    Lipid droplets have long been recognized by light microscopy to accumulate in hypoxic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In the present tissue culture experiments, correlative electron microscopic observations and lipid analyses were performed to determine the nature and significance of lipid accumulation in hypoxia. Strain L mouse fibroblasts were grown in suspension culture, both aerobically and under severe oxygen restriction obtained by gassing cultures daily with an 8% CO2-92% nitrogen mixture. After 48 hours, hypoxic cells showed an increase in total lipid/protein ratio of 42% over control cells. Most of this increase was accounted for by an elevation in the level of cellular triglyceride from 12.3 ± 0.9 μg/mg cell protein in aerobic cultures to 41.9 ± 0.7 in the hypoxic cultures, an increase of 240%. Levels of cellular free fatty acids (FFA) were 96% higher in the hypoxic cultures. No significant changes in the levels of cellular phospholipid or cholesterol were noted. Electron microscopic examination revealed the accumulation of homogeneous cytoplasmic droplets. The hypoxic changes were reversible upon transferring the cultures to aerobic atmospheres with disappearance of the lipid. These experiments indicate that hypoxic injury initially results in triglyceride and FFA accumulation from an inability to oxidize fatty acids taken up from the media and not from autophagic processes, as described in other types of cell injury associated with the sequestration of membranous residues and intracellular cholesterol and phospholipid accumulation. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 1Figure 2 PMID:196505

  3. A comparative study of biodegradation of vinyl acetate by environmental strains.

    PubMed

    Greń, Izabela; Gąszczak, Agnieszka; Guzik, Urszula; Bartelmus, Grażyna; Labużek, Sylwia

    2011-06-01

    Four Gram-negative strains, E3_2001, EC1_2004, EC3_3502 and EC2_3502, previously isolated from soil samples, were subjected to comparative studies in order to select the best vinyl acetate degrader for waste gas treatment. Comparison of biochemical and physiological tests as well as the results of fatty acids analyses were comparable with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas putida EC3_2001, Pseudomonas putida EC1_2004, Achromobacter xylosoxidans EC3_3502 and Agrobacterium sp. EC2_3502 strains. Two additional strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 and Stenotrophomonas malthophilia KB2, were used as controls. All described strains were able to use vinyl acetate as the only source of carbon and energy under aerobic as well as oxygen deficiency conditions. Esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase were involved in vinyl acetate decomposition under aerobic conditions. Shorter degradation times of vinyl acetate were associated with accumulation of acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethanol as intermediates in the culture fluids of EC3_2001 and KB2 strains. Complete aerobic degradation of vinyl acetate combined with a low increase in biomass was observed for EC3_2001 and EC1_2004 strains. In conclusion, P. putida EC1_2004 is proposed as the best vinyl acetate degrader for future waste gas treatment in trickle-bed bioreactors.

  4. Oxidation of Molecular Hydrogen by a Chemolithoautotrophic Beggiatoa Strain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A chemolithoautotrophic strain of the family Beggiatoaceae, Beggiatoa sp. strain 35Flor, was found to oxidize molecular hydrogen when grown in a medium with diffusional gradients of oxygen, sulfide, and hydrogen. Microsensor profiles and rate measurements suggested that the strain oxidized hydrogen aerobically when oxygen was available, while hydrogen consumption under anoxic conditions was presumably driven by sulfur respiration. Beggiatoa sp. 35Flor reached significantly higher biomass in hydrogen-supplemented oxygen-sulfide gradient media, but hydrogen did not support growth of the strain in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds. Nevertheless, hydrogen oxidation can provide Beggiatoa sp. 35Flor with energy for maintenance and assimilatory purposes and may support the disposal of internally stored sulfur to prevent physical damage resulting from excessive sulfur accumulation. Our knowledge about the exposure of natural populations of Beggiatoaceae to hydrogen is very limited, but significant amounts of hydrogen could be provided by nitrogen fixation, fermentation, and geochemical processes in several of their typical habitats such as photosynthetic microbial mats and submarine sites of hydrothermal fluid flow. IMPORTANCE Reduced sulfur compounds are certainly the main electron donors for chemolithoautotrophic Beggiatoaceae, but the traditional focus on this topic has left other possible inorganic electron donors largely unexplored. In this paper, we provide evidence that hydrogen oxidation has the potential to strengthen the ecophysiological plasticity of Beggiatoaceae in several ways. Moreover, we show that hydrogen oxidation by members of this family can significantly influence biogeochemical gradients and therefore should be considered in environmental studies. PMID:26896131

  5. Octopine Accumulation Early in Crown Gall Development is Progressive 1

    PubMed Central

    Toothman, Penelope

    1982-01-01

    A purification of octopine from crown gall tissue was developed to quantitate conversion of precursor [3H]arginine into [3H]octopine. Plant wound tissue which was sterile or infected with an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens did not accumulate detectable quantities of octopine, consistent with opine synthesis not being induced by wounding or infection. Octopine was only recovered from tissue infected with virulent tumor-inducing strains of A. tumefaciens. In every case tested, the morphological appearance of tumors preceded the accumulation of octopine by at least 1 week, and in some instances 3 weeks. Thus, what was necessary and sufficient for the expression of plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) required for tumor growth was not sufficient for the accumulation of octopine. The possible nature of the temporal difference in the expression of hormone autotrophy and octopine synthesis is discussed. Images PMID:16662161

  6. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  7. Strain engineered high reflectivity DBRs in the deep UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Hernandez-Balderrama, L.; Kaess, F.; Bryan, I.; Washiyama, S.; Bobea, M.; Tweedie, J.; Kirste, R.; Gerhold, M.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The maximum achievable reflectivity of current III-nitride Bragg reflectors in the UV-C spectral range is limited due to plastic relaxation of thick multilayer structures. Cracking due to a large mismatch of the thermal expansion and lattice constants between AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN alloys of different composition and the substrate at the heterointerface is the common failure mode. Strain engineering and strain relaxation concepts by the growth on a strain reduced Al0.85Ga0.15N template and the implementation of low temperature interlayers is demonstrated. A significant enhancement of the maximum reflectivity above 97% at a resonance wavelength of 270 nm due to an increase of the critical thickness of our AlN/Al0.65Ga0.35N DBRs to 1.45 μm (25.5 pairs) prove their potential. By comparing the growth of identical Bragg reflectors on different pseudo-templates, the accumulated mismatch strain energy in the DBR, not the dislocation density provided by the template/substrate, was identified to limit the critical thickness. To further enhance the reflectivity low temperature interlays were implemented into the DBR to partially relief the misfit strain. Relaxation is enabled by the nucleation of small surface domains facilitating misfit dislocation injection and glide. Detailed structural and optical investigations will be conducted to prove the influence of the LT-AlN interlayers on the strain state, structural integrity and reflectivity properties. Coherent growth and no structural and optical degradation of the Bragg mirror properties was observed proving the fully applicability of the relaxation concept to fabricate thick high reflectivity DBR and vertical cavity laser structures.

  8. Effects of waterborne cadmium on energy metabolism in the tropical sea cucumber, Stichopus horrens, and a comparison of tissue-specific cadmium accumulation with the temperate sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis.

    PubMed

    Charan-Dixon, Hannah; Gaw, Sally; Goldstien, Sharyn J; Glover, Chris N

    2017-03-08

    The sea cucumber Stichopus horrens is an important component of near-shore ecosystems, and in the Kingdom of Tonga it also comprises an important commercial and subsistence fishery. To assess the sensitivity of this species to the toxic trace metal cadmium (Cd), adult S. horrens were exposed for 96h to an environmental (15µgL(-1)) or effect (765µgL(-1)) concentration of waterborne Cd. The respiratory tree and intestine accumulated higher concentrations of Cd than the muscle and body wall, but there were no effects of Cd on tissue ions (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium). For comparison, Cd accumulation was also examined in the Australasian sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis. This species displayed a similar pattern of tissue-specific accumulation to S. horrens, but exhibited lower tissue Cd burdens, likely a consequence of lower experimental temperature. Effects on gonad ion content were also seen in this species. At the highest Cd exposure concentration, S. horrens showed impaired ammonia excretion rates and an increased molar oxygen:nitrogen ratio (O:N), indicative of a decreased reliance on protein metabolism. Overall, this study suggests that S. horrens is relatively tolerant of Cd exposure, but raises concerns regarding the subsistence fishery practice of consuming the viscera of this species.

  9. Linear alkanesulfonates as carbon and energy sources for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Reichenbecher, W; Murrell, J C

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteria from soil and rainwater samples were enriched and isolated with propanesulfonate or butanesulfonate as sole carbon and energy source. Most of the strains isolated utilized nonsubstituted alkanesulfonates with a chain length of C3-C6 and the substituted sulfonates taurine and isethionate as carbon and energy source. A gram-positive isolate, P40, and a gram-negative isolate, P53, were characterized in more detail. Phylogenetic analysis grouped strain P40 within group IV of the genus Rhodococcus and showed a close relationship with Rhodococcus opacus. After phylogenetic and physiological analyses, strain P53 was identified as Comamonas acidovorans. Both bacteria also utilized a wide range of sulfonates as sulfur source. Strain P40, but not strain P53, released sulfite into the medium during dissimilation of sulfonated compounds. Cell-free extracts of strain P53 exhibited high sulfite oxidase activity [2.34 U (mg protein)-1] when assayed with ferricyanide, but not with cytochrome c. Experiments with whole-cell suspensions of both strains showed that the ability to dissimilate 1-propanesulfonate was specifically induced during growth on this substrate and was not present in cells grown on propanol, isethionate or taurine. Whole-cell suspensions of both strains accumulated acetone when oxidizing the non-growth substrate 2-propanesulfonate. Strain P40 cells also accumulated sulfite under these conditions. Stoichiometric measurements with 2-propanesulfonate as substrate in oxygen electrode experiments indicate that the nonsubstituted alkanesulfonates were degraded by a monooxygenase. When strain P53 grew with nonsubstituted alkanesulfonates as carbon and energy source, cells expressed high amounts of yellow pigments, supporting the proposition that an oxygenase containing iron sulfur centres or flavins was involved in their degradation.

  10. The evolution with strain of the stored energy in different texture components of cold-rolled IF steel revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wauthier-Monnin, A.; Chauveau, T.; Castelnau, O.; Réglé, H.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-06-15

    During the deformation of low carbon steel by cold-rolling, dislocations are created and stored in grains depending on local crystallographic orientation, deformation, and deformation gradient. Orientation dependent dislocation densities have been estimated from the broadening of X-ray diffraction lines measured on a synchrotron beamline. Different cold-rolling levels (from 30% to 95% thickness reduction) have been considered. It is shown that the present measurements are consistent with the hypothesis of the sole consideration of screw dislocations for the analysis of the data. The presented evolutions show that the dislocation density first increases within the α fiber (=(hkl)<110>) and then within the γ fiber (=(111)). A comparison with EBSD measurements is done and confirms that the storage of dislocations during the deformation process is orientation dependent and that this dependence is correlated to the cold-rolling level. If we assume that this dislocation density acts as a driving force during recrystallization, these observations can explain the fact that the recrystallization mechanisms are generally different after moderate or large strains. - Highlights: • Dislocation densities are assessed by XRD in main texture components of a steel sheet. • Dislocation densities vary with both strain and texture components. • The analysis relies on the sole presence of screw dislocations. • The measured dislocation densities include the contribution of both SSD and GND.

  11. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  12. Sitamaquine Sensitivity in Leishmania Species Is Not Mediated by Drug Accumulation in Acidocalcisomes▿

    PubMed Central

    López-Martín, Carmen; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Carvalho, Luis; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Sitamaquine (WR6026), an 8-aminoquinoline derivative, is a new antileishmanial oral drug. As a lipophilic weak base, it rapidly accumulates in acidic compartments, represented mainly by acidocalcisomes. In this work, we show that the antileishmanial action of sitamaquine is unrelated to its level of accumulation in these acidic vesicles. We have observed significant differences in sitamaquine sensitivity and accumulation between Leishmania species and strains, and interestingly, there is no correlation between them. However, there is a relationship between the levels of accumulation of sitamaquine and acidotropic probes, acidocalcisomes size, and polyphosphate levels. The Leishmania major AP3δ-null mutant line, in which acidocalcisomes are devoid of their usual polyphosphate and proton content, is unable to accumulate sitamaquine; however, both the parental strain and the AP3δ-null mutants showed similar sensitivities to sitamaquine. Our findings provide clear evidence that the antileishmanial action of sitamaquine is unrelated to its accumulation in acidocalcisomes. PMID:18794384

  13. Lethal hydroxyl radical accumulation by a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Toshimitsu, Nayu; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial mechanism of a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q, can be described by the toroidal pore model without any receptor. However, lacticin Q showed different degrees of activity (selective antimicrobial activity) against Gram-positive bacteria even among related species. The ability of lacticin Q to induce pore formation in liposomes composed of lipids from different indicator strains indicated that its selective antimicrobial activity could not be attributed only to membrane lipid composition. We investigated the accumulation of deleterious hydroxyl radicals after exposure to lacticin Q as a contributing factor to cell death in the indicator strains. When lacticin Q of the same concentration as the MIC or minimum bactericidal concentration was added to the indicator cultures, high levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation were detected. Treatment with hydroxyl radical scavengers, thiourea and 2,2'-bipyridyl, decreased the levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation and recovered cell viability. These results suggest that, with or without pore formation, the final antimicrobial mechanism of lacticin Q is the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals, which varies by strain, resulting in the selective antimicrobial activity of lacticin Q.

  14. Lethal Hydroxyl Radical Accumulation by a Lactococcal Bacteriocin, Lacticin Q

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengqi; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Toshimitsu, Nayu; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial mechanism of a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q, can be described by the toroidal pore model without any receptor. However, lacticin Q showed different degrees of activity (selective antimicrobial activity) against Gram-positive bacteria even among related species. The ability of lacticin Q to induce pore formation in liposomes composed of lipids from different indicator strains indicated that its selective antimicrobial activity could not be attributed only to membrane lipid composition. We investigated the accumulation of deleterious hydroxyl radicals after exposure to lacticin Q as a contributing factor to cell death in the indicator strains. When lacticin Q of the same concentration as the MIC or minimum bactericidal concentration was added to the indicator cultures, high levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation were detected. Treatment with hydroxyl radical scavengers, thiourea and 2,2′-bipyridyl, decreased the levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation and recovered cell viability. These results suggest that, with or without pore formation, the final antimicrobial mechanism of lacticin Q is the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals, which varies by strain, resulting in the selective antimicrobial activity of lacticin Q. PMID:23733459

  15. Screening of bacterial strains isolated from uranium mill tailings porewaters for bioremediation purposes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castro, Iván; Amador-García, Ahinara; Moreno-Romero, Cristina; López-Fernández, Margarita; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Nos, Jeremy; Descostes, Michael; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2017-01-01

    The present work characterizes at different levels a number of bacterial strains isolated from porewaters sampled in the vicinity of two French uranium tailing repositories. The 16S rRNA gene from 33 bacterial isolates, corresponding to the different morphotypes recovered, was almost fully sequenced. The resulting sequences belonged to 13 bacterial genera comprised in the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Further characterization at physiological level and metals/metalloid tolerance provided evidences for an appropriate selection of bacterial strains potentially useful for immobilization of uranium and other common contaminants. By using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), this potential ability to immobilize uranium as U phosphate mineral phases was confirmed for the bacterial strains Br3 and Br5 corresponding to Arthrobacter sp. and Microbacterium oxydans, respectively. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope- High-Angle Annular Dark-Field (STEM-HAADF) analysis showed U accumulates on the surface and within bacterial cytoplasm, in addition to the extracellular space. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) element-distribution maps demonstrated the presence of U and P within these accumulates. These results indicate the potential of certain bacterial strains isolated from porewaters of U mill tailings for immobilizing uranium, likely as uranium phosphates. Some of these bacterial isolates might be considered as promising candidates in the design of uranium bioremediation strategies.

  16. Characterization of fibrolytic and lipid accumulating fungi isolated from fresh cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yupei; Tan, Hongming; Deng, Qingli; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    To characterize coprophilous fungi for converting lignocellulose into lipids, four fungal strains utilizing cellulose microcrystalline and xylan were screened. The fungi were identified as Cladosporium sp. F1, Circinella sp. F6, Mycocladus sp. F49, and Byssochlamys sp. F52 based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence similarity. The strain F52 accumulated 336.0 mg/L reducing sugars on cottonseed shells treated with ethanol. The combination of F1+F52 increased the reducing sugar accumulating rates. However, the activities of avicelase and xylanase were not correlated with the reducing sugars accumulated by the test strains. Strains F6 and F52 produced higher cellular lipids (above 530.7 mg/L) than other strains. However, the strain F52 could produce more cellular lipids with xylose and mannose as the sole carbon sources. The results indicated that the reducing sugar contents accumulated by the different strains were influenced by the fungal taxa and ligocellulosic types. With fibrolytic and lipid accumulating activities, diverse fungi harboring in herbivore feces need to be further characterized.

  17. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  18. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  19. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  20. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure.

  1. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  2. Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp. strain IF1

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2008-01-01

    A Gram-positive bacterial strain capable of aerobic biodegradation of 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples collected near an industrial site. The organism, designated strain IF1, was identified as a member of the genus Arthrobacter on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Arthrobacter strain IF1 was able to mineralize 4-FP up to concentrations of 5 mM in batch culture. Stoichiometric release of fluoride ions was observed, suggesting that there is no formation of halogenated dead-end products during 4-FP metabolism. The degradative pathway of 4-FP was investigated using enzyme assays and identification of intermediates by gas chromatography (GC), GC–mass spectrometry (MS), high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography–MS. Cell-free extracts of 4-FP-grown cells contained no activity for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase or catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, which indicates that the pathway does not proceed through a catechol intermediate. Cells grown on 4-FP oxidized 4-FP, hydroquinone, and hydroxyquinol but not 4-fluorocatechol. During 4-FP metabolism, hydroquinone accumulated as a product. Hydroquinone could be converted to hydroxyquinol, which was further transformed into maleylacetic acid and β-ketoadipic acid. These results indicate that the biodegradation of 4-FP starts with a 4-FP monooxygenase reaction that yields benzoquinone, which is reduced to hydroquinone and further metabolized via the β-ketoadipic acid pathway. PMID:18228015

  3. Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Function, and Accumulation in Plant Vegetative Tissues

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Changcheng; Shanklin, John

    2016-02-03

    One of the most abundant energy-dense storage compounds in eukaryotes are oils in the form of triacylglycerols , and their metabolism plays a key role in cellular energy balance, lipid homeostasis, growth, and maintenance. Plants accumulate oils primarily in seeds and fruits. Moreover, plant oils are used for food and feed and, increasingly, as feedstocks for biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Although plant vegetative tissues do not accumulate significant levels of triacylglycerols, they possess a high capacity for their synthesis, storage, and metabolism. The development of plants that accumulate oil in vegetative tissues presents an opportunity for expanded production of triacylglycerolsmore » as a renewable and sustainable bioenergy source. We review recent progress in the understanding of triacylglycerol synthesis, turnover, storage, and function in leaves and discuss emerging genetic engineering strategies targeted at enhancing triacylglycerol accumulation in biomass crops. Such plants could potentially be modified to produce oleochemical feedstocks or nutraceuticals.« less

  4. Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Function, and Accumulation in Plant Vegetative Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Changcheng; Shanklin, John

    2016-02-03

    One of the most abundant energy-dense storage compounds in eukaryotes are oils in the form of triacylglycerols , and their metabolism plays a key role in cellular energy balance, lipid homeostasis, growth, and maintenance. Plants accumulate oils primarily in seeds and fruits. Moreover, plant oils are used for food and feed and, increasingly, as feedstocks for biodiesel and industrial chemicals. Although plant vegetative tissues do not accumulate significant levels of triacylglycerols, they possess a high capacity for their synthesis, storage, and metabolism. The development of plants that accumulate oil in vegetative tissues presents an opportunity for expanded production of triacylglycerols as a renewable and sustainable bioenergy source. We review recent progress in the understanding of triacylglycerol synthesis, turnover, storage, and function in leaves and discuss emerging genetic engineering strategies targeted at enhancing triacylglycerol accumulation in biomass crops. Such plants could potentially be modified to produce oleochemical feedstocks or nutraceuticals.

  5. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  6. Extraordinary strain hardening by gradient structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, XiaoLei; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Liu; Yuan, Fuping; Zhu, Yuntian T

    2014-05-20

    Gradient structures have evolved over millions of years through natural selection and optimization in many biological systems such as bones and plant stems, where the structures change gradually from the surface to interior. The advantage of gradient structures is their maximization of physical and mechanical performance while minimizing material cost. Here we report that the gradient structure in engineering materials such as metals renders a unique extra strain hardening, which leads to high ductility. The grain-size gradient under uniaxial tension induces a macroscopic strain gradient and converts the applied uniaxial stress to multiaxial stresses due to the evolution of incompatible deformation along the gradient depth. Thereby the accumulation and interaction of dislocations are promoted, resulting in an extra strain hardening and an obvious strain hardening rate up-turn. Such extraordinary strain hardening, which is inherent to gradient structures and does not exist in homogeneous materials, provides a hitherto unknown strategy to develop strong and ductile materials by architecting heterogeneous nanostructures.

  7. Isolation and characterization of cesium-accumulating bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, N; Uchiyama, H; Yagi, O

    1992-01-01

    Cesium-accumulating bacteria, strains CS98 and CS402, were isolated from soil by a radioactive autoradiographic method using 137Cs. These strains displayed the rod-coccus growth cycle and contained mesodiaminopimelic acid, mycolic acids, and tuberculostearic acids. The major menaquinone of CS98 was MK-8(H2). On the basis of these characteristics, strain CS98 was identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis and strain CS402 was classified in the genus Rhodococcus. The maximum values of cesium removal efficiencies in the liquid culture containing 10 mumol of cesium per liter for strains CS98 and CS402 were 90 and 47%, respectively. The maximum cesium contents in strains CS98 and CS402 were 52.0 and 18.8 mumol/g (dry weight) of cells, respectively. Maximum values of cesium concentration factors for strains CS98 and CS402 were 3.5 x 10(4) and 3.6 x 10(3), respectively. Images PMID:1575473

  8. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  9. Secular Variation in the Storage and Dissipation of Elastic Strain Energy Along the Central Altyn Tagh Fault (86-88.5°E), NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    In elastic rebound theory, hazard increases as interseismic strain rebuilds after rupture. This model is challenged by the temporal variation in the pacing of major earthquakes that is both predicted by mechanical models and suggested by some long paleoseismic records (e.g., 1-3). However, the extent of such behavior remains unclear due to a lack of long (5-25 ky) records of fault slip. Using Monte Carlo analysis of 11 offset landforms, we determined a 16-ky record of fault slip for the active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault, which bounds the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This history reveals a pulse of accelerated slip between 6.4 and 6.0 ka, during which the fault slipped 9 +14/-2 m at a rate of 23 +35/-5 mm/y, or ~3x the 16 ky average of 8.1 +1.2/-0.9mm/y. These two modes of earthquake behavior suggest temporal variation in the rates of stress storage and release. The simplest explanation for the pulse is a cluster of 2-8 Mw > 7.5 earthquakes. Such supercyclicity has been reported for the Sunda (4) and Cascadia (3) megathrusts, but contrasts with steady slip along the strike-slip Alpine fault (5), for example. A second possibility is that the pulse reflects a single, unusually large rupture. However, this Black Swan event is unlikely: empirical scaling relationships require a Mw 8.2 rupture of the entire 1200-km-long ATF to produce 7 m of average slip. Likewise, Coulomb stress change from rupture on the adjacent North Altyn fault is of modest magnitude and overlap with the ATF. Poor temporal correlation between precipitation and the slip pulse argues against climatically modulated changes in surface loading (lakes/ice) or pore-fluid pressure. "Paleoslip" studies such as this sacrifice the single-event resolution of paleoseismology in exchange for long records that quantify both the timing and magnitude of fault slip averaged over multiple ruptures, and are essential for documenting temporal variations in fault slip as we begin to use calibrated physical

  10. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Opportunity Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity was expected to accumulate a sufficient quantity of dust after ninety Martian days (sols) such that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Opportunity continues to operate on the Martian surface for over 4000 sols (over six Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced six Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a method to scientifically estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Meridiani Planum over the course of the entire mission to date.

  11. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Spirit Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Johnson, J. R.; Cantor, B. A.; Stella, P. M.; Chin, K. B.; Wood, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit was expected to accumulate so much dust after ninety Martian days (sols) that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Spirit carried out surface operations for over 2200 sols (over three Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced four Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a tool to quantitatively estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Gusev Crater over the course of the entire mission.

  12. Conostegia xalapensis (Melastomataceae): an aluminum accumulator plant.

    PubMed

    González-Santana, Iris Hayde; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Cram-Heydrich, Silke; Cruz-Ortega, Rocio

    2012-02-01

    In acidic soils, an excess of Al³⁺ is toxic to most plants. The Melastomataceae family includes Al-accumulator genera that tolerate high Al³⁺ by accumulating it in their tissues. Conostegia xalapensis is a common shrub in Mexico and Central America colonizing mainly disturbed areas. Here, we determined whether C. xalapensis is an Al accumulator, and whether it has internal tolerance mechanisms to Al. Soil samples collected from two pastures in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, had low pH and high Al³⁺ concentrations along with low Ca²⁺ levels. Leaves of C. xalapensis from pastures showed up to 19,000 mg Al kg⁻¹ DW (dry weight). In laboratory experiments, 8-month-old seedlings treated with 0.5 and 1.0 mM AlCl₃ for 24 days showed higher number of lateral roots and biomass. Pyrocatechol violet and hematoxylin staining evidenced that Al localized in epidermis and mesophyll cells in leaves and in epidermis and vascular pith in roots. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of Al-treated leaves corroborated that Al is in abaxial and adaxial epidermis and in mesophyll cells (31.2%) in 1.0 mM Al-treatment. Roots of Al-treated plants had glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activity higher, and low levels of O₂*⁻ and H₂O₂. C. xalapensis is an Al-accumulator plant that can grow in acidic soils with higher Al³⁺ concentrations, and can be considered as an indicator species for soils with potential Al toxicity.

  13. Lattice strain alteration and activation energy of phase transformation of TiO2 nanorods doped with silver and iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazian, M.

    2013-10-01

    TiO2 nanorods are synthesized by a thermal corrosion. In present work, synthesis of TiO2 nanorods in anatase, rutile and Ti8O15 phases, TiO2 nanorods embedded with silver and iron oxides as dopant by using the sol-gel method and alkaline corrosion are reported. The morphologies and crystal structures of TiO2 nanorods are characterized by use of field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometer techniques. The obtained results illustrate an aggregative structure at high calcined temperatures with production of spherical particles. The effects of chemical compositions and calcined temperatures on surface topography and crystallization of phases are studied. Moreover, activation energy of nanoparticles formation in pure and doped state are calculated during thermal treatment.

  14. Microstructural Analysis of Welding: Deformation and Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quane, S. L.; Russell, K.

    2003-12-01

    Welding in pyroclastic deposits involves the sintering, compaction and flattening of hot glassy particles and is attended by systematic changes in physical properties. Welded materials contain implicit information regarding the total accumulated strain as well as the mechanisms of deformation. Here, we use detailed microstructural analysis of synthetic and natural welded materials to make quantitative estimates of strain and constrain the rheology of these materials during the welding process. Part one of our study comprises microstructural analysis of end products from unconfined high temperature deformation experiments on sintered cores of soda-lime silica glass spheres. This analogue material has relatively simple and well-characterized starting properties. Furthermore, the initially spherical shapes of particles provide excellent strain markers. Experiments were run at a variety of temperatures, strain rates and stresses resulting in end products with varying degrees of total strain. The nature of strain partitioning and accumulation are evaluated using image analysis techniques on scanned images and photomicrographs of thin sections cut perpendicular to the loading direction of each experimental product. Shapes of the individual deformed particles (e.g., oblate spheroids) were determined and the Scion image analysis program was used to create a best-fit ellipse for each particle. Statistics collected on each particle include: axial dimension (a), vertical dimension (c) and angle from the horizontal. The data are used to calculate the oblateness of each particle (1-c/a) and the angle of deformation induced foliation. Furthermore, the relative proportions of visible blue epoxy in the sample scans determine bulk porosity. The average oblateness of the particles is a direct, independent measure of the accumulated strain in each sample. Results indicate that these measured values are equal to calculated theoretical values of oblateness for spheroids undergoing the

  15. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  16. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  17. Characterization of marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp. strain JPCC GA0024 toward biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Reiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2009-09-01

    A marine microalga, strain JPCC GA0024 was selected as high amount of neutral lipid producers from marine microalgal culture collection toward biofuel production. The strain was tentatively identified as Scenedesmus rubescens by 18S rDNA analysis. The growth of strain JPCC GA0024 was influenced by artificial seawater concentrations. The optimum growth of 0.79 g/l was obtained at 100% artificial seawater. The lipid accumulation reached 73.0% of dry cell weight at 100% artificial seawater without additional nutrients for 11 days. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicates that lipid fraction mainly contained hydrocarbons including mainly hexadecane (C(16) H(34)) and 1-docosene (C(22) H(44)). Furthermore, calorimetric analysis revealed that the energy content of strain JPCC GA0024 was 6,160 kcal/kg (25.8 MJ/kg) of calorific value, which was equivalent to the coal engery. The strain JPCC GA0024, S. rubescens, will become a promising resource that can grow as a dominant species in the seawater for the production of both liquid and solid biofuels.

  18. 18 CFR 367.1900 - Account 190, Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1900 Account 190, Accumulated... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  19. Making Novel Materials Using Strain in Nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagally, Max G.

    2012-02-01

    The controlled introduction of strain in materials offers an important degree of freedom for fundamental studies of materials as well as advanced device engineering. Strain in a crystalline solid modifies the lattice constants and reduces the crystal symmetry. Because strain energy is proportional to thickness, a free-standing crystalline thin sheet, which we call a nanomembrane (NM), can be strained to a greater degree that a bulk material with the same surface area. I show the use of nanomembrane strain engineering to make defect-free single crystals that cannot be grown any other way, and materials with strain symmetries that they do not have naturally, in both cases alloys of Si and Ge. Strain in NMs causes significant shifts in energy band edges, splitting of degenerate states, and changes in effective masses. These effects can be used to produce a desired band offset between different materials, to increase carrier mobility, and to change relative energy positions of valleys. In the latter respect, through the use of NMs it has recently become possible, using tensile strain, to make Ge direct-bandgap and light emitting at room temperature. Periodic local stress can produce strain superlattices and thus single-element heterojunctions. Work performed with the Roberto Paiella, Mark Eriksson, Feng Liu, and Irena Knezevic research groups.

  20. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  1. Flight performance and teneral energy reserves of two genetically-modified and one wild-type strain of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bargielowski, Irka; Kaufmann, Christian; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul; Koella, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    The ability of sterile males to survive, disperse, find, and mate with wild females is key to the success of sterile insect technique (SIT). The Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL) system is a genetics-based SIT strategy for Aedes aegypti. We examine two aspects of insect performance, flight potential (dispersal ability) and teneral energy reserves, by comparing wild-type (WT) males with genetically-modified lines carrying the tetracycline-repressible constructs OX513A and OX3604C. Our results show significant differences in the flight capacity of the modified lines. OX513A males bred with tetracycline covered 38% less distance, while OX3604C males reared without tetracycline spent 21% less time in flight than their WT counterparts. Such differences in flight performance should be considered when designing release programs (e.g., by placing release sites sufficiently close together to achieve adequate coverage). All mosquito lines had similar teneral carbohydrate contents, though males of the OX3604C line contained more lipids. The addition of tetracycline to the larval diet did not influence the flight potential of the males; however, it did change the teneral sugar reserves of the WT and the lipid reserves of both the WT and the OX3604C lines.

  2. Temperature-dependent Li-ion diffusion and Activation Energy of Li1.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54O2 thin film cathode at Nanoscale by using Electrochemical Strain Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Yan, Binggong; Wu, Jiaxiong; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2017-04-07

    This paper presents the in situ mapping of temperature-dependent lithium ions diffusion at nanometer level in thin film Li1.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54O2 cathode using Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM). Thin film Li1.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54O2 cathode exhibits higher Li-ions diffusivities with increasing the temperature, which explains the higher capacity ob-served in the Li-ion batteries with Li-rich cathode at elevated temperature. In addition, the activation energy for lithi-um ions diffusion can be extracted in an Arrhenius-type plot at the level of grain structure with the assumption that the ionic movement is diffusion controlled. Compared with the grain interiors, the grain boundaries show relatively lower activation energy hence it is preferred diffusion path for Li-ions. This study has bridged the gap between atomis-tic calculations and traditional macroscopic experiments, showing the direct evidence as well as the mechanisms for ionic diffusion for Li-rich cathode material.

  3. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    considered here, the wake Reynolds number and the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy to the square of the wake mean velocity deficit are determined nearly entirely by the total strain. For these measures the order in which the strains are applied does not matter and the changes brought about by the strain are nearly reversible. The wake mean velocity deficit and width, on the other hand, differ by about a factor of three when the total strain returns to one, depending on whether the wake was first "favourably" or "adversely" strained. The strain history is important for predicting the evolution of these quantities.

  4. A natural vaccine candidate strain against cholera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Q; Qi, G M; Wang, S X; Yu, Y M; Duan, G C; Zhang, L J; Gao, S Y

    1995-12-01

    E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae (EVC) strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic (EEVC) strains and non-epidemigenic (NEEVC) strains-based on a phage-biotyping system. A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes. One such naturally occurring strains (designated IEM101) has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), accessory cholera enterotoxin (ACE), zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), but possesses RS1 sequences and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (icpA) although icpA is poorly expressed. It expresses type B pili but does not possess type C pili. It is an E1 Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ilcal loop tests. Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V. cholerae O1. Oral administration caused no side effects in 15 human volunteers, colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  5. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis.

  6. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  7. Autoradiographic method to screen for soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Zamani, B.; Knezek, B.D.; Flegler, S.L.; Beneke, E.S.; Dazzo, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic method was developed to screen for and isolate soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc (ZN). Diluted soil samples (pH 5.9) were plated on soil extract-glucose agar containing radioactive /sup 65/Zn. After 7 days of incubation, individual colonies which accumulated sufficient /sup 65/Zn could be detected by autoradiography. These colonies were isolated and confirmed as Zn accumulators in pure culture by using the autoradiographic plate technique. Most Zn accumulators were filamentous fungi, identified as Penicillium janthinellum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Paecilomyces sp. Isolates of Penicillium janthinellum were the most common Zn accumulators. The most abundant Zn-accumulating bacteria were Bacillus spp. The validity of the autoradiographic plate technique to differentiate soil microbes which accumulate Zn was examined independently by energy dispersive X-ray analysis in a scanning electron microscope. This method confirmed that fungal isolates which gave positive autoradiographic responses in the plate assay bioaccumulated more Zn in their biomass than fungal isolates from the same soil sample which gave negative autoradiographic responses. Thus, this technique can be applied to specifically screen for and isolate microbes from the environment which bioaccumulate Zn.

  8. Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Bhat, C.M.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Crisp, J.; Derwent, P.; Eddy, N.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Pruss, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which {approx} 400 x 10{sup 10} antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every {approx}15 hours.

  9. Metabolism of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) by the aerobic bacterium Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1.

    PubMed

    Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth; Hyman, Michael

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h(-1)) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene(-1). Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates.

  10. Metabolism of 2-Methylpropene (Isobutylene) by the Aerobic Bacterium Mycobacterium sp. Strain ELW1

    PubMed Central

    Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h−1) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene−1. Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates. PMID:25576605

  11. Strain effects on oxygen migration in perovskites.

    PubMed

    Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2015-01-28

    Fast oxygen transport materials are necessary for a range of technologies, including efficient and cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, oxygen sensors, chemical looping devices, and memristors. Strain is often proposed as a method to enhance the performance of oxygen transport materials, but the magnitude of its effect and its underlying mechanisms are not well-understood, particularly in the widely-used perovskite-structured oxygen conductors. This work reports on an ab initio prediction of strain effects on migration energetics for nine perovskite systems of the form LaBO3, where B = [Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ga]. Biaxial strain, as might be easily produced in epitaxial systems, is predicted to lead to approximately linear changes in migration energy. We find that tensile biaxial strain reduces the oxygen vacancy migration barrier across the systems studied by an average of 66 meV per percent strain for a single selected hop, with a low of 36 and a high of 89 meV decrease in migration barrier per percent strain across all systems. The estimated range for the change in migration barrier within each system is ±25 meV per percent strain when considering all hops. These results suggest that strain can significantly impact transport in these materials, e.g., a 2% tensile strain can increase the diffusion coefficient by about three orders of magnitude at 300 K (one order of magnitude at 500 °C or 773 K) for one of the most strain-responsive materials calculated here (LaCrO3). We show that a simple elasticity model, which assumes only dilative or compressive strain in a cubic environment and a fixed migration volume, can qualitatively but not quantitatively model the strain dependence of the migration energy, suggesting that factors not captured by continuum elasticity play a significant role in the strain response.

  12. Mn accumulation in a submerged plant Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae) is mediated by epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kousuke; Asayama, Takuma; Shiraki, Nozomi; Inoue, Shota; Okuda, Erina; Hayashi, Chizuru; Nishida, Kazuma; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Emiko

    2017-01-18

    Many aquatic plants act as biosorbents, removing and recovering metals from the environment. To assess the biosorbent activity of Egeria densa, a submerged freshwater macrophyte, plants were collected monthly from a circular drainage area in Lake Biwa basin and the Mn concentrations of the plants were analyzed. Mn concentrations in these plants were generally above those of terrestrial hyperaccumulators, and were markedly higher in spring and summer than in autumn. Mn concentrations were much lower in plants incubated in hydroponic medium at various pH levels with and without Mn supplementation than in field-collected plants. The precipitation of Mn oxides on the leaves was determined by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Leucoberbelin blue staining. Several strains of epiphytic bacteria were isolated from the field-collected E. densa plants, with many of these strains, including those of the genera Acidovorax, Comamonas, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium, found to have Mn-oxidizing activity. High Mn concentrations in E. densa were mediated by the production of biogenic Mn oxide in biofilms on leaf surfaces. These findings provide new insights into plant epidermal bacterial flora that affect metal accumulation in plants and suggest that these aquatic plants may have use in Mn phytomining.

  13. [Denitrifying and phosphorus accumulating mechanisms of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) for wastewater treatment--a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongting; Li, Min

    2015-03-04

    Eutrophication has raised increasing concerns due to its adverse effects on creatures. It is widely accepted that microbes are capable of removing nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) via denitrification and P accumulation. So far, several strains can do this work. Therefore, more studies are focused on looking for micro-organisms that have both denitrification and P accumulation ability. Whether exposed to aerobic or anaerobic environment, microbial N and P removal mechanisms differ. Proton Motive Force and Electron Acceptor Theory are involved in the chemical process, whereas denitrifying enzymes polyphosphate kinases are regarded as the leading participators in the enzymatic systems. Studies have shown the influences of N on P accumulation, but further investigation should identify the influences of P on N removal. Here we reviewed the aspects of N and P removal mechanisms in denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and their potential to remove N and P from water system. Moreover, future works on clarifying denitrifying phosphorus accumulating mechanisms in depth and improving efficiency of removing N and P by DPAOs are provided.

  14. Control of surface wettability via strain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Zhen, Quan-Shui

    2013-08-01

    Reversible control of surface wettability has wide applications in lab-on-chip systems, tunable optical lenses, and microfluidic tools. Using a graphene sheet as a sample material and molecular dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that strain engineering can serve as an effective way to control the surface wettability. The contact angles θ of water droplets on a graphene vary from 72.5° to 106° under biaxial strains ranging from -10% to 10% that are applied on the graphene layer. For an intrinsic hydrophilic surface (at zero strain), the variation of θ upon the applied strains is more sensitive, i.e., from 0° to 74.8°. Overall the cosines of the contact angles exhibit a linear relation with respect to the strains. In light of the inherent dependence of the contact angle on liquid-solid interfacial energy, we develop an analytic model to show the cos θ as a linear function of the adsorption energy E ads of a single water molecule over the substrate surface. This model agrees with our molecular dynamic results very well. Together with the linear dependence of E ads on biaxial strains, we can thus understand the effect of strains on the surface wettability. Thanks to the ease of reversibly applying mechanical strains in micro/nano-electromechanical systems, we believe that strain engineering can be a promising means to achieve the reversibly control of surface wettability.

  15. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  16. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  17. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  18. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  19. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  20. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  2. Evidence that accumulation of mutants in a biofilm reflects natural selection rather than stress-induced adaptive mutation.

    PubMed

    Banas, Jeffrey A; Miller, Justin D; Fuschino, Meghan E; Hazlett, Karsten R O; Toyofuku, Wendy; Porter, Kristen A; Reutzel, Sarah B; Florczyk, Matthew A; McDonough, Kathleen A; Michalek, Suzanne M

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of mutant genotypes within a biofilm evokes the controversy over whether the biofilm environment induces adaptive mutation or whether the accumulation can be explained by natural selection. A comparison of the virulence of two strains of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans showed that rats infected with one of the strains accumulated a high proportion (average, 22%) of organisms that had undergone a deletion between two contiguous and highly homologous genes. To determine if the accumulation of deletion mutants was due to selection or to an increased mutation rate, accumulations of deletion mutants within in vitro planktonic and biofilm cultures and within rats inoculated with various proportions of deletion organisms were quantified. We report here that natural selection was the primary force behind the accumulation of the deletion mutants.

  3. Strained Hydrocarbons as Potential Hypergolic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A storable combination of high-energy hypergolic fuel and oxidizer is advantageous to the future of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The combination will allow an increase in energy per unit volume of fuel and eliminate the need for an external ignition system. Strained systems have been studied as potential high-density fuels. Adding hypergolic functional groups, such as amino groups, to these hydrocarbons will potentially allow auto ignition of strained systems with hydrogen peroxide. Several straight chain amines and their strained counterparts containing an equivalent number of carbon atoms have been purchased and synthesized. These amines provide initial studies to determine the effects of fuel vapor pressure, strain energy, fuel miscibility, and amine substitution upon fuel ignition time and hypergolicity with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer.

  4. Predicting Accumulations of Ice on Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin; Potapczuk, Mark; Addy, Gene; Wright, William

    2003-01-01

    LEWICE is a computer program that predicts the accumulation of ice on two-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces under conditions representative of the flight of an aircraft through an icing cloud. The software first calculates the airflow surrounding the body of interest, then uses the airflow to compute the trajectories of water droplets that impinge on the surface of the body. The droplet trajectories are also used to compute impingement limits and local collection efficiencies, which are used in subsequent ice-growth calculations and are also useful for designing systems to protect against icing. Next, the software predicts the shape of accumulating ice by modeling transfers of mass and energy in small control volumes. The foregoing computations are repeated over several computational time steps until the total icing exposure time is reached. Results of computations by LEWICE have been compared with an extensive database of measured ice shapes obtained from experiments, and have been shown to closely approximate those shapes under most conditions of interest to the aviation community.

  5. Chlorella for protein and biofuels: from strain selection to outdoor cultivation in a Green Wall Panel photobioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlorella is one of the few microalgae employed for human consumption. It typically has a high protein content, but it can also accumulate high amounts of lipids or carbohydrates under stress conditions and, for this reason, it is of interest in the production of biofuels. High production costs and energy consumption are associated with its cultivation. This work describes a strategy to reduce costs and environmental impact of Chlorella biomass production for food, biofuels and other applications. Results The growth of four Chlorella strains, selected after a laboratory screening, was investigated outdoors in a low-cost 0.25 m2 GWP-II photobioreactor. The capacity of the selected strains to grow at high temperature was tested. On the basis of these results, in the nitrogen starvation trials the culture was cooled only when the temperature exceeded 40°C to allow for significant energy savings, and performed in a seawater-based medium to reduce the freshwater footprint. Under nutrient sufficiency, strain CH2 was the most productive. In all the strains, nitrogen starvation strongly reduced productivity, depressed protein and induced accumulation of carbohydrate (about 50%) in strains F&M-M49 and IAM C-212, and lipid (40 - 45%) in strains PROD1 and CH2. Starved cultures achieved high storage product productivities: 0.12 g L−1 d−1 of lipids for CH2 and 0.19 g L−1 d−1 of carbohydrates for F&M-M49. When extrapolated to large-scale in central Italy, CH2 showed a potential productivity of 41 t ha−1 y−1 for biomass, 16 t ha−1 y−1 for protein and 11 t ha−1 y−1 for lipid under nutrient sufficiency, and 8 t ha−1 y−1 for lipid under nitrogen starvation. Conclusions The environmental and economic sustainability of Chlorella production was enhanced by growing the organisms in a seawater-based medium, so as not to compete with crops for freshwater, and at high temperatures, so as to reduce energy consumption for cooling. All the four

  6. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  7. Fatigue damage accumulation in steel 45 under loading regimes involving low-cycle overloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyushenkov, A. P.; Tatarintsev, V. A.

    1994-05-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations into the regularities of fatigue damage accumulation in steel 45 under block loading involving elastoplastic (low-cycle) overloads. The experiments were carried out using the methods of the factorial design theory. Mathematical models are developed for damage accumulation depending on the variation of the parameters (factors) investigated: the level of the main (elastic) strain, the relative level of overloads, and their relative number.

  8. Lipid accumulation in prokaryotic microorganisms from arid habitats.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Philippa; Röttig, Annika; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Almakishah, Naief H; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    This review shall provide support for the suitability of arid environments as preferred location to search for unknown lipid-accumulative bacteria. Bacterial lipids are attracting more and more attention as sustainable replacement for mineral oil in fuel and plastic production. The development of prokaryotic microorganisms in arid desert habitats is affected by its harsh living conditions. Drought, nutrient limitation, strong radiation, and extreme temperatures necessitate effective adaption mechanisms. Accumulation of storage lipids as energy reserve and source of metabolic water represents a common adaption in desert animals and presumably in desert bacteria and archaea as well. Comparison of corresponding literature resulted in several bacterial species from desert habitats, which had already been described as lipid-accumulative elsewhere. Based on the gathered information, literature on microbial communities in hot desert, cold desert, and humid soil were analyzed on its content of lipid-accumulative bacteria. With more than 50% of the total community size in single studies, hot deserts appear to be more favorable for lipid-accumulative species then humid soil (≤20%) and cold deserts (≤17%). Low bacterial lipid accumulation in cold deserts is assumed to result from the influence of low temperatures on fatty acids and the increased necessity of permanent adaption methods.

  9. Modeling, Optimization, and Detailed Design of a Hydraulic Flywheel-Accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmaier, Kyle Glenn

    Improving mobile energy storage technology is an important means of addressing concerns over fossil fuel scarcity and energy independence. Traditional hydraulic accumulator energy storage, though favorable in power density, durability, cost, and environmental impact, suffers from relatively low energy density and a pressure-dependent state of charge. The hydraulic flywheel-accumulator concept utilizes both the hydro-pneumatic and rotating kinetic energy domains by employing a rotating pressure vessel. This thesis provides an in-depth analysis of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator concept and an assessment of the advantages it offers over traditional static accumulator energy storage. After specifying a practical architecture for the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator, this thesis addresses the complex fluid phenomena and control implications associated with multi-domain energy storage. To facilitate rapid selection of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator dimensions, computationally inexpensive material stress models are developed for each component. A drive cycle simulation strategy is also developed to assess the dynamic performance of the device. The stress models and performance simulation are combined to form a toolset that facilitates computationally-efficient model-based design. The aforementioned toolset has been embedded into a multi-objective optimization algorithm that aims to minimize the mass of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator system and to minimize the losses it incurs over the course of a drive cycle. Two optimizations have been performed - one with constraints that reflect a vehicle-scale application, and one with constraints that reflect a laboratory application. At both scales, the optimization results suggest that the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator offers at least an order of magnitude improvement over traditional static accumulator energy storage, while operating at efficiencies between 75% and 93%. A particular hydraulic flywheel-accumulator design

  10. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  11. [Isolation and characteristic of a moderately halophilic bacterium accumulated ectoine as main compatible solute].

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Wang, Ting; Sun, Ji-Quan; Gu, Li-Feng; Li, Shun-Peng

    2005-12-01

    A moderately halophilic bacterium(designated strain I15) was isolated from lawn soil. Based on the analysis of 16S rDNA (GenBank accession number DQ010162), morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain I15 was identified as Virgibacillus marismortuii. This strain was capable of growing under 0% approximately 25% NaCl, and exhibited an optimum NaCl concentration of 10% and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C and an optimum pH of 7.5 - 8.0 for its growth, respectively. Under hyperosmotic stress, strain 115 accumulated ectoine as the main compatible solute. Under 15% NaCl conditions the intracellar ectoine can reach to 1.608 mmol/(g x cdw), accounted for 89.6% of the total compatible solutes. The biosynthesis of ectoine was under the control of osmotic, and the accumulated ectoine synthesized intraceilularly can released under hypoosmotic shocks and resynthesis under hyperosmotic shock rapidly.

  12. Strain in strain-free benzenoid hydrocarbons: The case of phenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radenković, Slavko; Gutman, Ivan; Đorđević, Slađana

    2015-04-01

    Benzenoid molecules possessing bays are traditionally considered as 'strain-free'. Yet, repulsion between the two bay H-atoms affects the length of the near-lying carbon-carbon bonds. A method is developed to estimate the energy of this strain. In the case of phenanthrene its value was found to be about 7 kJ/mol.

  13. Metabolism of dibenzofuran by pseudomonas sp. strain HH69 and the mixed culture HH27

    SciTech Connect

    Fortnagel, P.; Harms, H.; Wittich, R.M. ); Krohn, S.; Meyer, H.; Sinnwell, V.; Wilkes, H.; Francke, W. )

    1990-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain, HH69, and a mixed culture, designated HH27, were isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples. The pure strain and the mixed culture grew aerobically on dibenzofuran as the sole source of carbon and energy. Degradation proceeded via salicylic acid which was branched into the gentisic acid and the catechol pathway. Both salicylic acid and gentisic acid accumulated in the culture medium of strain HH69. The acids were slowly metabolized after growth ceased. The enzymes responsible for their metabolism showed relatively low activities. Besides the above-mentioned acids, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, benzopyran-4-one (chrome), several 2-substituted chroman-4-ones, and traces of the four isomeric monohydroxydibenzofurans were identified in the culture medium. 2,2{prime},3-Trihydroxybiphenyl was isolated from the medium of a dibenzofuran-converting mutant derived from parent strain HH69, which can no longer grow on dibenzofuran. This gives evidence for a novel type of dioxygenases responsible for the attack on the biarylether structure of the dibenzofuran molecule. A meta-fission mechanism for cleavage of the dihydroxylated aromatic nucleus of 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxybiphenyl is suggested as the next enzymatic step in the degradative pathway.

  14. Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis produces methylamine, a volatile compound active against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Filomena; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Apuzzo, Gennaro Antonio; de Pascale, Donatella; Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato; Marino, Gennaro; Tutino, Maria Luisa

    2017-03-25

    The Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 has been reported to produce several Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are able to inhibit the growth of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) strains, opportunistic pathogens responsible for the infection of immune-compromised patients. However, no specific antibacterial VOCs have been identified to date. The purpose of the present study was to identify specific VOCs that contribute to Bcc inhibition by the Antarctic strain. When grown on defined medium containing D-gluconate and L-glutamate as carbon, nitrogen and energy sources, P. haloplanktis TAC125 is unable to inhibit the growth of Bcc strains. However, single addition of several amino acids to the defined medium restores the P. haloplanktis TAC125 inhibition ability. With the aim of identifying specific volatile compound/s responsible for Bcc inhibition, we set up an apparatus for VOC capture, accumulation, and storage. P. haloplanktis TAC125 was grown in an automatic fermenter which was connected to a cooling system to condense VOCs present in the exhaust air outlet. Upon addition of methionine to the growth medium, the VOC methylamine was produced by P. haloplanktis TAC125. Methylamine was found to inhibit the growth of several Bcc strains in a dose-dependent way. Although it was reported that P. haloplanktis TAC125 produces VOCs endowed with antimicrobial activity, this is the first demonstration that methylamine probably contributes to the anti-Bcc activity of P. haloplanktis TAC125 VOCs.

  15. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Materials were evaluated that could be used in manufacturing electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures at or above 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a characteristic response to strain, temperature and time that is reproducible or that varies in a predictable manner within specified limits. Several metallic alloys were evaluated, as well as a series of transition metal carbides, nitrides and silicides.

  16. The EmhABC efflux pump decreases the efficiency of phenanthrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LP6a.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail A; Smith, Angela Y; Gray, Murray R; Foght, Julia M

    2012-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LP6a, designated here as strain WEN (wild-type PAH catabolism, efflux positive), utilizes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as a carbon source but also extrudes it into the extracellular medium using the efflux pump EmhABC. Because phenanthrene is considered a nontoxic carbon source for P. fluorescens WEP, its energy-dependent efflux seems counter-productive. We hypothesized that the efflux of phenanthrene would decrease the efficiency of its biodegradation. Indeed, an emhB disruptant strain, wild-type PAH catabolism, efflux negative (WEN), biodegraded 44% more phenanthrene than its parent strain WEP during a 6-day incubation. To determine whether efflux affected the degree of oxidation of phenanthrene, we quantified the conversion of ¹⁴C-phenanthrene to radiolabeled polar metabolites and ¹⁴CO₂. The emhB⁻ WEN strain produced approximately twice as much ¹⁴CO₂ and radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites as the WEP strain. In contrast, the mineralization of ¹⁴C-glucose, which is not a known EmhB efflux substrate, was equivalent in both strains. An early open-ring metabolite of phenanthrene, trans-4-(1-hydroxynaphth-2-yl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid, also was found to be a substrate of the EmhABC pump and accumulated in the supernatant of WEP but not WEN cultures. The analogous open-ring metabolite of dibenzothiophene, a heterocyclic analog of phenanthrene, was extruded by EmhABC plus a putative alternative efflux pump, whereas the end product 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophene was not actively extruded from either WEP or WEN cells. These results indicate that the active efflux of phenanthrene and its early metabolite(s) decreases the efficiency of phenanthrene degradation by the WEP strain. This activity has implications for the bioremediation and biocatalytic transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles.

  17. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  18. GREEN FLUORESCENT PIGMENT ACCUMULATED BY A MUTANT OF CELLVIBRIO GILVUS.

    PubMed

    LOVE, S H; HULCHER, F H

    1964-01-01

    Love, Samuel H. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C.), and Frank H. Hulcher. Green fluorescent pigment accumulated by a mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus. J. Bacteriol. 87:39-45. 1964.-A mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus, designated strain 139A, liberated a green, fluorescent pigment into the surrounding culture medium. A study of the factors which affected the accumulation of this pigment led to the development of a chemically defined medium which supported maximal pigment accumulation in aerated, liquid cultures. d-Glucose, glycine or l-serine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, and l-lysine comprised the organic components of this medium. The visible absorption spectrum of the pigment showed a maximal band at 400 mmu (pH 7.0). A difference spectrum between reduced and oxidized pigment showed loss of the band at 400 mmu upon oxidation. However, a methanol-extractable, flavinelike compound occurred in the wild strain but not in the mutant. Ferric ions added to the defined medium stimulated growth, with a concomitant reduction of pigment accumulation. Pigment was formed at a maximal rate during the stationary growth phase, and the highest yield was obtained by 18 hr. Organic solvents did not extract the pigment from water solutions. One and sometimes two, compounds absorbing at 400 mmu could be eluted by ion-exchange chromatography on Cellex-P (H(+)), which was used to separate the pigment from other components in the culture supernatants so that the radioactivity of the pigment could be measured. The mutant synthesized C(14)-labeled pigment from d-glucose-U-C(14) and from each of four amino acids (glycine-1-C(14), l-phenylalanine-U-C(14), l-proline-U-C(14), and l-lysine-U-C(14). Delta-Amino-levulenic acid-4-C(14) did not contribute C(14) to the pigment.

  19. Arthrobacter strain VAI-A utilizes acyl-homoserine lactone inactivation products and stimulates quorum signal biodegradation by Variovorax paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Flagan, Suvi; Ching, Weng-Ki; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2003-02-01

    Many Proteobacteria produce acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) and employ them as dedicated cell-to-cell signals in a process known as quorum sensing. Previously, Variovorax paradoxus VAI-C was shown to utilize diverse acyl-HSLs as sole sources of energy and nitrogen. We describe here the properties of a second isolate, Arthrobacter strain VAI-A, obtained from the same enrichment culture that yielded V. paradoxus VAI-C. Although strain VAI-A grew rapidly and exponentially on a number of substrates, it grew only slowly and aberrantly (i.e., linearly) in media amended with oxohexanoyl-HSL as the sole energy source. Increasing the culture pH markedly improved the growth rate in media containing this substrate but did not abolish the aberrant kinetics. The observed growth was remarkably similar to the known kinetics of the pH-influenced half-life of acyl-HSLs, which decay chemically to yield the corresponding acyl-homoserines. Strain VAI-A grew rapidly and exponentially when provided with an acyl-homoserine as the sole energy or nitrogen source. The isolate was also able to utilize HSL as a sole source of nitrogen but not as energy for growth. V. paradoxus, known to release HSL as a product of quorum signal degradation, was examined for the ability to support the growth of Arthrobacter strain VAI-A in defined cocultures. It did. Moreover, the acyl-HSL-dependent growth rate and yield of the coculture were dramatically superior to those of the monocultures. This suggested that the original coenrichment of these two organisms from the same soil sample was not coincidental and that consortia may play a role in quorum signal turnover and mineralization. The fact that Arthrobacter strain VAI-A utilizes the two known nitrogenous degradation products of acyl-HSLs, acyl-homoserine and HSL, begins to explain why none of the three compounds are known to accumulate in the environment.

  20. Effect of pore pressure on damage accumulation in salt

    SciTech Connect

    PFEIFLE,T.W.; HURTADO,L. DIANE

    2000-06-12

    Laboratory data acquired from two multistage, triaxial compression creep experiments are presented for bedded salt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pore pressure changes on the accumulation of damage (dilatant volumetric strain). The first experiment comprised five constant total stress tests in which the internal pore pressure was incremented during successive stages, while the externally applied axial and radial stresses were maintained constant. The second experiment comprised three constant effective stress tests in which the pore pressure and the externally applied axial and radial stresses were increased in equal increments in successive stages. Volumetric strain rates were determined both before and after the pore pressure changes were made in all tests. The data suggest pore pressure changes made during the constant total stress tests have a greater effect on salt dilation than do changes made during the constant effective stress tests.

  1. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous ...

  2. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  3. Study of the degradation activity and the strategies to promote the bioavailability of phenanthrene by Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain 20006FA.

    PubMed

    Coppotelli, Bibiana M; Ibarrolaza, Agustin; Dias, Romina L; Del Panno, Maria T; Berthe-Corti, Luise; Morelli, Irma S

    2010-02-01

    The present study describes the phenanthrene-degrading activity of Sphingomonas paucimobilis 20006FA and its ability to promote the bioavailability of phenanthrene. S. paucimobilis 20006FA was isolated from a phenanthrene-contaminated soil microcosm. The strain was able to grow in liquid mineral medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole carbon source, showing high phenanthrene elimination (52.9% of the supplied phenanthrene within 20 days). The accumulation of 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and salicylic acid as major phenanthrene metabolites and the capacity of the strain to grow with sodium salicylate as the sole source of carbon and energy indicated that the S. paucimobilis 20006FA possesses a complete phenanthrene degradation pathway. However, under the studied conditions, the strain was able to mineralize only the 10% of the consumed phenanthrene. Investigations on the cell ability to promote bioavailability of phenanthrene showed that the S. paucimobilis strain 20006FA exhibited low cell hydrophobicity (0.13), a pronounced chemotaxis toward phenanthrene, and it was able to reduce the surface tension of mineral liquid medium supplemented with phenanthrene as sole carbon source. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that: (1) in suspension cultures, cells formed flocks and showed small vesicles on the cell surface and (2) cells were also able to adhere to phenanthrene crystals and to produce biofilms. Clearly, the strain seems to exhibit two different mechanisms to enhance phenanthrene bioavailability: biosurfactant production and adhesion to the phenanthrene crystals.

  4. Preferential Osmolyte Accumulation: a Mechanism of Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Diazotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Magdy A.; Smith, Linda Tombras; Smith, Gary M.

    1990-01-01

    A common cellular mechanism of osmotic-stress adaptation is the intracellular accumulation of organic solutes (osmolytes). We investigated the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in the diazotrophic bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are adversely affected by high osmotic strength (i.e., soil salinity and/or drought). We used natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify all the osmolytes accumulating in these strains during osmotic stress generated by 0.5 M NaCl. Evidence is presented for the accumulation of trehalose and glutamate in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4, proline and glutamate in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6, and trehalose and proline in K. pneumoniae. Glycine betaine was accumulated in all strains grown in culture media containing yeast extract as the sole nitrogen source. Alternative nitrogen sources (e.g., NH4Cl or casamino acids) in the culture medium did not result in measurable glycine betaine accumulation. We suggest that the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in these organisms entails the accumulation of osmolytes in hyperosmotically stressed cells resulting from either enhanced uptake from the medium (of glycine betaine, proline, and glutamate) or increased net biosynthesis (of trehalose, proline, and glutamate) or both. The preferred osmolyte in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4 shifted from glutamate to trehalose as a consequence of a prolonged osmotic stress. Also, the dominant osmolyte in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6 shifted from glutamate to proline accumulation as the osmotic strength of the medium increased. PMID:16348295

  5. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response.

  6. Engineering of a xylose metabolic pathway in Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaochao; Wang, Xi; Chen, Shulin

    2012-08-01

    The two metabolically versatile actinobacteria Rhodococcus opacus PD630 and R. jostii RHA1 can efficiently convert diverse organic substrates into neutral lipids mainly consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG), the precursor of energy-rich hydrocarbon. Neither, however, is able to utilize xylose, the important component present in lignocellulosic biomass, as the carbon source for growth and lipid accumulation. In order to broaden their substrate utilization range, the metabolic pathway of d-xylose utilization was introduced into these two strains. This was accomplished by heterogenous expression of two well-selected genes, xylA, encoding xylose isomerase, and xylB, encoding xylulokinase from Streptomyces lividans TK23, under the control of the tac promoter with an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector. The recombinant R. jostii RHA1 bearing xylA could grow on xylose as the sole carbon source, and additional expression of xylB further improved the biomass yield. The recombinant could consume both glucose and xylose in the sugar mixture, although xylose metabolism was still affected by the presence of glucose. The xylose metabolic pathway was also introduced into the high-lipid-producing strain R. opacus PD630 by expression of xylA and xylB. Under nitrogen-limited conditions, the fatty acid composition was determined, and lipid produced from xylose by recombinants of R. jostii RHA1 and R. opacus PD630 carrying xylA and xylB represented up to 52.5% and 68.3% of the cell dry weight (CDW), respectively. This work demonstrates that it is feasible to produce lipid from the sugars, including xylose, derived from renewable feedstock by genetic modification of rhodococcus strains.

  7. Convergent Replication of Mouse Synthetic Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Colby, David W.; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Hayashi, Shigenari; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the aberrant folding of endogenous proteins into self-propagating pathogenic conformers. Prion disease can be initiated in animal models by inoculation with amyloid fibrils formed from bacterially derived recombinant prion protein. The synthetic prions that accumulated in infected organisms are structurally distinct from the amyloid preparations used to initiate their formation and change conformationally on repeated passage. To investigate the nature of synthetic prion transformation, we infected mice with a conformationally diverse set of amyloids and serially passaged the resulting prion strains. At each passage, we monitored changes in the biochemical and biological properties of the adapting strain. The physicochemical properties of each synthetic prion strain gradually changed on serial propagation until attaining a common adapted state with shared physicochemical characteristics. These results indicate that synthetic prions can assume multiple intermediate conformations before converging into one conformation optimized for in vivo propagation. PMID:23438476

  8. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  9. Accumulation of trehalose by Escherichia coli K-12 at high osmotic pressure depends on the presence of amber suppressors

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, M.L. Alam, K.Y.; Cunningham, P.R.; Clark, D.P. )

    1988-08-01

    When grown at high osmotic pressure, some strains of Escherichia coli K-12 synthesized substantial levels of free sugar and accumulated proline if it was present in the growth medium. The sugar was identified as trehalose. Strains of E. coli K-12 could be divided into two major classes with respect of osmoregulation. Those of class A showed a large increase in trehalose levels with increasing medium osmolarity and also accumulated proline from the medium, whereas those in class B showed no accumulation of trehalose or proline. Most class A strains carried suppressor mutations which arose during their derivation from the wild type, whereas the osmodefective strains of class B were suppressor free. When amber suppressor mutations at the supD, supE, or supF loci were introduced into such sup{sup o} osmodefective strains, they became osmotolerant and gained the ability to accumulate trehalose in response to elevated medium osmolarity. It appears that the original K-12 strain of E. coli carries an amber mutation in a gene affecting osmoregulation. Mutants lacking ADP-glucose synthetase (glgC) accumulated trehalose normally, whereas mutants lacking UDP-glucose synthetase (galU) did not make trehalose and grew poorly in medium of high osmolarity. Trehalose synthesis was repressed by exogenous glycine betaine but not by proline.

  10. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  11. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  12. Effects of Acoustic Emission and Energy Evolution of Rock Specimens Under the Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingbin; Zhang, Mingwei; Han, Lijun; Pu, Hai; Nie, Taoyi

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics of energy accumulation, evolution, and dissipation in uniaxial cyclic loading and unloading compression of 30 sandstone rock specimens under six different loading rates were explored. Stress-strain relations and acoustic emission characteristics of the deformation and failure of rock specimens were analyzed. The densities and rates of stored energy, elastic energy, and dissipated energy under different loading rates were confirmed, and an effective approach for the equivalent energy surface was presented. The energy evolution of rock deformation and failure were revealed. It turns out that the rock deformation behavior under uniaxial cyclic loading and unloading compression remained almost unchanged compared with that of uniaxial compression. The degree of match between reloading stress-strain curves and previous unloading curves was high, thereby demonstrating the memory function of rock masses. The intensity of acoustic emission fluctuated continually during the entire cyclic process. Emissions significantly increased as the stress exceeded the unloading level. The peak of acoustic emission increased with increasing loading stress level. Relationships between energy density and axial load indicate that the rock mass possesses a certain energy storage limitation. The energy evolution of rock masses is closely related to the axial loading stress, rather than to the axial loading rate. With increasing axial loading stress, stored energy varied most rapidly, followed by that of the elastic energy, then dissipated energy. Energy accumulation dominates prior to the axial load reaching peak strength; thereafter, energy dissipation becomes dominant. The input energy causes the irreversible initiation and extension of microcracks in the rock body. Elastic energy release leads to sudden instability of rock bodies and drives rock damage.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a Klebsiella oxytoca strain for simultaneous azo-dye anaerobic reduction and bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing; Wu, Chao

    2012-07-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacteria strain GS-4-08, isolated from an anaerobic sequence batch reactor for synthetic dye wastewater treatment, was investigated for azo-dye decolorization. This bacterium was identified as a member of Klebsiella oxytoca based on Gram staining, morphology characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. It exhibited a good capacity of simultaneous decolorization and hydrogen production in the presence of electron donor. The hydrogen production was less affected even at a high Methyl Orange (MO) concentration of 0.5 mM, indicating a superior tolerability of this strain to MO. This efficient bio-hydrogen production from electron donor can not only avoid bacterial inhibition due to accumulation of volatile fatty acids during MO decolorization, but also can recover considerable energy from dye wastewater.

  14. Near-freezing effects on the proteome of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Tomás, Lidia; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Prieto, Jose A; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2016-03-10

    At near-freezing temperatures (0-4°C), the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae stops or is severely limited, and viability decreases. Under these conditions, yeast cells trigger a biochemical response, in which trehalose and glycerol accumulate and protect them against severe cold and freeze injury. However, the mechanisms that allow yeast cells to sustain this response have been not clarified. The effects of severe cold on the proteome of S. cerevisiae have been not investigated and its importance in providing cell survival at near-freezing temperatures and upon freezing remains unknown. Here, we have compared the protein profile of two industrial baker's yeast strains at 30°C and 4°C. Overall, a total of 16 proteins involved in energy-metabolism, translation and redox homeostasis were identified as showing increased abundance at 4°C. The predominant presence of glycolytic proteins among those upregulated at 4°C, likely represents a mechanism to maintain a constant supply of ATP for the synthesis of glycerol and other protective molecules. Accumulation of these molecules is by far the most important component in enhancing viability of baker's yeast strains upon freezing. Overexpression of genes encoding certain proteins associated with translation or redox homeostasis provided specifically protection against extreme cold damage, underlying the importance of these functions in the near-freezing response.

  15. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  16. Identification and Quantification of a Toxigenic and Non-Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain in Contaminated Maize Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Mylroie, J. Erik; Ozkan, Seval; Shivaji, Renuka; Windham, Gary L.; Alpe, Michael N.; Williams, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, which are produced by Aspergillus flavus, are toxic to humans, livestock, and pets. The value of maize (Zea mays) grain is markedly reduced when contaminated with aflatoxin. Plant resistance and biological control using non-toxin producing strains are considered effective strategies for reducing aflatoxin accumulation in maize grain. Distinguishing between the toxin and non-toxin producing strains is important in determining the effectiveness of bio-control strategies and understanding inter-strain interactions. Using polymorphisms found in the fungal rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS) between a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (NRRL 3357) and the non-toxigenic strain used in the biological control agent Afla-Guard® (NRRL 21882), we developed a set of primers that allows for the identification and quantification of the two strains using quantitative PCR. This primer set has been used to screen maize grain that was inoculated with the two strains individually and co-inoculated with both strains, and it has been shown to be effective in both the identification and quantification of both strains. Screening of co-inoculated ears from multiple resistant and susceptible genotypic crosses revealed no significant differences in fungal biomass accumulation of either strain in the field tests from 2010 and 2011 when compared across the means of all genotypes. Only one genotype/year combination showed significant differences in strain accumulation. Aflatoxin accumulation analysis showed that, as expected, genotypes inoculated with the toxigenic strain accumulated more aflatoxin than when co-inoculated with both strains or inoculated with only the non-toxigenic strain. Furthermore, accumulation of toxigenic fungal mass was significantly correlated with aflatoxin accumulation while non-toxigenic fungal accumulation was not. This primer set will allow researchers to better determine how the two fungal strains compete on the maize ear and investigate the interaction

  17. Accumulation of Polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and Its Involvement in Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

  18. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth.

  19. Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

    2014-03-01

    Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms.

  20. Conversion of grass biomass into fermentable sugars and its utilization for medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas strains.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reeta; Kataria, Rashmi; Cerrone, Federico; Woods, Trevor; Kenny, Shane; O'Donovan, Anthonia; Guzik, Maciej; Shaikh, Hamid; Duane, Gearoid; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Tuohy, Maria G; Padamatti, Ramesh Babu; Casey, Eoin; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the potential of grass biomass as a feedstock for mcl-PHA production. Pretreatments (2% NaOH at 120°C or hot water at 120°C) of perennial ryegrass were employed alone or in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid (SC/AA) delignification to evaluate the enzymatic digestibility and subsequent utilization of resultant sugars by Pseudomonas strains. NaOH pretreated sample had better digestibility than raw and hot water treated samples and this hydrolysate supported good growth of all tested strains with limited mcl-PHA (6-17% of cell dry mass (CDM)) accumulation. Digestibility of both untreated and pretreated samples was improved after SC/AA delignification and produced glucose (74-77%) rich hydrolysates. Tested strains accumulated 20-34% of CDM as PHA when these hydrolysates were used as sole carbon and energy source. CDM and PHA yields obtained for these strains when tested with laboratory grade sugars was similar to that achieved with grass derived sugars.

  1. Construction of an efficient xylose-fermenting diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain through mating of two engineered haploid strains capable of xylose assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Lee, Ki-Sung; Kong, In Iok; Lesmana, Anastashia; Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-03-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered for xylose fermentation through introduction of wild type or mutant genes (XYL1/XYL1 (R276H), XYL2, and XYL3) coding for xylose metabolic enzymes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. The resulting engineered strains, however, often yielded undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation. In this study, we performed the mating of two engineered strains that exhibit suboptimal xylose-fermenting phenotypes in order to develop an improved xylose-fermenting diploid strain. Specifically, we obtained two engineered haploid strains (YSX3 and SX3). The YSX3 strain consumed xylose rapidly and produced a lot of xylitol. On the contrary, the SX3 strain consumed xylose slowly with little xylitol production. After converting the mating type of SX3 from alpha to a, the resulting strain (SX3-2) was mated with YSX3 to construct a heterozygous diploid strain (KSM). The KSM strain assimilated xylose (0.25gxyloseh(-1)gcells(-1)) as fast as YSX3 and accumulated a small amount of xylitol (0.03ggxylose(-1)) as low as SX3, resulting in an improved ethanol yield (0.27ggxylose(-1)). We found that the improvement in xylose fermentation by the KSM strain was not because of heterozygosity or genome duplication but because of the complementation of the two xylose-metabolic pathways. This result suggested that mating of suboptimal haploid strains is a promising strategy to develop engineered yeast strains with improved xylose fermenting capability.

  2. Alkaloid synthesis and accumulation in Leucojum aestivum in vitro cultures.

    PubMed

    Berkov, Strahil; Pavlov, Atanas; Georgiev, Vasil; Bastida, Jaume; Burrus, Monique; Ilieva, Mladenka; Codina, Carles

    2009-03-01

    The alkaloids of intact plants, calli and shoot-clump cultures of L. aestivum were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-four alkaloids were detected. Calli appeared to produce sparse alkaloid profiles in stark contrast to shoot-clumps that had similar profiles to those of the intact plant. Seven shoot-clump strains produced galanthamine predominantly whereas another three were dominated by lycorine. Shoot-clump strains cultivated under light accumulated about two-times more galanthamine (an average of 74 microg/g of dry weight) than those cultivated in darkness (an average of 39 microg/g of dry weight). In comparison to intact plants, the shoot-clumps accumulated 5-times less galanthamine. The high variability of both the galanthamine content (67% and 75% of coefficient of variation under light and darkness conditions, respectively) and alkaloid patterns indicates that the shoot-clump cultures initiated from callus could be used as a tool for improvement of the in vitro cultures.

  3. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  4. Strain sensor comprising a strain sensitive, two-mode optical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strain sensor uses an optical fiber including a strain sensitive portion and at least one strain insensitive portion. The strain sensitive portion is mounted on the surface of a structure at a location where a strain is desired to be measured. The strain insensitive portion(s) may be fused to the strain sensitive portion to transmit light therethrough, so that the resulting pattern may be detected to determine the amount of strain by comparison with a similar fiber not subjected to strain, or with the light pattern produced when the fiber is not under strain.

  5. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  6. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  7. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making the same is disclosed. A beryllium copper ring having four strain gages is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to the output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of a ring which provides an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A photographic pattern of a one half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium copper for chem-mill etch formation is illustrated.

  8. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  9. Nanostructured bulk copper fabricated by accumulative roll bonding.

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Lee, Seong-Hee; Lim, Cha-Yong; Kim, Sang-Shik; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we tried to fabricate the nanostructured bulk copper alloys by a severe plastic deformation process. The sheets of copper alloys (OFC, PMC90, and DLP) were heavily deformed to an equivalent strain of 6.4 by the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. The microstructure and the mechanical property of the fabricated specimens were systematically investigated. The microstructure was finely subdivided with increasing the equivalent strain by the ARB process. The severely deformed copper alloys exhibited the ultrafine lamellar boundary structure where the mean lamella spacing was about 200 nm. The strength significantly increased with decreasing the lamella spacing in the ARB processed copper alloys. Especially, the tensile strength of the DLP alloys ARB processed by 8 cycles (the equivalent strain of 6.4) reached to 520 MPa, which was about three times higher than that of same materials with conventional grain size of 10-100 microm. On the other hand, the total elongation greatly dropped only by 1 ARB cycle corresponding to an equivalent strain of 0.8, which was around 3%. However, the total elongation increased again with increasing the number of the ARB cycle, and it reached to 10% after 8 cycles. The recovery of the total elongation could be recognized in all studied copper alloys. The obtained stress-strain curves showed that the improvement of the total elongation was caused by the increase in the post-uniform elongation. It can be concluded that the nanostructured copper alloys sheets having high strength without a large loss of ductility could be fabricated by the ARB process.

  10. Accumulation boundaries: codimension-two accumulation of accumulations in phase diagrams of semiconductor lasers, electric circuits, atmospheric and chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason Alfredo Carlson

    2008-02-28

    We report high-resolution phase diagrams for several familiar dynamical systems described by sets of ordinary differential equations: semiconductor lasers; electric circuits; Lorenz-84 low-order atmospheric circulation model; and Rössler and chemical oscillators. All these systems contain chaotic phases with highly complicated and interesting accumulation boundaries, curves where networks of stable islands of regular oscillations with ever-increasing periodicities accumulate systematically. The experimental exploration of such codimension-two boundaries characterized by the presence of infinite accumulation of accumulations is feasible with existing technology for some of these systems.

  11. Growth strain in coconut palm trees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan S; Chen, Shin S; Lin, Tsan P; Chen, Yuh S

    2002-03-01

    Until recently, growth stress studies have been made only on coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. Growth stress of trees is thought to be initiated in newly formed secondary xylem cells. This stress can accumulate for years and is distributed inside the trunk. Major characteristics of the trunk of monocotyledonous trees include numerous vascular bundles scattered inside the ground tissue and the lack of secondary growth for enlarging the diameter of the trunk. We used the strain gauge method to measure the released growth strain of the monocotyledonous woody palm, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and to investigate the surface growth strain of the trunk and central cylinder at different trunk heights. The internal strains of both vertical and leaning trunks were measured and compared with those of coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. We found that tensile stress existed longitudinally on the surface of vertically growing trunks, whereas compression stress was found at the bending position of leaning trunks. Compression stress was found in the outer part of the central cylinder, whereas tensile stress is generally found in the outer part of the trunk in coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. The distribution of strain in the palm trunk is similar to that of compression wood of the leaning trunk of a conifer. Specific gravity was greater in the outer part of the trunk than in the inner part of the trunk. This difference may be related to the distribution of growth stress.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Chlorella vulgaris: Potential targets for enhanced lipid accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Nag, Ambarish; Yang, Shihui; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2013-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are capable of producing large quantities of fatty acids and triacylglycerides. As such, they are promising feedstocks for the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Genetic strain-engineering strategies offer a means to accelerate the commercialization of algal biofuels by improving the rate and total accumulation of microalgal lipids. However, the industrial potential of these organisms remains to be met, largely due to the incomplete knowledgebase surrounding the mechanisms governing the induction of algal lipid biosynthesis. Such strategies require further elucidation of genes and gene products controlling algal lipid accumulation. In this study, we have set out to examine these mechanisms and identify novel strain-engineering targets in the oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Comparative shotgun proteomic analyses have identified a number of novel targets, including previously unidentified transcription factors and proteins involved in cell signaling and cell cycle regulation. These results lay the foundation for strain-improvement strategies and demonstrate the power of translational proteomic analysis.

  13. Impact on growth and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Kluyveromyces isolates at different water activity conditions.

    PubMed

    Penna, Mariángeles La; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2006-11-01

    This study showed the impact on germination, mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) accumulation when interacting Aspergillus aflatoxigenic strains with Kluyveromyces isolates and the effect of water activity on this relationship. Isolates Y(14) and Y(16) reduced the percentage of germination of all Aspergillus strains and decrease germ tube elongation rate at majority of water activity assayed. Similarly they produced an increase of germination lag phase and lag phase of growth beside decreased growth rate of all Aspergillus strains. At water activities 0.994, 0.982, 0.955 and 0.937, no aflatoxins were produced in paired cultures with isolates Y(25,) Y(22), Y(16), and Y(14), and Kluyveromyces isolates Y(14) and Y(16) impact both growth and aflatoxin accumulation at wide range of water activity.

  14. Modal Acoustic Emission of Damage Accumulation in Woven SiC/SiC at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites exhibit significant nonlinear stress-strain behavior that makes them attractive as potential materials for many high temperature applications. The mechanisms for this nonlinear stress-strain behavior are all associated with various types of damage in the composites, e.g. transverse matrix cracks and individual fiber failures. Modal acoustic emission has been employed to aid in discerning the damage accumulation that occurs during elevated temperature tensile stress-rupture of woven Hi-Nicalon fiber, BN interphase, SiC matrix composites. It is shown that modal acoustic emission is an effective monitor of the relative damage accumulation in the composites and locator of the damage and failure events as a function of strain (stress), time at temperature, and temperature gradients along the length of the elevated temperature test specimen.

  15. A 2000-year annual record of snow accumulation rates for Law Dome, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Plummer, C.; Vance, T.; van Ommen, T.; Moy, A.; Poynter, S.; Treverrow, A.; Curran, M.; George, S.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate high-resolution records of snow accumulation rates in Antarctica are crucial for estimating ice sheet mass balance and subsequent sea level change. Snowfall rates at Law Dome, East Antarctica, have been linked with regional atmospheric circulation to the mid-latitudes as well as regional Antarctic snowfall. Here, we extend the length of the Law Dome accumulation record from 750 years to 2035 years, using recent annual layer dating that extends to 22 BCE. Accumulation rates were calculated as the ratio of measured to modelled layer thicknesses, multiplied by the long-term mean accumulation rate. The modelled layer thicknesses were based on a power-law vertical strain rate profile fitted to observed annual layer thickness. The periods 380-442, 727-783 and 1970-2009 CE have above-average snow accumulation rates, while 663-704, 933-975 and 1429-1468 CE were below average, and decadal-scale snow accumulation anomalies were found to be relatively common (74 events in the 2035-year record). The calculated snow accumulation rates show good correlation with atmospheric reanalysis estimates, and significant spatial correlation over a wide expanse of East Antarctica, demonstrating that the Law Dome record captures larger-scale variability across a large region of East Antarctica well beyond the immediate vicinity of the Law Dome summit. Spectral analysis reveals periodicities in the snow accumulation record which may be related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) frequencies.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of caesium and strontium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Heuck, Sabine; Gerstmann, Udo C; Michalke, Bernhard; Kanter, Ulrike

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs and (90)Sr contribute to significant and long-lasting contamination of the environment with radionuclides. Due to their relatively high biological availability, they are transferred rapidly into biotic systems and may enter the food chain. In this study, we analysed 4862 haploid yeast knockout strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes involved in caesium (Cs(+)) and/or strontium (Sr(2+)) accumulation. According to this analysis, 212 mutant strains were associated with reproducible altered Cs(+) and/or Sr(2+) accumulation. These mutants were deficient for a wide range of cellular processes. Among those, the vacuolar function and biogenesis turned out to be crucial for both Cs(+) and Sr(2+) accumulation. Disruption of the vacuole diminished Cs(+) accumulation, whereas Sr(2+) enrichment was enhanced. Further analysis with a subset of the identified candidates were undertaken comparing the accumulation of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) with their essential counterparts potassium (K(+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)). Sr(2+) and Ca(2+) accumulation was highly correlated in yeast excluding the possibility of a differential regulation or uptake mechanisms. In direct contrast, the respective results suggest that Cs(+) uptake is at least partially dependent on mechanisms distinct from K(+) uptake. Single candidates (e.g. KHA1) are presented which might be specifically responsible for Cs(+) homeostasis.

  17. Cell division modulates prion accumulation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Perkins, Beth; Ullman, Julie; May, Barnaby C H; Cohen, Fred E; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-11-13

    The phenotypic effect of prions on host cells is influenced by the physical properties of the prion strain and its level of accumulation. In mammalian cell cultures, prion accumulation is determined by the interplay between de novo prion formation, catabolism, cell division, and horizontal cell-to-cell transmission. Understanding this dynamic enables the analytical modeling of protein-based heritability and infectivity. Here, we quantitatively measured these competing effects in a subline of neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and propose a concordant reaction mechanism to explain the kinetics of prion propagation. Our results show that cell division leads to a predictable reduction in steady-state prion levels but not to complete clearance. Scrapie-infected N2a cells were capable of accumulating different steady-state levels of prions, dictated partly by the rate of cell division. We also show that prions in this subline of N2a cells are transmitted primarily from mother to daughter cells, rather than horizontal cell-to-cell transmission. We quantitatively modeled our kinetic results based on a mechanism that assumes a subpopulation of prions is capable of self-catalysis, and the levels of this subpopulation reach saturation in fully infected cells. Our results suggest that the apparent effectiveness of antiprion compounds in culture may be strongly influenced by the growth phase of the target cells.

  18. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  19. Accumulation of 1-deoxynojirimycin in silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hao; Shi, Xin-qin; Sun, Bo; Ye, Jing-jing; Duan, Zu-an; Zhou, Xiao-ling; Cui, Wei-zheng; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2010-01-01

    1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) contents in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, at different developmental stages and tissues were investigated by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 1-DNJ contents of silkworm larvae change significantly with their developmental stages. The male larvae showed higher accumulation efficiency of 1-DNJ than the females and also a significant variation was observed among the silkworm strains. The present results show that tissue distribution of 1-DNJ was significantly higher in blood, digestive juice, and alimentary canal, but no 1-DNJ was observed in the silkgland. Moreover, 1-DNJ was not found in silkworms fed with artificial diet that does not contain mulberry leaf powder. This proves that silkworms obtain 1-DNJ from mulberry leaves; they could not synthesize 1-DNJ by themselves. The accumulation and excretion of 1-DNJ change periodically during the larval stage. There was no 1-DNJ in the newly-hatched larvae and 1-DNJ was mainly accumulated during the early and middle stages of every instar, while excreted at later stages of larval development. Further, it is possible to extract 1-DNJ from the larval feces and it is optimal to develop the 1-DNJ related products for diabetic auxiliary therapy. PMID:20349525

  20. Cranberry Product Decreases Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quancai; Yue, Yiren; Shen, Peiyi; Yang, Jeremy J; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-04-01

    Cranberry phenolic compounds have been linked to many health benefits. A recent report suggested that cranberry bioactives inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the cranberry product (CP) on lipid metabolism using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. CP (0.016% and 0.08%) dose-dependently reduced overall fat accumulation in C. elegans (N2, wild type) by 43% and 74%, respectively, without affecting its pumping rates or locomotive activities. CP decreased fat accumulation in aak-2 (an ortholog of AMP-activated kinase α) and tub-1 (an ortholog of TUBBY) mutants significantly, but only minimal effects were observed in sbp-1 (an ortholog of sterol response element-binding protein-1) and nhr-49 (an ortholog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) mutant strains. We further confirmed that CP downregulated sbp-1, cebp, and hosl-1 (an ortholog of hormone-sensitive lipase homolog) expression, while increasing the expression of nhr-49 in wild-type C. elegans. These results suggest that CP could effectively reduce fat accumulation in C. elegans dependent on sbp-1, cebp, and nhr-49, but not aak-2 and tub-1.

  1. Uptake of phenylacetic acid by two strains of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, S H; Soderblom, T B; Jensen, B; Olsen, J

    1998-11-05

    Uptake of phenylacetic acid, the side-chain precursor of benzylpenicillin, was studied in Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 and in a strain yielding high levels of penicillin. In penicillin fermentations with the high-yielding strain, 100% recovery of phenylacetic acid in benzylpenicillin was found, whereas in the Wisconsin strain only 17% of the supplied phenylacetic acid was incorporated into benzylpenicillin while the rest was metabolized. Accumulation of total phenylacetic acid-derived carbon in the cells was nonsaturable in both strains at high external concentrations of phenylacetic acid (250-3500 microM), and in the high-yielding strain at low phenylacetic acid concentrations (2. 8-100 microM), indicating that phenylacetic acid enters the cells by simple diffusion, as concluded earlier for P. chrysogenum by other authors. However, at low external concentrations of phenylacetic acid saturable accumulation appeared in the Wisconsin strain. HPLC-analyses of cell extracts from the Wisconsin strain showed that phenylacetic acid was metabolized immediately after entry into the cells and different [14C]-labeled metabolites were detected in the cells. Up to approximately 50% of the accumulated phenylacetic acid was metabolized during the transport-assay period, the conversion having an impact on the uptake experiments. Nevertheless, accumulation of free unchanged phenylacetic acid in the cells showed saturation kinetics, suggesting the possible involvement of a high-affinity carrier in uptake of phenylacetic acid in P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255. At high concentrations of phenylacetic acid, contribution to uptake by this carrier is minor in comparison to simple diffusion and therefore, of no importance in the industrial production of penicillin.

  2. Manipulating RuBisCO accumulation in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Xenie

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear factor, Maturation/stability of RbcL (MRL1), regulates the accumulation of the chloroplast rbcL gene transcript in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by stabilising the mRNA via its 5' UTR. An absence of MRL1 in algal mrl1 mutants leads to a complete absence of RuBisCO large subunit protein and thus a lack of accumulation of the RuBisCO holoenzyme. By complementing mrl1 mutants by random transformation of the nuclear genome with the MRL1 cDNA, different levels of rbcL transcript accumulate. We also observe that RuBisCO Large Subunit accumulation is perturbed. Complemented strains accumulating as little as 15% RuBisCO protein can grow phototrophically while RuBisCO in this range is limiting for phototrophic growth. We also observe that photosynthetic activity, here measured by the quantum yield of PSII, appears to be a determinant for phototrophic growth. In some strains that accumulate less RuBisCO, a strong production of reactive oxygen