Science.gov

Sample records for accumulated substantial amounts

  1. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine contains Substantial and Unexpected Amounts of Defective Viral Genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Gould, Philip S; Easton, Andrew J; Dimmock, Nigel J

    2017-09-21

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist(®) was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013-2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI) viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuation of infection, reduction of infectious virus yield, and stimulation of some immune responses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by cloning and sequencing showed that Fluenz™ vaccine contains unexpected and substantial amounts of DI RNA arising from both its influenza A and influenza B components, with 87 different DI RNA sequences identified. Flu A DI RNAs from segment 3 replaced the majority of the genomic full-length segment 3, thus compromising its infectivity. DI RNAs arise during vaccine production and non-infectious DI virus replaces infectious virus pro rata so that fewer doses of the vaccine can be made. Instead the vaccine carries a large amount of non-infectious but biologically active DI virus. The presence of DI RNAs could significantly reduce the multiplication in the respiratory tract of the vaccine leading to reduced immunizing efficacy and could also stimulate the host antiviral responses, further depressing vaccine multiplication. The role of DI viruses in the performance of this and other vaccines requires further investigation.

  2. 26 CFR 1.1342-1 - Computation of tax where taxpayer recovers substantial amount held by another under claim of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Claim of Right § 1.1342-1 Computation of tax where taxpayer recovers substantial amount held by... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Computation of tax where taxpayer recovers substantial amount held by another under claim of right; effective date. 1.1342-1 Section 1.1342-1...

  3. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-09-22

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  4. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  5. Warming in the Yukon River Basin is Likely to Release Substantial Amounts of Soil Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Huntington, T. G.

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in northwestern Canada and central Alaska has experienced a substantial warming trend resulting in a variety of geophysical and biological responses. Climatologic measurements consistent with rapid warming in the YRB during the last several decades of the 20th century include surface air temperature (especially daily minima), number of frost-free days, and the number of very warm days. During the 20th century daily maxima in the warm season in the YRB have increased only weakly, and modest autumn cooling occurred. Indirect indicators of warming include shrinkage in lake area, decreases in glacier mass, increased fire frequency and annual area burned, and changes in permafrost thickness and permafrost temperature. Changes in tree growth rates and susceptibility to pests have been related to warming and drying in interior Alaska. Oral histories of Alaska Natives have also revealed many other warming related changes in the YRB. If ongoing warming trends continue there is a concern that large stores of soil organic carbon (SOC) will be at risk for release to the atmosphere through heterotrophic decomposition. Warming tends to accelerate microbial decomposition at a faster rate than net primary productivity. One of the most important effects of warming in the YRB is likely to be its influence on the hydrologic and cryospheric regimes. Warming may be accompanied by soil drying and lowering of the water table in wetlands and lakes exposing more SOC to aerobic decomposition. A substantial portion of the YRB is underlain by permafrost that thaws to a variable depth (active layer) each summer. Increasing the thickness of the active layer exposes more SOC to microbial decomposition. Increasing the burned area results in direct SOC losses by oxidation during the fire and decreases albedo that warms surface soils and increases the thickness of the active layer. Warming and increasing length of the growing season increases seasonal

  6. Accumulation of worn-out GBM material substantially contributes to mesangial matrix expansion in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Wilhelm; Löwen, Jana; Federico, Giuseppina; van den Born, Jacob; Gröne, Elisabeth; Gröne, Hermann Josef

    2017-06-01

    Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and expansion of the mesangial matrix are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy (DN), generally considered to emerge from different sites of overproduction: GBM components from podocytes and mesangial matrix from mesangial cells. Reevaluation of 918 biopsies with DN revealed strong evidence that these mechanisms are connected to each other, wherein excess GBM components fail to undergo degradation and are deposited in the mesangium. These data do not exclude that mesangial cells also synthesize components that contribute to the accumulation of matrix in the mesangium. Light, electron microscopic, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization studies clearly show that the thickening of the GBM is due not only to overproduction of components of the mature GBM (α3 and α5 chains of collagen IV and agrin) by podocytes but also to resumed increased synthesis of the α1 chain of collagen IV and of perlecan by endothelial cells usually seen during embryonic development. We hypothesize that these abnormal production mechanisms are caused by different processes: overproduction of mature GBM-components by the diabetic milieu and regression of endothelial cells to an embryonic production mode by decreased availability of mediators from podocytes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  9. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  10. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications.

  11. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  12. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  13. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10(-2) [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  14. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  15. Distribution of mercury in metallothionein-null mice after exposure to mercury vapor: amount of metallothionein isoform does not affect accumulation of mercury in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Akiko; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contribution of metallothionein (MT) to mercury accumulation in mouse tissues, 129 strain female mice and MT null mice were exposed to metallic mercury vapor at a sub-toxic level, and Hg levels in the brain, kidney and liver were determined on 1, 3 and 7 days after the exposure. After exposure to mercury vapor, significant Hg accumulation was observed in the brains of wild-type and MT-I/II null and MT-III null mice, as well as in the liver and kidneys. No strain difference was observed in the tissue Hg accumulations 24 hr after the exposure except for the kidneys, where the highest accumulation was found in MT-III null mice. Although the brains of MT-III null mice showed slightly higher Hg accumulation than the other two strains, no significant difference was observed except in the cerebrum on Day 7. Gel chromatograms of cerebrum soluble fractions revealed that a significant amount of Hg existed as an MT-bound form in all the mouse strains. On the other hand, MT-bound Hg was found as a minor fraction in soluble fractions of the kidneys and livers in wild-type and MT-III null mice. Despite a significant strain difference in total MT levels in the cerebrum, there was no difference among the three strains in the amount of Hg accumulated in the cerebrum and its distribution rates in MT fractions. The present study demonstrated that brain uptake of Hg(0) and its accumulation as Hg(2+) did not depend on the amount of MT isoform in the tissue, at least in the early phase.

  16. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  17. Abdominal admittance helps to predict the amount of fluid accumulation in patients with acute heart failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tatsunori; Hamano, Go; Koide, Masao; Hirooka, Keiji; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Ohtani, Tomohito; Sakata, Yasushi; Yasumura, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    Predicting fluid volume that needs to be removed in acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) patients remains challenging. Thoracic admittance (TA), the reciprocal of thoracic impedance measured by bioelectrical impedance, reflects the amount of fluid in the thorax. Abdominal organs play an important role in AHFS as systemic fluid reservoirs. We investigated the relationship between abdominal admittance (AA) at the time of admission for AHFS and net fluid loss (NFL) during hospitalization. Sixty-two consecutive patients hospitalized for AHFS [age 71±10 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 39±17%] were studied. The admittance values, i.e. the reciprocals of the impedance values, were derived using a BioZ(®) (CardioDynamics, San Diego, CA, USA). The change in weight from admission to discharge was used as a surrogate of amount of NFL. At the time of admission, a significant correlation was detected between TA and AA (r=0.46, p=0.0001). TA at admission was significantly correlated with the LV structural variables (end-diastolic dimension and end-systolic dimension), and serum sodium level. AA at admission was significantly correlated with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and plasma BNP, and also correlated with LVEF and variables related to systemic congestion [minimal inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and tricuspid regurgitation grade]. Neither TA nor AA values were significantly correlated with weight at admission. During hospitalization, TA and AA declined from 44±8kΩ(-1) to 36±6kΩ(-1) (p<0.0001) and from 74±25kΩ(-1) to 56±17kΩ(-1) (p<0.0001), respectively. Weight fell from 60.1±10.8kg to 54.5±9.4kg (p<0.0001), while NFL was 5.8kg (range, 0.1-17.5kg). In univariate analyses, the admission NYHA class, TA, AA, weight, and IVC diameter correlated with NFL. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only admission weight [standardized partial regression coefficient (SPRC)=0.596], AA (SPRC=0.529), and NYHA class (SPRC=0.277) were independent

  18. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  19. Tetraena mongolica Maxim can accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol in phloem cells and xylem parenchyma of stems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Geliang; Lin, Qingqing; Xu, Yinong

    2007-08-01

    Tetraena mongolica Maxim is a narrowly monotypic genus of Zygophyllaceae found in a very limited area in the western part of Inner Mongolia, China. The plant is called "oil firewood" and its stems and branches are used as fuelwood. As triacylglycerol (TAG) is the main component of the plant oil, the TAG content was analyzed, as were the distribution of oleosomes in different tissues of the stem. This was in order to ascertain whether the term "oil firewood" referred to this storage lipid. Stems of T. mongolica indeed contained high levels of TAG (approximately 46 mg/g of dry matter or DM). The concentration of TAG in phloem (90 mg/g of DM) was much higher than that in xylem (20mg/g of DM), and semi-thin sections stained by Sudan Black B showed that almost all cells in the phloem contained oleosomes whereas in the xylem, oleosomes were found only in parenchymatous cells. These results suggest that T. mongolica has a high capacity to accumulate TAG in its stem cells.

  20. One Week of Bed Rest Leads to Substantial Muscle Atrophy and Induces Whole-Body Insulin Resistance in the Absence of Skeletal Muscle Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Marlou L; Wall, Benjamin T; van de Valk, Bas; Holloway, Tanya M; Holloway, Graham P; Chabowski, Adrian; Goossens, Gijs H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-10-01

    Short (<10 days) periods of muscle disuse, often necessary for recovery from illness or injury, lead to various negative health consequences. The current study investigated mechanisms underlying disuse-induced insulin resistance, taking into account muscle atrophy. Ten healthy, young males (age: 23 ± 1 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.9 kg · m(-2)) were subjected to 1 week of strict bed rest. Prior to and after bed rest, lean body mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA; computed tomography) were assessed, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and leg strength were determined. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Additionally, muscle biopsies were collected to assess muscle lipid (fraction) content and various markers of mitochondrial and vascular content. Bed rest resulted in 1.4 ± 0.2 kg lean tissue loss and a 3.2 ± 0.9% decline in quadriceps CSA (both P < 0.01). VO2peak and one-repetition maximum declined by 6.4 ± 2.3 (P < 0.05) and 6.9 ± 1.4% (P < 0.01), respectively. Bed rest induced a 29 ± 5% decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01). This was accompanied by a decline in muscle oxidative capacity, without alterations in skeletal muscle lipid content or saturation level, markers of oxidative stress, or capillary density. In conclusion, 1 week of bed rest substantially reduces skeletal muscle mass and lowers whole-body insulin sensitivity, without affecting mechanisms implicated in high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. [Water-holding characteristics and accumulation amount of the litters under main forest types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Ling, Lei; Zhang, Guang-zhong; Yan, Pei-bin; Tao, Ji-xin; Chai, Chun-shan; Xue, Rui

    2011-10-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory soaking extraction, an investigation was conducted on the accumulation amount, water-holding capacity, water-holding rate, and water-absorption rate of the litters under six main forests (Picea wilsonii forest, P. wilsonii - Betula platyphlla forest, Populus davidiana - B. platyphlla forest, Cotonester multiglorus - Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest) in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu. The accumulation amount of the litters under the forests was 13.40-46.32 t hm(-2), and in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus-R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litter storage of coniferous forests was greater than that of broadleaved forests, and the storage percentage of semi-decomposed litters was all higher than that of un-decomposed litters. The maximum water-holding rate of the litters was 185.5%-303.6%, being the highest for L. principis-rupprechtii forest and the lowest for P. tabulaeformis forest. The litters' water-holding capacity changed logarithmically with their soaking time. For coniferous forests, un-decomposed litters had a lower water-holding rate than semi-decomposed litters; whereas for broadleaved forests, it was in adverse. The maximum water-holding capacity of the litters varied from 3.94 mm to 8.59 mm, and was in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus - R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litters' water-holding capacity also changed logarithmically with immersing time, and the half-decomposed litters had a larger water-holding capacity than un-decomposed litters. The water-absorption rate of the litters presented a power function with immersing time. Within the first one hour of immersed in water, the

  2. Effects of different amounts and types of dietary fatty acids on the body weight, fat accumulation, and lipid metabolism in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Hua; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Chi-Long; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Chien, Yi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different amounts of dietary fatty acids on body weight, fat accumulation, and lipid metabolism of hamsters. Sixty male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six groups. Three of the groups (the S groups) were fed experimental diets containing 5%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) fat of soybean oil (S5, S15, and S20, respectively), and the other three groups (the M groups) were fed the same proportions of an experimental oil mixture (M5, M15, and M20, respectively). The experimental oil mixture consisted of 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio of 5 with a mixture of soybean and canola oils. Food consumption was measured daily, and body weights were measured weekly. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were measured and hepatic fatty acid metabolic enzymes and adipose differentiation markers were determined using an enzyme activity analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the weight and weight gain of the S20 group were significantly greater than those of the other five groups. When the total fat consumption increased, the body weight, weight gain, and adipose tissue weight of the S groups significantly increased, but there were no significant differences in these parameters among the M groups. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the M15 and S15 groups. The S20 group had significantly higher leptin and insulin concentrations and lipoprotein lipase was promoted, but the acetyl-coenzyme A oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, were significantly lower. The study demonstrated that a special experimental oil mixture (with 60% MUFAs and a ratio of 5) with high fat can prevent body weight gain and body fat accumulation by lowering insulin concentrations and increasing hepatic lipolytic enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acidophilic Green Alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 Accumulates High Amount of Lipid Droplets under a Nitrogen-Depleted Condition at a Low-pH

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0–5.0 and a temperature 20–25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  4. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  5. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  6. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  7. Where will large amounts of materials accumulated within the economy go?--A material flow analysis of construction minerals for Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seiji; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    For all countries analyzed so far, Material Flow Analysis/Accounting (MFA) studies indicate that the overall stock of materials within the economy is growing. Most are construction minerals such as asphalt, cement, sand and gravel, crushed stone, and other aggregates. In the analyses described in this paper, flows and stocks of construction minerals were estimated for Japan from the past to the future to elucidate: (1) the mechanisms by which construction minerals become waste, and (2) the future supply of and demand for recycled crushed stone. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The amounts of waste construction minerals generated have been and will be at much lower levels than the domestic demand for construction minerals. These differences might indicate consistent growth of the stock of construction minerals, which will become waste in the future. However, certain amounts of materials that we account for as stock can be interpreted already in the environment as dead stock or dissipated waste; such materials can be called "missing stock" or "dissipated stock". Capturing that missing or dissipated stock is very important because it provides information that clarifies the environmental impacts and loss of resources that these materials cause; it allows estimation of appropriate future waste generation. (2) The amount of construction minerals that are recognized as waste was estimated to increase in the future. An imbalance in the supply of and demand for recycled crushed stone will likely occur in the near future if an expected decline in future road construction is considered.

  8. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  10. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  11. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  12. Substantially oxygen-free contact tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  13. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  14. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  15. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  16. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  17. The Constitution of the Human Embryo as Substantial Change

    PubMed Central

    Alvargonzález, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the transformation from the human zygote to the implanted embryo under the prism of substantial change. After a brief introduction, it vindicates the Aristotelian ideas of substance and accident, and those of substantial and accidental change. It then claims that the transformation from the multicelled zygote to the implanted embryo amounts to a substantial change. Pushing further, it contends that this substantial change cannot be explained following patterns of genetic reductionism, emergence, and self-organization, and proposes Gustavo Bueno’s idea of anamorphosis as a means to encapsulate criticism against such positions. PMID:26850033

  18. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  19. A substantial amount of hidden magnetic energy in the quiet Sun.

    PubMed

    Bueno, J Trujillo; Shchukina, N; Ramos, A Asensio

    2004-07-15

    Deciphering and understanding the small-scale magnetic activity of the quiet solar photosphere should help to solve many of the key problems of solar and stellar physics, such as the magnetic coupling to the outer atmosphere and the coronal heating. At present, we can see only approximately 1 per cent of the complex magnetism of the quiet Sun, which highlights the need to develop a reliable way to investigate the remaining 99 per cent. Here we report three-dimensional radiative transfer modelling of scattering polarization in atomic and molecular lines that indicates the presence of hidden, mixed-polarity fields on subresolution scales. Combining this modelling with recent observational data, we find a ubiquitous tangled magnetic field with an average strength of approximately 130 G, which is much stronger in the intergranular regions of solar surface convection than in the granular regions. So the average magnetic energy density in the quiet solar photosphere is at least two orders of magnitude greater than that derived from simplistic one-dimensional investigations, and sufficient to balance radiative energy losses from the solar chromosphere.

  20. Method of manufacture of blast furnace cokes containing substantial amounts of low grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Takahashi, H.; Tsuyuguchi, M.

    1982-03-09

    Blast furnace coke containing low grade coal in a high blending ratio is manufactured by a method which comprises blending not less than 60% of a blended coal having an adjusted total moisture content of not more than 4% with not more than 40% of briquettes and carbonizing the resultant mixture. The blended coal consists essentially of not less than 80% of coking coal and not more than 20% of low grade coal. When coking coal of a kind which has its coking property segregated according to its grain size distribution is pulverized and classified by sifting and the portion of fine particles is used as mixed with the coking coal, the blending ratio of the low grade coal in the blended coal can be increased to up to 35%. The briquettes consist essentially of not less than 10% of coking coal and not more than 90% of low grade coal.

  1. Some conifer clades contribute substantial amounts of leaf waxes to sedimentary archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Wing, S. L.; Leslie, A. B.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf waxes (i.e. n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) and their carbon isotopes (δ13C) are commonly used to track past changes in the carbon cycle or plant ecophysiology. Previous studies indicated that conifer n-alkane concentrations are lower than in angiosperms and that 13C fractionation during n-alkane synthesis (ɛlipid) is smaller than in angiosperms. These prior studies, however, sampled a limited phylogenetic and geographic subset of conifers, leaving out many important subtropical and Southern Hemisphere groups that were once widespread and common components of fossil assemblages. To expand on previous work, we collected 44 conifer species from the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley, capturing all extant conifer families and most extant genera. By collecting all specimens at a common site we attempted to minimize the confounding effects of climate, allowing phylogenetic patterns in the δ13C of leaf waxes to be expressed more strongly. We find that Pinaceae, including many North American species used in previous studies, have very low or no n-alkanes. However, other conifer groups have significant concentrations of n-alkanes, especially the Araucariaceae (Norfolk Island pines), Podocarpaceae (common in the Southern Hemisphere), and many species of Cupressaceae (junipers and relatives). Within the Cupressaceae, we find total n-alkane concentrations are high in subfamilies Cupressoideae and Callitroideae, but significantly lower in the early diverging taxodioid lineages (including bald cypress and redwood). Individual n-alkane chain lengths have a weak phylogenetic signal, except for n-C29 alkane, but when combined using average chain length (ACL), a strong phylogenetic signal emerges. The strong phylogenetic signal in ACL reinforces that it is strongly influenced by factors other than climate. An analysis of ɛlipid indicates a strong phylogenetic signal in which the smallest biosynthetic fractionation occurs in Pinaceae and the largest in Taxaceae (yews and relatives). We are currently exploring potential mechanisms to explain the ɛlipid patterns. These results have important implications for interpreting n-alkane δ13C values in sedimentary archives, especially outside of North America.

  2. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  4. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  5. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  6. 77 FR 34785 - Substantial Business Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK86 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country... substantial business activities in a foreign country, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Department...

  7. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes...

  8. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Sloothaak, Jasper; van Heck, Ruben G.A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and propose that a substantial part of the fumarate accumulated in R. delemar during nitrogen starvation results from the urea cycle due to amino acid catabolism. PMID:28382234

  9. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities; Correction AGENCY..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities... Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on their impact on small business.'' LaNita...

  10. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.4 Substantial evidence... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory...

  11. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  12. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  13. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  14. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  15. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  16. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  17. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  18. Substantiating powder metal life methodologies for engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domas, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    The application of powder metal (PM) superalloys in aircraft turbine engine rotating components is prompted by performance driven high strength and creep resistance requirements. Fine grain, precipitation strengthened nickel-base alloys such as IN100, Rene'95, and Rene'88DT meet these requirements up to operating temperatures in the 1200-1300F (649-704C) range. In addition to burst and deformation limits, design constraints include durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (crack growth resistance) capability to insure reliability and safety. Fatigue life for these alloys can be influenced by inhomogeneities (inclusions) intrinsic to the microstructure as the result of processing, and by perturbations of the surface integrity during component manufacture and subsequent usage. Understanding of PM fatigue behavior and substantiation of life assessment methodology must appropriately recognize these potential influences. New testing, modeling, and analysis schemes are necessitated in engineering development programs addressing generation and validation of life prediction techniques for these materials. This paper outlines one approach to substantiating PM fatigue life prediction that attempts to recognize homogeneous fatigue initiation by incorporating probabilistic models and development testing methods that address material volume and component feature effects. Complications and limitations being addressed in ongoing work are discussed.

  19. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., as well as a petition to consider “substantial new evidence”. (2) Contents. Each petition for... or an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; (v) A detailed statement and analysis as to why...

  20. Mechanisms of Cadmium Mobility and Accumulation in Indian Mustard.

    PubMed Central

    Salt, D. E.; Prince, R. C.; Pickering, I. J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), a high biomass crop plant, accumulated substantial amounts of cadmium, with bioaccumulation coefficients (concentration of Cd in dry plant tissue/concentration in solution) of up to 1100 in shoots and 6700 in roots at nonphytotoxic concentrations of Cd (0.1 [mu]g/mL) in solution. This was associated with a rapid accumulation of phytochelatins in the root, where the majority of the Cd was coordinated with sulfur ligands, probably as a Cd-S4 complex, as demonstrated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In contrast, Cd moving in the xylem sap was coordinated predominantly with oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and the rate of Cd accumulation in the leaves displayed similar saturation kinetics, suggesting that the process of Cd transport from solution through the root and into the xylem is mediated by a saturable transport system(s). However, Cd translocation to the shoot appeared to be driven by transpiration, since ABA dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in leaves. Within leaves, Cd was preferentially accumulated in trichomes on the leaf surface, and this may be a possible detoxification mechanism. PMID:12228679

  1. EARLY CHILDHOOD INVESTMENTS SUBSTANTIALLY BOOST ADULT HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143, while only 126 among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, while none in the treatment group is. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  2. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  3. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  4. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; ...

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  5. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  6. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-03-28

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health.

  7. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  8. 29 CFR 784.111 - Operations on named products with substantial amounts of other ingredients are not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be contrary to the language and purposes of such exemptions which specifically enumerate the... operations performed on the mixed products at and from the time of the addition of the foreign ingredients...

  9. An environment friendly engineered Azotobacter can replace substantial amount of urea fertilizer and yet sustain same wheat yield.

    PubMed

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Srivastava, Madhulika; Pardha-Saradhi, Pedisetty; Paul, Sangeeta; Gothandapani, Sellamuthu; Jaat, Ranjeet S; Shankar, Prabha; Yadav, Rajbir; Biswas, Dipak R; Kumar, Polumetla A; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mandal, Pranab K; Annapurna, Kannepalli; Das, Hirendra K

    2017-05-26

    In our endeavor to improve upon nitrogen fixation efficiency of a soil diazotroph that would be unaffected by synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, we have deleted a part of the negative regulatory gene nifL and constitutively expressed the positive regulatory gene nifA in the chromosome of Azotobacter chroococcum CBD15, a strain isolated from the local field soil. No antibiotic resistance gene or other foreign gene was there in the chromosome of the engineered strain. Wheat seeds inoculated with this engineered strain, which we have named Azotobacter chroococcum HKD15, were tested for three years in pots and one year in the field. Yield of wheat was enhanced by ∼60% due to inoculation of seeds by A. chroococcum HKD15 in the absence of any urea application. Ammonium only marginally affected acetylene reduction by the engineered Azotobacter strain. When urea was also applied, the same wheat yield could be sustained by using seeds inoculated with A. chroococcum HKD15 and using ∼85kg less urea (∼40kg less nitrogen) than the usual ∼257 kg urea (∼120 kg nitrogen) per hectare. Wheat plants arising from the seeds inoculated with the engineered Azotobacter strain, exhibited far superior overall performance, had much higher dry weight and nitrogen content and assimilated molecular (15)N much better. A nitrogen balance experiment also revealed much higher total nitrogen content. IAA production by the wild type and the engineered strain was about the same. Inoculation of the wheat seeds with A. chroococcum HKD15 did not adversely affect the microbial population in the field rhizosphere soil.IMPORTANCE Application of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers is a standard agricultural practice to augment crop yield. Plants, however, utilize only a fraction of the applied fertilizers, while the unutilized fertilizers cause grave environmental problems. Wild type soil diazotrophic microrganisms cannot replace synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, as these reduce atmospheric nitrogen very inefficiently and almost none at all in presence of added nitrogenous fertilizers. If the nitrogen fixing ability of soil diazotrophs could be improved upon and sustained even in the presence of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, then a mixture of the bacterial and reduced quantity of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers could be employed to obtain the same grain yield, but at much reduced environmental cost. The engineered Azotobacter that we have reported here has considerably enhanced nitrogen fixation and excretion abilities and can replace ∼85 kg of urea per hectare, but sustain same wheat yield, if the seeds are inoculated with it before sowing. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. WEALTH INEQUALITY AND ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Killewald, Alexandra; Pfeffer, Fabian T; Schachner, Jared N

    2017-07-01

    Research on wealth inequality and accumulation and the data upon which it relies have expanded substantially in the twenty-first century. While the field has experienced rapid growth, conceptual and methodological challenges remain. We begin by discussing two major unresolved methodological concerns facing wealth research: how to address challenges to causal inference posed by wealth's cumulative nature and how to operationalize net worth, given its highly skewed nature. To underscore the need for continued empirical attention to net worth, we review trends in wealth levels and inequality and evaluate wealth's distinctiveness as an indicator of social stratification. Next, we provide an overview of data sources available for wealth research. We then review recent empirical evidence on the effects of wealth on other social outcomes, as well as research on the determinants of wealth. We close with a list of promising avenues for future research on wealth, its causes, and its consequences.

  11. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  12. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  13. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  14. Guidelines for Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities smaller than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in greater amounts are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WSSs). This document provides guidelines for establishing and maintaining an SSA. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  16. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  17. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... Secret Substantiation Form General Information EPA requires that the information requested in a trade secret substantiation be completed using this substantiation form in order to ensure that all...

  18. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... Secret Substantiation Form General Information EPA requires that the information requested in a trade secret substantiation be completed using this substantiation form in order to ensure that all...

  19. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... Secret Substantiation Form General Information EPA requires that the information requested in a trade secret substantiation be completed using this substantiation form in order to ensure that all...

  20. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... Secret Substantiation Form General Information EPA requires that the information requested in a trade secret substantiation be completed using this substantiation form in order to ensure that all...

  1. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  2. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  3. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  4. Peatlands as Dynamic Biogeochemical Ecotones: Elemental Concentrations, Stoichiometries and Accumulation in Peatland Soils of Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Wang, M.; Talbot, J.; Riley, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands act as biogeochemical interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic systems and are 'hotspots', particularly for carbon cycling and the accumulation of nutrients and other elements within the peat profile. This results in storage of substantial amounts of carbon, nutrients and metals, particularly in northern peatlands. Using a data base of over 400 peat profiles and 1700 individual peat samples from bog, fen and swamp sites in Ontario, Canada, we examine the profile concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Al, and estimate the storage and accumulation of these elements. We show how these profiles, spatial patterns, stoichiometries and accumulation rates are controlled by biogeochemical processes and influenced by geochemical setting, hydrology, atmospheric input and pollution, and ecological and microbial transformations.

  5. Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Katra, Itzhak; Gross, Avner; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar; Krasnov, Helena; Angert, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s−1), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km−2, that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km−2) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles. PMID:27095629

  6. Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katra, Itzhak; Gross, Avner; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar; Krasnov, Helena; Angert, Alon

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s‑1), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km‑2, that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km‑2) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Spatial variation in rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in a boreal bog

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlson, M.; Oekland, R.H.

    1998-12-01

    Although previous studies hint at the occurrence of substantial spatial variation in the accumulation rates of C and N in bogs, the extent to which rates may vary on high-resolution spatial and temporal scales is not known. A main reason for the lack of knowledge is that it is problematic to determine the precise age of peat at a given depth. The authors determined rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the uppermost decimeters of a bog ecosystem using the pine method, which enables accurate dating of surface peat layers. They combined accumulation data with numerical and geostatistical analyses of the recent vegetation to establish the relationship between bog vegetation and rate of peat accumulation. Use of a laser technique for spatial positioning of 151 age-determined peat cores within a 20 x 20 m plot made it possible to give the first tine-scaled account of spatial and temporal variation in rates of mass, carbon, and nitrogen accumulation during the last century. Rates of C and N accumulation were highly variable at all spatial scales studied. For example, after {approximately}125 yr of peat growth, C and N accumulation varied by factors of five and four, respectively, from 25 to 125 g/dm{sup 2} for C, and from 0.7 to 2.6 g/dm{sup 2} for N. It takes 40 yr of peat accumulation before significant amounts of C are lost through decay. Hummocks built up by Sphagnum fuscum and S. rubellum were able to maintain average rates of C accumulation that exceed 2 g{center_dot}dm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot} yr{sup {minus}1} during 50 yr of growth. The authors argue that data on spatial variation in rates of C accumulation are necessary to understand the role of boreal peatlands in the greenhouse effect and global climate.

  8. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adjustments on audit for 1989 increase taxable income to $51,500 and tax liability to $12,339. There was... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subleases space to a restaurant operator at an annual rental of $25,000 for the operation of a canteen and... by the restaurant operator are more than 5 percent of the respective amounts with respect to the entire facility. Both X and the restaurant operator are substantial users. However, absent special...

  10. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and âservices.â 404.446 Section 404.446 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... business; (5) The type of business establishment involved; (6) The amount of capital invested in the...

  11. 20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test. 404.447 Section 404.447 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... capable manager, the kind and size of the business, the amount of capital invested and whether...

  12. 20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test. 404.447 Section 404.447 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... capable manager, the kind and size of the business, the amount of capital invested and whether...

  13. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and âservices.â 404.446 Section 404.446 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... business; (5) The type of business establishment involved; (6) The amount of capital invested in the...

  14. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Treesearch

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  15. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220.141 Section 220.141 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT..., defined. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful. (a...

  16. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220.141 Section 220.141 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD..., defined. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful. (a...

  17. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220.141 Section 220.141 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD..., defined. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful. (a...

  18. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  19. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  20. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  1. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  2. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  3. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether the...

  4. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-3 - Other amounts distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a... to be paid in all events but which is payable only out of corpus; (4) a distribution of property in... section 678(c) out of corpus or out of other than income for the taxable year; and (6) an amount...

  6. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  7. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg⋅ha−1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg⋅ha−1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

  8. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  9. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite...

  10. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  11. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  12. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  13. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  14. Strain patterns and strain accumulation along plate margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of strain accumulation along plate margins in Japan, New Zealand, and the United States indicate that: (1) a typical maximum rate of secular strain accumulation is on the order of 0.3 ppm/a, (2) a substantial part of the strain accumulation process can be attributed to slip at depth on the major plate boundary faults, and (3) some plastic deformation in a zone 100 km or more in width is apparently involved in the strain accumulation process.

  15. What criteria do child protective services investigators use to substantiate exposure to domestic violence?

    PubMed

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31 (7.1%) couples were investigated for exposing a child to domestic violence or failing to protect a child from domestic violence. All of the batterers investigated and in the caregiver role when their children were exposed to domestic violence were substantiated. The unsubstantiated victims of battering tended to use more protective behaviors (M=3.82) than the substantiated victims (M=2.00); yet, at the case level, using more than one protective behavior did not seem to be a criterion used to substantiate the victims. Instead, it appears that investigators were discriminating between those protective behaviors by the victims that ended contact between the batterers and the children--for a substantial amount of time--and those that did not in both the substantiation and removal decision. Key issues related to applying criteria in incidents involving domestic violence are discussed along with recommendations to further refine and document them.

  16. Generalized Combinatoric Accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Dae Hyun; Seo, Jae Woo; Lee, Pil Joong

    The accumulator was introduced as a decentralized alternative to digital signatures. While most of accumulators are based on number theoretic assumptions and require time-consuming modulo exponentiations, Nyberg's combinatoric accumulator dose not depend on any computational assumption and requires only bit operations and hash function evaluations. In this article, we present a generalization of Nyberg's combinatoric accumulator, which allows a lower false positive rate with the same output length. Our generalization also shows that the Bloom filter can be used as a cryptographic accumulator and moreover excels the Nyberg's accumulator.

  17. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation.

  18. Root responses to nitrogen pulse frequency under different nitrogen amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Wang, Pu; Liu, Lu; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-04-01

    Responses of morphology and biomass allocation of roots to frequency of nitrogen (N) pulse potentially influence the fitness of plants, but such responses may be determined by root size. We grew 12 plant species of three functional groups (grasses, forbs, and legumes) under two N pulse frequencies (high vs. low supply frequency) and two N amounts (high vs. low supply amount). Compared to low-amount N supply, high-amount N supply stimulated biomass accumulation and root growth by either increasing the thickness and length of roots or decreasing the root mass fraction. Compared to low-frequency N supply, high-frequency N supply improved biomass accumulation and root growth in forbs or grasses, but not in legumes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response to N frequency was significantly negatively correlated with root size at the species scale, but this was only true when the N amount was high. We conclude that root responses to N frequency are related to plant functional types, and non-legume species is more sensitive to N frequency than legume species. Our results also suggest that root size is a determinant of root responses to N frequency when N supply amount is high.

  19. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-11 Accumulated production expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated production expenditures generally means the cumulative amount...

  20. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  1. 26 CFR 1.274-5 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... character of the expenditure. For example, a hotel receipt is sufficient to support expenditures for..., of the amount of the expenses and as satisfying, with respect to the amount of the expenses,...

  2. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and...

  3. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  4. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must come into substantial compliance with the requirements of subpart B of this part in effect as of... demonstrable combined effect of its statutes, regulations, administrative procedures and practices... personnel), and enforcement practices. (b)(1) A State must come into substantial compliance with the...

  5. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and...

  6. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.507-6 - Substantial contributor defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantial contributor defined. 1.507-6 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-6 Substantial contributor defined. (a...) Special rules—(1) Contributions defined. The term contribution shall, for purposes of section 507(d)(2...

  8. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 416.910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that—...

  9. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  10. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  11. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  12. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  13. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  14. Calcium accumulation by chondrocyte mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, I M; Lee, N H

    1975-01-01

    Chick epiphyseal plate mitochondria observed in vitro suggest that energy dependent Ca++ uptake was maximal in the presence of ATP and a respiratory substrate. However, nucleotides other than ATP had no effect on this type of cation uptake. The observation that Ca++ accumulation was sensitive to the presence of 2,4-DNP and a number of respiratory inhibitors suggested that the mechanism of cation accumulation was similar to that described in tissues that do not undergo biological mineralization. Non-energy supported Ca++ acumulation was studied in the presence of rotenone and antimycin A. Under these conditions, the amount of Ca++ bound by skeletal tissue mitochondria was greater than bound by mitochondria obtained from noncalcifying tissues. Following isopycnic centrifugation, the Ca++ loaded mitochondria banded at different sucrose densties but the Ca++ affinity of mitochondria at each density band was similar. Hence, no particular mitochondrial species seems to be responsible for cation transport.

  15. The p23 Protein of Citrus Tristeza Virus Controls Asymmetrical RNA Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Gowda, Siddarame; Ayllón, María A.; Albiach-Martí, María R.; Rabindran, Shailaja; Dawson, William O.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs) with the 10 3′ genes expressed via a nested set of nine or ten 3′-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs). Relatively large amounts of negative-stranded RNAs complementary to both genomic and sgRNAs accumulate in infected cells. As is characteristic of RNA viruses, wild-type CTV produced more positive than negative strands, with the plus-to-minus ratios of genomic and sgRNAs estimated at 10 to 20:1 and 40 to 50:1, respectively. However, a mutant with all of the 3′ genes deleted replicated efficiently, but produced plus to minus strands at a markedly decreased ratio of 1 to 2:1. Deletion analysis of 3′-end genes revealed that the p23 ORF was involved in asymmetric RNA accumulation. A mutation which caused a frameshift after the fifth codon resulted in nearly symmetrical RNA accumulation, suggesting that the p23 protein, not a cis-acting element within the p23 ORF, controls asymmetric accumulation of CTV RNAs. Further in-frame deletion mutations in the p23 ORF suggested that amino acid residues 46 to 180, which contained RNA-binding and zinc finger domains, were indispensable for asymmetrical RNA accumulation, while the N-terminal 5 to 45 and C-terminal 181 to 209 amino acid residues were not absolutely required. Mutation of conserved cysteine residues to alanines in the zinc finger domain resulted in loss of activity of the p23 protein, suggesting involvement of the zinc finger in asymmetric RNA accumulation. The absence of p23 gene function was manifested by substantial increases in accumulation of negative-stranded RNAs and only modest decreases in positive-stranded RNAs. Moreover, the substantial decrease in the accumulation of negative-stranded coat protein (CP) sgRNA in the presence of the functional p23 gene resulted in a 12- to 15-fold increase in the expression of the CP gene. Apparently the excess

  16. Methane production in Dutch freshwater sediments: No substantial contribution by ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Drift, C. vd

    1996-12-31

    Methanogenesis, the presence of ciliates, and a number of biotic and abiotic parameters were monitored over the course of a year in four different freshwater sediments near Nijmegen, The Netherlands. All sample places exhibited substantial biotic and abiotic differences. Whereas three of the sample places contained several species of ciliates, one location was devoid of substantial numbers of anaerobic protozoa. This location had the highest content of photosynthetic organisms, the lowest conductivity and lacked all kinds of ciliates. The degrees of pollution and the amounts of organic material present in the four sediments differed substantially. The annual course of the in situ temperature of the sediments was comparable, and neither superficial freezing of the sample places nor elevated summer temperatures caused dramatic variations in the methanogenic potential of the sediments. Direct counts of ciliates, their removal by electromigration, and the selective killing of protozoa by heat shock allowed the authors to calculate the contribution by the anaerobic ciliates to the methane emissions. In all three sediments that contained substantial amounts of ciliates, the contribution by these protozoa was less than 5--10%. Only during one exceptional month, the contribution by ciliates raised to 25% of the methane emissions.

  17. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  18. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  19. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... account its ability to replace on a temporary basis (or temporarily do without) the employee on FMLA leave... economic injury. (d) FMLA's substantial and grievous economic injury standard is different from and more...

  20. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... account its ability to replace on a temporary basis (or temporarily do without) the employee on FMLA leave... economic injury. (d) FMLA's substantial and grievous economic injury standard is different from and more...

  1. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... account its ability to replace on a temporary basis (or temporarily do without) the employee on FMLA leave... economic injury.” (d) FMLA's “substantial and grievous economic injury” standard is different from and more...

  2. Center pivot, showing substantial beams that support the trusses. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center pivot, showing substantial beams that support the trusses. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  3. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliance § 384.301 Substantial compliance-general requirements. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR... mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and personnel), and enforcement practices. (b)(1) A...

  4. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-ting; Lu, Ping

    2002-04-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in Plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively. The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  5. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis.

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of slop...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of slop...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of slop...

  10. Antarctic accumulation seasonality.

    PubMed

    Sime, Louise C; Wolff, Eric W

    2011-11-09

    The resemblance of the orbitally filtered isotope signal from the past 340 kyr in Antarctic ice cores to Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity has been used to suggest that the northern hemisphere may drive orbital-scale global climate changes. A recent Letter by Laepple et al. suggests that, contrary to this interpretation, this semblance may instead be explained by weighting the orbitally controlled Antarctic seasonal insolation cycle with a static (present-day) estimate of the seasonal cycle of accumulation. We suggest, however, that both time variability in accumulation seasonality and alternative stable seasonality can markedly alter the weighted insolation signal. This indicates that, if the last 340 kyr of Antarctic accumulation has not always looked like the estimate of precipitation and accumulation seasonality made by Laepple et al., this particular accumulation weighting explanation of the Antarctic orbital-scale isotopic signal might not be robust.

  11. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  12. 26 CFR 1.274-5A - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... set forth in reasonable categories, such as for meals, for gasoline and oil, and for taxi fares; (ii... includes sufficient information to establish the amount, date, place, and the essential character of the...

  13. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  14. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  16. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  17. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  18. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  19. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  20. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    PubMed Central

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  1. 77 FR 35245 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... economic benefits that exceed any direct economic costs associated with complying with RUS regulations and... and Grants; 10.857, State Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grants, 10.859, Assistance to High Energy Cost... government. Nor does this rule impose substantial direct compliance costs on state and local...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510...

  7. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A State... effect as of July 8, 2011, as soon as practical but, unless otherwise specifically provided in this part... of subpart B of this part, which is effective as of December 5, 2011, as soon as practicable, but not...

  8. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... processor in the United States who converts or combines the imported article into the different article will... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles...

  9. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (temporary). (a) In general. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1986, no deduction or credit... satisfy the adequate record requirement by recording the total number miles driven during the taxable year... portions of a taxable year and use that record to substantiate the business/investment use of listed...

  10. 26 CFR 1.274-5A - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... circumstances of each case, including the use of proper internal controls. For example, an employer should... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantiation requirements. 1.274-5A Section 1.274-5A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...

  11. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... circumstances of each case, including the use of proper internal controls. For example, an employer should... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantiation requirements (temporary). 1.274-5T Section 1.274-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  12. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for an organization to be considered a condominium management association or a residential real estate... condominium management association and a residential real estate management association shall be considered... organization's taxable year. (b) Condominium management associations. Substantially all of the units of...

  13. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  14. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  15. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  16. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  17. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  18. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking Rules...

  19. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  20. Substantiated Best Practices in Transition: Fifteen Plus Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…

  1. 20 CFR 655.183 - Less than substantial violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 655.183 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.183 Less than substantial violations...

  2. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  3. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  4. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  5. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure monocrystalline layer of an implantable element in a monocrystalline substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a monocrystalline substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. Also disclosed is an article made by the process.

  6. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, R.G.; Brown, D.W.; Munir, Z.A.

    1990-12-11

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. 2 figs.

  7. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  8. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  9. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  10. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  11. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  12. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.A.; Caldwell, M.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1984-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in sodium uptake between populations of A. tridentata, A. falcata and A. gardneri, with some populations having less than 0.1% leaf sodium and other populations having up to 5 or 6%. In three experiments (a field study, a greenhouse pot study and a hydroponics study) there were no significant differences in salinity tolerance between sodium accumulating and nonaccumulating A. canescens: both genotypes were highly salt tolerant. There was a significant buildup of sodium in the soil beneath sodium accumulating Atriplex plants, both in natural populations and on revegetated oil shale study plots. The sodium buildup was not sufficient to be detrimental to the growth or establishment of most herbaceous species, but with older Atriplex plants or with more saline soil, the buildup could potentially be detrimental. 14 references, 42 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Tobacco products, exemptions from substantial equivalence requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-07-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to establish procedures for requesting an exemption from the substantial equivalence requirements of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The final rule describes the process and statutory criteria for requesting an exemption and explains how FDA reviews requests for exemptions. This regulation satisfies the requirement in the Tobacco Control Act that FDA issue regulations implementing the exemption provision.

  15. Mistreatment in assisted living facilities: complaints, substantiations, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda R; Guo, Guifang

    2011-06-01

    Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was used. Facilities in the complaint group were identified from narrative data that appeared suspicious for mistreatment based on definitions for physical, verbal, psychological, medication, sexual abuse, neglect, financial exploitation, and physical restraint. Facilities in the comparison group were those that had no citations or complaints in 2007-2008. Narrative data were content analyzed, and chi-square analysis was used to answer 3 research questions. The complaint group was comprised of significantly more assisted living centers, large facilities (51-101+), facilities licensed to provide personal care services, and facilities owned by national corporations. Substantiated allegations were significantly more frequent in assisted living centers, facilities with more than 51 beds, and those owned by national corporations. Facility risk factors were related to some types of substantiated mistreatment and not others. Findings suggest the need to evaluate use of only unlicensed assistive personnel in facilities, increase oversight of care by professional nurses, rethink the practice of not licensing small facilities, and monitor more closely practices and procedures in facilities operated by national corporations.

  16. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting.

  17. Effects of water deficit on radicle apex elongation and solute accumulation in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Márquez, S; Conde-Martínez, V; Trejo, C; Delgado-Alvarado, A; Carballo, A; Suárez, R; Mascorro, J O; Trujillo, A R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of water deficit on the elongation of radicles of maize seedlings and on the accumulation of solutes in the radicle apices of two maize varieties: VS-22 (tolerant) and AMCCG-2 (susceptible). Sections of radicle corresponding to the first 2 mm of the primary roots were marked with black ink, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for 24, 48, and 72 h in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes filled with vermiculite at three different water potentials (Ψ(w), -0.03, -1.0, and -1.5 MPa). The radicle elongation, sugar accumulation, and proline accumulation were determined after each of the growth periods specified above. The Ψ(w) of the substrate affected the dynamics of primary root elongation in both varieties. In particular, the lowest Ψ(w) (-1.5 MPa) inhibited root development by 72% and 90% for the VS-22 and AMCCG-2 varieties, respectively. The osmotic potential (Ψ(o)) was reduced substantially in both varieties to maintain root turgor; however, VS-22 had a higher root turgor (0.67 MPa) than AMCCG-2 (0.2 MPa). These results suggest that both varieties possess a capacity for osmotic adjustment. Sugar began to accumulate within the first 24 h of radicle apex growth. The sugar concentration was higher in VS-22 root apices compared to AMCCG-2, and the amount of sugar accumulation increased with a decrease in Ψ(w). Significant amounts of trehalose accumulated in VS-22 and AMCCG-2 (29.8 μmol/g fresh weight [FW] and 5.24 μmol/g FW, respectively). Starch accumulation in the root apices of these two maize varieties also differed significantly, with a lower level in VS-22. In both varieties, the proline concentration also increased as a consequence of the water deficit. At 72 h, the proline concentration in VS-22 (16.2 μmol/g FW) was almost 3 times greater than that in AMCCG-2 (5.19 μmol/g FW). Trehalose also showed a 3-fold increase in the tolerant variety. Accumulation of these solutes in the root growth zone may indicate an osmotic

  18. 29 CFR 4022.25 - Five-year phase-in of benefit guarantee for participants other than substantial owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substantial owners. (b) Phase-in formula. The amount of a benefit increase computed pursuant to § 4022.24 shall be guaranteed to the extent provided in the following formula: the number of years the benefit... termination date during which such benefit increase was in effect constitutes one year. (d) Multiple benefit...

  19. 29 CFR 4022.25 - Five-year phase-in of benefit guarantee for participants other than substantial owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substantial owners. (b) Phase-in formula. The amount of a benefit increase computed pursuant to § 4022.24 shall be guaranteed to the extent provided in the following formula: the number of years the benefit... termination date during which such benefit increase was in effect constitutes one year. (d) Multiple benefit...

  20. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under

  1. Holocene Carbon Accumulation Rates in the SPRUCE Bog Prior to Warming and Elevated CO2 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Iversen, C. M.; Phillips, J. R.; Brice, D. J.; Hanson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment warming and elevated CO2 treatments are being applied to an ombrotrophic spruce bog: the S1 Bog (S1) at Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. To provide a historical context for recent and expected experimentally-induced changes in the bog's belowground carbon balance, we reconstructed historical carbon accumulation rates in peat using radiocarbon from 19 peat cores collected from randomly distributed SPRUCE plots. This unusually high number of cores allows us to assess spatial variability in age-depth profiles and accumulation rates across the SPRUCE study area within S1. This data, along with recent C flux measurements, show that the bog has been accumulating carbon for at least 12,0000 years and has continued to be a sink for atmospheric carbon of approximately 150 g C m-2 yr-1 in recent decades. Early Holocene accumulation rates are similar to those reported for other northern peatlands (approximately 25 g C m-2 yr-1), but apparent carbon accumulation decreased substantially around 3,000 years ago (to 5-15 g C m-2 yr-1) and stayed low until the last century. This decrease is considerably larger than that reported for other peatlands and is therefore unlikely to result only from cooling during the Holocene or bog succession. Although no charcoal has been found in peat at this site, evidence from a neighboring bog indicates a considerable amount of peat formed during this period was consumed by fire and it is possible that smoldering fires consumed peat, resulting in low apparent accumulation rates. Past droughts may have also contributed to observed trends by lowering the acrotelm/catotelm boundary, allowing for enhanced aerobic peat decomposition. This work provides important background information on spatial variability and carbon biogeochemistry that will aid in interpretation of climate change simulation experiments at S1.

  2. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  3. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  4. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11... expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated production expenditures generally means the cumulative amount of... expenditures may also include the basis of any property received by the taxpayer in a nontaxable transaction...

  5. 26 CFR 1.274-5A - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... own breakfast, lunch, and dinner and of expenditures incidental to such travel may be aggregated, if... day of business travel a taxpayer makes separate payments for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, he shall... separate item and not aggregated. However, at the option of the taxpayer, amounts expended for breakfast...

  6. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gift; (iii) Description. Description of the gift; (iv) Business purpose. Business reason for the gift... element is the description of a gift, or the cost or amount, time, place, or date of an expenditure or use... taxpayer's control, such as destruction by fire, flood, earthquake, or other casualty, the taxpayer...

  7. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gift; (iii) Description. Description of the gift; (iv) Business purpose. Business reason for the gift... element is the description of a gift, or the cost or amount, time, place, or date of an expenditure or use... taxpayer's control, such as destruction by fire, flood, earthquake, or other casualty, the taxpayer...

  8. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-06-08

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.

  9. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S; Breitzman, Matthew W; Silva, Renato R; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.

  10. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

    DOE PAGES

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed inmore » internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.« less

  11. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11–24%) and sorghum (7–36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8–19%) and sorghum (9–27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9–21%) and sorghum (16–27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15–18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. PMID:27375668

  12. Simplified method to substantiate SPF labeling for sunscreen products.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Robert M; Stanfield, Joseph; Lott, Dennis L; Dowdy, John C

    2003-10-01

    Worldwide, sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF) testing is based on 30-year-old technology. At the time the SPF test came into being, the highest SPFs available were in the 6-8 range. The SPF test is reasonably accurate for SPFs up to 15, but is much less reliable for measuring SPFs of 30 and higher. The method we propose addresses two primary reasons for this unreliability: 1) difficulties in applying products uniformly and 2) the subjectivity and variability of perception in evaluating and grading responses to UV doses. Our proposed SPF substantiation method differs from the current SPF test in that sunscreen-protected test sites receive the same UV dose in four uniformly spaced sub-sites, which are graded as passing if no response is seen or failing if any response is seen. The response may be tanning, erythema, or a combination of both. To demonstrate the method, two commercial products with labeled SPFs of 30 and 45 and the P2 sunscreen standard were tested at two different laboratories. The SPF 30 product and SPF 15 standard were shown to be correctly labeled. However, it is questionable as to whether the SPF 45 product provides protection against 45 minimal erythema doses. Our proposed SPF substantiation method is not dependent on subjective evaluation of responses, accounts for non-uniform product application, and provides a conservative estimate of sunscreen protection. The method consists of a systematic repetition of identical tests that are considerably more rigorous than the current methods that are based on single data points per test subject. While the current SPF test remains necessary and valuable as a dose ranging tool, we propose that this SPF substantiation method supersede the old method for final SPF label determination.

  13. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy.

  14. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  15. [Materials for the substantiation of the biological MAC of benzene].

    PubMed

    Ulanova, I P; Avilova, G G; Karpukhina, E A; Karimova, L K; Boĭko, V I; Makar'eva, L M

    1990-09-01

    Relatively great amount of benzene-originated phenol, the presence of a definite relationship between phenol amount in the urine and benzene content in the air indicate that it is reasonable to use a phenol sample as an exposure test. To determine the intensity of benzene exposure, data on phenol content in the urine of people working at some big-tonnage enterprises has been analyzed. On the basis of the national and foreign literature data on the correlation between the phenol urine concentration and the level of benzene exposure a regression equation was deduced, which has made it possible to calculate phenol content in the urine on the level of average working day benzene concentration adopted in the USSR. This value equals 15 mg/l, which was proposed as a biological benzene MAC.

  16. Ammonia emissions may be substantially underestimated in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuming; Wu, Yiyun; Liu, Xuejun; Reis, Stefan; Jin, Jiaxin; Dragosits, Ulrike; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Whitburn, Simon; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Gu, Baojing

    2017-10-06

    China is a global hotspot of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions and, as a consequence, very high nitrogen (N) deposition levels are documented. However, previous estimates of total NH3 emissions in China were much lower than inference from observed deposition values would suggest, highlighting the need for further investigation. Here, we reevaluated NH3 emissions based on a mass balance approach, validated by N deposition monitoring and satellite observations, for China for the period of 2000 to 2015. Total NH3 emissions in China increased from 12.1±0.8 Tg N yr-1 in 2000 to 15.6±0.9 Tg N yr-1 in 2015 at an annual rate of 1.9%, which is approximately 40% higher than existing studies suggested. This difference is mainly due to more emission sources now having been included and NH3 emission rates from mineral fertilizer application and livestock having been underestimated previously. Our estimated NH3 emission levels are consistent with the measured deposition of NHx (including NH4+ and NH3) on land (11-14 Tg N yr-1) and the substantial increases in NH3 concentrations observed by satellite measurements over China. These findings substantially improve our understanding on NH3 emissions, implying that future air pollution control strategies have to consider the potentials of reducing NH3 emission in China.

  17. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Basal Ganglia Engagement during Feedback Processing after a Substantial Delay

    PubMed Central

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The striatum has been shown to play an important role in learning from performance-related feedback that is presented shortly after each response. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms supporting learning from feedback that is substantially delayed from the original response. Since the consequences of one’s actions often do not become known until after a delay, it is important to understand whether delayed feedback can produce neural responses similar to those elicited by immediate feedback presentation. We investigated this issue by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants performed a paired-associate learning task with 180 distinct trials. Feedback indicating response accuracy was presented immediately, after a delay of 25 minutes, or not at all. Both immediate and delayed feedback led to significant gains in accuracy on a post-test, relative to no feedback. Replicating previous work, we found that the caudate nuclei showed greater activation for positive feedback than negative feedback when the feedback was presented immediately. In addition, delayed feedback also led to differential caudate activity to positive versus negative feedback. Delayed negative feedback also produced significant activation of the putamen and globus pallidus (the lentiform nucleus), relative to no feedback and delayed positive feedback. This suggests that the caudate nucleus is sensitive to the affective nature of feedback, across different timescales, while the lentiform nucleus may be particularly involved in processing the information carried by negative feedback after a substantial delay. PMID:23817894

  19. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page What research is being ...

  20. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  1. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  2. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  3. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  4. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  5. 40 CFR 152.404 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fee amounts. 152.404 Section 152.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.404 Fee amounts. The fee prescribed by the...

  6. 40 CFR 152.404 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fee amounts. 152.404 Section 152.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.404 Fee amounts. The fee prescribed by the...

  7. 40 CFR 152.404 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fee amounts. 152.404 Section 152.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.404 Fee amounts. The fee prescribed by the...

  8. 40 CFR 152.404 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fee amounts. 152.404 Section 152.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.404 Fee amounts. The fee prescribed by the...

  9. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  10. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  11. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  12. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  13. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  14. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable transportation and subsistence items: (1) Travel. The more cost effective mode of travel reasonably available...

  15. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable transportation and subsistence items: (1) Travel. The more cost effective mode of travel reasonably available...

  16. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable... job search; or (ii) The cost per mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the...

  17. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  18. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  19. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  20. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  1. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  2. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  3. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  4. Substantial Genetic Overlap between Schizotypy and Neuroticism: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Macare, Christine; Bates, Timothy C.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Schizotypy is phenotypically associated with neuroticism. To reveal the origin of this association, we assessed 3349 (1449 monozygotic (MZ), 1105 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex and 795 DZ opposite-sex) twins on a 12-item version of Chapman’s Psychosis-Proneness Scales and the short-form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised as measures of schizotypy and neuroticism. A substantial proportion (.51 with 95% CI from .38 to .64) of the phenotypic correlation of .37 between neuroticism and the perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy was accounted for by shared genetic influences on these two traits. Moreover, a Cholesky decomposition including anhedonia, hypomania and impulsivity fully accounted for the heritable variance in perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy. These findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between neuroticism and perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy and affect future investigations on the etiology of these phenotypically overlapping traits and affective and psychotic disorders. PMID:22955548

  5. Method and apparatus for a substantially coaxial injector element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Mark D. (Inventor); Miyata, Shinjiro (Inventor); Farhangi, Shahram (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system to provide a two piece robust fluid injector. According to various embodiments, the fluid injector is a fuel injector for a combustion engine. The injector includes two coaxially formed annuluses. One annulus is formed in a face plate and the second annulus or hole is defined by a tube extending through the face plate. The tube extends through the face plate in a portion of a through bore which also is used to define the second annulus. The second annulus is formed using a throughbore through which the tube extends. This allows the second annulus to always be formed inherently and precisely substantially coaxial with the first annulus. Moreover, the second annulus can be formed with a much greater tolerance than if other independent components needed to be added.

  6. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Tadin, Duje; Schauder, Kimberly B; Cascio, Carissa J

    2013-05-08

    Atypical perceptual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well documented. In addition, growing evidence supports the hypothesis that an excitatory/inhibitory neurochemical imbalance might underlie ASD. Here we investigated putative behavioral consequences of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in the context of visual motion perception. As stimulus size increases, typical observers exhibit marked impairments in perceiving motion of high-contrast stimuli. This result, termed "spatial suppression," is believed to reflect inhibitory motion-processing mechanisms. Motion processing is also affected by gain control, an inhibitory mechanism that underlies saturation of neural responses at high contrast. Motivated by these behavioral correlates of inhibitory function, we investigated motion perception in human children with ASD (n = 20) and typical development (n = 26). At high contrast, both groups exhibited similar impairments in motion perception with increasing stimulus size, revealing no apparent differences in spatial suppression. However, there was a substantial enhancement of motion perception in ASD: children with ASD exhibited a consistent twofold improvement in perceiving motion. Hypothesizing that this enhancement might indicate abnormal weakening of response gain control, we repeated our measurements at low contrast, where the effects of gain control should be negligible. At low contrast, we indeed found no group differences in motion discrimination thresholds. These low-contrast results, however, revealed weaker spatial suppression in ASD, suggesting the possibility that gain control abnormalities in ASD might have masked spatial suppression differences at high contrast. Overall, we report a pattern of motion perception abnormalities in ASD that includes substantial enhancements at high contrast and is consistent with an underlying excitatory/inhibitory imbalance.

  7. Comparing fixed-amount and progressive-amount DRO Schedules for tic suppression in youth with chronic tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Matthew R; Turkel, Jennifer E; Johnson, Rachel A; Espil, Flint M; Woods, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) involve motor and/or vocal tics that often cause substantial distress and impairment. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedules of reinforcement produce robust, but incomplete, reductions in tic frequency in youth with CTDs; however, a more robust reduction may be needed to affect durable clinical change. Standard, fixed-amount DRO schedules have not commonly yielded such reductions, so we evaluated a novel, progressive-amount DRO schedule, based on its ability to facilitate sustained abstinence from functionally similar behaviors. Five youth with CTDs were exposed to periods of baseline, fixed-amount DRO (DRO-F), and progressive-amount DRO (DRO-P). Both DRO schedules produced decreases in tic rate and increases in intertic interval duration, but no systematic differences were seen between the two schedules on any dimension of tic occurrence. The DRO-F schedule was generally preferred to the DRO-P schedule. Possible procedural improvements and other future directions are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-01

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25-70 Pg C in peatland and 13-22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36-63 Pg C at present, including 27-48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9-15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5-3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3-0.6 Pg C in peatlands and 2.2-3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr-1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr-1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr-1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.

  9. Export is the default pathway for soluble unfolded polypeptides that accumulate during expression in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto-Lavino, E.; Freimuth, P.; Bai, M.; Zhang, Y.-B.

    2011-09-01

    Several E. coli endogenous, cytoplasmic proteins that are known clients of the chaperonin GroEL were overexpressed to examine the fate of accumulated unfolded polypeptides. Substantial fractions of about half of the proteins formed insoluble aggregates, consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins were produced at rates or in amounts that exceeded the protein-folding capacity of GroEL. In addition, large fractions of three overexpressed GroEL client proteins were localized in an extra-cytoplasmic, osmotically-sensitive compartment, suggesting they had initially accumulated in the cytoplasm as soluble unfolded polypeptides and thus were able to access a protein export pathway. Consistent with this model, an intrinsically unfoldable, hydrophilic, non-secretory polypeptide was quantitatively exported from the E. coli cytoplasm into an osmotically-sensitive compartment. Our results support the conclusion that a soluble, unfolded conformation alone may be sufficient to direct non-secretory polypeptides into a protein export pathway for signal peptide-independent translocation across the inner membrane, and that export rather than degradation by cytoplasmic proteases is the preferred fate for newly-synthesized, soluble, unfolded polypeptides that accumulate in the cytoplasm. The stable folded conformation of exported GroEL client proteins further suggests that the requirement for GroEL may be conditional on protein folding in the molecularly-crowded environment of the cytoplasm.

  10. Decadal soil carbon accumulation across Tibetan permafrost regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jinzhi; Chen, Leiyi; Ji, Chengjun; Hugelius, Gustaf; Li, Yingnian; Liu, Li; Qin, Shuqi; Zhang, Beibei; Yang, Guibiao; Li, Fei; Fang, Kai; Chen, Yongliang; Peng, Yunfeng; Zhao, Xia; He, Honglin; Smith, Pete; Fang, Jingyun; Yang, Yuanhe

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost soils store large amounts of carbon. Warming can result in carbon release from thawing permafrost, but it can also lead to enhanced primary production, which can increase soil carbon stocks. The balance of these fluxes determines the nature of the permafrost feedback to warming. Here we assessed decadal changes in soil organic carbon stocks in the active layer--the uppermost 30 cm--of permafrost soils across Tibetan alpine regions, based on repeated soil carbon measurements in the early 2000s and 2010s at the same sites. We observed an overall accumulation of soil organic carbon irrespective of vegetation type, with a mean rate of 28.0 g C m-2 yr-1 across Tibetan permafrost regions. This soil organic carbon accrual occurred only in the subsurface soil, between depths of 10 and 30 cm, mainly induced by an increase of soil organic carbon concentrations. We conclude that the upper active layer of Tibetan alpine permafrost currently represents a substantial regional soil carbon sink in a warming climate, implying that carbon losses of deeper and older permafrost carbon might be offset by increases in upper-active-layer soil organic carbon stocks, which probably results from enhanced vegetation growth.

  11. Substantial reduction in caries from regular fluoride varnish application.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek

    2013-09-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS and BBO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science Conference Proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were also scanned for relevant papers. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials using or indicating blind outcome assessment that compared fluoride varnish to placebo or no treatment for at least one year were included. Risk of bias assessment was undertaken. Study assessment and data extraction was carried out independently by at least two reviewers. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction, that is the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. The caries increments nearest to three years were used from each included study. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random-effects meta-regression analyses. Adverse effects information was collected from the included trials. Twenty-two trials (12,455 participants) were included. Thirteen trials were included in the permanent tooth surfaces meta-analysis, the pooled D(M)FS prevented fraction estimate comparing fluoride varnish with placebo or no treatment was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30% to 57%; P < 0.0001). There was substantial heterogeneity, confirmed statistically (P < 0.0001; I(2) = 75%), however this body of evidence was assessed as of moderate quality. Ten trials contributed to the meta-analysis of primary teeth, the pooled d(e/m)fs prevented fraction estimate was 37% (95% CI 24% to 51%; P < 0.0001), there was some heterogeneity (P = 0.009; I(2) = 59%) this evidence was assessed as of moderate quality. No significant associations

  12. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  13. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the... orders with priority, the following shall apply: (1) Unless otherwise provided by federal...

  14. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL... § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under § 1335.7(a) of this part shall be eligible to receive $25,000. (b) Initiation grant. A State that qualifies for...

  15. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats have been identified as important carbon sinks. In contrast to angiosperm-based habitats such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangroves, marine macroalgae have largely been excluded from discussions of marine carbon sinks. Macroalgae are the dominant primary producers in the coastal zone, but they typically do not grow in habitats that are considered to accumulate large stocks of organic carbon. However, the presence of macroalgal carbon in the deep sea and sediments, where it is effectively sequestered from the atmosphere, has been reported. A synthesis of these data suggests that macroalgae could represent an important source of the carbon sequestered in marine sediments and the deep ocean. We propose two main modes for the transport of macroalgae to the deep ocean and sediments: macroalgal material drifting through submarine canyons, and the sinking of negatively buoyant macroalgal detritus. A rough estimate suggests that macroalgae could sequester about 173 TgC yr-1 (with a range of 61-268 TgC yr-1) globally. About 90% of this sequestration occurs through export to the deep sea, and the rest through burial in coastal sediments. This estimate exceeds that for carbon sequestered in angiosperm-based coastal habitats.

  16. Accumulation of 3-Ketosteroids Induced by Itraconazole in Azole-Resistant Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Marichal, Patrick; Gorrens, Jos; Laurijssens, Leen; Vermuyten, Karen; Van Hove, Carl; Le Jeune, Ludo; Verhasselt, Peter; Sanglard, Dominique; Borgers, Marcel; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.; Odds, Frank; Vanden Bossche, Hugo

    1999-01-01

    The effects of itraconazole on ergosterol biosynthesis were investigated in a series of 16 matched clinical Candida albicans isolates which had been previously analyzed for mechanisms of resistance to azoles (D. Sanglard, K. Kuchler, F. Ischer, J. L. Pagani, M. Monod, and J. Bille, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 39:2378–2386, 1995). Under control conditions, all isolates contained ergosterol as the predominant sterol, except two strains (C48 and C56). In isolates C48 and C56, both less susceptible to azoles than their parent, C43, substantial concentrations (20 to 30%) of 14α-methyl-ergosta-8,24(28)-diene-3β,6α-diol (3,6-diol) were found. Itraconazole treatment of C43 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis (50% inhibitory concentration, 2 nM) and accumulation of 3,6-diol (up to 60% of the total sterols) together with eburicol, lanosterol, obtusifoliol, 14α-methyl-ergosta-5,7,22,24(28)-tetraene-3βol, and 14α-methyl-fecosterol. In strains C48 and C56, no further increase of 3,6-diol was observed after exposure to itraconazole. Ergosterol synthesis was less sensitive to itraconazole inhibition, as was expected for these azole-resistant isolates which overexpress ATP-binding cassette transporter genes CDR1 and CDR2. In addition to 3,6-diol, substantial amounts of obtusifolione were found after exposure to itraconazole. This toxic 3-ketosteroid was demonstrated previously to accumulate after itraconazole treatment in Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum but has not been reported in Candida isolates. Accumulation of obtusifolione correlated with nearly complete growth inhibition in these azole-resistant strains compared to that found in the susceptible parent strain, although the onset of growth inhibition only occurred at higher concentrations of itraconazole. ERG25 and ERG26 are the only genes assigned to the 4-demethylation process, of which the 3-ketoreductase is part. To verify whether mutations in these ERG25 genes

  17. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p < 0.001) indicates that percentage of silt and clay, sample depth, percent sand, distance from the channel, and relative elevation from the channel are significant predictors of OC content in the study area. Principle component analysis indicates limited separation between geomorphic floodplain features based on predictors of OC content. A lack of significant differences among floodplain features suggests that the systematic random sampling employed in this study can capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  18. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  19. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  20. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  1. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  2. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins

  3. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  4. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  5. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  6. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  7. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  8. Substantial Lateral Motions Accompany Tectonic Deformation on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Ghail, R.; Klimczak, C.; Solomon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Absent plate tectonics, deformation accompanying large-scale relative horizontal motion of the lithosphere on Venus is much more evenly distributed than that on Earth, which is mainly concentrated at plate boundaries. Yet Earth's plates, especially those of the continental lithosphere, are themselves internally deformed, often in a spatially distributed manner. Tectonic deformation on Venus thus has parallels to intraplate deformation on Earth, and so the morphology and kinematics of large-scale tectonics on Venus can be compared with structurally similar intraplate regions here. For example, numerous low-lying plains on Venus delineated by fold belts are analogous to mountain-range-bound sedimentary basins on Earth. One such site, northeast of Artemis Corona, is elliptical in plan and, at 1100 km in east-west and 620 km in north-south dimension, is akin to the Tarim Basin in northwest China (1250 km × 560 km). The fold belts demarcating this plain structurally resemble the Tian Shan range to the northwest and the Altun Shan to the southeast of the Tarim Basin, as well as the southern mountain range of the Sichuan Basin in southwest China. Notably, the Sichuan Basin is comparable in size (560 km × 390 km) to two other elliptical, fold-belt-bordered plains in the northeastern portion of Lada Terra on Venus (400 km × 300 km and 400 km × 370 km, respectively). The mountain ranges that delimit both the Tarim and Sichuan basins have accommodated substantial transpressive deformation: the Altun Shan range is situated atop the major Altyn Tagh left-lateral strike-slip fault, and the Longmenshan thrust belt to the northwest of the Sichuan Basin includes right-lateral shear. The fold belts on Venus may therefore possess a greater component of transpressive deformation than currently recognized, and these structures may thereby have facilitated more large-scale lateral mobility of the planet's lithosphere than previously thought.

  9. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... July of the preceding year involved and rounded to the nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2011... judicial review will rise to $1,300 for the 2011 calendar year. These updated amounts are based on the...

  10. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year... nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2013 The AIC threshold amount for ALJ hearing requests...

  11. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Holly P.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Kappes, Peter J.; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P.; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R.; Keitt, Bradford S.; Kress, Stephen W.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J.; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C.; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J.; Spatz, Dena R.; Towns, David R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List—6% of all these highly threatened species—likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852

  12. Substantial creep in healing human Achilles tendons. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, Per; Schepull, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    healing after rupture of the Achilles tendon can be described in terms of mechanical properties of the new-formed tissue, constituting the tendon callus. In previous human studies, the elastic modulus and the density remained almost constant during 3 months after mobilization started, and then improved up to one year. So far, time-dependent deformation of the healing human tendon has not been reported. in a series of 16 patients, operated with Achilles tendon suture, we implanted tantalum beads into the tendon and measured the distance between them repeatedly during 3 min of constant loading, using an ordinary image intensifier. The patients unloaded their leg for 30 min before the test. To avoid bias, all images were investigated in a randomized and blinded order. total strain during 3 min of constant loading at 7 weeks post injury amounted to 5%, and at 19 weeks to 3%. About half of the strain, after the loading was applied, occurred during the second and third min. Considerable strain also occurred just before loading, when the patient was told that a load would be applied, but before this was actually done. the measurements were crude, and this study should be seen as a pilot. Still, visco-elastic properties seem to dominate the mechanical behavior the healing Achilles tendon from start of mobilization to 19 weeks, at least when tested after 30 min rest. This deserves further studies with more precise methods.

  13. Substantial creep in healing human Achilles tendons. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Aspenberg, Per; Schepull, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background healing after rupture of the Achilles tendon can be described in terms of mechanical properties of the new-formed tissue, constituting the tendon callus. In previous human studies, the elastic modulus and the density remained almost constant during 3 months after mobilization started, and then improved up to one year. So far, time-dependent deformation of the healing human tendon has not been reported. Methods in a series of 16 patients, operated with Achilles tendon suture, we implanted tantalum beads into the tendon and measured the distance between them repeatedly during 3 min of constant loading, using an ordinary image intensifier. The patients unloaded their leg for 30 min before the test. To avoid bias, all images were investigated in a randomized and blinded order. Results total strain during 3 min of constant loading at 7 weeks post injury amounted to 5%, and at 19 weeks to 3%. About half of the strain, after the loading was applied, occurred during the second and third min. Considerable strain also occurred just before loading, when the patient was told that a load would be applied, but before this was actually done. Conclusion the measurements were crude, and this study should be seen as a pilot. Still, visco-elastic properties seem to dominate the mechanical behavior the healing Achilles tendon from start of mobilization to 19 weeks, at least when tested after 30 min rest. This deserves further studies with more precise methods. PMID:26605187

  14. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  15. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna.

  16. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  17. The DDR at telomeres lacking intact shelterin does not require substantial chromatin decompaction.

    PubMed

    Timashev, Leonid A; Babcock, Hazen; Zhuang, Xiaowei; de Lange, Titia

    2017-03-15

    Telomeres are protected by shelterin, a six-subunit protein complex that represses the DNA damage response (DDR) at chromosome ends. Extensive data suggest that TRF2 in shelterin remodels telomeres into the t-loop structure, thereby hiding telomere ends from double-stranded break repair and ATM signaling, whereas POT1 represses ATR signaling by excluding RPA. An alternative protection mechanism was suggested recently by which shelterin subunits TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mediate telomeric chromatin compaction, which was proposed to minimize access of DDR factors. We performed superresolution imaging of telomeres in mouse cells after conditional deletion of TRF1, TRF2, or both, the latter of which results in the complete loss of shelterin. Upon removal of TRF1 or TRF2, we observed only minor changes in the telomere volume in most of our experiments. Upon codeletion of TRF1 and TRF2, the telomere volume increased by varying amounts, but even those samples exhibiting small changes in telomere volume showed DDR at nearly all telomeres. Upon shelterin removal, telomeres underwent 53BP1-dependent clustering, potentially explaining at least in part the apparent increase in telomere volume. Furthermore, chromatin accessibility, as determined by ATAC-seq (assay for transposase-accessible chromatin [ATAC] with high-throughput sequencing), was not substantially altered by shelterin removal. These results suggest that the DDR induced by shelterin removal does not require substantial telomere decompaction.

  18. Investigators unable to substantiate suspected link between sponge, TSS.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    Federal investigators have failed to substantiate a suspected link between the contraceptive sponge and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In September the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported the case of a woman who inserted the contraceptive sponge last July 17 and removed itthe following day. About 6 hours later she noted the sudden onset of a fever of 104 degrees Farenheit, nausea, redness, shaking chills, and an inflamed vagina. Cultures from the sponge revealed S. aureus and S. epidemis. There was initial concern that the case may have represented early TSS. A toxin produced by certain strains of S. aureus is thought to cause TSS. The syndrome includes a fever greater than 102 degrees, rash, blood pressure less than 90mmHG, peelin g skin on the palms and soles 1-2 weeks after onset, and involvement of 3 or more of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, muscular, mucous membrane, renal, hepatic, hematologic,or central nervous system. FDA medical Officers Dr. William J. McCann told "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) that the reported case failed to fill the Centers for Disease Control criteriaof the diagnosis of TSS. Because the woman has been treated with antibiotics early in the course of her disease, McCann said he could not entirely exclude the possibility that she might have developed TSS if she had gone untreated. He added that the possibility was "remote". Dr. Gail Bolan, CDC epidemiologist, told CTU that "antibiotics do not seem to affect the outcome of the original episode" of TSS cases. She commented that milder forms of TSS might exist that may not meet CDC's strict case definition. Without a specific test, there is no way to separate milder TSS cases from viral or other diseases that may appear similar. According to Deborah Gaynor, the sponge's package insert states that clinical trials were not large enough to assess the risk of TSS. The sponge is not recommended for use during menstration. Gaynor cites a variety of reasons why the

  19. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  20. Dust Accumulation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since landing on Mars a year ago, NASA's pair of six-wheeled geologists have been constantly exposed to martian winds and dust. As a result, the Spirit rover has gradually experienced a slight decline in power as a thin layer of dust has accumulated on the solar panels, blocking some of the sunlight that is converted to electricity. In this enlarged image of a postage-stamp-size (3-centimeter-square, 1.2-inch-square) portion of one of Spirit's solar panels, a fine layer of martian dust coats electrical connections and metal surfaces. Individual silt grains or clumps of dust are visible where sediment has accumulated in crevices between solar cells and circuits. The upper right half of the image shows the edge of one of the rover's solar cells. The lower left half shows electrical wires bonded with silicon adhesive to the underlying composite surface; the circular abrasions are the result of sanding by hand on Earth. The braided wire is connected to a thermocouple used to measure temperature based on electrical resistance. Spirit took this image with its microscopic imager on martian day, or sol, 350 (Dec. 26, 2004).

  1. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loans. (1) The total principal obligation for a loan to purchase a new manufactured home shall not... to purchase a new manufactured home and a lot on which to place the home shall not exceed the sum of... IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property...

  2. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  3. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  4. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  5. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event...

  6. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event...

  7. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in the... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event...

  8. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... complete program application to CCC. For triticale, the grazing rate will be equal to the loan deficiency... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three (3...

  11. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  12. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  13. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee amounts..., or export a List I chemical, the applicant shall pay an annual fee of $1,147. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 15250, Mar. 15, 2012, § 1309.11 was revised, effective April 16, 2012. For the convenience...

  14. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap... insurers based on an adjusted PLRP, and aggregate insured losses still remain within the cap on annual...

  15. 20 CFR 617.45 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount. 617.45 Section 617.45 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR... weight authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7), between such locations...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three (3...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three (3...

  18. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050 Assistance...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050 Assistance...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050 Assistance...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050 Assistance...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050 Assistance...

  3. Snow interception, accumulation, accumulation, and melt in lodgepole pine forests in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Miner; James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon occupy important water-producing lands. These forests generally occur at middle to high elevations on north slopes, where a substantial portion of the precipitation is snow. To learn more about the influence of lodgepole pine forests on accumulation of mow and rate of...

  4. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  5. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  6. 26 CFR 1.662(b)-1 - Character of amounts; when no charitable contributions are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income as the total of each class bears to the total distributable net income of the estate or trust... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(b)-1 Character of amounts; when no charitable contributions are...

  7. 26 CFR 1.662(b)-1 - Character of amounts; when no charitable contributions are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income as the total of each class bears to the total distributable net income of the estate or trust... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(b)-1 Character of amounts; when no charitable...

  8. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  9. A Study of the Proper Amount of Work-in-Process Inventory for Multipurpose Intermediate Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Rihito; Imoto, Takaaki; Umeda, Toyohiro

    It is difficult to calculate the amount of inventory of intermediate products in a material processing factory which has complex multiple processes. If the amount is too great, inventory assets accumulate. On the other hand, if it is too small, tardiness in due-date is caused and the lead time from accepting order to shipping is extended because demand variation and equipment failure cannot be absorbed. In this report we explain a simulation model is explained and results are shown for comparing complementary amount of intermediate products by computing the flow from allocat-ing intermediate products to orders to shipping.

  10. Trends in Total Cloud Amount Over China

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kaiser, Dale P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States).

    1999-01-01

    These total cloud amount time series for China are derived from the work of Kaiser (1998). The cloud data were extracted from a database of 6-hourly weather observations provided by the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) through a bilateral research agreement. Surface-observed (visual) six-hourly observations [0200, 0800, 1400, and 2000 Beijing Time (BT)] of cloud amount (0-10 tenths of sky cover) were available from 196 Chinese stations covering the period 1954-94. Data from 1951-1953 were also available; however, they only included 0800, 1400, and 2000 BT observations.

  11. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M [Brookline, MA; Zhang, Kun [Brighton, MA

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  12. Ataxia induced by small amounts of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Setta, F; Jacquy, J; Hildebrand, J; Manto, M

    1998-01-01

    A patient is described who exhibited cerebellar ataxia after drinking small amounts of alcohol. Intake of 5 g alcohol induced a gaze evoked nystagmus, a scanning speech, a body sway after eye closure, and bilateral postural leg tremor. Kinematic and EMG analysis of fast wrist movements showed normal movements before and marked hypermetria after alcohol intake. Dysmetria was due to abnormal programming of antagonist muscle activity.

 PMID:9728953

  13. 24 CFR 888.305 - Amount of the retroactive Housing Assistance Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Retroactive Housing Assistance Payments for New Construction, Substantial Rehabilitation, State Finance Agencies, Section 515 Farmers Home Administration, Section 202 Elderly or Handicapped, and Special Allocations Projects § 888.305 Amount of the retroactive...

  14. 24 CFR 888.305 - Amount of the retroactive Housing Assistance Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Retroactive Housing Assistance Payments for New Construction, Substantial Rehabilitation, State Finance Agencies, Section 515 Farmers Home Administration, Section 202 Elderly or Handicapped, and Special Allocations Projects § 888.305 Amount of the retroactive...

  15. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  16. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  17. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  18. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  19. Reduction of B-integral accumulation in lasers

    DOEpatents

    Meyerhofer, David D.; Konoplev, Oleg A.

    2000-01-01

    A pulsed laser is provided wherein the B-integral accumulated in the laser pulse is reduced using a semiconductor wafer. A laser pulse is generated by a laser pulse source. The laser pulse passes through a semiconductor wafer that has a negative nonlinear index of refraction. Thus, the laser pulse accumulates a negative B-integral. The laser pulse is then fed into a laser amplification medium, which has a positive nonlinear index of refraction. The laser pulse may make a plurality of passes through the laser amplification medium and accumulate a positive B-integral during a positive non-linear phase change. The semiconductor and laser pulse wavelength are chosen such that the negative B-integral accumulated in the semiconductor wafer substantially cancels the positive B-integral accumulated in the laser amplification medium. There may be additional accumulation of positive B-integral if the laser pulse passes through additional optical mediums such as a lens or glass plates. Thus, the effects of self-phase modulation in the laser pulse are substantially reduced.

  20. Choline Accumulation by Photoreceptor Cells of the Rabbit Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masland, Richard H.; Mills, John W.

    1980-03-01

    Photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina accumulate choline from the extracellular environment by an overall process that has a high affinity for choline. These cells do not synthesize acetylcholine; instead, the choline taken up is incorporated into phosphorylcholine and eventually phospholipid. A mechanism for efficient choline accumulation is presumably concomitant to the photoreceptor cell's synthesis of large amounts of membrane for outer segment membrane renewal. Its existence in the photoreceptor cell supports previous evidence that high-affinity choline uptake is not confined to neurons that release acetylcholine, but may be present wherever large amounts of choline are required.

  1. The influence of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Green, Charlotte J; Hodson, Leanne

    2014-11-10

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation in human observational and intervention studies. Overall, it would seem that total calorie consumption, rather than dietary fat composition, is an important factor in the development of fatty liver disease in humans.

  2. THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, A. G.

    1938-01-01

    Experiments on Valonia were carried out as follows: Stage I.—Cells in dim light accumulated 0.08 M ammonia (NH3 + NH4OH + NH4+) from sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia (but the concentration of undissociated ammonia appeared to remain less inside than outside). Potassium came out. Stage II.—Cells in dim light in nearly ammonia-free normal sea water lost ammonia which was replaced by sodium entering from the sea water. Potassium in the sap remained practically constant. Stage III.—The cells were placed in stronger light where the loss of ammonia continued and potassium entered. Sodium entered more rapidly than in Stage II. Stage IV.—Cells transferred to sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia again accumulated ammonia up to 0.1345 M. The results in general harmonize with the view that the direction of movement of a base M through the protoplasm depends on the difference of the activity products (M)o(OH)o and (M)i(OH)i where the subscripts o and i refer to sea water and sap respectively. On this basis, if the entrance of ammonia raised the internal concentration of OH sufficiently in Stage I potassium should come out in Stage I, as actually happened. The behavior of sodium is in doubt. If the internal pH in Stage II were sufficiently high sodium should enter but not potassium. This was actually found. In Stage III, if we suppose that the effect of stronger light is to increase the external pH (by photosynthesis) more than the internal pH (as found by Crozier) we can understand why potassium entered, because such an increase in pH could readily make the external value of (K) (OH) greater than the internal. This would also explain why sodium entered more rapidly than in Stage II. When ammonia is coming out of the cell, sodium and potassium may enter more rapidly than usual without raising the internal concentration of halide above a certain critical value at which entrance appears to be checked. PMID:19873074

  3. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  4. Introgression between two cutthroat trout subspecies with substantial karyotypic, nuclear and mitochondrial genomic divergence.

    PubMed

    Gyllensten, U; Leary, R F; Allendorf, F W; Wilson, A C

    1985-12-01

    The authors used allozymes encoded by nuclear genes and restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to study secondary contact between westslope (Salmo clarki lewisi) and Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki bouvieri) in Forest Lake, Montana. Eleven diagnostic allozyme loci identified this as a random-mating hybrid swarm. No parental, first-generation hybrid or backcross genotypes were detected in the sample (N = 33), and genotype distributions at all the variable loci conform to binomial expectations. There is little linkage disequilibrium between the diagnostic loci, indicating that the nuclear genomes of the two subspecies are largely randomly associated. The allozymes and mtDNA give identical estimates of the proportional genetic contribution of each subspecies. Thus, males and females from both subspecies have contributed equally to this hybrid swarm. Although these subspecies have accumulated substantial genetic divergence between their nuclear (Nei's D = 0.34) and mitochondrial (2% sequence divergence) genomes, this has not resulted in a genetic barrier to exchange between them.

  5. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  6. Comparison of primary and secondary rat astrocyte cultures regarding glucose and glutathione metabolism and the accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Petters, Charlotte; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte-rich primary cultures (APCs) are frequently used as a model system for the investigation of properties of brain astrocytes. However, as APCs contain a substantial number of microglial and oligodendroglial cells, biochemical parameters determined for such cultures may at least in part reflect also the presence of the contaminating cell types. To lower the potential contributions of microglial and oligodendroglial cells on properties of the astrocytes in APCs we prepared rat astrocyte-rich secondary cultures (ASCs) by subculturing of APCs and compared these ASCs with APCs regarding basal metabolic parameters, specific enzyme activities and the accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles. Immunocytochemical characterization revealed that ASCs contained only minute amounts of microglial and oligodendroglial cells. ASCs and APCs did not significantly differ in their specific glucose consumption and lactate production rates, in their specific iron and glutathione contents, in their specific activities of various enzymes involved in glucose and glutathione metabolism nor in their accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles. Thus, the absence or presence of some contaminating microglial and oligodendroglial cells appears not to substantially modulate the investigated metabolic parameters of astrocyte cultures.

  7. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart.

  8. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  9. Ducklings exhibit substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to short-term food shortage.

    PubMed

    Moe, Borge; Stolevik, Einar; Bech, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether Pekin ducklings (Anas platyrhyncos domesticus) exhibited any energy-saving mechanisms that could lessen the detrimental effects of reduced food intake during early development. Further, we evaluated the role of body compositional changes behind such potential mechanisms and the consequences on thermoregulatory capacity. The ducklings exhibited substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to diet restriction. After 5 d of diet restriction, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 10- and 20-d-old ducklings was 16.4% and 32.1% lower, respectively, than predicted from body mass compared with ad lib. fed ducklings (controls). These reductions in RMR could have been adaptive responses in anticipation of a lasting food shortage, or they could have been consequences of the restricted diet and the lack of essential nutrients. We argue that the responses were adaptive. The low RMRs were not a consequence of depleted fuel stores because the diet-restricted ducklings exhibited substantial amounts of stored lipids at the end of the diet-restriction periods. Hypothermia accounted for approximately 50% of the reduction in RMR in the 10-d-old diet-restricted ducklings, but hypothermia did not occur in the 20-d-old diet-restricted ducklings. Diet restriction resulted in a reduced liver and intestine size and an unchanged size of the leg muscles and heart, while the length of the skull increased (compared with controls of a given body mass). However, changes in body composition were only minor predictors of the observed changes in RMR. Peak metabolic rate (PMR) was approximately 10% lower in the diet-restricted ducklings compared with the controls. We have interpreted the lower PMR as a consequence of the reductions in RMR rather than as a consequence of a decreased function of the thermoregulatory effector mechanisms.

  10. Substantial nitrogen acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from organic material has implications for N cycling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Angela; Fitter, Alastair H

    2010-08-03

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate biotrophs that acquire carbon (C) solely from host plants. AM fungi can proliferate hyphae in, and acquire nitrogen (N) from, organic matter. Although they can transfer some of that N to plants, we tested the hypothesis that organic matter is an important N source for the AM fungi themselves. We grew pairs of plants with and without the AM fungus Glomus hoi in microcosms that allowed only the fungus access to a 15N/13C-labeled organic patch; in some cases, one plant was shaded to reduce C supply to the fungus. The fungal hyphae proliferated vigorously in the patch, irrespective of shading, and increased plant growth and N content; approximately 3% of plant N came from the patch. The extraradical mycelium of the fungus was N-rich (3-5% N) and up to 31% of fungal N came from the patch, confirming the hypothesis. The fungus acquired N as decomposition products, because hyphae were not 13C-enriched. In a second experiment, hyphae of both G. hoi and Glomus mosseae that exploited an organic material patch were also better able to colonize a new host plant, demonstrating a fungal growth response. These findings show that AM fungi can obtain substantial amounts of N from decomposing organic materials and can enhance their fitness as a result. The large biomass and high N demand of AM fungi means that they represent a global N pool equivalent in magnitude to fine roots and play a substantial and hitherto overlooked role in the nitrogen cycle.

  11. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H.

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  12. Chemical form matters: differential accumulation of mercury following inorganic and organic mercury exposures in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Korbas, Malgorzata; Macdonald, Tracy C; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N; Krone, Patrick H

    2012-02-17

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versusl-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of l-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with l-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-l-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  13. Stratigraphy and historic accumulation of mercury in recent depositional sediments in the Sudbury River, Massachusetts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Bradley E.; Wiener, James G.; Rada, Ronald G.; Engstrom, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution and deposition of sedimentary mercury in the Sudbury River were linked to an industrial complex (Nyanza site) that operated from 1917 through 1978. In two reservoirs just downstream from the Nyanza site, estimated rates of mercury accumulation increased markedly in the 1920s and 1930s, were greatest during 1976-1982, decreased within 5 years after industrial operations ceased, and have decreased further since capping of contaminated soil at the Nyanza site was completed in 1991. The most contaminated sediments were typically buried, yet the 0- to 1-cm stratum remained substantially contaminated in all cores. Mercury accumulating in the surficial, reservoir sediments was probably from continuing, albeit much lesser, inputs from the Nyanza site, whereas recent inputs to downstream wetland areas were attributed to recycling of sedimentary mercury or to mercury from unidentified local sources. In the reservoirs, burial of highly contaminated sediments is gradually decreasing the amount of sedimentary mercury available for methylation. In downstream wetlands, however, sedimentary mercury seemed to be more available than that in the reservoirs for physical transport and biogeochemical cycling.

  14. Dislocation pileup as a representation of strain accumulation on a strike-slip fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional model of strain accumulation on a vertical transform fault is a discrete screw dislocation in an elastic half-space with the Burgers vector of the dislocation increasing at the rate of relative plate motion. It would be more realistic to replace that discrete dislocation by a dislocation distribution, presumably a pileup in which the individual dislocations are in equilibrium. The length of the pileup depends upon the applied stress and the amount of slip that has occurred at depth. I argue here that the dislocation pileup (the transition on the fault from no slip to slip at the full plate rate) occupies a substantial portion of the lithosphere thickness. A discrete dislocation at an adjustable depth can reproduce the surface deformation profile predicted by a pileup so closely that it will be difficult to distinguish between the two models. The locking depth (dislocation depth) of that discrete dislocation approximation is substantially (???30%) larger than that (depth to top of the pileup) in the pileup model. Thus, in inverting surface deformation data using the discrete dislocation model, the locking depth in the model should not be interpreted as the true locking depth. Although dislocation pileup models should provide a good explanation of the surface deformation near the fault trace, that explanation may not be adequate at greater distances from the fault trace because approximating the expected horizontally distributed deformation at subcrustal depths by uniform slip concentrated on the fault is not justified.

  15. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equal to the present value of all initial withdrawal liability payments for which the employer was not liable pursuant to section 4219(c)(1)(B) of ERISA. The present value of such payments shall...

  16. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3−-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2−-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy. PMID:26257096

  17. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-08-10

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3(-)-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2(-)-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy.

  18. Ultrasonic Atomization Amount for Different Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Honma, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zheng; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization was estimated by measuring the vaporization amount from a bulk liquid with a fountain. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the atomization characteristics were investigated when the directivities of the acoustic field from a transducer were almost the same. The sample was distillated water and the ultrasonic frequencies were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.4 MHz. The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity and decreasing ultrasonic frequency. The fountain was formed at the liquid surface where the effective value of acoustic pressure was above atmospheric pressure. The fountain height was strongly governed by the acoustic pressure at the liquid surface of the transducer center. At the same ultrasonic intensity, the dependence of ultrasonic frequency on the number of atomized droplets was small. At the same apparent surface area of the fountain, the number of atomized droplets became larger as the ultrasonic frequency increased.

  19. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans.

  20. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Reserves and Deferrals § 36.503 Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  1. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Reserves and Deferrals § 36.503 Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  2. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Reserves and Deferrals § 36.503 Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  3. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Reserves and Deferrals § 36.503 Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  4. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  5. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  6. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  7. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  8. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fedder, Jens; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Petersen, Lars J; Rasmussen, Claus; Lauszus, Finn F; Frost, Lars; Hornung, Nete; Lederballe, Ole; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2011-11-01

    As we found no recent published reports on the amount and kind of research published from Danish hospitals without university affiliation, we have found it relevant to conduct a bibliometric survey disclosing these research activities. We retrieved all scientific papers published in the period 2000-2009 emanating from all seven Danish non-university hospitals in two regions, comprising 1.8 million inhabitants, and which were registered in a minimum of one of the three databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Elsevier's Scopus. In 878 of 1,252 papers, the first and/or last author was affiliated to a non-university hospital. Original papers made up 69% of these publications versus 86% of publications with university affiliation on first or last place. Case reports and reviews most frequently had authors from regional hospitals as first and/or last authors. The total number of publications from regional hospitals increased by 48% over the 10-year period. Publications were cited more often if the first or last author was from a university hospital and even more so if they were affiliated to foreign institutions. Cardiology, gynaecology and obstetrics, and environmental medicine were the three specialities with the largest number of regional hospital publications. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals. Almost two thirds of the publications were original research published in international journals. Variations between specialities may reflect local conditions. not relevant. not relevant.

  9. The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Vernunft, Andreas; Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus. PMID:27031644

  10. Substantial iron sequestration during green-clay authigenesis in modern deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldermann, A.; Warr, L. N.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Mavromatis, V.

    2015-11-01

    In much of the global ocean, iron is a limiting nutrient for marine productivity. The formation of pyrite has been considered the most important sink of reactive iron in modern, organic-rich sediments. However, clay mineral transformations can also lead to long-term sequestration of iron during late diagenesis and in hydrothermal settings. Here we present evidence for substantial iron sequestration during the early diagenetic formation of ferruginous clay minerals, also called green-clay authigenesis, in the deep-sea environment of the Ivory Coast-Ghana Marginal Ridge. Using high-resolution electron microscopic methods and sequential sediment extraction techniques, we demonstrate that iron uptake by green-clay authigenesis can amount to 76 +/- 127 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1, which is on average six times higher than that of pyrite in suboxic subsurface sediments 5 m below the sea floor or shallower. Even at depths of 15 m below the sea floor or greater, rates of iron burial by green clay and pyrite are almost equal at ~80 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1. We conclude that green-clay formation significantly reduces the pore water inventory of dissolved iron in modern and ancient pelagic sediments, which challenges the long-standing conceptual view that clay mineral diagenesis is of little importance in current biogeochemical models of the marine iron cycle.

  11. Pretreated algal bloom as a substantial nutrient source for microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jain, Priyanka; Arora, Neha; Mehtani, Juhi; Pruthi, Vikas; Majumder, C B

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, toxic algal bloom, a copious and low-cost nutrient source was deployed for cultivating Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Various pre-treatment methods using combinations of acid/alkali and autoclave/microwave were tested for preparing hydrolysates and compared with minimal media (BG-11). Acid autoclave treatment resulted in maximum carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous content which substantially boosted the growth of the microalgal cells (4.36g/L) as compared to rest of the media. The microalga grown in this media also showed enhanced lipid content (43.2%) and lipid productivity (188mg/L/d) as compared to BG-11 (19.42mg/L/d). The biochemical composition showed 1.6-fold declines in protein while 1.27 folds in carbohydrate content as compared to BG-11. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of C14-C22 with increased amount of monounsaturated fatty acids as compared to BG-11. The results obtained showed that algal bloom can be used as a potential nutrient source for microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Future runoff from glacierized catchments in the Central Andes could substantially decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Marlene; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg; Suarez, Wilson; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Ayros, Edwin; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    during the dry season when glacier melt water used to represent substantial amounts of total runoff in high Andean catchments. Seasonal shifts of water availability may be mitigated by artificial reservoirs, but possible reductions of annual runoff cannot be compensated by such constructions. Furthermore, these possible water shortages may interact with other climatic and non-climatic stressors as well as socioeconomic drivers such as agroindustrial development leading to an increased need of comprehensive adaptation strategies.

  13. Effects of exogenous glucose on carotenoid accumulation in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Stammitti, Linda; Telef, Nadège; Colardelle, Patrice; Brouquisse, Renaud; Rolin, Dominique; Gallusci, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the effect of carbohydrate on carotenoid accumulation in leaves, excised plants of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiformae, wva 106) were supplied with glucose through the transpiration stream for 48 h. We report here that sugar accumulation in leaves led to a decrease of carotenoid content, which was related to the reduction of Chl. The decrease in carotenoid amount correlated with a sugar-induced repression of genes encoding enzymes of the carotenoid and of the Rohmer pathways. The lower 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase transcript level probably leads to a decreased metabolic flux through the methylerythritol pathway and subsequently to a lower amount of substrate available for plastidic isoprenoid synthesis. Differences between responses of young (sink) and mature (source) leaves to carbohydrate accumulation are discussed.

  14. Choosing the right amount of healthcare information technologies investments.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice

    2010-04-01

    Choosing and justifying the right amount of investment in healthcare information technologies (HITECH or HIT) in hospitals is an ever increasing challenge. Our objectives are to assess the financial impact of HIT on hospital outcome, and propose decision-helping tools that could be used to rationalize the distribution of hospital finances. We used a production function and microeconomic tools on data of 21 Paris university hospitals recorded from 1998 to 2006 to compute the elasticity coefficients of HIT versus non-HIT capital and labor as regards to hospital financial outcome and optimize the distribution of investments according to the productivity associated with each input. HIT inputs and non-HIT inputs both have a positive and significant impact on hospital production (elasticity coefficients respectively of 0.106 and 0.893; R(2) of 0.92). We forecast 2006 results from the 1998 to 2005 dataset with an accuracy of +0.61%. With the model used, the best proportion of HIT investments was estimated to be 10.6% of total input and this was predicted to lead to a total saving of 388 million Euros for the 2006 dataset. Considering HIT investment from the point of view of a global portfolio and applying econometric and microeconomic tools allow the required confidence level to be attained for choosing the right amount of HIT investments. It could also allow hospitals using these tools to make substantial savings, and help them forecast their choices for the following year for better HITECH governance in the current stimulation context. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  16. 17 CFR 210.4-04 - Omission of substantially identical notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Rules of General Application § 210.4-04 Omission of substantially identical notes. If a note covering substantially the same subject matter is required with respect to two or...

  17. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  18. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  19. Uptake and accumulation of copper by roots and shoots of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, D H; Jiang, W S; Hou, W Q

    2001-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of copper sulfate on root and shoot growth of maize(Zea mays L.) and the uptake and accumulation of Cu2+ by its roots and shoots were investigated in the present study. The concentrations of copper sulfate (CuSO4 x 5H2O) used were in the range of 10(-5)-10(-3) mol/L. Root growth decreased progressively with increasing concentration of Cu2+ in solution. The seedlings exposed to 10(-3) mol/L Cu2+ exhibited substantial growth reduction, yielding only 68% of the root length of the control. The shoot growth of the seedlings grown at 10(-5)-10(-4) mol/L Cu2+ were more or less the same as the control seedlings. The leaves treated with 10(-3) mol/L Cu2+ were obviously inhibited in shoot growth. The fresh and dry weights both in roots and shots decreased progressively with increasing Cu2+ concentration. This fits well with the above mentioned effects of copper sulfate on root growth. Zea mays has considerable ability to remove Cu from solutions and accumulate it. The Cu content in roots of Z. mays increased with increasing solution concentration of Cu2+. The amount of Cu in roots of plants treated with 10(-3), 10(-4) and 10(-5) mol/L Cu2+ were 10, 8 and 1.5 fold, respectively, greater than that of roots of control plant. However, the plants transported and concentrated only a small amount of Cu in their shoots.

  20. Using GRACE to constrain precipitation amount over cold mountainous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Gardner, Alex S.; Reager, John T.; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance for hydrology and climate-change studies, current quantitative knowledge on the amount and distribution of precipitation in mountainous and high-elevation regions is limited due to instrumental and retrieval shortcomings. Here by focusing on two large endorheic basins in High Mountain Asia, we show that satellite gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) can be used to provide an independent estimate of monthly accumulated precipitation using mass balance equation. Results showed that the GRACE-based precipitation estimate has the highest agreement with most of the commonly used precipitation products in summer, but it deviates from them in cold months, when the other products are expected to have larger errors. It was found that most of the products capture about or less than 50% of the total precipitation estimated using GRACE in winter. Overall, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) showed better agreement with GRACE estimate than other products. Yet on average GRACE showed 30% more annual precipitation than GPCP in the study basins. In basins of appropriate size with an absence of dense ground measurements, as is a typical case in cold mountainous regions, we find GRACE can be a viable alternative to constrain monthly and seasonal precipitation estimates from other remotely sensed precipitation products that show large bias.

  1. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Definition of “substantial services” and “services.” (a) General. In general, the substantial services test... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and...)(1). It is a test of whether, in view of all the services rendered by the individual and...

  2. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions a...

  3. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions a...

  4. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification. (a...

  5. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 416.972 Section 416.972 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  6. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  7. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  8. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  9. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  10. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation for Dietary Supplement Claims Made Under the Federal Food, Drug... Industry: Substantiation for Dietary Supplement Claims Made Under Section 403(r)(6) of the Federal Food... of information technology. Substantiation for Dietary Supplement Claims Made Under the Federal Food...

  11. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  12. 26 CFR 1.7874-3T - Substantial business activities (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial business activities (temporary). 1... Substantial business activities (temporary). (a) Scope. This section provides rules regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in the relevant foreign country when compared to...

  13. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  14. Large amounts of antiproton production by heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Powell, J.

    1987-01-01

    To produce large amounts of antiprotons, on the order of several grams/year, use of machines to produce nuclear collisions are studied. These can be of either proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus in nature. To achieve high luminosity colliding beams, on the order of 10/sup 41/ m/cm/sup 2/, a self-colliding machine is required, rather than a conventional circular colliding type. The self-colliding machine can produce additional antiprotons through successive collisions of secondary particles, such as spectator nucleons. A key problem is how to collect the produced antiprotons without capture by beam nuclei in the collision zone. Production costs for anti-matter are projected for various energy source options and technology levels. Dedicated facilities using heavy ion collisions could produce antiproton at substantially less than 1 million $/milligram. With co-production of other valuable products, e.g., nuclear fuel for power reactors, antiproton costs could be reduced to even lower values.

  15. Transmission of large amounts of scientific data using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, E. A.; Tarasov, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, the volume of figures generated by different research scientific projects (the Large Hadron Collider (Large Hadron Collider, LHC), The Square Kilometre Array (SKA)), can reach tens of petabytes per day. The only technical solution that allows you to transfer such large amounts of scientific data to the places of their processing is the transfer of information by means of laser technology, using different propagation environment. This article discusses the possibility of data transmission via fiber-optic networks, data transmission using the modulation binary stream of light source by a special LED light source, the neccessity to apply laser technologies for deep space communications, the principle for an unlimited expansion of the capacity of laser data link. Also in this study is shown the need for a substantial increase in data transfer speed via a pre-existing communication networks and via the construction of new channels of communication that will cope with the transfer of very large scale data volumes, taking into account the projected rate of growth.

  16. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  18. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  19. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  20. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Carlos A; Del Valle, Jorge I; Restrepo, Hector I

    2012-12-19

    Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years.

  1. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  2. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  3. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription Drug... the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for July 2003 to July of the year... (Prescription Drug Plan) Appeals The annually adjusted AIC threshold amounts for ALJ hearings and...

  4. Anthropogenic Disturbance of Montane Meadows May Cause Substantial Loss of Soil Carbon to the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C. C.; Sullivan, B. W.; Hart, S. C.; Drew, M.; Merrill, A.

    2016-12-01

    High-elevation meadows are biological hotspots that contain high densities of soil carbon (C). The capacity of these ecosystems to sequester C depends on a combination of high primary productivity, seasonally low temperatures, and anaerobic soil conditions associated with water tables at or near the soil surface. However, anthropogenic disturbances in many montane meadows in California's Sierra Nevada have lowered water tables, decreased primary productivity, and created aerobic soil conditions - changes that may alter the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reverse meadows from a net C sink to a net source. Recently, C policy in California has spurred interest in the potential of hydrologic restoration to increase C sequestration in meadows. However, soil C pools and fluxes in degraded meadows must be quantified before the impacts of restoration can accurately be assessed. In this study, we measured soil C stocks in surface soil (1 m) and annual soil GHG fluxes (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) in three degraded, northern Sierra Nevada meadows. In a parallel laboratory incubation, we manipulated meadow soil water content to determine target goals for restoration of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that degraded meadows contain large reservoirs of existing C, but that this C may be vulnerable to decomposition under current conditions. Soil CO2 fluxes ranged from 26.7-33.1 Mg of CO2 ha-1 y-1, roughly equivalent to the amount of C sequestered annually by 70 acres of U.S. forests. These high rates of soil respiration, combined with low primary productivity, resulted in substantial losses of soil C with implications for climate change, ecosystem function, and restoration. Soils from these meadows were a net source of N2O and a net sink of CH4, but these fluxes were 4 orders of magnitude smaller than CO2. Also, we found substantial GHG emissions persist in these organic soils at peak soil moisture, suggesting that

  5. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  6. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  7. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  8. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  9. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  10. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  11. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  12. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  13. Quantifying soil carbon accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems during the last 15 000 years

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sirui; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-11-25

    Northern high latitudes contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), of which Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems account for a substantial proportion. In this study, the SOC accumulation in Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems over the last 15 000 years was simulated using a process-based biogeochemistry model for both peatland and non-peatland ecosystems. Comparable with the previous estimates of 25–70 Pg C in peatland and 13–22 Pg C in non-peatland soils within 1 m depth in Alaska using peat-core data, our model estimated a total SOC of 36–63 Pg C at present, including 27–48 Pg C in peatland soils and 9–15 Pg C in non-peatland soils. Current vegetation stored 2.5–3.7 Pg C in Alaska, with 0.3–0.6 Pg C in peatlandsmore » and 2.2–3.1 Pg C in non-peatlands. The simulated average rate of peat C accumulation was 2.3 Tg C yr−1, with a peak value of 5.1 Tg C yr−1 during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in the early Holocene, 4-fold higher than the average rate of 1.4 Tg C yr−1 over the rest of the Holocene. The SOC accumulation slowed down, or even ceased, during the neoglacial climate cooling after the mid-Holocene, but increased again in the 20th century. The model-estimated peat depths ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 m, similar to the field-based estimate of 2.29 m for the region. We found that the changes in vegetation and their distributions were the main factors in determining the spatial variations of SOC accumulation during different time periods. Warmer summer temperature and stronger radiation seasonality, along with higher precipitation in the HTM and the 20th century, might have resulted in the extensive peatland expansion and carbon accumulation.« less

  14. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  15. Amount of prenatal visual stimulation alters incubation times and postnatal preferences in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    PubMed

    Sleigh, M J; Birchard, G F

    2001-09-01

    The authors exposed gecko (Eublepharis macularius) embryos to patterned visual stimulation beginning at either 1 week or 2 weeks prior to hatching. Embryos exposed to the substantially augmented amount of prenatal visual stimulation hatched significantly earlier than the embryos either exposed to the moderately augmented prenatal visual stimulation or not exposed to any prenatal visual stimulation (p < .01). Hatchling mass was not affected. Embryos exposed to substantially augmented visual stimulation demonstrated a postnatal preference for patterned light in a simultaneous choice test at 24 hr of age (p < .01). Control embryos demonstrated a preference for normal light conditions (p < .01), whereas experimental embryos exposed to lesser amounts of prenatal visual stimulation did not show a preference for either stimulus. At 1 week of age, geckos in all conditions failed to exhibit a preference for either stimulus.

  16. Characteristics of cadmium accumulation and tolerance in novel Cd-accumulating crops, Avena strigosa and Crotalaria juncea.

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Watanabe, Izumi; Yoshitomi, Akiko; Kiyono, Masako; Kuno, Katsuji

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in green manure crops were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating crops and to clarify the mechanisms involved in Cd accumulation and tolerance. Seedlings of eight crop species were treated with Cd (1 mg l(-1) or 5 mg l(-1)) in the growing medium for 4 d. Cd concentration in leaves of Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. New-oat, Crotalaria juncea L. and Tagetes erecta L. cv. African-tall was greater than values used to define Cd-hyperaccumulation (>100 mg Cd kg(-1) DW). However, in leaves of T. erecta, lipid peroxidation level increased significantly, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase were depressed by both Cd treatments. By contrast, A. strigosa and C. juncea exhibited high Cd tolerance. Avena strigosa leaves showed higher activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase than those of other species tested. Crotalaria juncea showed higher amounts of total soluble phenolics which, in leaves, were doubled by 5 mg l(-1) Cd treatment. When two Cd-tolerant accumulators (A. strigosa and C. juncea) and the non-accumulator (C. spectabilis) were treated with lower Cd concentrations for 4 weeks, A. strigosa and C. juncea exhibited superior Cd accumulation in the shoots with greater biomass production compared with C. spectabilis. These results indicate that A. strigosa and C. juncea possess the greater potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance than common crops.

  17. Daytime Chamber Measurements Miss Substantial Nighttime Methane Spikes Captured by Flux Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, C. M.; Markfort, C. D.; McNamara, P.

    2011-12-01

    Methane emissions from natural wetlands are estimated to range from 105 to 278 Tg per year, making wetlands the Earth's largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. It is well established that methane production from a wetland varies spatially and temporally with parameters such as topography, soil temperature, and soil moisture content. Numerous studies on methane emission from wetlands have been performed using static chamber measurements. While this method measures methane emission directly from a known location, it may not capture spatial heterogeneity for the landscape of interest and the choice of chamber locations may lead to non-representative estimates of methane emissions. Furthermore, these emission estimates are limited in their temporal resolution due to the amount of time required to install and sample the chambers. Few studies have compared, from a wetland, both static chamber methane measurements and continuous measurements from a flux tower. In this work we analyzed methane emissions based on both techniques using data from the 1996 BOREAS project. The mean daytime methane emission rate from chamber measurements was greater than the mean from the tower, which suggests that a small number of chambers may be inadequate to describe spatial heterogeneity. Surprisingly, the nighttime methane emissions, measured with the flux tower, were often an order of magnitude greater than emissions recorded during the day by either method. Thus, the use of only daytime measurements would lead to a substantial underestimation of total methane emissions from the wetland. We will evaluate several potential explanations for heightened nighttime emissions and evaluate how this affects our efforts to reconcile static chamber measurements with ecosystem-wide estimates based on tower methods.

  18. Root hydraulic conductivity measured by pressure clamp is substantially affected by internal unstirred layers.

    PubMed

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Steudle, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Using the root pressure probe in the pressure clamping (PC) mode, the impact of internal unstirred layers (USLs) was quantified for young corn roots, both in experiments and in computer simulations applying the convection/diffusion model of Knipfer et al. In the experiments, water flows (J(Vr)s) during PC were analysed in great detail, showing that J(Vr)s (and the apparent root hydraulic conductivity) were high during early stages of PC and declined rapidly during the first 80 s of clamping to a steady-state value of 40-30% of the original. The comparison of experimental results with simulations showed that, during PC, internal USLs at the inner surface of the endodermis substantially modify the overall force driving the water. As a consequence, J(Vr) and Lp(r) were inhibited. Effects of internal USLs were minimized when using the pressure relaxation mode, when internal USLs had not yet developed. Additional stop-clamp experiments and experiments where the endodermis was punctured to reduce the effect of internal USLs verified the existence of internal USLs during PC. Data indicated that the role of pressure propagation along the root xylem for both PC and pressure relaxation modes should be small, as should the effects of filling of the capacities during root pressure probe experiments, which are discussed as an alternative model. The results supported the idea that concentration polarization effects at the endodermis (internal USLs) cause a serious problem whenever relatively large amounts of water (xylem sap) are radially moved across the root, such as during PC or when using the high-pressure flow meter technique.

  19. Root hydraulic conductivity measured by pressure clamp is substantially affected by internal unstirred layers

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Steudle, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Using the root pressure probe in the pressure clamping (PC) mode, the impact of internal unstirred layers (USLs) was quantified for young corn roots, both in experiments and in computer simulations applying the convection/diffusion model of Knipfer et al. In the experiments, water flows (JVrs) during PC were analysed in great detail, showing that JVrs (and the apparent root hydraulic conductivity) were high during early stages of PC and declined rapidly during the first 80 s of clamping to a steady-state value of 40–30% of the original. The comparison of experimental results with simulations showed that, during PC, internal USLs at the inner surface of the endodermis substantially modify the overall force driving the water. As a consequence, JVr and Lpr were inhibited. Effects of internal USLs were minimized when using the pressure relaxation mode, when internal USLs had not yet developed. Additional stop-clamp experiments and experiments where the endodermis was punctured to reduce the effect of internal USLs verified the existence of internal USLs during PC. Data indicated that the role of pressure propagation along the root xylem for both PC and pressure relaxation modes should be small, as should the effects of filling of the capacities during root pressure probe experiments, which are discussed as an alternative model. The results supported the idea that concentration polarization effects at the endodermis (internal USLs) cause a serious problem whenever relatively large amounts of water (xylem sap) are radially moved across the root, such as during PC or when using the high-pressure flow meter technique. PMID:18420591

  20. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  1. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  2. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  3. 18 CFR 367.2283 - Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. 367.2283 Section 367.2283 Conservation of Power and Water....2283 Account 228.3, Accumulated provision for pensions and benefits. (a) This account must include provisions made by the service company and amounts contributed by employees for pensions, accident and death...

  4. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO₂) or V (as NaVO₃) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) μg/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) μg/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat.

  5. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed.

  6. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  7. 24 CFR 232.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A... subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee...

  8. 24 CFR 242.92 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 242... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.92 Minimum principal loan amount. A..., that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee. ...

  9. 24 CFR 232.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A... subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee...

  10. 24 CFR 242.92 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 242... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.92 Minimum principal loan amount. A..., that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee. ...

  11. 20 CFR 416.503 - Minimum monthly benefit amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly benefit amount. If you receive an SSI benefit that does not include a State supplement the minimum monthly SSI benefit amount payable is $1. When an SSI benefit amount of less than $1 is payable, the benefit amount will be increased to $1. If you receive an SSI benefit that does include a State supplement...

  12. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  13. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of the...

  14. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  15. 36 CFR 296.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair of archaeological resources... maximum amount of the penalty shall be double the cost of restoration and repair plus double the... Federal land manager may assess a penalty amount less than the maximum amount of penalty and may offer to...

  16. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair... pursuant to this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be double the cost of restoration and repair..., mitigation, and remission. The Federal land manager may assess a penalty amount less than the maximum amount...

  17. 2 CFR 200.45 - Fixed amount awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed amount awards. 200.45 Section 200.45... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.45 Fixed amount awards. Fixed amount... primarily on performance and results. See §§ 200.201 Use of grant agreements (including fixed amount awards...

  18. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-3 - Other amounts distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) amounts in excess of distributable net income (see paragraph (c) of this section). An amount which is... distributable net income (as defined in section 643(a)), then such other amounts properly paid, credited, or... excess of such distributable net income over the amounts of income required to be distributed currently...

  19. Monitoring Network Confirms Land Use Change is a Substantial Component of the Forest Carbon Sink in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Walters, B. F.; Coulston, J. W.; D'Amato, A. W.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M. B.; Sowers, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region-wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories. In eastern US forests, LU change is a substantial component of C sink strength (~37% of forest sink strength) only secondary to that of C accumulation in forests remaining forest where their comingling with other LUs does not substantially reduce sink strength. The strongest sinks of forest C were study areas not completely dominated by forests, even when there was some loss of forest to agriculture/settlement/other LUs. Long-term LU planning exercises and policy development that seeks to maintain and/or enhance regional C sinks should explicitly recognize the importance of maximizing non-forest to forest LU changes and not overlook management and conservation of forests located in landscapes not currently dominated by forests.

  20. Monitoring Network Confirms Land Use Change is a Substantial Component of the Forest Carbon Sink in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woodall, C W; Walters, B F; Coulston, J W; D'Amato, A W; Domke, G M; Russell, M B; Sowers, P A

    2015-12-07

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region-wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories. In eastern US forests, LU change is a substantial component of C sink strength (~37% of forest sink strength) only secondary to that of C accumulation in forests remaining forest where their comingling with other LUs does not substantially reduce sink strength. The strongest sinks of forest C were study areas not completely dominated by forests, even when there was some loss of forest to agriculture/settlement/other LUs. Long-term LU planning exercises and policy development that seeks to maintain and/or enhance regional C sinks should explicitly recognize the importance of maximizing non-forest to forest LU changes and not overlook management and conservation of forests located in landscapes not currently dominated by forests.

  1. Monitoring Network Confirms Land Use Change is a Substantial Component of the Forest Carbon Sink in the eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, C. W.; Walters, B. F.; Coulston, J. W.; D’Amato, A. W.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M. B.; Sowers, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change within a matrix of land use (LU) and LU change is a central component of large-scale forest C monitoring and reporting practices prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using a region–wide, repeated forest inventory, forest C stocks and stock change by pool were examined by LU categories. In eastern US forests, LU change is a substantial component of C sink strength (~37% of forest sink strength) only secondary to that of C accumulation in forests remaining forest where their comingling with other LUs does not substantially reduce sink strength. The strongest sinks of forest C were study areas not completely dominated by forests, even when there was some loss of forest to agriculture/settlement/other LUs. Long-term LU planning exercises and policy development that seeks to maintain and/or enhance regional C sinks should explicitly recognize the importance of maximizing non-forest to forest LU changes and not overlook management and conservation of forests located in landscapes not currently dominated by forests. PMID:26639409

  2. Cyanophycinase CphE from P. alcaligenes produced in different compartments of N. benthamiana degrades high amounts of cyanophycin in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Nausch, Henrik; Broer, Inge

    2017-03-01

    One of the major constraints in pig and poultry farming is the supply of protein-rich forage, containing sufficient amounts of key amino acids such as arginine (Ufaz and Galili 2008). Since these are underrepresented in plant proteins, the usage of plants as feed is limited. The heterologous production of the cyanobacterial storage polymer cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) in plastids increases the amount of arginine substantially (Huhns et al. 2008; Huhns et al. 2009; Nausch et al. 2016a). CGP degradation releases arginine-aspartate dipeptides. CGP is stable in plants because its degradation is exclusively restricted to bacterial cyanophycinases (CGPases; Law et al. 2009). Since animals are also unable to digest CGP, CGPases need to be co-delivered with CGP-containing plant feed in order to release the dipeptides in the gastrointestinal tract of animals during digestion. Therefore, an extracellular CGPase, CphE from Pseudomonas alcaligenes DIP-1, was targeted to the cytosol, ER, and apoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana. Translocation to the chloroplast was not successful. Although CphE accumulated in high amounts in the cytosol, only moderate levels were present in the ER, while the enzyme was nearly undetectable in the apoplasm. This correlates with the higher instability of post-translationally modified CphE in crude plant extracts. In addition, the production in the ER led to an increased number and size of necroses compared with cytosolic expression and might therefore interfere with the endogenous metabolism in the ER. Due to the high and robust enzyme activity, even moderate CphE concentrations were sufficient to degrade CGP in plant extracts.

  3. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  4. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate [3H]prostaglandins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Harper, M J

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with 3H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of [3H]PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of [3H]PGE2 and [3H]PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the [3H]PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. We conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  5. Effect of Various Conditions on Accumulation of Oxytetracycline in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Izaki, Kazuo; Arima, Kei

    1965-01-01

    Izaki, Kazuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), and Kei Arima. Effect of various conditions on accumulation of oxytetracycline in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:1335–1339. 1965.—Accumulation of large amounts of oxytetracycline occurred in Escherichia coli when the cells were incubated with high concentrations of oxytetracycline (100 to 400 μg/ml) in nutrient broth or in a medium containing glucose, K2HPO4, and MgSO4. In the absence of glucose or MgSO4, the accumulation was very small. The optimal pH for accumulation was about 6.5. Manganous ion could replace Mg++ in promoting the accumulation, though with decreased effectiveness. Malate and succinate were effective promoters of accumulation as well as glucose. Accumulation was inhibited at low temperatures or in the presence of metabolic inhibitors such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or sodium azide. Images PMID:14293007

  6. EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONDITIONS ON ACCUMULATION OF OXYTETRACYCLINE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    IZAKI, K; ARIMA, K

    1965-05-01

    Izaki, Kazuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), and Kei Arima. Effect of various conditions on accumulation of oxytetracycline in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:1335-1339. 1965.-Accumulation of large amounts of oxytetracycline occurred in Escherichia coli when the cells were incubated with high concentrations of oxytetracycline (100 to 400 mug/ml) in nutrient broth or in a medium containing glucose, K(2)HPO(4), and MgSO(4). In the absence of glucose or MgSO(4), the accumulation was very small. The optimal pH for accumulation was about 6.5. Manganous ion could replace Mg(++) in promoting the accumulation, though with decreased effectiveness. Malate and succinate were effective promoters of accumulation as well as glucose. Accumulation was inhibited at low temperatures or in the presence of metabolic inhibitors such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or sodium azide.

  7. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary... liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful...

  17. 34 CFR 692.41 - What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... financial need? 692.41 Section 692.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Students Under the Leap Program? § 692.41 What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need? (a) A State determines whether a student has substantial financial need on the basis of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6662-5 - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under section 172 of $150,000, resulting in taxable income of $300,000 for 1991. Upon audit of the 1990..., resulting in taxable income of zero for that year and leaving a $2,000,000 carryover available. Upon audit...—(1) Substantial valuation misstatement. There is a substantial valuation misstatement if the value...

  19. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence must...

  20. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence must...

  1. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  2. 46 CFR 390.13 - Failure to fulfill a substantial obligation under the agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to fulfill a substantial obligation under the agreement. 390.13 Section 390.13 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.13 Failure to fulfill a substantial...

  3. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  4. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  5. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence must...

  6. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  7. 78 FR 20855 - State Implementation Plans: Response to Petition for Rulemaking; Findings of Substantial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls To Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions During...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls to Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions During... signature, a copy of this notice will be posted on the EPA's Web site, under SSM SIP Call 2013, at...

  8. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year preceding...

  9. 77 FR 25109 - Notice of Information and Evidence Necessary To Substantiate Claim

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN46 Notice of Information and Evidence Necessary To Substantiate Claim... amend its regulations regarding VA's duty to notify a claimant of the information and evidence necessary... notify a claimant of information and evidence necessary to substantiate a claim. The purpose was to...

  10. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  11. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings. ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings. ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings. ...

  14. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Demonstrating the Substantial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Demonstrating the Substantial Equivalence of a New Tobacco Product: Responses to Frequently Asked... the Substantial Equivalence of a New Tobacco Product: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions.''...

  15. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  16. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  17. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., club activities, or social programs to be substantial gainful activity. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 416.972 Section 416.972 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL...

  18. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. ...

  19. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. ...

  20. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. ...

  1. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. ...

  2. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  3. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  4. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  5. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  6. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  7. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  8. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Miscellaneous Deductions and... substantial gainful activity that does not require skills or ability used in his or her previous work. However... in any type of substantial gainful activity which requires skills or abilities comparable to those of...

  9. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  10. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  11. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  12. Adaptation of marine plankton to environmental stress by glycolipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gašparović, Blaženka; Godrijan, Jelena; Frka, Sanja; Tomažić, Igor; Penezić, Abra; Marić, Daniela; Djakovac, Tamara; Ivančić, Ingrid; Paliaga, Paolo; Lyons, Daniel; Precali, Robert; Tepić, Nataša

    2013-12-01

    A systematic investigation of non-phosphorus containing glycolipids (GL) was conducted in the northern Adriatic Sea during two years at two stations with different nutrient loads. GL concentration varied both spatially and temporally, with values of 1.1-21.5 μg/L and 0.4-44.7 μg/L in the particulate and the dissolved fraction, respectively. The highest concentrations were measured during summer in surface waters and at the more oligotrophic station, where GL yields (% of total lipids) were often higher than 20% and 50% in the particulate and dissolved fractions, respectively. To obtain more insight into factors governing GL accumulation autotrophic plankton community structure (pico-, nano- and microplankton fractions), chlorophyll a, heterotrophic bacteria and nutrient concentrations were measured together with hydrographic parameters and sunlight intensity. During the investigated period smaller autotrophic plankton cells (pico- and followed by nanoplankton) prevailed in abundance over larger cells (microplankton), which were found in large numbers in freshened surface samples. Several major findings resulted from the study. Firstly, during PO4 limitation, particularly at the oligotrophic station, enhanced glycolipid instead of phospholipid accumulation takes place, representing an effective phosphate-conserving mechanism. Secondly, results suggest that at seawater temperatures >19 °C autotrophic plankton considerably accumulate GL, probably to achieve thermal stability. Thirdly, high sunlight intensities seem to influence increased GL accumulation; GL possibly plays a role in cell mechanisms that prevent/mitigate photooxidation. And finally, substantial accumulation of GL detected in the dissolved fraction could be related to the fact that GL do not contain biologically relevant elements, like phosphorus, which makes them an unattractive substrate for enzyme activity. Therefore, substantial portion of CO2 could be removed from the atmosphere in P

  13. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  14. Cadmium accumulation and its effects on metal uptake in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zou, Jinhua; Duan, Xuchuan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of Cd on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and metal uptake were investigated. Cd accumulations in roots and shoots and the interactions among other metals (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2).2.5H2O) used ranged from 10(-4) M to 10(-6) M. Cd had stimulatory effects during the first 5 days on root length of Nongda No. 108 at 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M Cd concentrations. Seedlings exposed to 10(-4) M Cd solution exhibited substantial growth reduction, and root growth even stopped. Root growth of Liyu No. 6 was stimulated at concentrations of 10(-5) M and 10(-6) M Cd during the entire experiment (15 days). Cadmium inhibited root growth of Liyu No. 6 at 10(-4) M Cd after 10 days of treatment. The Cd accumulation in roots and shoots of the two cultivars increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing Cd concentration and duration of treatment. Cadmium concentrated mainly in the roots, and small amounts were transferred to shoots. The proportion of Cd in the roots of Nongda No. 108 decreased with increases in Cd concentrations and duration of treatment, except for the group exposed to 10(-4) M Cd. In Liyu No. 6, the proportion of Cd in the root decreased progressively with an increase in Cd concentrations. Liyu No. 6 has a greater ability to remove Cd from solution and accumulate it when compared with Nongda No. 108. Liyu No. 6 can be considered a Cd-hyperaccumulator, according to the current accepted shoot concentration that defines hyperaccumulation as 0.01% (w/w) for cadmium. This cultivar, producing many roots and a high biomass and with great ability to accumulate Cd can play an important role in the treatment of soils stressed by Cd.

  15. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  16. Effects of weather, time, and pollution level on the amount of particulate matter deposited on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g · m(-2)) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28-48% of PM) and strong winds (27-36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves.

  17. Massive Perched Ice Layers in the Shallow Firn of Greenland's Lower Accumulation Area Inhibit Percolation and Enhance Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFerrin, M. J.; Machguth, H.; Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Abdalati, W.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Greenland's recent trend of record-breaking melt seasons (2012, 2010, 2007, 2002, et al.) have substantially increased the amount of melt water generated in the ice sheet's lower accumulation area. Due to this enhanced refreezing in the firn, regions with low accumulation rates have formed multi-annual ice layers 5-10+ meters thick in the thermally active shallow firn that overlies porous firn at depth. The loss of pore space in the firn prevents the majority of melt water from percolating to depth and results in surface runoff where water previously would have refrozen. Here we present evidence from in situ ground-penetrating radar, firn cores and airborne radar from NASA's Operation IceBridge, collected both before and after Greenland's 2012 melt season, to illustrate the mechanism by which southwest Greenland's runoff zone in 2012 extended 20 kilometers inland from the long-term saturation line. Additional evidence from satellite imagery, firn temperature profiles and modeling support the notion that these layers blocked percolation and contributed to Greenland's record runoff in 2012. Should Greenland's trend of anomalously warm summers persist, these massive lenses are likely to grow thicker and extend further inland, resulting in enhanced runoff and rapid upslope migration of the equilibrium line. These results illustrate the vital importance of understanding subsurface firn changes in order to accurately predict Greenland's future runoff in a changing climate.

  18. Selenium accumulation and selenium tolerance of salt grass from soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Huang, Z.Z. )

    1991-12-01

    Biomass production, selenium accumulation, and the role of the bioextraction of selenium by salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California, were studied. Salt grass contributed more than 80% vegetative coverage and 90% dry weight in the grassland communities where the soil Se concentrations were 100 times (1000 to 3000 micrograms kg-1) higher than the Se concentrations found in soils of the control sites. No evidence for evolution of Se tolerance was found in the salt grass populations. The successful colonization of salt grass in the soil with elevated Se and salinity is attributable to the presence of high concentrations of soil sulfate. Salt grass accumulated less Se than other salt-tolerant plant species existing in the same area, and no predation of animals and insects on salt grass has been noticed. Salt grass can transpire substantial amounts of volatile Se through its plant tissue. Under field conditions, a 1-m2 salt grass plot may produce 180 micrograms volatile selenium per day. However, no reduction of soil Se concentration in the salt grass habitat was detected over a period of 1 year. A long-term monitoring of Se status is needed in order to make predictions of the effectiveness of efforts to clean up Se-contaminated soils through the use of native plant species.

  19. Enhanced Accumulation of Cd2+ by a Mesorhizobium sp. Transformed with a Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana Coding for Phytochelatin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Hayashi, Makoto; Ono, Hisayo; Takagi, Masahiro; Hirata, Kazumasa; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    We expressed the Arabidopsis thaliana gene for phytochelatin synthase (PCSAt) in Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei B3, a microsymbiont of Astragalus sinicus, a legume used as manure. The PCSAt gene was expressed under the control of the nifH promoter, which regulates the nodule-specific expression of the nifH gene. The expression of the PCSAt gene was demonstrated in free-living cells under low-oxygen conditions. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) was expressed and catalyzed the synthesis of phytochelatins [(γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly; PCs] in strain B3. A range of PCs, with values of n from 2 to 7, was synthesized by cells that expressed the PCSAt gene, whereas no PCs were found in control cells that harbored the empty plasmid. The presence of CdCl2 activated PCS and induced the synthesis of substantial amounts of PCs. Cells that contained PCs accumulated 36 nmol of Cd2+/mg (dry weight) of cells. The expression of the PCSAt gene in M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3 increased the ability of cells to bind Cd2+ approximately 9- to 19-fold. The PCS protein was detected by immunostaining bacteroids of mature nodules of A. sinicus containing the PCSAt gene. When recombinant M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3 established the symbiotic relationship with A. sinicus, the symbionts increased Cd2+ accumulation in nodules 1.5-fold. PMID:12620871

  20. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  1. [Characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by vegetables].

    PubMed

    Hong, Chun-Lai; Weng, Huan-Xin; Yan, Ai-Lan; Xie, Ling-Li

    2007-10-01

    With seaweed iodine and KI as exogenous iodine sources, a pot experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by pakchoi cabbage, celery, capsicum, and radish. The results showed that the iodine content in the edible parts of test vegetables increased with increasing amount of exogenous iodine, but the iodine accumulation rate differed with the kinds of vegetables, in the order of pakchoi > celery > radish > capsicum. The majority of iodine was accumulated in roots, with lesser amount transferred to shoots. The distribution of iodine in vegetables was commonly in the order of root > leaf > stem > fruit, but the iodine in radish is lower in its rhizome than in its shoot. Low concentrations (0-25 mg x kg(-1)) of exogenous iodine had little effects on the growth of vegetables, while high concentrations (> or = 50 mg x kg(-1)) of it had inhibitory effects, resulting in a decreased vegetable biomass. The sensitivity of test vegetables to the adverse effect of exogenous iodine was in the order of capsicum > pachoi > celery > radish. Compared with seaweed iodine, KI decreased the biomass of first cutting significantly (P < 0.05), but for the second cutting, little difference was observed between these two iodine sources. The uptake and accumulation of these two iodine sources by vegetables also differed with cuttings, i.e., the first cutting vegetables absorbed more KI, while the second cutting vegetables absorbed more seaweed iodine (P < 0.05), suggesting that seaweed iodine had a longer efficacy than KI.

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... extent to which the accumulation distribution is considered to consist of undistributed net income. In... undistributed net income. An accumulation distribution made in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1970... there is undistributed net income. See § 1.665(e)-1A for the definition of “preceding taxable year.” (b...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... extent to which the accumulation distribution is considered to consist of undistributed net income. In... undistributed net income. An accumulation distribution made in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1970... there is undistributed net income. See § 1.665(e)-1A for the definition of “preceding taxable year.” (b...

  4. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the beneficiary's gross income for that year to the extent of the undistributed net income of the... undistributed net income for the preceding 5 years. For this purpose, an accumulation distribution made in any... year, to the extent of the undistributed net income of each of those years. Thus, an accumulation...

  5. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source.

  6. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  7. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  8. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  9. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  10. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.565 Maximum loan amount. The principal amount...

  11. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.565 Maximum loan amount. The principal amount...

  12. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.565 Maximum loan amount. The principal amount...

  13. The Effects of Scholarship Amount on Yield and Success for Master's Students in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andy; Yang, Rui; Hwang, Jun; McMaken, Jennifer; Rorison, Jamey

    2014-01-01

    The amount of merit-based scholarship support for graduate students in the United States has increased dramatically. Given this increased investment, does increasing the size of scholarships awarded to the most academically able admitted students substantially increase their probability of enrollment? We found no support for a positive answer to…

  14. The Effects of Scholarship Amount on Yield and Success for Master's Students in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andy; Yang, Rui; Hwang, Jun; McMaken, Jennifer; Rorison, Jamey

    2014-01-01

    The amount of merit-based scholarship support for graduate students in the United States has increased dramatically. Given this increased investment, does increasing the size of scholarships awarded to the most academically able admitted students substantially increase their probability of enrollment? We found no support for a positive answer to…

  15. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately.

  16. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in gross...

  17. Accumulation of soil-borne aluminium, iron, manganese and zinc in plants cultivated in the region of Moanda (Gabon) and nutritional characteristics of the edible parts harvested.

    PubMed

    Ondo, Jean Aubin; Biyogo, Richard Menye; Eba, François; Prudent, Pascale; Fotio, Daniel; Ollui-Mboulou, Magloire; Omva-Zue, Joseph

    2013-08-15

    In central Africa, studies on the transfer of metals from soil to food crops, the composition of foods and the dietary intake of cultivated vegetables are scarce. In this study, aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) transfer from naturally (pedogeochemically) contaminated soils into ten edible plants and human exposure to these metals via edible parts of the plants were investigated. The fertility of the soils studied was still satisfactory. Soil Al (33,029-40,031 mg kg(-1)), Fe (20,869 ± 1124 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (248.3 ± 37.9 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were consistent with those found in agricultural soils, but Mn concentrations were above those normally encountered in arable fields (10,000 mg kg(-1)). The results indicated a substantial accumulation of Fe in red roselle leaves and of Al, Mn and Zn in some leafy plants and okra (fruits). The present study highlights that adults consuming vegetables grown on naturally Mn-rich soils ingest significant amounts of Al, Mn and Zn. However, Zn amounts were below the recommended maximum tolerable levels for hazard risk. The study indicated that Al and Mn accumulation in food crops cultivated in the Moanda area of Gabon may represent a health hazard. However, the high levels of Zn in vegetables could be a pathway for Zn supplementation in human nutrition to reduce Zn deficiency in developing countries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Substantial weight gains are common prior to treatment-seeking in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined weight trajectories in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) during the year prior to treatment initiation and explored potential correlates of these weight changes. One hundred thirty (N=130) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Eighty-three percent (83%; n=108) of treatment seeking obese BED patients gained weight, and 65% (n=84) gained a clinically significant amount of weight (greater than or equal to 5% body weight), in the year preceding treatment. Overall, participants reported a mean percent weight gain of 8% (16.6 pounds) during the 12months prior to treatment with a wide range of weight changes across participants (from a 52% weight gain to a 13% weight loss). A substantial proportion of patients (35%), categorized as High Weight Gainers (defined as gaining more than 10% of body weight during previous year), reported gaining an average of 16.7% of body weight. Low Weight Gainers (defined as gaining greater than 5%, but less than 10%) comprised 29% of the sample and were characterized by a mean gain of 6.9% of body weight. Weight Maintainers/Losers (defined as having maintained or lost weight during the 12months prior to treatment) comprised 17% of the sample and reported losing on average 2.8% of body weight. These three groups did not differ significantly in their current weight and eating behaviors or eating disorder psychopathology. The majority of treatment-seeking obese patients with BED reported having gained substantial amounts of weight during the previous year. These findings provide an important context for interpreting the modest weight losses typically reported in treatment studies of BED. Failure to produce weight loss in these studies may be reinterpreted as stabilization of weight and prevention of further weight gain.

  19. Dynamics of phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in metal-treated Matricaria chamomilla roots.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj

    2008-03-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, 11 phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla roots exposed to low (3 microM) and high (60 and 120 microM) levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) for 7 days were investigated. Five derivatives of cinnamic acid (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) and six derivatives of benzoic acid (protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic acids and protocatechuic aldehyde) were detected. Accumulation of glycoside-bound phenolics (revealed by acid hydrolysis) was enhanced mainly towards the end of the experiment, being more expressive in Cu-treated roots. Interestingly, chlorogenic acid was extremely elevated by the highest Cu dose (21-fold higher than control) suggesting its involvement in antioxidative protection. All compounds, with the exception of chlorogenic acid, were detected in the cell wall bound fraction, but only benzoic acids were found in the ester-bound fraction (revealed by alkaline hydrolysis). Soluble phenolics were present in substantially higher amounts in Cu-treated roots and more Cu was retained there in comparison to Cd. Cu strongly elevated PAL activity (by 5.4- and 12.1-fold in 60 and 120 microM treatment, respectively) and lignin content (by 71 and 148%, respectively) after one day of treatment, indicating formation of a barrier against metal entrance. Cd had slighter effects, supporting its non-redox active properties. Taken together, different forms of phenolic metabolites play an important role in chamomile tolerance to metal excess and participate in active antioxidative protection.

  20. Manganese Accumulation in the Olfactory Bulbs and Other Brain Regions of “Asymptomatic” Welders

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Suman; Flynn, Michael R.; Du, Guangwei; Tröster, Alexander I.; An, Hongyu; Huang, Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Welding-generated metallic fumes contain a substantial amount of manganese (Mn), making welders susceptible to Mn toxicity. Although overt Mn toxicity manifests as a type of parkinsonism, the consequences of chronic, low-level Mn exposure are unknown. To explore region-specific Mn accumulation and its potential functional consequences at subclinical levels of Mn exposure, we studied seven welders without obvious neurological deficits and seven age- and gender-matched controls. Mn exposure for welders was estimated by an occupational questionnaire. High-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Grooved Pegboard performance of both hands, Trail making, and olfactory function tests were obtained from all subjects. Compared with controls, the welders had a significantly higher T1 relaxation rate (R1) in the olfactory bulb (OB, p = 0.02), mean T1-weighted intensity at frontal white matter (FWM; p = 0.01), bilateral globus pallidus (GP; p = 0.03), and putamen (p = 0.03). The welders scored worse than the controls on the Grooved Pegboard test for both dominant (p = 0.06) and nondominant hand (p = 0.03). The dominant hand Grooved Pegboard scores correlated best with mean MRI intensity of FWM (R2 = 0.51, p = 0.004), GP (R2 = 0.51, p = 0.004), putamen (R2 = 0.49, p= 0.006), and frontal gray matter (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.01), whereas the nondominant hand scores correlated best with intensity of FWM (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.02) and GP (R2 = 0.28, p = 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in either the Trail-making test or the olfactory test between the two groups. This study suggests that Mn accumulates in OB and multiple other brain regions in “asymptomatic” welders and that MRI abnormalities correlate with fine motor but not cognitive deficits. Further investigations of subclinical Mn exposure are warranted. PMID:21307282