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Sample records for accumulates high amounts

  1. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems.

  2. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  3. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  4. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  5. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-09-22

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  6. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area.

  7. A new correlation between photovoltaic panel's efficiency and amount of sand dust accumulated on their surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Ahmad Y.; Ghoneim, Adel A.

    2005-12-01

    The accumulation of dust particles on the surface of photovoltaic (PV) panel greatly affects its performance especially in the dusty areas. In the present work, an experimental and theoretical study has been carried out to investigate the effect of sand dust concentration on the efficiency of PV panels. A stand-alone PV system is designed to carry out this work. The I V characteristics have been measured simultaneously for both clean and dusty modules. It has been found that the short circuit current and the maximum output power decrease significantly as dust particles start to accumulate on the panel surface up to a concentration of 1g/m2, but the rate of decrease is slower for concentrations beyond that value. The reduction in short circuit current in one sample of study is found to be ˜40%, whereas it is ˜34% in the maximum output power. In contrast, it is stated that the open circuit voltage is not sensitive to sand dust accumulation. A significant degradation in the efficiency of PV modules is observed for sand dust accumulation up to 1g/m2. A linear relation has been proposed to correlate the degradation in efficiency to the amount of sand dust accumulated on the module surface. This relation can help PV system designers to reliably predict the effect of sand dust accumulation on PV module efficiency under real environmental conditions.

  8. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  9. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  10. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25437594

  11. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  12. Amount of psychological stress reported by high school volleyball officials.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M J; Ellery, P J

    1996-08-01

    All volleyball officials registered with a state high school activities association in a midwestern state were surveyed at the end of the volleyball season to assess their self-reported, psychological stress. Of 470 officials contacted, 353 (75%) responded by filling out a simple 5 point rating scale. The mean rating of stress was 2.3 (SD = .6) (between "very little" and "a moderate amount") which is similar to past findings for certified, amateur baseball and softball umpires.

  13. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  14. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  15. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing. PMID:25455208

  16. Energy expended and knee joint load accumulated when walking, running, or standing for the same amount of time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Edwards, W Brent; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged bouts of sitting are unhealthy, and some public health messages have recently recommended replacing sitting with more standing. However, the relative benefits of replacing sitting with standing compared to locomotion are not known. Specifically, the biomechanical consequences of standing compared to other sitting-alternatives like walking and running are not well known and are usually not considered in studies on sitting. We compared the total knee joint load accumulated (TKJLA) and the total energy expended (TEE) when performing either walking, running, or standing for a common exercise bout duration (30 min). Walking and running both (unsurprisingly) had much more TEE than standing (+300% and +1100%, respectively). TKJLA was similar between walking and standing and 74% greater in running. The results suggest that standing is a poor replacement for walking and running if one wishes to increases energy expenditure, and may be particularly questionable for use in individuals at-risk for knee osteoarthritis due to its surprisingly high TKJLA (just as high as walking, 56% of the load in running) and the type of loading (continuous compression) it places on cartilage. However, standing has health benefits as an "inactivity interrupter" that extend beyond its direct energy expenditure. We suggest that future studies on standing as an inactivity intervention consider the potential biomechanical consequences of standing more often throughout the day, particularly in the case of prolonged bouts of standing.

  17. Impurity accumulation in plasma regimes with high energy confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L. B.; Roberts, D. E.; Yang, H. R.; Dodel, G.; Gentle, K.; Von Goeler, S.; Holzhauer, E.; Hübner, K.; Keilhacker, M.; Korotkov, A.; Luce, T. C.; Miura, Y.; Tsois, N.; Würz, H.; Fussmann, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Krieger, K.; Müller, E. R.; Nolte, R.; Röhr, H.; Steuer, K. H.; Becker, G.; Bomba, B.; Bruhns, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Giannone, L.; Von Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Herrmann, H.; Kaesdorf, S.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lang, R.; Lee, P.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Poschenrieder, W.; Preis, R.; Rapp, H.; Rudyj, A.; Sandmann, W.; Schneider, F.; Schnider, U.; Siller, G.; Simmet, E.; Speth, E.; Söldner, F.; Stäbler, A.; Steinmetz, K.; Stroth, U.; Vollmer, O.; Zasche, D.

    1989-04-01

    Investigations of impurity accumulation phenomena in ASDEX are reviewed. There are four different operating regimes where pronounced accumulation is observed and these regimes are also characterized by improved energy confinement. In particular, medium-Z metallic ions are involved in accumulation processes whereas low-Z ions appear almost unaffected. The rapid accumulation observed in the case of metallic ions may be explained by neoclassical inward drifts if we assume that the anomalous diffusion is sufficiently suppressed, some indication of this being found from laser blow-off studies. The present results, however, can only be partly explained by neoclassical theory, according to which accumulation of low-Z impurities should also occur. The temporal behaviour of accumulation and the retarding effect of proton dilution for collision dominated transport are also discussed. Finally, we conclude that the full benefits of improved energy confinement can be achieved only if the impurity influxes are kept to a sufficiently low level. Expressed in terms of concentrations under low confinement conditions we have to postulate, for ASDEX, concentrations ≲ 10 -4 for metals and ≲ 2% for all light impurities.

  18. The association of very high hair manganese accumulation and high oxidative stress in Mongolian people.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Kiyomi; Kawabata, Terue; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative stress induces several diseases and early aging. Previously, we reported that Mongolians are exposed in high oxidative stress, which may cause their early aging. In this study, to know the reason of high oxidative stress, we measured hair metals. This investigation was performed in Murun city, in the northern area of this country, and 469 healthy subjects, ranging from 10 to 82 years of age, were randomly enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Antioxidant capacity (AOC) was estimated by the levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Scalp hair metals were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Murun subjects showed high ROM levels of 394+/-75 Carr U (n=342), compared with Japanese healthy subjects (n=356, 326+/-51 Carr U, p<0.001). MDA-LDL and 8-OHdG levels also showed high levels. While, BAP levels of Murun subjects were 2263+/-203 micromol/L (n=210), Japanese subjects (n=356, 2087+/-215 micromol/L, p<0.001). SOD activities were also high, suggesting that the high oxidative may accelerate the state of AOC. Murun subjects demonstrated high accumulation of several metals in the hairs. In particular, Mn accumulation exhibited from 2 fold to 40 fold increases of Japanese standard. These findings are indicative that the high Mn accumulation may contribute to the high oxidative stress. The mechanism of its high accumulation was not explained by food materials or drinking water. We should further investigate another influence such as sandy wind. In order to suppress the high oxidative stress, elimination of the high Mn accumulation should be urgently studied. PMID:20021397

  19. Carbon accumulation rate of peatland in the High Arctic, Svalbard: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Uchida, Masaki; Sasaki, Akiko; Kondo, Miyuki; Yoshitake, Shinpei; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Moss tundra that accumulates a thick peat layer is one of the most important ecosystems in the High Arctic, Svalbard. The importance of this ecosystem for carbon sequestration was estimated from the apparent rates of carbon accumulation based on the 14C age and amount of peat in the active layer. The study site at Stuphallet, Brøgger Peninsula, northwestern Svalbard was covered with a thick peat layer dominated by moss species such as Calliergon richardsonii, Paludella squarrosa, Tomenthypnum nitens, and Warnstorfia exannulata. The average thickness of the active layer (brown moss and peat) was approximately 28 cm in 1 August 2011. The calibrated (cal) age of peat from the bottom of the active layer (20-30 cm below the peatland surface) ranged from 81 to 701 cal yr BP (median value of 2σ range). Based on the total carbon (4.5-9.2 kg C m-2), the apparent rate of carbon accumulation in the active layer was 9.0-19.2 (g C m-2 yr-1), which is similar to or greater than the net ecosystem production or net primary production reported for other vegetation types in this area. Our data suggest that moss tundra plays an important role in carbon sequestration in this area.

  20. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae. PMID:22938823

  1. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Maclean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies.

  2. Multistep impregnation method for incorporation of high amount of titania into SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Song Mo . E-mail: m.song@lboro.ac.uk

    2006-02-02

    A multistep impregnation method was employed to incorporate high amount of titania into the mesoporous SBA-15 silica. No damage to the SBA-15 silica mesostructures was caused by the loading of titania in every cycle. The existence of titania small nanodomains were confirmed to be present by Raman spectra and UV-vis DRS measurements. High dispersion of them was realized via this method according to the results of low-angle X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption measurements. Importantly, no blockage of mesostructures was acknowledged with titania content up to 24.4 wt.%. In comparison, normally used one-step impregnation method led to serious blockage of mesopores as the results of formation of bulk titania particles in the mesochannels. Photo-activity test for the removal of oestrogen showed the superiority of the materials synthesized by multistep impregnation method to one-step impregnation method.

  3. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; MacLean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies. PMID:27528413

  4. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum.

    PubMed

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; MacLean, Evan L; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies. PMID:27528413

  5. [Reduced performance and high somatic cell counts in a dairy herd fed high amounts of brewers' grain].

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, B

    2013-09-01

    The present case report describes a herd problem on a Holstein Friesian dairy farm in Switzerland, which could be attributed to the feeding of high amounts of wet brewers' grain over several months. Apathy and reduced general appearance, reduced feed intake as well as a decline in milk yield could be observed. A strong increase in milk somatic cell counts as well as an increase in the incidence of mastitis could be found. The milk fat content was highly elevated in all cows, whereas the milk protein content was reduced. The exclusion of wet brewers' grain from the partial mixed ration resulted in a considerable improvement of the general appearance of the cows and a decrease of the milk somatic cell counts. Feed that is easily spoiled could be a health risk for animals, particularly under hot and humid weather conditions and if fed in high amounts.

  6. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vuyisich, Momchilo; Arefin, Ayesha; Davenport, Karen; Feng, Shihai; Gleasner, Cheryl; McMurry, Kim; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Price, Jennifer; Scholz, Matthew; Chain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 μg). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. PMID:25478564

  7. Exploring Effective Strategies for Increasing the Amount of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Children Accumulate during Recess: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Less than half of elementary children meet the physical activity recommendations of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on a daily basis. Recess provides the single biggest opportunity for children to accumulate MVPA. This study explored whether a teacher's social prompting to be active during recess…

  8. Fabrication of high quality cDNA microarray using a small amount of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hee; Jeong, Ha Jin; Jung, Jae Jun; Lee, Gui Yeon; Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tae Soo; Yang, Sang Hwa; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young

    2004-05-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an essential part of biological research. It enables the genome-scale analysis of gene expression in various types of model systems. Manufacturing high quality cDNA microarrays of microdeposition type depends on some key factors including a printing device, spotting pins, glass slides, spotting solution, and humidity during spotting. UsingEthe Microgrid II TAS model printing device, this study defined the optimal conditions for producing high density, high quality cDNA microarrays with the least amount of cDNA product. It was observed that aminosilane-modified slides were superior to other types of surface modified-slides. A humidity of 30+/-3% in a closed environment and the overnight drying of the spotted slides gave the best conditions for arraying. In addition, the cDNA dissolved in 30% DMSO gave the optimal conditions for spotting compared to the 1X ArrayIt, 3X SSC and 50% DMSO. Lastly, cDNA in the concentration range of 100-300 ng/ micro l was determined to be best for arraying and post-processing. Currently, the printing system in this study yields reproducible 9000 spots with a spot size 150 mm diameter, and a 200 nm spot spacing. PMID:15067369

  9. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. Methamphetamine drinking microstructure in mice bred to drink high or low amounts of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Emily C; Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Phillips, Tamara J

    2014-10-01

    Genetic factors likely influence individual sensitivity to positive and negative effects of methamphetamine (MA) and risk for MA dependence. Genetic influence on MA consumption has been confirmed by selectively breeding mouse lines to consume high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) amounts of MA, using a two-bottle choice MA drinking (MADR) procedure. Here, we employed a lickometer system to characterize the microstructure of MA (20, 40, and 80mg/l) and water intake in MAHDR and MALDR mice in 4-h limited access sessions, during the initial 4hours of the dark phase of their 12:12h light:dark cycle. Licks at one-minute intervals and total volume consumed were recorded, and bout analysis was performed. MAHDR and MALDR mice consumed similar amounts of MA in mg/kg on the first day of access, but MAHDR mice consumed significantly more MA than MALDR mice during all subsequent sessions. The higher MA intake of MAHDR mice was associated with a larger number of MA bouts, longer bout duration, shorter interbout interval, and shorter latency to the first bout. In a separate 4-h limited access MA drinking study, MALDR and MAHDR mice had similar blood MA levels on the first day MA was offered, but MAHDR mice had higher blood MA levels on all subsequent days, which corresponded with MA intake. These data provide insight into the microstructure of MA intake in an animal model of differential genetic risk for MA consumption, which may be pertinent to MA use patterns relevant to genetic risk for MA dependence.

  11. Dimensional stability under wet curing of mortars containing high amounts of nitrates and phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Benard, P.

    2008-10-15

    Investigations were carried out in order to solidify in cement some aqueous streams resulting from nuclear decommissioning processes and characterized by a high salinity (300 g/L), as well as important concentrations of nitrate (150-210 g/L) and phosphate ions (0-50 g/L). Special attention was paid to the influence of these compounds on the dimensional variations under wet curing of simulated solidified waste forms. The length changes of mortars containing nitrate salts only (KNO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}) were shown to be governed by a concentration effect which involved osmosis: the higher their concentration in the mixing solution, the higher the swelling. The expansion of mortars containing high amounts of phosphates ({>=} 30 g/L in the mixing solution) was preceded by a shrinkage which increased with the phosphate concentration, and which could be suppressed by seeding the cement used with hydroxyapatite crystals. This transitory shrinkage was attributed to the conversion into hydroxyapatite of a precursor readily precipitated in the cement paste after mixing.

  12. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD.

  13. Detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating bacteria from domestic wastewater treatment plant using highly sensitive PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Pi-Ling; Semblante, Galilee Uy; You, Sheng-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a class of biodegradable plastics that have great potential applications in the near future. In this study, the micro-biodiversity and productivity of PHA-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were investigated. A previously reported primer set and a selfdesigned primer set (phaCF1BO/phaCR2BO) were both used to amplify the PHA synthase (phaC) gene of isolated colonies. The new primers demonstrated higher sensitivity for phaC, and combining the PCR results of the two primer sets was able to widen the range of detected genera and raise the sensitivity to nearly 90%. Results showed that 85.3% of the identified bacteria were Gram-negative, with Ralstonia as the dominant genus, and 14.7% were Gram-positive. In addition, Zoogloea and Rhizobium contained the highest amounts of intracellular PHA. It is apparent that glucose was a better carbon source than pentone or tryptone for promoting PHA production in Micrococcus. Two different classes, class I and class II, of phaC were detected from alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and gammaproteobacteria, indicating the wide diversity of PHA-accumulating bacteria in this particular sampling site. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and PHA production is promising by adopting the high PHAaccumulating bacteria isolated from activated sludge.

  14. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  15. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Empirical melt (EM) models are often preferred to surface energy balance (SEB) models to calculate melt amounts of snow and ice in hydrological modelling of high-elevation catchments. The most common reasons to support this decision are that, in comparison to SEB models, EM models require lower levels of meteorological data, complexity and computational costs. However, EM models assume that melt can be characterized by means of a few index variables only, and their results strongly depend on the transferability in space and time of the calibrated empirical parameters. In addition, they are intrinsically limited in accounting for specific process components, the complexity of which cannot be easily reconciled with the empirical nature of the model. As an example of an EM model, in this study we use the Enhanced Temperature Index (ETI) model, which calculates melt amounts using air temperature and the shortwave radiation balance as index variables. We evaluate the performance of the ETI model on dry high-elevation sites where sublimation amounts - that are not explicitly accounted for the EM model - represent a relevant percentage of total ablation (1.1 to 8.7%). We analyse a data set of four Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), which were collected during the ablation season 2013-14, at elevations between 3466 and 4775 m asl, on the glaciers El Tapado, San Francisco, Bello and El Yeso, which are located in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. We complement our analysis using data from past studies in Juncal Norte Glacier (Chile) and Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Switzerland), during the ablation seasons 2008-09 and 2006, respectively. We use the results of a SEB model, applied to each study site, along the entire season, to calibrate the ETI model. The ETI model was not designed to calculate sublimation amounts, however, results show that their ability is low also to simulate melt amounts at sites where sublimation represents larger percentages of total ablation. In fact, we

  16. Refractory dissolved organic nitrogen accumulation in high-elevation lakes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S J; Ball, G I; Allen, B C; Schladow, S G; Simpson, A J; Masoom, H; Soong, R; Graven, H D; Aluwihare, L I

    2015-01-01

    The role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as either a sink for inorganic nutrients or an additional nutrient source is an often-neglected component of nutrient budgets in aquatic environments. Here, we examined the role of DOM in reactive nitrogen (N) storage in Sierra Nevada (California, USA) lakes where atmospheric deposition of N has shifted the lakes toward seasonal phosphorus (P)-limitation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and isotope analyses performed on DOM isolated from Lake Tahoe reveal the accumulation of refractory proteinaceous material with a 100-200-year residence time. In contrast, smaller lakes in the same watershed contain DOM with typical terrestrial characteristics, indicating that proteins in Lake Tahoe are autochthonously produced. These data support the role of DOM as a possible sink for reactive N in these lake ecosystems and identify a potential role for DOM in affecting the inorganic nutrient stoichiometry of these environments. PMID:25704539

  17. High Amount of Dietary Fiber Not Harmful But Favorable for Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD. PMID:25663207

  18. Where will large amounts of materials accumulated within the economy go?--A material flow analysis of construction minerals for Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seiji; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    For all countries analyzed so far, Material Flow Analysis/Accounting (MFA) studies indicate that the overall stock of materials within the economy is growing. Most are construction minerals such as asphalt, cement, sand and gravel, crushed stone, and other aggregates. In the analyses described in this paper, flows and stocks of construction minerals were estimated for Japan from the past to the future to elucidate: (1) the mechanisms by which construction minerals become waste, and (2) the future supply of and demand for recycled crushed stone. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The amounts of waste construction minerals generated have been and will be at much lower levels than the domestic demand for construction minerals. These differences might indicate consistent growth of the stock of construction minerals, which will become waste in the future. However, certain amounts of materials that we account for as stock can be interpreted already in the environment as dead stock or dissipated waste; such materials can be called "missing stock" or "dissipated stock". Capturing that missing or dissipated stock is very important because it provides information that clarifies the environmental impacts and loss of resources that these materials cause; it allows estimation of appropriate future waste generation. (2) The amount of construction minerals that are recognized as waste was estimated to increase in the future. An imbalance in the supply of and demand for recycled crushed stone will likely occur in the near future if an expected decline in future road construction is considered.

  19. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  20. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p < 0.01), while the energy intake was not significantly different. Quercetin supplementation lowered hepatic lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p < 0.01). (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance serum lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  1. Mineral accumulation by perennial grasses in a high rainfall environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw produced as a co-product of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed production in the high rainfall area of western Oregon as well as clippings from urban and recr...

  2. Growth performance and muscle oxidation in rats fed increasing amounts of high-tannin sorghum.

    PubMed

    Larraín, R E; Richards, M P; Schaefer, D M; Ji, L L; Reed, J D

    2007-12-01

    Oxidative processes deteriorate the quality of meat products. High tannin sorghums (HTS) contain flavonoid oligomers known as proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. These compounds act as anti-oxidants in vitro, but their effectiveness in vivo remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that moderate amounts of dietary HTS could reduce markers of oxidation on muscle of rats without having detrimental effects in growth. We used 2 groups of 38 male Sprague Dawley rats at 5 and 13 wk of age each. Each age group was fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design. The younger group was fed the experimental diets for 10 wk (10W); whereas the older group was fed for 2 wk (2W). The diets were modified from the NIH-07 diet and contained HTS and corn at ratios of 0:50 (S0, control), 20:30 (S20), 35:15 (S35), and 50:0 (S50) as a percentage of the diet. Growth and the efficiency of gain were assessed periodically measuring BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Oxidation in muscle was measured in fresh tissue and after 6 d of aerobic-refrigerated storage. Muscles evaluated were LM and soleus (SM). Fresh liver was also evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content were used as markers of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. No differences in BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were observed in 2W rats. Greater (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG were observed in 10W-S35 group between d 1 and 7 and greater BW (P = 0.049) was observed in group 10W-S35 at d 70 compared with 10W-S0. No differences were observed between S0 and any HTS diet in G:F in 10W and 2W rats. No differences in TBARS or carbonyls were observed in liver. No differences in TBARS were observed in fresh and aged LM and SM. When LM samples were aged for 6 d, decreased carbonyl contents (P < 0.01) were observed in 10W-S35 and 10W-S50 diets compared with 10W-S0. Reductions in carbonyls were also observed in aged SM between 2W-S50 and 2W-S0 (P = 0.013). We concluded that inclusion of 35% HTS in the diet increased intake

  3. Growth performance and muscle oxidation in rats fed increasing amounts of high-tannin sorghum.

    PubMed

    Larraín, R E; Richards, M P; Schaefer, D M; Ji, L L; Reed, J D

    2007-12-01

    Oxidative processes deteriorate the quality of meat products. High tannin sorghums (HTS) contain flavonoid oligomers known as proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. These compounds act as anti-oxidants in vitro, but their effectiveness in vivo remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that moderate amounts of dietary HTS could reduce markers of oxidation on muscle of rats without having detrimental effects in growth. We used 2 groups of 38 male Sprague Dawley rats at 5 and 13 wk of age each. Each age group was fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design. The younger group was fed the experimental diets for 10 wk (10W); whereas the older group was fed for 2 wk (2W). The diets were modified from the NIH-07 diet and contained HTS and corn at ratios of 0:50 (S0, control), 20:30 (S20), 35:15 (S35), and 50:0 (S50) as a percentage of the diet. Growth and the efficiency of gain were assessed periodically measuring BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Oxidation in muscle was measured in fresh tissue and after 6 d of aerobic-refrigerated storage. Muscles evaluated were LM and soleus (SM). Fresh liver was also evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content were used as markers of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. No differences in BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were observed in 2W rats. Greater (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG were observed in 10W-S35 group between d 1 and 7 and greater BW (P = 0.049) was observed in group 10W-S35 at d 70 compared with 10W-S0. No differences were observed between S0 and any HTS diet in G:F in 10W and 2W rats. No differences in TBARS or carbonyls were observed in liver. No differences in TBARS were observed in fresh and aged LM and SM. When LM samples were aged for 6 d, decreased carbonyl contents (P < 0.01) were observed in 10W-S35 and 10W-S50 diets compared with 10W-S0. Reductions in carbonyls were also observed in aged SM between 2W-S50 and 2W-S0 (P = 0.013). We concluded that inclusion of 35% HTS in the diet increased intake

  4. HIGH INTENSITY EFFECTS IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A; Shishlo, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  5. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, R.O.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1962-07-10

    A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 deg C, cooling to room temperature, and subjecting the alloy to a pressure which produces a rapid increase in density with a negligible increase in pressure. The pressure required to cause this rapid change in density or transformation ranges from about 800 to 2400 atmospheres, and is dependent on the alloying element. (AEC)

  6. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Gerritsen, L; Dekker, M; van der Linden, E; Scholten, E

    2013-11-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructure can change dramatically in such broccoli-enriched products. In this article we investigated the amount of nutrients retained within the product. As a representative of nutrients we have chosen glucosinolates (GLs). Therefore, we have investigated the concentration of these phytochemicals in dried and cooked pasta and noodles. We have found that glucosinolates present in the pasta and noodles increase linearly with the volume fraction of BP up to 20%. At 30% BP the retained amount of GLs was equal to that of 20% BP and did not increase further. Therefore incorporation of 30% BP does not lead to additional health benefits over incorporation of 20% BP. We conclude that the nutritional function of our pasta-like products can be improved by enrichment up to 20% broccoli. This value is much higher than that found in common commercial products (which is a few percent). In this article we also briefly address the sensory acceptability of such products. Up to 20% broccoli the products turned out to remain acceptable. Combining this with our results on texture analysis we conclude that the GLs release, sensory acceptability and textural properties are related via the microstructure.

  7. High-speed readout method of ID information on a large amount of electronic tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagate, Wataru; Sasabe, Masahiro; Nakano, Hirotaka

    2006-10-01

    An electronic tag such as RFID is expected to create new services that cannot be achieved by the traditional bar code. Specifically, in a distribution system, simultaneous readout method of a large amount of electronic tags embedded in products is required to reduce costs and time. In this paper, we propose novel methods, called Response Probability Control (RPC), to accomplish this requirement. In RPC, a reader firstly sends an ID request to electronic tags in its access area. It succeeds reading information on a tag only if other tags do not respond. To improve the readout efficiency, the reader appropriately controls the response probability in accordance with the number of tags. However, this approach cannot entirely avoid a collision of multiple responses. When a collision occurs, ID information is lost. To reduce the amount of lost data, we divide the ID registration process into two steps. The reader first gathers the former part of the original ID, called temporal ID, according to the above method. After obtaining the temporal ID, it sequentially collects the latter part of ID, called remaining ID, based on the temporal ID. Note that we determine the number of bits of a temporal ID in accordance with the number of tags in the access area so that each tag can be distinguishable. Through simulation experiments, we evaluate RPC in terms of the readout efficiency. Simulation results show that RPC can accomplish the readout efficiency 1.17 times higher than the traditional method where there are a thousand of electronic tags whose IDs are 128 bits.

  8. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  9. Highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amounts NADP using Europium ion-doxycycline complex probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qian; Hou, Faju; Jiang, Chongqiu

    2006-09-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of trace amount of Coenzyme II (NADP). Using europium ion-doxycycline (DC) as a fluorescent probe, in the buffer solution of pH 8.44, NADP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Eu 3+-DC complex at λ = 612 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of NADP. Optimum conditions for the determination of NADP were also investigated. The dynamic range for the determination of NADP is 3.3 × 10 -7 to 6.1 × 10 -6 mol l -1 with detection limit of 6.8 × 10 -8 mol l -1. This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of NADP in synthetic water samples and in serum samples. Moreover, the enhancement mechanisms of the fluorescence intensity in the Eu 3+-DC system and the Eu 3+-DC-NADP system have been also discussed.

  10. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. PMID:27289059

  11. Properties of blast-furnace slags containing high amounts of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, J.; Ambroise, J.; Chabannet, M.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of five blast-furnace slags having MnO content up to 21%. The interactions between ordinary Portland cement or calcium oxide and each slag were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoanalysis. Mortars and concretes using these slags were cast. When ground to a Blaine surface area of 300 m{sup 2}/kg, the slags were utilized in road binders in combination with calcium oxide or Portland cement. When ground to a Blaine surface area of 600 m{sup 2}/kg, the slags were introduced into the composition of different concretes instead of fly ash or silica fume. Based on the resulting high strengths, fine grinding of manganese-rich slag for use in concrete appears to be a good way of beneficiation.

  12. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; Wagner, Roger; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  13. The HSP terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana induces a high level of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kurokawa, Natsuko; Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Kato, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-28

    High-level accumulation of the target recombinant protein is a significant issue in heterologous protein expression using transgenic plants. Miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, was accumulated in transgenic tomatoes using an expression cassette in which the miraculin gene was expressed by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the heat shock protein (HSP) terminator (MIR-HSP). The HSP terminator was derived from heat shock protein 18.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana . Using this HSP-containing cassette, the miraculin concentration in T0 transgenic tomato lines was 1.4-13.9% of the total soluble protein (TSP), and that in the T1 transgenic tomato line homozygous for the miraculin gene reached 17.1% of the TSP. The accumulation level of the target protein was comparable to levels observed with chloroplast transformation. The high-level accumulation of miraculin in T0 transgenic tomato lines achieved by the HSP terminator was maintained in the successive T1 generation, demonstrating the genetic stability of this accumulation system. PMID:21861502

  14. Effects of Water Amount on the Surface Environment of Terrestrial Planets: High Pressure Ice and Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akifumi; Abe, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial planets with several wt% of H2O in extrasolar planetary systems are theoretically predicted in the habitable zone [Raymond et al., 2004]. Such planets are expected to be covered by an ocean entirely (called as “ocean planets”). Amount of atmospheric CO2 (PCO2) is important for surface environment because CO2 is a strong greenhouse gas. PCO2 is determined by a race between degassing and sink through weathering on carbon cycle. On an ocean planet, seafloor weathering is important because continental weathering can’t work [Abbot et al., 2012]. In addition, ocean planets with large water amount may have high-pressure (HP) ice on the seafloor [Leger et al., 2004]. Since the ocean floor is covered by ice in such case, it has been thought that any weathering processes will not work and PCO2 will be extremely high. When plate tectonics works, heat flow from oceanic crust decreases with distance from the mid ocean ridge. Therefore, HP ice near the mid ocean ridge will be kept solid-liquid coexistent state at the melting point because of high heat flow. Seafloor weathering works in this region. The seafloor weathering under this condition efficiently works because weathering temperature is kept melting point regardless of surface temperature. Thus, our aim is to clarify the relationship between water amount and surface environment focusing seafloor environment. We develop a carbon cycle model considering the seafloor weathering. Our major assumptions are following; 1) Earth-sized ocean planets with various water amount, 2) Degassing rate is depended on the total amount of carbon and total carbon inventory is proportional to the surface water amount. We investigated thermal state of HP ice and determined effective weathering region where HP ice is coexistent with water, then we investigated the PCO2 in equilibrium state where degassing and regassing are balanced. As a result, forming of HP ice may cause snowball state due to high weathering rate. When solar

  15. Effect of trace amounts of NaCl vapor on high-temperature oxidation of TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, M.; Kitagawa, Y.

    1999-08-01

    The effect of trace amounts of NaCl vapor on the high-temperature oxidation of TiAl was examined by thermogravimetry and analysis of the scale formed on TiAl. The mass gain due to oxidation at 1273 K in O{sub 2} with trace amounts of NaCl vapor was far lower than that in pure O{sub 2} without NaCl vapor. This low mass gain in the atmosphere with trace amounts of NaCl vapor resulted from the saturation behavior of mass gain during the initial period of oxidation. It was found from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of the specimen surface that the oxide film formed during the initial period in the atmosphere with trace amounts of NaCl vapor consisted of dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, thus, the low oxidation rate of TiAl was attributed to a protective oxide film of dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  16. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, ammonia fiber expansion: AFEX and extractive ammonia: EA). The methodology for large-scale separation of ...

  17. COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase complexes repress anthocyanin accumulation under low light and high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexander; Hoecker, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and many other plant species, anthocyanin pigments accumulate only after light exposure and not in darkness. Excess light of very high fluence rates leads to a further, very strong increase in anthocyanin levels. How excess light is sensed is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the key repressor of light signaling, the COP1/SPA complex, cause a strong hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins not only under normal light but also under excess, high light conditions. Hence, normal light signaling via COP1/SPA is required to prevent hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins under these high light conditions. However, since cop1 and spa mutants show a similar high-light responsiveness of anthocyanin accumulation as the wild type it remains to be resolved whether COP1/SPA is directly involved in the high-light response itself.

  18. Characterization of upregulated genes associated with high phosphorus accumulation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Priya; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Sahi, Shivendra V

    2011-12-01

    Excessive application of phosphorus (P)-rich manures to agricultural lands often results in P-accumulation in soils leading to water pollution through runoffs and leaching. Use of suitable plant species that can extract and sequester excess P from soil into their biomass is an effective method of remediation of P-contaminated soils. Knowledge on the molecular responses of plants to high P-accumulation and tolerance is lacking. Therefore, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy was employed to identify and elucidate the pattern of gene expression related to P-tolerance and accumulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a P-accumulator plant. RNA isolated from cucumber grown in high P was used for 'tester' cDNA synthesis and SSH library preparation. A total of 63 cDNAs were identified as showing upregulated expression in this plant in response to high P. No putative function could be assigned to 7 (11%) of the 63 upregulated high P-modulated genes and 11 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (17%) did not match database entries. The remaining 45 ESTs were grouped into five functional classes. The majority of these ESTs belonged to three groups: 'metabolism', 'protein synthesis/degradation and signaling' and 'cell structure/cell wall'. Only six 'stress/defense'-related ESTs were identified from this library. The results of reverse northern blot analysis was further confirmed and validated through semi-quantitative RT-PCR carried out with representative ESTs identified in this study. The research reported here may contribute to a preliminary understanding of the high P-related gene expression in this P-accumulating plant. PMID:21883253

  19. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  20. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1). PMID:25056754

  1. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  2. Effect of Nutrient Starvation under High Irradiance on Lipid and Starch Accumulation in Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Jerez, Celia G; Malapascua, José R; Sergejevová, Magda; Figueroa, Félix L; Masojídek

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur limitation under high irradiance (PAR) was studied in the green microalga Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) in order to follow lipid and/or starch accumulation. Growth, biomass composition and the changes in photosynthetic activity (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were followed in the trials. The full nutrient culture showed high biomass production and starch accumulation at Day 1, when photosynthetic activity was high. Gradual deprivation (no nutrients added) became evident when photosynthesis was significantly suppressed (Day 3 onwards), which entailed a decrease of maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), accompanied by the onset of lipid accumulation and decline in starch content. In N- and S-starved cultures, rETRmax significantly decreased by Day 3, which caused a substantial drop in biomass production, cell number, biovolume and induction of lipid and starch accumulation. High starch content (45-50 % of DW) was found at the initial stage in full nutrient culture and at the stationary phase in nutrient-starved cultures. By the end of the trial, all treatments showed high lipid content (~30 % of DW). The full nutrient culture had higher biomass yield than starved treatments although starch (~0.2 g L(-1) day(-1)) and lipid (~0.15 g L(-1) day(-1) productivities were fairly similar in all the cultures. Our results showed that we could enrich biomass of C. fusca (% DW) in lipids using a two-stage strategy (a nutrient replete stage followed by gradual nutrient limitation) while under either procedure, N- or S-starvation, both high lipid and starch contents could be achieved.

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  4. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  5. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  6. Enhanced lipid accumulation of photoautotrophic microalgae by high-dose CO2 mimics a heterotrophic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Wu, Jun; He, Bing; Wang, Yuancong; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess higher photosynthetic efficiency and accumulate more neutral lipids when supplied with high-dose CO2. However, the nature of lipid accumulation under conditions of elevated CO2 has not been fully elucidated so far. We now revealed that the enhanced lipid accumulation of Chlorella in high-dose CO2 was as efficient as under heterotrophic conditions and this may be attributed to the driving of enlarged carbon source. Both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures were established by using Chlorella sorokiniana CS-1. A series of changes in the carbon fixation, lipid accumulation, energy conversion, and carbon-lipid conversion under high-dose CO2 (1-10%) treatment were characterized subsequently. The daily carbon fixation rate of C. sorokiniana LS-2 in 10% CO2 aeration was significantly increased compared with air CO2. Correspondingly, double oil content (28%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, close to 32.3% produced under heterotrophic conditions. In addition, with 10% CO2 aeration, the overall energy yield (Ψ) in Chlorella reached 12.4 from 7.3% (with air aeration) because of the enhanced daily carbon fixation rates. This treatment also improved the energetic lipid yield (Ylipid/Es) with 4.7-fold, tending to the heterotrophic parameters. More significantly, 2.2 times of carbon-lipid conversion efficiency (ηClipid/Ctotal, 42.4%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, towards to 53.7% in heterotrophic cultures, suggesting that more fixed carbon might flow into lipid synthesis under both 10% CO2 aeration and heterotrophic conditions. Taken together, all our evidence showed that 10% CO2 may push photoautotrophic Chlorella to display heterotrophic-like efficiency at least in lipid production. It might bring us an efficient model of lipid production based on microalgal cells with high-dose CO2, which is essential to sustain biodiesel production at large scales. PMID:26712624

  7. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn K; Genc, Yusuf; Pedas, Pai; Hayes, Julie E; Toubia, John; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2014-01-01

    High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7 were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays characteristics of low-affinity Zn transport. The unique function of HvZIP7 provides new insights into the role of ZIP genes in Zn homeostasis in monocots, and offers opportunities to develop Zn biofortification strategies in cereals.

  8. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. )

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. High-Affinity Accumulation of a Maytansinoid in Cells via Weak Tubulin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Goldmacher, Victor S.; Audette, Charlene A.; Guan, Yinghua; Sidhom, Eriene-Heidi; Shah, Jagesh V.; Whiteman, Kathleen R.; Kovtun, Yelena V.

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-targeting maytansinoids accumulate in cells and induce mitotic arrest at 250- to 1000-fold lower concentrations than those required for their association with tubulin or microtubules. To identify the mechanisms of this intracellular accumulation and exceptional cytotoxicity of maytansinoids we studied interaction of a highly cytotoxic maytansinoid, S-methyl DM1 and several other maytansinoids with cells. S-methyl DM1 accumulated inside the cells with a markedly higher apparent affinity than to tubulin or microtubules. The apparent affinities of maytansinoids correlated with their cytotoxicities. The number of intracellular binding sites for S-methyl DM1 in MCF7 cells was comparable to the number of tubulin molecules per cell (~ 4–6 × 107 copies). Efflux of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 from cells was enhanced in the presence of an excess of non-labeled S-methyl DM1, indicating that re-binding of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 to intracellular binding sites contributed to its intracellular retention. Liposomes loaded with non-polymerized tubulin recapitulated the apparent high-affinity association of S-methyl DM1 to cells. We propose a model for the intracellular accumulation of maytansinoids in which molecules of the compounds diffuse into a cell and associate with tubulin. Affinities of maytansinoids for individual tubulin molecules are weak, but the high intracellular concentration of tubulin favors, after dissociation of a compound-tubulin complex, their re-binding to a tubulin molecule, or to a tip of a microtubule in the same cell, over their efflux. As a result, a significant fraction of microtubule tips is occupied with a maytansinoid when added to cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, inducing mitotic arrest and cell death. PMID:25671541

  10. Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Park, Hyunwoo; Koster, Karen L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nguyen, Hanh T M; Shanklin, John; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-01-01

    Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:1∆9) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1∆11), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical ∆9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to ∆9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant ∆9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with ~17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the ∆9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to ~5% of the seed oil versus ~12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications. PMID:25065607

  11. Stimulated human peripheral T cells produce high amounts of IL-35 protein in a proliferation-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Guttek, Karina; Reinhold, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    The p35 subunit of IL-12 and the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) have been shown to form a heterodimeric cytokine, named interleukin-35 (IL-35). Recently, mRNA expression of both IL-12p35 and EBI3 was clearly shown in stimulated human T effector cells. Here, we investigated the production of IL-35 protein in human anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated pan T cells as well as T cell subpopulations using a specific human IL-35 ELISA system. We measured high concentrations of IL-35 (up to 3 ng/ml) in cell culture supernatants of stimulated pan T cells as well as CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell subpopulations at 72 h after stimulation. Very low amounts of IL-35, in the range of 100pg/ml, were detectable in supernatants of resting T cells. These observations could be confirmed using a dot-blot assay for IL-12p35 and EBI3. High concentrations of IL-35 could be also measured in cell culture supernatants of both, resting and stimulated CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. In order to learn more about the regulation of IL-35 production, we studied the effect of dexamethasone, cyclosporine A and rapamycin on IL-35 production of anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated human pan T cells as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subpopulations. All three drugs significantly suppressed IL-35 production of these cells in a proliferation-dependent manner. In summary, we could show that stimulated human peripheral blood T cells of healthy donors produce high amounts of IL-35 protein. However, the biological function of this cytokine remains to be elucidated.

  12. High amounts of 17-methylated anabolic-androgenic steroids in effervescent tablets on the dietary supplement market.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria K; Geyer, Hans; Hoffmann, Bernhard; Köhler, Karsten; Mareck, Ute; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-02-01

    In numerous studies it has been demonstrated that several nutritional supplements contain prohormones not declared on the label. In the current study two products (effervescent tablets) containing high amounts of the 17-methylated anabolic androgenic steroids metandienone (product 1: 16.8 mg/tablet) and stanozolol (product 2: 14.5 mg/tablet) were identified. Additionally in both products norandrostenedione was detected, in product 2 with minor amounts of several other steroids. The substances identified can cause enormous health risks. In addition, the use of the analyzed tablets can lead to positive doping results for metabolites of the respective steroids in sports. This study again shows the insufficient surveillance of the production and trade of dietary supplements. Consumers should be aware of the enormous health and doping risks connected with the use of such products. For GC-MS identification of the analytes the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the steroids and the mixed N-t-butyldimethylsilyl,O-trimethylsilyl derivatives were used. The quantitation of metandienone, norandrostenedione, and stanozolol was performed using HPLC-DAD. PMID:17146762

  13. Molecular nitrogen in natural gas accumulations: Generation from sedimentary organic matter at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Littke, R.; Krooss, B.; Frielingsdorf, J.; Idiz, E.

    1995-03-01

    The occurrence of natural gas accumulations with high percentages (up to 100%) of molecular nitrogen in various hydrocarbon provinces represents a largely unresolved problem and a serious exploration risk. In this context, a geochemical and basin modeling study was performed to evaluate the potential of sedimentary organic matter to generate molecular nitrogen. The masses of nitrogen present in coals - if converted into molecular nitrogen - are sufficient to fill commercial gas reservoirs. A calculation for gas accumulations in northern Germany, where percentages of molecular nitrogen range from less than 5 to greater than 90%, reveals that the molecular nitrogen generated in underlying coal-bearing strata is sufficient to account for the nitrogen gas even in the largest fields. In addition, much of the total nitrogen in clay-rich rock types, such as shales and mudstones, is fixed in sedimentary organic matter and may add to the nitrogen generation capacity of the coals.

  14. Identification and differential accumulation of two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit under high light stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A

    2004-12-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase coupling factor CF1 complex contains five nonidentical subunits, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon, with a stoichiometry of 3:3:1:1:1. The beta subunit contains the catalytic site for ATP synthesis during photooxidative phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In this study, we have identified two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit at 56 and 54 kDa in the chloroplast of Brassica rapa, through isolation/purification, proteolytic digestion and internal peptide sequencing. Examining their accumulation pattern demonstrates that both isoforms coexist during chloroplast biogenesis and in mature thylakoid membranes, but the 54 kDa isoform is more apparently upregulated by light or under light stress. LiDS-PAGE shows that the 56 kDa is a major isoform of the CF1-beta subunit under normal light conditions, and its amount was not influenced during high light or other light stress treatments. The 54 kDa isoform is a minor band at normal conditions; however, it significantly increased under excess light stresses, such as high or low light with drought and/or high temperature. Particularly, a ninefold increase was observed after 8-10 h of high light treatment with drought and high temperature. The results suggest that light stress induction of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform may present a positive response during chloroplast photoacclimation.

  15. Sol-gel silica-based nanocomposites containing a high PEG amount: Chemical characterization and study of biological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Gloria, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to synthesize and to characterize Silica/polyethylene glycol (SiO2/PEG) organic-inorganic hybrid materials containing a high polymer amount (60 and 70 wt%) for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the samples are homogeneous on the nanometer scale, confirming that they are nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) proved that the materials are class I hybrids because the two phases (SiO2 and PEG) interact by hydrogen bonds. To evaluate the possibility of using them in the biomedical field, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the synthesized hybrids have been ascertained. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer was observed on the hybrid surface by SEM/EDX and FTIR after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, their biocompatibility was assessed by performing WST-8 cytotoxicity assay in vitro.

  16. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  17. Responses to increasing amounts of high-oleic sunflower fatty acids infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Overton, T R; Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M; Perkins, E G

    2007-11-01

    Increasing the oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) content of milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness and for certain manufacturing applications. The extent to which milk fat could be enriched with oleic acid is not known. Increasing the intestinal supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in cows, but the effects of oleic acid have not been quantified. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were abomasally infused with increasing amounts (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 g/d) of free fatty acids from high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFA) or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/d) were for 7 d at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HOSFA with 240 g/d of meat solubles and 11.2 g/d of Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The HOSFA contained (by wt) 2.4% 16:0, 1.8% 18:0, 91.4% 18:1 cis-9, and 2.4% 18:2. The DMI decreased linearly (range 22.0 to 5.8 kg/d) as the infused amount of HOSFA increased. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy decreased as the infusion increased to 750 g/d and then increased when 1,000 g/d was infused. Digestibility of total fatty acids increased linearly as infused fatty acids increased. Yields of milk, fat, true protein, casein, and total solids decreased quadratically as infused amounts increased; decreases were greatest when 750 or 1,000 g/d of HOSFA were infused. Concentrations of fat and total solids increased at the higher amounts of HOSFA. The volume mean diameter of milk fat droplets and the diameter below which 90% of the volume of milk fat is contained both increased as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 in milk fat decreased linearly as HOSFA increased. The concentration of 18:1 cis-9 (19.4 to 57.4% of total fatty acids) increased linearly as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of 18:1 cis-9 in blood triglyceride

  18. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogs regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae. PMID:25741321

  19. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogs regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  20. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Lenstra, Wytze; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Sapart, Célia J.; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands), we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2–0.8 mol m-2 yr-1) during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50–170 nmol cm-3 d-1) both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1) reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years), thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1) allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic) methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments. PMID:27560511

  1. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Egger, Matthias; Lenstra, Wytze; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip J R; Sapart, Célia J; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands), we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2-0.8 mol m-2 yr-1) during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50-170 nmol cm-3 d-1) both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1) reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years), thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1) allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic) methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments. PMID:27560511

  2. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. PMID:27329221

  3. Characteristic of nitrous oxide production in partial denitrification process with high nitrite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production during the partial denitrification process with nitrate (NO3(-)-N) to nitrite (NO2(-)-N) transformation ratio of 80% was investigated in this study. Results showed that N2O was seldom observed before complete depletion of NO3(-)-N, but it was closely related to the reduction of NO2(-)-N rather than NO3(-)-N. High COD/NO3(-)-N was in favor of N2O production in partial denitrification with high NO2(-)-N accumulation. It was seriously enhanced at constant acidic pH due to the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. However, the N2O production was much lower at initial pH of 5.5 and 6.5 due to the pH increase during denitrification process. Significantly, the pH turning point could be chosen as a controlled parameter to denote the end of NO3(-)-N reduction, which could not only achieve high NO2(-)-N accumulation but also decrease the N2O production significantly for practical application.

  4. Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. PMID:22041027

  5. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production frommore » cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  6. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) under nutrient starvation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Duckweed can thrive on anthropogenic wastewater and produce tremendous biomass production. Due to its relatively high starch and low lignin percentage, duckweed is a good candidate for bioethanol fermentation. Previous studies have observed that water devoid of nutrients is good for starch accumulation, but its molecular mechanism remains unrevealed. Results This study globally analyzed the response to nutrient starvation in order to investigate the starch accumulation in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). L. punctata was transferred from nutrient-rich solution to distilled water and sampled at different time points. Physiological measurements demonstrated that the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the key enzyme of starch synthesis, as well as the starch percentage in duckweed, increased continuously under nutrient starvation. Samples collected at 0 h, 2 h and 24 h time points respectively were used for comparative gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq. A comprehensive transcriptome, comprising of 74,797 contigs, was constructed by a de novo assembly of the RNA-Seq reads. Gene expression profiling results showed that the expression of some transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis was up-regulated, while the expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in starch consumption were down-regulated, the expression of some photosynthesis-related transcripts were down-regulated during the first 24 h, and the expression of some transporter transcripts were up-regulated within the first 2 h. Very interestingly, most transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were highly expressed regardless of starvation, while transcripts encoding laccase, the last rate-limiting enzyme of lignifications, exhibited very low expression abundance in all three samples. Conclusion Our study provides a comprehensive expression profiling of L. punctata under nutrient starvation, which indicates that nutrient starvation down

  8. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  9. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ignacio I; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g(-1) (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g(-1) internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  10. Shishaldin volcano: Aleutian high-alumina basalts and the question of plagioclase accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fournelle, J.; Marsh, B.D. )

    1991-03-01

    High-alumina basalts (HABs) from volcanic arcs commonly contain 30%-50% (modal) plagioclase. It has been suggested that they reflect plagioclase addition and are not primary compositions. In rocks from the Aleutian volcano Shishaldin, the authors search for evidence of plagioclase accumulation: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and Na{sub 2}O vs. modal plagioclase; europium anomalies in HABs; plagioclase-liquid equilibrium; and the HAB groundmass. The HABs do not appear to be results of plagioclase addition to liquids of dacitic, Fe-Ti enriched, or high-Mg basaltic compositions. Plagioclase loss from HABs does appear to yield the Fe-Ti-enriched basalts. Shishaldin HABs may reflect near-primary compositions, and HAB phase equilibria may thus be useful in evaluating the origin of such arc basalts.

  11. High-energy carbonate-sand accumulation, the Quicksands, southwest Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Lidz, Barbara H.; Holmes, Charles W.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of the Quicksands, located along a broad ridge on the platform shelf west of Key West, Florida, indicate a significant deposit of non-oolitic carbonate sand occurs in a belt 47 km long by 28 km wide. The surface of the belt is ornamented by large (5 m), migrating tidal bars, oriented in a north-south direction, on which sand waves, oriented in an east-west direction, are superimposed. Some of the sand waves are awash at low tide. The sand waves are formed by strong reversing tidal currents flowing between the Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of Florida. The waves migrate directly over Pleistocene bedrock to the east, but the deposit thickens to the west and sand waves there overlie non-oolitic Holocene accumulations as thick as 12 m. Westward-dipping accretionary bedding indicates that net migration of the sands is to the west, despite north-south movement of tidal currents. The westward edge of the accumulation has accreted over deeper, muddier deposits. Although tidal currents and resultant bedforms appear identical to those of active ooid deposits in the Bahamas and elsewhere, no oolitically coated grains were found in this study. Thin-section analyses show the principal component (average 48%) of the sands is fragmented plates of species of the green alga Halimeda , followed by particulate coral (average 17%), which increases off the flanks of the main sand body. Short vibracores confirm the presence of cross-bedding.

  12. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-02-12

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4(+) into NO3(-) subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3(-) accumulation and loss. We found that 87-92% of the applied (15)N-labelled NH4(+) was rapidly recovered as NO3(-) since day 3 and only 2-4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3(-) but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between (15)N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn't decrease soil total NO3(-) accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself.

  13. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-01-01

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4+ into NO3− subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3− accumulation and loss. We found that 87–92% of the applied 15N-labelled NH4+ was rapidly recovered as NO3− since day 3 and only 2–4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3− but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between 15N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn’t decrease soil total NO3− accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself. PMID:26868028

  14. Atmospheric Controls of Snow Accumulation on Glaciers and Ice Caps in High Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, D.; Curio, J.

    2015-12-01

    Snowfall is the major contributor to snow accumulation on glaciers and ice caps. Unfortunately, its quantification is rather difficult, both by observations and by numerical modelling. Field measurements of snowfall are generally problematic, and particularly inaccurate in mountainous regions. This holds true also for data from remote sensing systems like the TRMM. Numerical modelling of precipitation in general, and of snowfall in particular, is depending on parameterization of sub-grid processes occurring at a wide range of spatial scales. The scarcity of reliable observational data on snowfall required to test and validate the relevant parameterization schemes is one of the major obstacles for deepening our understanding of atmospheric controls of snow accumulation on glaciers and ice caps. In addition, the often made assumption that easy-to-measure snow accumulation equals snowfall is not valid in areas where other processes like snowdrift or avalanches cause snow deposition or erosion. Besides a general discussion of the above-mentioned problems, the presentation will focus on results obtained from a gridded atmospheric data set, i.e., the so-called High Asia Refined analysis (HAR), covering the study region by two nested domains of 30 km and 10 km grid spacing. Starting from autumn 2000, three-hourly (30 km) and hourly (10 km) data are available for a comprehensive set of atmospheric variables (see www.klima.tu-berlin.de/HAR). HAR data was used to analyse annual and seasonal patterns of precipitation and atmospheric water transport, as well as to drive numerical models for surface mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets. A new study, which is the main subject of this presentation, reveals specific regimes of dynamic controls of precipitation in different regions of High Asia. One of the striking results is that the analysis identified a specific regime that is able to explain some of the atmospheric controls behind the so-called Karakoram anomaly (glaciers in

  15. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-21

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  16. Burst train generator of high energy femtosecond laser pulses for driving heat accumulation effect during micromachining.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Saeid; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2015-05-01

    A new method for generating high-repetition-rate (12.7-38.2 MHz) burst trains of femtosecond laser pulses has been demonstrated for the purpose of tailoring ultrashort laser interactions in material processing that can harness the heat accumulation effect among pulses separated by a short interval (i.e., 26 ns). Computer-controlled time delays were applied to synchronously trigger the high frequency switching of a high voltage Pockels cell to specify distinctive values of polarization rotation for each round-trip of a laser pulse cycling within a passive resonator. Polarization dependent output coupling facilitated the flexible shaping of the burst envelope profile to provide burst trains of up to ∼1  mJ of burst energy divided over a selectable number (1 to 25) of pulses. Individual pulses of variable energy up to 150 μJ and with pulse duration tunable over 70 fs to 2 ps, were applied in burst trains to generate deep and high aspect ratio holes that could not form with low-repetition-rate laser pulses. PMID:25927785

  17. Dissecting the molecular basis of the contribution of source strength to high fructan accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; Kooiker, Maarten; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Fructans represent the major component of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the maturing stem of temperate cereals and are an important temporary carbon reserve for grain filling. To investigate the importance of source carbon availability in fructan accumulation and its molecular basis, we performed comparative analyses of WSC components and the expression profiles of genes involved in major carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis in the flag leaves of recombinant inbred lines from wheat cultivars Seri M82 and Babax (SB lines). High sucrose levels in the mature flag leaf (source organ) were found to be positively associated with WSC and fructan concentrations in both the leaf and stem of SB lines in several field trials. Analysis of Affymetrix expression array data revealed that high leaf sucrose lines grown in abiotic-stress-prone environments had high expression levels of a number of genes in the leaf involved in the sucrose synthetic pathway and photosynthesis, such as Calvin cycle genes, antioxidant genes involved in chloroplast H(2)O(2) removal and genes involved in energy dissipation. The expression of the majority of genes involved in fructan and starch synthetic pathways were positively correlated with sucrose levels in the leaves of SB lines. The high level of leaf fructans in high leaf sucrose lines is likely attributed to the elevated expression levels of fructan synthetic enzymes, as the mRNA levels of three fructosyltransferase families were consistently correlated with leaf sucrose levels among SB lines. These data suggest that high source strength is one of the important genetic factors determining high levels of WSC in wheat.

  18. Intraspecific variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation of a high-biomass tropical tree Averrhoa carambola L.: implication for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zi-yun; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jin-tian

    2011-06-01

    Averrhoa carambola L., a high-biomass tropical tree, has recently been shown to be a strong accumulator of cadmium (Cd) and has great potential for Cd phytoextraction. In the present study, field studies and a controlled-environment experiment were combined to establish the extent of variation in Cd tolerance and accumulation at the cultivar level using 14 to 19 cultivars of A. carambola. The results indicated that all cultivars tested could accumulate Cd at high but different levels, and that Cd tolerance also varied greatly between these cultivars. It is confirmed that the high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity are species-level and constitutional traits in A. carambola. However, no correlation was detected between tolerance index and accumulation of Cd in different cultivars, suggesting that the two traits are independent in this woody Cd accumulator. More importantly, cultivar Wuchuan Sweet (WCT) was shown to have the highest Cd-extraction potential; it yielded a high shoot biomass of 30 t ha(-1) in 230 d, and extracted 330 g ha(-1) Cd in the aerial tissues grown in Cd-contaminated field soil, which accounted for 12.8% of the total soil Cd in the top 20 cm of the soil profile.

  19. Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions.

  20. Organochlorine accumulation on a highly consumed bivalve (Scrobicularia plana) and its main implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2013-09-01

    Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated along a spatial gradient in water, sediments and in commercially important bivalve species Scrobicularia plana, from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Organochlorines dissolved in water were below detection limit and concerning suspended particulate matter, only PCBs were quantified, ranging from 3.8 to 5.8 ng∙g(-1) DW (Σ13PCBs). There was a distinct spatial gradient regarding PCB accumulation in sediments. The highest concentrations were found in deeper layers and closest to the pollution source, decreasing gradually along a 3 km area. Contamination in sediments exceeded the Canadian and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines, inducing potential toxic effects in related biota. PCBs tended to bioaccumulate throughout S. plana lifespan but with different annual rates along the spatial gradient. The maximum values were found in older individuals up to 3+ years old, reaching 19.4 ng∙g(-1) DW. HCB concentrations were residual and no bioaccumulation pattern was evident. Congeners 138, 153 and 180 were the most accumulated due to their abundance and long-term persistence in the environment. In the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 km(2)), the species was able to remove up to 0.4 g of PCBs annually from sediments into their own tissues, which is consequently free for trophic transfer (biomagnification). Concerning human health, and despite the high concentrations found in sediments, PCB levels in bivalves do not exceed the limit established by the European Union for fishery products and are largely below tolerable daily intake. Although PCBs in Scrobicularia plana are present at low levels, their impact to human health after consumption over many years might be harmful and should be monitored in future studies.

  1. Effect of the amount of Na2SO4 on the high temperature corrosion of Udimet-700

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Kohl, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of Udimet-700, coated with different doses of Na2SO4, was studied in an isothermal thermogravimetric test in the temperature range 900 to 950 C. The weight gain curve is characterized by five distinct stages: an initial period of linear corrosion; an induction period; a period of accelerated corrosion; a period of decelerating corrosion; and a period of parabolic oxidation. The time required for the failure of the alloy increases with an increase in the amount of Na2SO4, reaches a peak and then decreases with further increase in the amount of Na2SO4. For low and intermediate doses (0.3 to 2.0 mg/sq cm), the catastrophic failure of the material occurs by the formation of Na2MoO4 and interaction of the liquid Na2MoO4 with the alloy. For heavy doses, the degradation of the material is due to the formation of large amounts of sulfides.

  2. Application of cyclic damage accumulation life prediction model to high temperature components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A high temperature, low cycle fatigue life prediction method was developed. This method, Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA), was developed for use in predicting the crack initiation lifetime of gas turbine engine materials, but it can be applied to other materials as well. The method is designed to account for the effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loading such as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, waveshapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features of this model were developed to make it practical for application to actual component analysis, such as the ability to handle nonisothermal loading (including TMF), arbitrary cycle paths, and multiple damage modes. The CDA life prediction model was derived from extensive specimen tests conducted on cast nickel-base superalloy B1900 + Hf. These included both monotonic tests (tensile and creep) and strain-controlled fatigue experiments (uniaxial, biaxial, TMF, mixed creep-fatigue, and controlled mean stress). Additional specimen tests were conducted on wrought INCO 718 to verify the applicability of the final CDA model to other high-temperature alloys. The model will be available to potential users in the near future in the form of a FORTRAN-77 computer program.

  3. Endogenous post-transcriptional gene silencing of flavone synthase resulting in high accumulation of anthocyanins in black dahlia cultivars.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ayumi; Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2013-05-01

    Black color in flowers is a highly attractive trait in the floricultural industry, but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was performed to identify the bases of the high accumulation of anthocyanidins in black cultivars and to determine whether the high accumulation of total anthocyanidins alone leads to the black appearance. Our approach was to compare black dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cultivars with purple cultivars and a purple flowering mutant of a black cultivar, using pigment and molecular analyses. Black cultivars characteristically exhibited low lightness, high petal accumulation of cyanidin and total anthocyanidins without flavones, and marked suppression of flavone synthase (DvFNS) expression. A comparative study using black and purple cultivars revealed that neither the absence of flavones nor high accumulation of total anthocyanidins is solely sufficient for black appearance, but that cyanidin content in petals is also an important factor in the phenotype. A study comparing the black cultivar 'Kokucho' and its purple mutant showed that suppression of DvFNS abolishes the competition between anthocyanidin and flavone synthesis and leads to accumulation of cyanidin and total anthocyanidins that produce a black appearance. Surprisingly, in black cultivars the suppression of DvFNS occurred in a post-transcriptional manner, as determined by small RNA mapping. PMID:23389674

  4. A high-frequency response relaxed eddy accumulation flux measurement system for sampling short-lived biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Mowry, Fred L.; Hampton, Gary A.

    2013-05-01

    second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m-2 hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozone removal procedure to allow for the measurement of highly reactive species such as β-caryophyllene and polar terpenoids such as linalool. A two-component internal standard continuously added to the accumulators was used to correct for switching-induced volumetric errors and as a check on VOC losses exceeding accumulator tube adsorption limits. In addition, the internal standards were used to demonstrate that accumulators quickly return to target flow rates at segregation valve switching frequencies up to at least 0.8 Hz. The system was able to measure daytime hourly fluxes of individual biogenic VOC including oxygenated terpenoids, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes.

  5. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability.

  6. Crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit currents in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Loo, D D; Diamond, J M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a condition in rabbits characterized by CaCO3 crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit current (Isc) in the urinary bladder. The incidence of the condition was high in rabbits kept for 2 mo or more in the vivarium. The crystal mass in the bladder increased with age or time until it occupied up to one-third of the bladder volume and occasionally aggregated as stones, and the urine attained a sludgy consistency. In animals with sludgy urine, the urine excreted had a crystal content 20 times lower than that of urine contained in the bladder at time of death, implying retention of crystals in the bladder. Kidney stones were not detected in rabbits with bladder crystals, and bladder crystals were absent in rabbits with kidney stones induced experimentally by uremia. In old rabbits with sludgy urine the Isc, a measure of Na+ transport, was up to 46 microA/cm2 and averaged 12 microA/cm2, seven times the Isc of rabbits with nonsludgy urine. The increased Isc was entirely amiloride sensitive. Noise analysis showed it to arise entirely from increased channel density, without change in single-channel current. With one possible exception, we could not find bacterial infection or abnormalities in plasma aldosterone, GFR, or urinary [Na+], [Ca2+], pH, or osmolality that could explain the condition. The exception is that some unidentified component accounting for half the osmolality of nonsludgy urine is absent or at low concentration in sludgy urine. It remains unknown why the condition develops and whether CaCO3 crystals cause high Isc or vice versa or whether both result from a third factor. PMID:3970165

  7. Hoverfly preference for high honeydew amounts creates enemy-free space for aphids colonizing novel host plants.

    PubMed

    Vosteen, Ilka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2016-09-01

    The existence of an enemy-free space can play an important role in aphid host race formation processes, but little is known about the mechanisms that create an area of low predation pressure on particular host plants. In this paper, we identify a mechanism generating lower predation pressure that promotes the maintenance of the different host races of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) complex, a well-studied model for ecological speciation. The pea aphid consists of at least 15 genetically distinct host races which are native to specific host plants of the legume family, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Previous work showed that hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) oviposition preferences contribute to the enemy-free space that helps to maintain the different pea aphid host races, and that higher amounts of honeydew are more attractive to ovipositing hoverflies. Here we demonstrated that aphid honeydew is produced in large amounts when aphid reproduction rate was highest, and is an important oviposition cue for hoverflies under field conditions. However, on less suitable host plants, where honeydew production is reduced, pea aphids enjoy lower predation rates. A reduction in enemy pressure can mitigate the performance disadvantages of aphids colonizing a novel host and probably plays an important role in pea aphid host race formation.

  8. Hoverfly preference for high honeydew amounts creates enemy-free space for aphids colonizing novel host plants.

    PubMed

    Vosteen, Ilka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2016-09-01

    The existence of an enemy-free space can play an important role in aphid host race formation processes, but little is known about the mechanisms that create an area of low predation pressure on particular host plants. In this paper, we identify a mechanism generating lower predation pressure that promotes the maintenance of the different host races of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) complex, a well-studied model for ecological speciation. The pea aphid consists of at least 15 genetically distinct host races which are native to specific host plants of the legume family, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Previous work showed that hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) oviposition preferences contribute to the enemy-free space that helps to maintain the different pea aphid host races, and that higher amounts of honeydew are more attractive to ovipositing hoverflies. Here we demonstrated that aphid honeydew is produced in large amounts when aphid reproduction rate was highest, and is an important oviposition cue for hoverflies under field conditions. However, on less suitable host plants, where honeydew production is reduced, pea aphids enjoy lower predation rates. A reduction in enemy pressure can mitigate the performance disadvantages of aphids colonizing a novel host and probably plays an important role in pea aphid host race formation. PMID:27328648

  9. Airborne laser scan measurements of winter snow accumulation in high alpine catchments - hydrological implications and verification by ground penetrating radar at glacier surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, K.; Keuschnig, M.; Heilig, A.; Mayer, C.; Kuhn, M.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover as storage of winter precipitation is a substantial source for runoff generation in high mountain catchments. Redistribution of solid precipitation, caused by wind and gravity, leads to a characteristic spatial distribution of snow accumulation which differs from simple model assumption of a homogenous snowpack increasing with altitude. Both, the distinct distribution of snow accumulation and the total amount of SWE stored in the snow cover, affect the magnitude and seasonality of melt water runoff. Complex relations exist between the spatial pattern of snow accumulation and the presence of glaciers and vice versa. For proper hydrological modeling in high mountain catchments, knowledge about snow cover distribution is an important requirement. To date, to evaluate modeling results, spatially insufficient point data on snow depths and SWE are usually available. On catchment scale, optical space-borne remote sensing techniques deliver areal extent of snow cover, but no snow depths and hence no volume of snow cover. Multi-temporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing method to obtain elevation changes extensively even in inaccessible alpine terrain. Before the start and at the end of accumulation season of winter 2010/2011, two airborne laser scan acquisitions were performed in the Ötztal Alps (Tirol, Austria). Differences of the respective digital elevation models were interpreted as snow depths and converted into SWE using a simple regression method between snow depths and snow density. Preferred snow accumulation areas were determined, e.g. wind sheltered depressions, the base of steep mountain walls and flat glacier surfaces. At catchment scale, solid precipitation is obviously redistributed from wind exposed mountain ridges to lower elevations, inducing characteristic elevations of maximum snow accumulation. Overall, catchment precipitation derived from snow accumulation is a valuable reference for precipitation approaches in

  10. High-Level Accumulation of Triacylglycerol and Starch in Photoautotrophically Grown Chlamydomonas debaryana NIES-2212.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae have the potential to produce triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch, which provide alternative sources of biofuel. A problem in using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model for TAG production has been that this alga lacks phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is thought to be important for TAG synthesis in plants. We found that C. debaryana is one of the rare species of Chlamydomonas having PC. Here we show that this strain, grown under complete photoautotrophic conditions, accumulated TAG and starch up to 20 and 250 pg per cell, respectively, during the stationary phase without nutrient deprivation. Addition of nutrients in this state did not cause loss of TAG, which was found in dilution with fresh medium. The photosynthetically produced TAG contained a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, which is a preferred property as a material for biodiesel. The oil bodies were present in the cytoplasm, either between the cytoplasmic membrane and the chloroplast or between the chloroplast and the nucleus, whereas the starch granules were present within the chloroplast. Oil bodies were also deposited as a broad layer in the peripheral space of the cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, and might be easily released from the cells by genetic, chemical or mechanical manipulation. These results suggest that C. debaryana is a promising seed organism for developing a good biofuel producer.

  11. Monitoring of Wet Snow and Accumulations at High Alpine Glaciers Using Radar Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendleder, A.; Heilig, A.; Schmitt, A.; Mayer, C.

    2015-04-01

    Conventional studies to assess the annual mass balance for glaciers rely on single point observations in combination with model and interpolation approaches. Just recently, airborne and spaceborne data is used to support such mass balance determinations. Here, we present an approach to map temporal changes of the snow cover in glaciated regions of Tyrol, Austria, using SAR-based satellite data. Two dual-polarized SAR images are acquired on 22 and 24 September 2014. As X and C-band reveal different backscattering properties of snow, both TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images are analysed and compared to ground truth data. Through application of filter functions and processing steps containing a Kennaugh decomposition, ortho-rectification, radiometric enhancement and normalization, we were able to distinguish between dry and wet parts of the snow surface. The analyses reveal that the wet-snow can be unambiguously classified by applying a threshold of -11 dB. Bare ice at the surface or a dry snowpack does not appear in radar data with such low backscatter values. From the temporal shift of wet-snow, a discrimination of accumulation areas on glaciers is possible for specific observation dates. Such data can reveal a periodic monitoring of glaciers with high spatial coverage independent from weather or glacier conditions.

  12. High hydrostatic pressure leads to free radicals accumulation in yeast cells triggering oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bravim, Fernanda; Mota, Mainã M; Fernandes, A Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular organism that during the fermentative process is exposed to a variable environment; hence, resistance to multiple stress conditions is a desirable trait. The stress caused by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in S. cerevisiae resembles the injuries generated by other industrial stresses. In this study, it was confirmed that gene expression pattern in response to HHP displays an oxidative stress response profile which is expanded upon hydrostatic pressure release. Actually, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration level increased in yeast cells exposed to HHP treatment and an incubation period at room pressure led to a decrease in intracellular ROS concentration. On the other hand, ethylic, thermic and osmotic stresses did not result in any ROS accumulation in yeast cells. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of genes related to methionine metabolism, appearing to be a specific cellular response to HHP, and not related to other stresses, such as heat and osmotic stresses. Next, we investigated whether enhanced oxidative stress tolerance leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. Overexpression of STF2 is known to enhance tolerance to oxidative stress and we show that it also leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. PMID:27388472

  13. High hepcidin level accounts for the nigral iron accumulation in acute peripheral iron intoxication rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Song, Ning; Xie, Anmu; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Hepcidin is considered to be a circulatory hormone and a major mechanism regulating iron homeostasis. Our previous publication revealed that acute iron intoxication induced iron deposit and dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) of a rat model. However, whether and how hepcidin functions in this nigral iron accumulation has not been elucidated. In the present study, we observed a decreased of FPN1 protein level in the SN triggered by peripheral iron overload within 4 h, which correlated with a high hepcidin level. To further investigate the role of intracellular hepcidin under iron overload circumstances, we assessed the expression of hepcidin mRNA and FPN1 protein in vitro. We observed that hepcidin mRNA level was up-regulated and FPN1 protein level was down-regulated in MES23.5 dopaminergic cells in a period of 4h incubation with iron. Both in pCMV-XL4-hepcidin transfected and hepcidin-treated cells, decreased FPN1 protein levels were observed. Our data provide direct evidence that the role for intracellular hepcidin generated in the SN is particularly relevant to restrict iron release by down-regulation FPN1 expression in this region, thus an important contributor to the abnormal iron deposit occurred at an early stage in conditions of peripheral iron intoxication. PMID:22659129

  14. SU-E-T-315: The Change of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters (OSLDs) Sensitivity by Accumulated Dose and High Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Choi, S; Park, S; Yoo, H; Yi, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate radiation sensitivity of optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) by accumulated dose and high dose. Methods: This study was carried out in Co-60 unit (Theratron 780, AECL, and Canada) and used InLight MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL) for reading. We annealed for 30 min using optical annealing system which contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ∼780 nm). To evaluate change of OSLDs sensitivity by repeated irradiation, the dosimeters were repeatedly irradiated with 1 Gy. And whenever a repeated irradiation, we evaluated OSLDs sensitivity. To evaluate OSLDs sensitivity after accumulated dose with 5 Gy, We irradiated dose accumulatively (from 1 Gy to 5 Gy) without annealing. And OSLDs was also irradiated with 15, 20, 30 Gy to certify change of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation. After annealing them, they were irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly. Results: The OSLDs sensitivity increased up to 3% during irradiating seven times and decreased continuously above 8 times. That dropped by about 0.35 Gy per an irradiation. Finally, after 30 times irradiation, OSLDs sensitivity decreased by about 7%. For accumulated dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy, OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy increased until 4.4% after second times accumulated dose compared with before that. OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy decreased by 1.6% in five times irradiation. When OSLDs were irradiated ten times with 1Gy after irradiating high dose (10, 15, 20 Gy), OSLDs sensitivity decreased until 6%, 9%, 12% compared with it before high dose irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: This study certified OSLDs sensitivity by accumulated dose and high dose. When irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly, OSLDs sensitivity decreased linearly and the reduction rate of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation had dependence on irradiated dose.

  15. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  16. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  17. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  18. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  19. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic–inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic–inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  20. Influence of high temperature during grain filling on the accumulation of storage proteins and grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Ju; Li, Chia-Yu; Lin, Shao-Kai; Yang, Fan-Hsuan; Huang, Ji-Jwo; Liu, Yun-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng

    2010-10-13

    The present study was performed to understand the effects of high temperature (HT) during filling on the expression of storage proteins and the quality of rice grains. HT (35/30 °C day/night) reduced the weight, amylose content, and flour gel consistency of grains. It increased the accumulation of all classes of storage proteins at early filling stage but decreased the accumulation of prolamins at maturation. For albumins, the expressions of cyclophilin 2, peroxiredoxin, and HSP16.9 were differentially enhanced by HT. For globulins, HT decreased the accumulation of globulin but increased that of glyoxalase I and peroxiredoxin. HT enhanced the transcription of genes for glutelins, prolamins, globulins, and protein disulfide isomerase at early filling stage but decreased the expression of these genes at a later stage. Low amounts of prolamins and globulins, as well as low pH value, were found in sound, immature, and dead kernels grown under HT. The relationships among HT, storage proteins, and grain quality are discussed.

  1. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.

  2. High accumulation of arsenic in the esophagus of mice after exposure to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Daigo; Tsurumoto, Miyu; Yoshino, Yuri; Inoue, Masahisa; Yokobori, Takehiko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic-induced toxicity appears to be dependent on the tissue- or cell-specific accumulation of this metalloid. An early study showed that arsenic was retained in the esophagus as well as the liver, kidney cortex and skin of marmosets after intraperitoneal administration of (74)As-arsenite. However, there is little available information regarding the distribution of arsenic in the esophagus. Here, we compared the retention of arsenic in the esophagus, liver, lung, kidney and heart in mice intraperitoneally administered 1 or 5 mg/kg sodium arsenite (As(III)) daily for 3 or 7 days. The results showed that the arsenic concentration was highest in the esophagus. We compared the mRNA levels of aquaglyceroporin (AQP) 3, AQP7 and AQP9, which are responsible for arsenic influx, and those of multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) 1 and MRP2, which are responsible for arsenic efflux. The levels of AQP3 mRNA in the esophagus were much higher than those in liver, lung and heart, while the mRNA levels of MRP2 were very low in the esophagus. In addition, we found extremely low expression of Nrf2 in the esophagus at the basal and under the activated conditions, which might have resulted in low levels of glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic and modulatory subunits, and subsequently in the low levels of glutathione. Thus, the highest retention of arsenic was detected in the esophagus after intraperitoneal administration of As(III) to mice, and this appeared to result from multiple factors, including high expression of AQP3, low expression of MRP2, low capacity of glutathione synthesis and low activation of Nrf2.

  3. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  4. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  5. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  6. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  7. High-fat diets containing different amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated acids modulate adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different...

  8. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  9. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40 % of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Preculturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals.

  10. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  11. High Rates of Species Accumulation in Animals with Bioluminescent Courtship Displays.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Emily A; Oakley, Todd H

    2016-07-25

    One of the great mysteries of evolutionary biology is why closely related lineages accumulate species at different rates. Theory predicts that populations undergoing strong sexual selection will more quickly differentiate because of increased potential for genetic isolation [1-6]. Whether or not these population genetic processes translate to more species at macroevolutionary scales remains contentious [7]. Here we show that lineages with bioluminescent courtship, almost certainly a sexually selected trait, have more species and faster rates of species accumulation than their non-luminous relatives. In each of ten distantly related animal lineages from insects, crustaceans, annelid worms, and fishes, we find more species in lineages with bioluminescent courtship compared to their sister groups. Furthermore, we find under a Yule model that lineages with bioluminescent courtship displays have significantly higher rates of species accumulation compared to a larger clade that includes them plus non-luminous relatives. In contrast, we do not find more species or higher rates in lineages that use bioluminescence for defense, a function presumably not under sexual selection. These results document an association between the origin of bioluminescent courtship and increased accumulation of species, supporting theory predicting sexual selection increases rates of speciation at macroevolutionary scales to influence global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:27345160

  12. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

    2010-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars.

  13. High resolution fire danger modeling : integration of quantitative precipitation amount estimates derived from weather radars as an input of FWI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloppet, E.; Regimbeau, M.

    2009-09-01

    Fire meteo indices provide efficient guidance tools for the prevention, early warning and surveillance of forest fires. The indices are based on meteorological input data. The underlying approach is to exploit meteorological information as fully as possible to model the soil water content, biomass condition and fire danger. Fire meteorological danger is estimated by Météo-France at national level through the use of Fire Weather Index. The fire index services developed within the PREVIEW project (2005-2008) offer for the first time very high resolution mapping of forest fire risk. The high resolution FWI has been implemented in France complementary to the existing EFFIS operated by the Joint Research Center. A new method (ANTILOPE method) of combining precipitation data originating from different sources like rain gauges and weather radar measurements has been applied in the new service. Some of the advantages of this new service are: · Improved detection of local features of fire risk · More accurate analysis of meteorological input data used in forest fire index models providing added value for forest fire risk forecasts · Use of radar precipitation data "as is” utilizing the higher resolution, i.e. avoiding averaging operations The improved accuracy and spatial resolution of the indices provide a powerful early warning tool for national and regional civil protection and fire fighting authorities to alert and initiate forest fire fighting actions and measures.

  14. Highly efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes with a greatly reduced amount of phosphorescent emitter

    PubMed Central

    Fukagawa, Hirohiko; Shimizu, Takahisa; Kamada, Taisuke; Yui, Shota; Hasegawa, Munehiro; Morii, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been intensively studied as a key technology for next-generation displays and lighting. The efficiency of OLEDs has improved markedly in the last 15 years by employing phosphorescent emitters. However, there are two main issues in the practical application of phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs): the relatively short operational lifetime and the relatively high cost owing to the costly emitter with a concentration of about 10% in the emitting layer. Here, we report on our success in resolving these issues by the utilization of thermally activated delayed fluorescent materials, which have been developed in the past few years, as the host material for the phosphorescent emitter. Our newly developed PHOLED employing only 1 wt% phosphorescent emitter exhibits an external quantum efficiency of over 20% and a long operational lifetime of about 20 times that of an OLED consisting of a conventional host material and 1 wt% phosphorescent emitter. PMID:25985084

  15. Quantification of Gram-positive bacteria: adaptation and evaluation of a preparation strategy using high amounts of clinical tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A preparation method for quantification of bacteria in tissues is obligatory to reduce tissue mass, concentrate the target, purify, remove inhibitory substances and to achieve constant target recovery rates. No preparation method has been available until now for a high mass of tissue applicable for routine use and analytical veterinary diagnostics. Results This study describes an easy-to-use tissue preparation protocol to quantify Gram-positive bacteria from a large volume of tissue matrix. A previously published sample preparation method (Matrix-Lysis) from food science was successfully adapted for clinical use on tissues from pigs, including cerebrum, spinal cord, lung, liver, ileum, colon, caecum, kidney and muscle tissue. This tissue preparation method now permits quantification of pathogens from 5 g of organic matrix, which is a 20–200 fold increase by weight compared to other methods. It is based on solubilization of the sample matrix with either a chaotrope plus detergent or divalent salts as solubilization agents. The method was designed as a modular system, offering the possibility to change lysis buffers, according to tissue solubilization characteristics and the intended detection method (molecular or culture). Using Listeria monocytogenes as model organism, viable cell quantification or DNA extraction and quantitative real-time PCR were performed after Matrix-Lysis to determine recovery rates and detection limit (LOD). The adapted Matrix-Lysis protocol resulted in high recovery rates (mean value: 76% ± 39%) for all tested organs, except kidney, and recovery was constant over 5 log scales for all tested buffer systems. The LOD for Matrix-Lysis with subsequent plate count method (PCM) was as low as 1 CFU/5 g, while for qPCR based detection the LOD was 102 bacterial cell equivalents (BCE)/5 g for two buffer systems. Conclusions This tissue preparation is inexpensive and can be easily used for routine and analytical veterinary

  16. High-field penning-malmberg trap: confinement properties and use in positron accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of the 60 kG cryogenic positron trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and compares the trap`s confinement properties with other nonneutral plasma devices. The device is designed for the accumulation of up to 2{times}10{sup 9} positrons from a linear-accelerator source. This positron plasma could then be used in Bhabha scattering experiments. Initial efforts at time-of-flight accumulation of positrons from the accelerator show rapid ({approximately}100 ms) deconfinement, inconsistent with the long electron lifetimes. Several possible deconfinement mechanisms have been explored, including annihilation on residual gas, injection heating, rf noise from the accelerator, magnet field curvature, and stray fields. Detailed studies of electron confinement demonstrate that the empirical scaling law used to design the trap cannot be extrapolated into the parameter regime of this device. Several possible methods for overcoming these limitations are presented.

  17. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  18. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  19. High REDOX RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 Levels Result in Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Arabidopsis thaliana Shoots and Roots.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Johnson, Joy Michal; Hieno, Ayaka; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Godfrey, Rinesh; Obokata, Junichi; Sherameti, Irena; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Böhmer, Frank-D; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1) in Arabidopsis is rapidly and transiently upregulated by H2O2, as well as biotic- and abiotic-induced redox signals. RRTF1 is highly conserved in angiosperms, but its physiological role remains elusive. Here we show that inactivation of RRTF1 restricts and overexpression promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to stress. Transgenic lines overexpressing RRTF1 are impaired in root and shoot development, light sensitive, and susceptible to Alternaria brassicae infection. These symptoms are diminished by the beneficial root endophyte Piriformospora indica, which reduces ROS accumulation locally in roots and systemically in shoots, and by antioxidants and ROS inhibitors that scavenge ROS. More than 800 genes were detected in mature leaves and seedlings of transgenic lines overexpressing RRTF1; ∼ 40% of them have stress-, redox-, ROS-regulated-, ROS-scavenging-, defense-, cell death- and senescence-related functions. Bioinformatic analyses and in vitro DNA binding assays demonstrate that RRTF1 binds to GCC-box-like sequences in the promoter of RRTF1-responsive genes. Upregulation of RRTF1 by stress stimuli and H2O2 requires WRKY18/40/60. RRTF1 is co-regulated with the phylogenetically related RAP2.6, which contains a GCC-box-like sequence in its promoter, but transgenic lines overexpressing RAP2.6 do not accumulate higher ROS levels. RRTF1 also stimulates systemic ROS accumulation in distal non-stressed leaves. We conclude that the elevated levels of the highly conserved RRTF1 induce ROS accumulation in response to ROS and ROS-producing abiotic and biotic stress signals.

  20. Effect of trace amounts of water in the mobile phase of normal-phase enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography on selectivity and resolution of optical isomers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Rustum, Abu M

    2009-04-01

    The irreproducibility of normal-phase enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) could be attributed to the presence or absence of trace amounts of water in one or more components of the mobile phase. The effect of trace amounts of water on chromatographic characteristics in normal-phase enantioselective HPLC was investigated by deliberate addition of controlled, trace amounts of water into the mobile phase for the separation of T-3811ME and its undesired enantiomer. Commercial 2-propanol was pre-mixed with 2% (v/v) water and then used for preparation of the mobile phase in combination with such organic modifiers as ethanol and methanol at different ratios. The results showed up to 30% improvement in the resolution (Rs), 4% in selectivity (alpha), and 39% in efficiency (plate number N) compared to using a mobile phase prepared from neat commercial 2-propanol. Thus, the effect of trace amounts of water in the mobile phase of normal-phase enantioselective HPLC was demonstrated. PMID:19406020

  1. [Increase in Alkaline Phosphatase Activity after High-Fat Meal Ingestion is Correlated to the Amount of ABH Substances in Saliva].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Kana; Sakamoto, Yui; Arai, Tomoko; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Muramoto, Yoshimi; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) appears in the circulation more frequently in blood group B or O secretors than in blood group A or AB secretors and non-secretors, and serum IAP activity rises following the ingestion of a high-fat meal. In a previous study, the occurrence of two IAP isoforms, with high (HIAP) and normal molecular mass (NIAP), in healthy sera was demonstrated by 6.0% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 1% Triton X-100. NIAP was present in the fasting serum of only healthy blood group B or O secretors, but was present in all subjects following ingestion of a high-fat meal. We classified 56 healthy subjects into 3 blood groups: B (n = 19), O (n = 17), and A (n = 20), and measured their serum ALP activity in a fasting state and 6 h after a high-fat meal. The amount of ABH substances in the saliva of each subject was determined by the hemagglutination inhibition test. Correlation coefficients between the change in ALP activity after high-fat meal ingestion and the hemagglutination inhibition values in saliva were 0.925 in blood group B, 0.879 in blood group O, and 0.906 in blood group A. These results suggest that increases in ALP activity in the circulation following the ingestion of a high-fat meal are closely related to the amount of ABH substances in saliva. PMID:26524892

  2. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague–Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:23510587

  3. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Márton, László

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101∼192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (∼ 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils.

  4. Sediment accumulation rates and high-resolution stratigraphy of recent fluvial suspension deposits in various fluvial settings, Morava River catchment area, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláček, Jan; Bábek, Ondřej; Kielar, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study concerning sedimentary processes in fluvial sediment traps within the Morava River catchment area (Czech Republic) involving three dammed reservoirs, four meanders and oxbow lakes, and several natural floodplain sites. The objective of the study was to determine sediment accumulation rates (SAR), estimate erosion rates, calculating these using a combination of the 137Cs method and historical data. Another purpose of this study was to provide insight into changing erosion and accumulation rates over the last century. Extensive water course modifications were carried out in the Morava River catchment area during the twentieth century, which likely affected sedimentation rates along the river course. Other multiproxy stratigraphic methods (X-ray densitometry, magnetic susceptibility, and visible-light reflectance spectrometry) were applied to obtain additional information about sediment infill. Sediment stratigraphy revealed distinct distal-to-proximal patterns, especially in reservoirs. Granulometrically, silts and sandy silts prevailed in sediments. Oxbow lakes and meanders contained larger amounts of clay and organic matter, which is the main difference between them and reservoirs. Pronounced 137Cs peaks were recorded in all studied cores (maximum 377 Bq·kg- 1), thus indicating Chernobyl fallout from 1986 or older events. Calculated sediment accumulation rates were lowest in distal parts of reservoirs (0.13-0.58 cm/y) and floodplains (0.45-0.88 cm/y), moderately high rates were found in proximal parts of reservoirs and oxbow lakes (2.27-4.4 cm/y), and the highest rates in some oxbow lakes located near the river (6-8 cm/y). The frequency of the inundation still can be high in some natural areas as in the Litovelské Pomoraví protected area, whereas the decreasing frequency of the inundation in other modified parts can contribute to a lower sedimentation rate. The local effects such as difference between SARs in oxbow lakes and

  5. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Lele, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25°C), strong light intensity (6 klux) and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v) induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA) constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria. PMID:24031291

  6. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  7. Effects of salicylic acid on thermotolerance and cardenolide accumulation under high temperature stress in Digitalis trojana Ivanina.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    Long periods of high temperature or transitory increased temperature, a widespread agricultural problem, may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield, affecting plant growth and development in many areas of the world. Heat stress causes many anatomical and physiological changes in plants. Its unfavorable effects can be alleviated by thermotolerance induced by exogenous application of plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants or by gradual application of temperature stress. Digitalis trojana Ivanina is an important medicinal plant species well known mainly for its cardenolides. The production of cardenolides via traditional agriculture is commercially inadequate. In this study, elicitation strategies were employed for improving crop thermotolerance and accumulation of cardenolides. For these purposes, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and/or high temperature treatments in inducing cardenolide accumulation and thermotolerance were tested in callus cultures of D. trojana. Considerable increases in the production of cardenolides (up to 472.28 μg.g(-1) dry weight, dw) and induction of thermotolerance capacity were observed when callus cultures were exposed to high temperature for 2 h after pretreating with SA. High temperature treatments (2 h and 4 h) caused a marked reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activities, while SA pretreatment increased their activities. High temperature and/or SA appeared to increase the levels of proline, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. Elevated phenolic accumulation could be associated with increased stress protection. These results indicated that SA treatments induced synthesis of antioxidants and cardenolides, which may play a significant role in resistance to high temperature stress. PMID:27105421

  8. Fabrication of transparent, tough, and conductive shape-memory polyurethane films by incorporating a small amount of high-quality graphene.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-23

    We report a mechanically strong, electrically and thermally conductive, and optically transparent shape-memory polyurethane composite which was fabricated by introducing a small amount (0.1 wt%) of high-quality graphene as a filler. Geometrically large (≈4.6 μm(2)), but highly crystallized few-layer graphenes, verified by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were prepared by the sonication of expandable graphite in an organic solvent. Oxygen- containing functional groups at the edge plane of graphene were crucial for an effective stress transfer from the graphene to polyurethane. Homogeneously dispersed few-layered graphene enabled polyurethane to have a high shape recovery force of 1.8 MPa cm(-3). Graphene, which is intrinsically stretchable up to 10%, will enable high-performance composites to be fabricated at relatively low cost and we thus envisage that such composites may replace carbon nanotubes for various applications in the near future. PMID:22328293

  9. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  10. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  11. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1-8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination. PMID:26648137

  12. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1–8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination. PMID:26648137

  13. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-12-09

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1-8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination.

  14. Selection and molecular characterization of a high tocopherol accumulation rice mutant line induced by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Eun; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Kim, Jin-Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si-Yong; Kim, Dong Sub

    2014-11-01

    Tocopherols are micronutrients with antioxidant properties. They are synthesized by photosynthetic bacteria and plants, and play important roles in animal and human nutrition. In this study, we isolated a new rice mutant line with elevated tocopherol content (MRXII) from an in vitro mutagenized population induced by gamma irradiation. The mutant exhibited greater seed longevity than the control, indicating a crucial role for tocopherols in maintaining viability during quiescence, and displayed faster seedling growth during the early growth stage. To study the molecular mechanism underlying vitamin E biosynthesis, we examined the expression patterns of seven rice genes encoding vitamin E biosynthetic enzymes. Accumulation levels of the OsVTE2 transcript and OsVTE2 protein in the MRXII mutant were significantly higher than in the control. Sequence analysis revealed that the MRXII mutant harbored a point mutation in the OsVTE2 promoter region, which resulted in the generation of MYB transcription factor-binding cis-element. These results help identify the promoter regions that regulate OsVTE2 transcription, and offer insights into the regulation of tocopherol content.

  15. When adapted to high zinc concentrations the periphytic green alga Stigeoclonium tenue produces high amounts of novel phytochelatin-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Pawlik-Skowrońska, Barbara

    2003-01-24

    Two ecotypes of the green alga Stigeoclonium tenue Kütz. coming from polluted or unpolluted freshwaters and showing various Zn-tolerance were compared for their production of non-proteinaceous thiols in response to Zn. In short-term (17 h) exposures to 15 microM Zn they did not reveal any significant difference in levels of glutathione, phytochelatins and some unknown thiols. However, after prolonged metal exposure (48 h) the Zn-tolerant S. tenue (T) isolated from Zn-polluted mining water, produced at the expense of GSH besides phytochelatins (PC(2)-PC(4)) much higher amounts of novel, phytochelatin-related peptides. After a 6-week exposure to 30 microM Zn, phytochelatins (approximately 6 micromol SH per g D.W.) and the novel thiol peptides (approximately 31 micromol SH per g D.W.), only in the surviving Zn-tolerant alga, were produced. HPLC analysis suggested that the novel peptides (P1-P3) differ from each other by one gammaGlu-Cys unit. ESI/MS analysis of the purified, most abundant peptides P2 and P3, of m/z values 643 and 875, respectively, suggested that they contain one cysteine residue more than PC(2) and PC(3). A 22-fold higher concentration of these peptides in Zn-tolerant S. tenue (T) than in Zn-sensitive S. tenue (S) was also observed in response to Pb exposure. Biosynthesis of the large amounts of the novel thiol peptides, which contain more SH-groups than phytochelatins, detected in the Zn-tolerant organism after long Zn exposure, and lack of such a response in the Zn-sensitive ecotype S. tenue (S), isolated from unpolluted water, suggest that they are essential in the adaptation of S. tenue (T) to increased heavy metal concentrations. PMID:12505382

  16. Implication of eolian delivery and accumulation of highly reactive iron to the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. K.; Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Iron, although abundant in the Earth's crust, is present at low concentrations in sea water and is a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton. Eolian dust (loess) is a major source of this micronutrient, and its deposition has important implications for the global CO2 budget. In this study, we explore distributions of potentially bioreactive Fe, the soluble fraction required by phytoplankton for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation, in deep-sea sediments in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. We used a state-of-the-art Fe speciation technique to characterize Fe inputs from different source regions, specifically North Africa and Patagonia to address the patterns and implications across glacial-interglacial time scales. In many open-ocean regions the input of new iron to the surface waters is dominated by the atmospheric deposition of soluble iron in eolian dusts. Multiple records have shown dust accumulation is correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles - glacial periods are substantially dustier. Furthermore, the delivery of eolian dust to the North and South Atlantic Oceans are from two very different source regions and soil types. We analyzed IODP cores from these two regions and our preliminary data shows similar pattern of iron distribution from both the North and South Atlantic Oceans. To date we have found no simple global pattern of bioavailable iron distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. We have analyzed a range of size distributions to isolate the dust-dominated fraction and the data shows no size effects in bioavailable form of iron distribution. We will explore the role of deep-water dust dissolution and sedimentary redox implications and its role on the bioreactive Fe record in marine cores.

  17. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26595097

  18. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  19. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. PMID:24321691

  20. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops.

  1. Phytolacca americana inhibits the high glucose-induced mesangial proliferation via suppressing extracellular matrix accumulation and TGF-beta production.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Il; Kim, Kang Ju; Choo, Yong Kug; Keum, Kyung Soo; Choi, Bong Kyu; Jung, Kyu Yong

    2004-02-01

    This study describes a potential of Phytolaccaceae (Phytolacca americana var.) as an inhibitor of high glucose-stimulated production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and TGF-beta in cultured glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Raising the ambient glucose concentration for 24 hrs caused a dose-dependent increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation of GMCs, and the maximal response was achieved at 20 mM. Phytolaccaceae extracts (2.5-20 microg/ml) inhibited the high glucose-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations tested here did not affect to the cell viability. Exposure of the GMCs to 20 mM glucose caused both ECM (collagen and fibronectin) accumulation and TGF-beta secretion, and these changes were significantly diminished by treatment of GMCs with Phytolaccaceae (10 microg/ml). Taken together, these results indicate that Phytolaccaceae inhibits the high glucose-induced GMCs proliferation partially through suppressing accumulation of ECM components and TGF-beta production, suggesting that Phytolaccaceae may be a promising agent for treating the development and progression of diabetic glomerulopathy.

  2. Bubbles Quantified In vivo by Ultrasound Relates to Amount of Gas Detected Post-mortem in Rabbits Decompressed from High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Havnes, Marianne B; Brubakk, Alf O; González-Díaz, Oscar; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of decompression sickness is not fully understood but there is evidence that it can be caused by intravascular and autochthonous bubbles. Doppler ultrasound at a given circulatory location is used to detect and quantify the presence of intravascular gas bubbles as an indicator of decompression stress. In this manuscript we studied the relationship between presence and quantity of gas bubbles by echosonography of the pulmonary artery of anesthetized, air-breathing New Zealand White rabbits that were compressed and decompressed. Mortality rate, presence, quantity, and distribution of gas bubbles elsewhere in the body was examined postmortem. We found a strong positive relationship between high ultrasound bubble grades in the pulmonary artery, sudden death, and high amount of intra and extra vascular gas bubbles widespread throughout the entire organism. In contrast, animals with lower bubble grades survived for 1 h after decompression until sacrificed, and showed no gas bubbles during dissection. PMID:27493634

  3. Bubbles Quantified In vivo by Ultrasound Relates to Amount of Gas Detected Post-mortem in Rabbits Decompressed from High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Havnes, Marianne B.; Brubakk, Alf O.; González-Díaz, Oscar; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of decompression sickness is not fully understood but there is evidence that it can be caused by intravascular and autochthonous bubbles. Doppler ultrasound at a given circulatory location is used to detect and quantify the presence of intravascular gas bubbles as an indicator of decompression stress. In this manuscript we studied the relationship between presence and quantity of gas bubbles by echosonography of the pulmonary artery of anesthetized, air-breathing New Zealand White rabbits that were compressed and decompressed. Mortality rate, presence, quantity, and distribution of gas bubbles elsewhere in the body was examined postmortem. We found a strong positive relationship between high ultrasound bubble grades in the pulmonary artery, sudden death, and high amount of intra and extra vascular gas bubbles widespread throughout the entire organism. In contrast, animals with lower bubble grades survived for 1 h after decompression until sacrificed, and showed no gas bubbles during dissection. PMID:27493634

  4. Bubbles Quantified In vivo by Ultrasound Relates to Amount of Gas Detected Post-mortem in Rabbits Decompressed from High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Havnes, Marianne B; Brubakk, Alf O; González-Díaz, Oscar; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of decompression sickness is not fully understood but there is evidence that it can be caused by intravascular and autochthonous bubbles. Doppler ultrasound at a given circulatory location is used to detect and quantify the presence of intravascular gas bubbles as an indicator of decompression stress. In this manuscript we studied the relationship between presence and quantity of gas bubbles by echosonography of the pulmonary artery of anesthetized, air-breathing New Zealand White rabbits that were compressed and decompressed. Mortality rate, presence, quantity, and distribution of gas bubbles elsewhere in the body was examined postmortem. We found a strong positive relationship between high ultrasound bubble grades in the pulmonary artery, sudden death, and high amount of intra and extra vascular gas bubbles widespread throughout the entire organism. In contrast, animals with lower bubble grades survived for 1 h after decompression until sacrificed, and showed no gas bubbles during dissection.

  5. Versican but not decorin accumulation is related to malignancy in mammographically detected high density and malignant-appearing microcalcifications in non-palpable breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) and malignant-appearing microcalcifications (MAMCs) represent the earliest mammographic findings of non-palpable breast carcinomas. Matrix proteoglycans versican and decorin are frequently over-expressed in various malignancies and are differently involved in the progression of cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of versican and decorin in non-palpable breast carcinomas and their association with high risk mammographic findings and tumor characteristics. Methods Three hundred and ten patients with non-palpable suspicious breast lesions, detected during screening mammography, were studied. Histological examination was carried out and the expression of decorin, versican, estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and c-erbB2 (HER-2/neu) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Histological examination showed 83 out of 310 (26.8%) carcinomas of various subtypes. Immunohistochemistry was carried out in 62/83 carcinomas. Decorin was accumulated in breast tissues with MD and MAMCs independently of the presence of malignancy. In contrast, versican was significantly increased only in carcinomas with MAMCs (median ± SE: 42.0 ± 9.1) and MD (22.5 ± 10.1) as compared to normal breast tissue with MAMCs (14.0 ± 5.8), MD (11.0 ± 4.4) and normal breast tissue without mammographic findings (10.0 ± 2.0). Elevated levels of versican were correlated with higher tumor grade and invasiveness in carcinomas with MD and MAMCs, whereas increased amounts of decorin were associated with in situ carcinomas in MAMCs. Stromal deposition of both proteoglycans was related to higher expression of ERα and PR in tumor cells only in MAMCs. Conclusions The specific accumulation of versican in breast tissue with high MD and MAMCs only in the presence of malignant transformation and its association with the aggressiveness of the tumor suggests its possible use as molecular marker in non-palpable breast carcinomas

  6. Next-generation sequencing in veterinary medicine: how can the massive amount of information arising from high-throughput technologies improve diagnosis, control, and management of infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Van Borm, Steven; Belák, Sándor; Freimanis, Graham; Fusaro, Alice; Granberg, Fredrik; Höper, Dirk; King, Donald P; Monne, Isabella; Orton, Richard; Rosseel, Toon

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput molecular technologies and associated bioinformatics has dramatically changed the capacities of scientists to produce, handle, and analyze large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data. A clear example of this step-change is represented by the amount of DNA sequence data that can be now produced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms. Similarly, recent improvements in protein and peptide separation efficiencies and highly accurate mass spectrometry have promoted the identification and quantification of proteins in a given sample. These advancements in biotechnology have increasingly been applied to the study of animal infectious diseases and are beginning to revolutionize the way that biological and evolutionary processes can be studied at the molecular level. Studies have demonstrated the value of NGS technologies for molecular characterization, ranging from metagenomic characterization of unknown pathogens or microbial communities to molecular epidemiology and evolution of viral quasispecies. Moreover, high-throughput technologies now allow detailed studies of host-pathogen interactions at the level of their genomes (genomics), transcriptomes (transcriptomics), or proteomes (proteomics). Ultimately, the interaction between pathogen and host biological networks can be questioned by analytically integrating these levels (integrative OMICS and systems biology). The application of high-throughput biotechnology platforms in these fields and their typical low-cost per information content has revolutionized the resolution with which these processes can now be studied. The aim of this chapter is to provide a current and prospective view on the opportunities and challenges associated with the application of massive parallel sequencing technologies to veterinary medicine, with particular focus on applications that have a potential impact on disease control and management.

  7. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.

  8. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. PMID:26645280

  9. Constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation: suggestion for a high school curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouropatov, Anatoli; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2013-07-01

    Students have a tendency to see integral calculus as a series of procedures with associated algorithms and many do not develop a conceptual grasp giving them the desirable versatility of thought. Thus, instead of a proceptual view of the symbols in integration, they have, at best, a process-oriented view. On the other hand, it is not surprising that many students find concepts such as the integral difficult when they are unable to experience these processes directly in the classroom. With a view towards improving this situation, constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation has been proposed (Educ Stud Math. 1994;26:229-274; Integral as accumulation: a didactical perspective for school mathematics; Thessaloniki: PME; 2009. p. 417-424). In this paper, we discuss a curriculum that is based on this idea and a design for curriculum materials that are intended to develop an improved cognitive base for a flexible proceptual understanding of the integral and integration in high school. The main focus is on how we (mathematics teachers and mathematics educators) might teach the integral concept in order to help high school students to construct meaningful knowledge alongside acquiring technical abilities.

  10. High molecular weight complexes of mutant superoxide dismutase 1: age-dependent and tissue-specific accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiou; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2002-03-01

    Mutations in the cytosolic enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1, have been identified as the cause of motor neuron disease in a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It has been postulated that the injurious property of mutant enzyme resides in its propensity to aggregate or its propensity to catalyze deleterious, copper-mediated, chemistries. Aggregates of SOD1 have been identified, histologically, in neurons and astroglia of the spinal cords of SOD1-linked FALS patients and in transgenic mice that express these mutant proteins. In the present study, we have employed a technique used in detecting and quantifying aggregates of mutant huntingtin (cellulose acetate filtration) to examine the molecular characteristics of mutant SOD1 in three previously characterized transgenic mouse models of FALS. We show that the brains and spinal cords of these mice accumulate mutant SOD1 complexes that can be trapped by cellulose acetate filtration. The relative abundance of these structures increases dramatically with age. Although expressed to the same level in nonnervous tissues, mutant SOD1 was not found in high molecular weight structures. We conclude that some aspect of the biology of neural tissues (in a setting of declining motor neuron function) predisposes to the accumulation of high molecular weight complexes of mutant SOD1.

  11. Enhanced high-temperature piezoelectric properties of traditional Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics by a small amount substitution of KNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Rong, Yangchun; Zheng, Shaoying; Liu, Laijun; Fang, Liang; Xing, Xianran

    2014-12-01

    Crystal structure, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties were investigated on the (1-x)Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3-xKNbO3 system. The piezoelectric properties have been significantly improved by substituting a small amount of KNbO3. In the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.015), the compound not only shows enhanced piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 450 pC/N, which is two times larger than that of unmodified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (d33 = 223 pC/N), but also the Curie temperature (TC = ˜380 °C) is still well maintained at a high level. This phenomenon challenges our general knowledge that in piezoelectric materials the Curie temperature and piezoelectric properties are mutually contradictory. It should be noted that a giant total strain as high as 0.73% is also observed. The high thermal depoling temperature more than 300 °C combined with the excellent piezoelectric properties suggest it as a potential candidate for high temperature actuators and sensors applications.

  12. 1-FFT amino acids involved in high DP inulin accumulation in Viguiera discolor

    PubMed Central

    De Sadeleer, Emerik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Struyf, Tom; Le Roy, Katrien; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are important vacuolar reserve carbohydrates with drought, cold, ROS and general abiotic stress mediating properties. They occur in 15% of all flowering plants and are believed to display health benefits as a prebiotic and dietary fiber. Fructans are synthesized by specific fructosyltransferases and classified based on the linkage type between fructosyl units. Inulins, one of these fructan types with β(2-1) linkages, are elongated by fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases (1-FFT) using a fructosyl unit from a donor inulin to elongate the acceptor inulin molecule. The sequence identity of the 1-FFT of Viguiera discolor (Vd) and Helianthus tuberosus (Ht) is 91% although these enzymes produce distinct fructans. The Vd 1-FFT produces high degree of polymerization (DP) inulins by preferring the elongation of long chain inulins, in contrast to the Ht 1-FFT which prefers small molecules (DP3 or 4) as acceptor. Since higher DP inulins have interesting properties for industrial, food and medical applications, we report here on the influence of two amino acids on the high DP inulin production capacity of the Vd 1-FFT. Introducing the M19F and H308T mutations in the active site of the Vd 1-FFT greatly reduces its capacity to produce high DP inulin molecules. Both amino acids can be considered important to this capacity, although the double mutation had a much higher impact than the single mutations. PMID:26322058

  13. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the X-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the photon beam ion source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. An overview of the field, current plans, and future possibilities will be presented.

  14. Nitrogen Accumulation and Partitioning in High Arctic Tundra from Extreme Atmospheric N Deposition Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, G. K.; Osborn, A.; Blaud, A.; Press, M. C.; Choudhary, S.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events. These events occur from the long-range transport of reactive N from pollution sources at lower latitudes and can deposit up to 80% of the annual N deposition in just a few days. To date, the fate and impacts of these extreme pollutant events has remained unknown. Using a field simulation study, we undertook the first assessment of the fate of acutely deposited N on arctic tundra. Extreme N deposition events were simulated on field plots at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79oN) at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 applied as NH4NO3 solution over 4 days, with 15N tracers used in the second year to quantify the fate of the deposited N in the plant, soil, microbial and leachate pools. Separate applications of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in the fate of N. Recovery of the 15N tracer at the end of the first growing season approached 100% of the 15N applied irrespective of treatment level, demonstrating the considerable capacity of High Arctic tundra to capture pollutant N from extreme deposition events. Most incorporation of the 15N was found in bryophytes, followed by the dominant vascular plant (Salix polaris) and the microbial biomass of the soil organic layer. Total recovery remained high in the second growing season (average of 90%), indicating highly conservative N retention. Between the two N forms, recovery of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were equal in the non-vascular plants, whereas in the vascular plants (particularly Salix polaris) recovery of 15NO3- was four times higher than of 15NH4+. Overall, these findings show that High Arctic tundra has considerable capacity to capture and retain the pollutant N deposited in acute extreme deposition events. Given they can represent much of the annual N deposition, extreme deposition events may be more important than increased chronic N deposition as a pollution source. Furthermore

  15. Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Bhandari, Uma; Jamadagni, Shrirang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG) on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days+AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) from day 8 to 28), respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)) activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes. PMID:24868532

  16. Synthesis and characterization of high-quality PbI2 nanopowders from depleted SLA accumulator anode and cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.; Fernandez, C.

    2016-07-01

    High-quality lead iodide (PbI2) nanoparticles were synthesized from both anode and cathode of a discarded sealed lead-acid accumulator as starting materials. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of washed PbI2 were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The XRD measurements indicated the presence of pure hexagonal PbI2 nanoparticles. Application of the Scherrer equation indicates crystal sizes between 13.703 and 14.320 nm. SEM indicated the presence of spherical particle agglomerations between 1.5 and 3.5 \\upmum in diameter. The measured band gap using two methods was consistent at 2.75 eV. EDS results suggest the absence of impurities in the synthesized nanoparticles. The overall results suggest that discarded sealed lead-acid accumulators can source pure hexagonal-phase lead iodide nanoparticles with potential applications in perovskite solar cells. The novelty aspect is that this approach has not been previously reported.

  17. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  18. The high-affinity phosphate-binding protein PstS is accumulated under high fructose concentrations and mutation of the corresponding gene affects differentiation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Margarita; Esteban, Ana; Fernández-Abalos, José Manuel; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2005-08-01

    The secreted protein pattern of Streptomyces lividans depends on the carbon source present in the culture media. One protein that shows the most dramatic change is the high-affinity phosphate-binding protein PstS, which is strongly accumulated in the supernatant of liquid cultures containing high concentrations (>3 %) of certain sugars, such as fructose, galactose and mannose. The promoter region of this gene and that of its Streptomyces coelicolor homologue were used to drive the expression of a xylanase in S. lividans that was accumulated in the culture supernatant when grown in the presence of fructose. PstS accumulation was dramatically increased in a S. lividans polyphosphate kinase null mutant (Deltappk) and was impaired in a deletion mutant lacking phoP, the transcriptional regulator gene of the two-component phoR-phoP system that controls the Pho regulon. Deletion of the pstS genes in S. lividans and S. coelicolor impaired phosphate transport and accelerated differentiation and sporulation on solid media. Complementation with a single copy in a S. lividans pstS null mutant returned phosphate transport and sporulation to levels similar to those of the wild-type strain. The present work demonstrates that carbon and phosphate metabolism are linked in the regulation of genes and that this can trigger the genetic switch towards morphogenesis.

  19. Rapid transport and high accumulation of amorphous silica in the Congo deep-sea fan: A preliminary budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Ragueneau, Olivier; Jacques, Vincent; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Moriceau, Brivaëla; Khripounoff, Alexis; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the transfer and retention of silicon (Si) along continental margins are poorly understood, but play a major role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the oceanic biological pump of carbon. Deep-sea fans are well recognized as carbon sink spots, but we lack knowledge about the importance of the fans in the global Si cycle. Here, we provide a first estimate of the role played by the Congo deep-sea fan, one of the biggest in the world, in the Si cycle. Sediment cores sampled in the deep-sea fan were analyzed to build a Si mass balance. An exceptionally high accumulation rate of amorphous silica aSiO2 (2.29 ± 0.58 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) was found, due to a high sedimentation rate and the presence of aluminum in the sediments. Although favored by bioirrigation, recycling fluxes remained low (0.3 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) and reconstructed input fluxes could only be explained by lateral inputs coming from the canyon. Preliminary calculations show that the rapid transport of aSiO2 through the canyon and the excellent preservation efficiency in the sediments imply that 50% of aSiO2 river inputs from the Congo River accumulate annually in the deep-sea fan. Si:C ratios in deep-sea fan sediments were very low (0.2) and only three times as high as those measured in the river itself, which suggests that material from the river and the continental shelf was delivered directly through the canyon, with very little time for Si and C cycle decoupling to take place.

  20. Accumulation of storage products in oat during kernel development.

    PubMed

    Banaś, A; Dahlqvist, A; Debski, H; Gummeson, P O; Stymne, S

    2000-12-01

    Lipids, proteins and starch are the main storage products in oat seeds. As a first step in elucidating the regulatory mechanisms behind the deposition of these compounds, two different oat varieties, 'Freja' and 'Matilda', were analysed during kernel development. In both cultivars, the majority of the lipids accumulated at very early stage of development but Matilda accumulated about twice the amount of lipids compared to Freja. Accumulation of proteins and starch started also in the early stage of kernel development but, in contrast to lipids, continued over a considerably longer period. The high-oil variety Matilda also accumulated higher amounts of proteins than Freja. The starch content in Freja kernels was higher than in Matilda kernels and the difference was most pronounced during the early stage of development when oil synthesis was most active. Oleosin accumulation continued during the whole period of kernel development.

  1. Aluminosilicate Formation in High Level Waste Evaporators: A Mechanism for Uranium Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2002-02-08

    High level waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site (SRS) process radioactive waste to concentrate supernate and thus conserve tank space. In June of 1997, difficulty in evaporator operation was initially observed. This operational difficulty evidenced itself as a plugging of the evaporator's gravity drain line (GDL). The material blocking the GDL was determined to be a sodium aluminosilicate. Following a mechanical cleaning of the GDL, the evaporator was returned to service until October 1999. At this time massive deposits were discovered in the evaporator pot. As a result of the changes in evaporator chemistry and the resulting formation of aluminosilicate deposits in the evaporator, a comprehensive research and development program has been undertaken. This program is underway in order to assist in understanding the new evaporator chemistry and gain insight into the deposition phenomena. Key results from testing in FY01 have demonstrated that the chemistry of the evaporator feed favors aluminosilicate formation. Both the reaction kinetics and particle growth of the aluminosilicate material under SRS evaporator conditions has been demonstrated to occur within the residence times utilized in the SRS evaporator operation. Batch and continuous-flow experiments at known levels of supersaturation have shown a significant correlation between the deposition of aluminosilicates and mixing intensity in the vessel. Advances in thermodynamic modeling of the evaporator chemistry have been accomplished. The resulting thermodynamic model has been related to the operational history of the evaporator, is currently assisting in feed selection, and could potentially assist in expanding the operating envelopes technical baselines for evaporator operation.

  2. Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocytes by Using Sugars: Intra- and extracellular raffinose with small amounts of dimethylsulfoxide yields high cryosurvival, fertilization, and development rates

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of intra- and extracellular sugars such as trehalose, glucose, and raffinose is central to survival strategies of a variety of organisms coping with extreme conditions including freezing and almost complete drying. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential application of intra- and extracellular raffinose in combination with low concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) to mammalian oocyte cryopreservation. To this end, the fertilization and embryonic development of cryopreserved metaphase II (M II) mouse oocytes were studied in comparison to unfrozen controls. For cryopreservation, M II oocytes were microinjected with 0.1 M raffinose, and then cooled to -196°C in the presence of either 0.3 M raffinose and 0.5 M Me2SO (cryopreservation group 1) or 0.3 M raffinose and 1.0 M Me2SO (cryopreservation group 2). The control groups included untreated oocytes (untreated control) and oocytes microinjected with raffinose, but not frozen (injection control). The post-thaw survival rates were 83.9% and 80.6% for the cryopreservation group 1 and 2, respectively. The fertilization and blastocyst rates in the cryopreservation group 1 (90.0% and 77.8%, respectively) and 2 (94.6% and 72.5%, respectively) were also high and similar to the ones of the injection controls (97.8% and 78.5%, respectively) and untreated controls (98.8% and 83.6%, respectively). These results are consistent with the findings of our earlier studies and support the use of sugars as intra- and extracellular cryoprotectants. Furthermore, the results of the present study indicate that the presence of intra- and extracellular sugars alleviates high concentrations of conventional penetrating cryoprotectants, and thus minimizes their toxicity. PMID:19596315

  3. Cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes by using sugars: Intra- and extracellular raffinose with small amounts of dimethylsulfoxide yields high cryosurvival, fertilization, and development rates.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of intra- and extracellular sugars such as trehalose, glucose, and raffinose is central to survival strategies of a variety of organisms coping with extreme conditions including freezing and almost complete drying. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential application of intra- and extracellular raffinose in combination with low concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (Me(2)SO) to mammalian oocyte cryopreservation. To this end, the fertilization and embryonic development of cryopreserved metaphase II (M II) mouse oocytes were studied in comparison to unfrozen controls. For cryopreservation, M II oocytes were microinjected with 0.1M raffinose, and then cooled to -196 degrees C in the presence of either 0.3M raffinose and 0.5M Me(2)SO (cryopreservation group 1) or 0.3M raffinose and 1.0M Me(2)SO (cryopreservation group 2). The control groups included untreated oocytes (untreated control) and oocytes microinjected with raffinose, but not frozen (injection control). The post-thaw survival rates were 83.9% and 80.6% for the cryopreservation group 1 and 2, respectively. The fertilization and blastocyst rates in the cryopreservation group 1 (90.0% and 77.8%, respectively) and 2 (94.6% and 72.5%, respectively) were also high and similar to the ones of the injection controls (97.8% and 78.5%, respectively) and untreated controls (98.8% and 83.6%, respectively). These results are consistent with the findings of our earlier studies and support the use of sugars as intra- and extracellular cryoprotectants. Furthermore, the results of the present study indicate that the presence of intra- and extracellular sugars alleviates high concentrations of conventional penetrating cryoprotectants, and thus minimizes their toxicity.

  4. High amount of dinophysistoxin-3 in Mytilus chilensis collected in Seno de Reloncaví, chile, during massive human intoxication associated with outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Schonstedt, Valeria; Santelices, Juan Palbo; Lagos, Néstor

    2006-10-01

    This study describes the detection of high amount of 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1 (Dinophysistoxin-3) in filter bivalves collected on February 2005 in the Seno de Reloncaví, Puerto Montt City, Southern Chile, in the same period of time where an intoxication episode was associated with the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish. The Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) mouse bioassay of mussel extract samples, performed as described for regulatory testing, were negative to DSP toxins. Therefore, the same mussel samples collected from 8 places of Seno de Reloncaví were then analyzed by the HPLC-FLD method with pre-column derivatization procedure for DSP toxins. The samples showed mainly 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1 (Dinophysistoxin-3) in concentrations ranging from 190.3 +/- 6.8 to 311.1 +/- 4.8 ng of DSP toxin/g hepatopancreas and less amounts of Dinophysistoxin-1 ranging from 1.9 +/- 1.5 to 11.7 +/- 4.6 ng of DSP toxin/g hepatopancreas. After alkaline hydrolysis of the mussel extracts, 279.4 +/- 7.2 ng of Dinophysistoxin-1 /g hepatopancreas (mean +/- SEM, N=6) were found in mussel extracts (Zone 8). These data showed that these shellfish samples are contaminated with the ester form 7-O-acyl-derivatives of Dinophysisyoxin-1, far beyond the safe regulatory limit. This paper also shows a direct relation between lipid content in the mussel tissue extracts and the levels of Dinophysistoxin-3. The 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1 ester was the only compound associated with DSP toxins detected in the shellfish samples, and in view of the fact that metabolic transformation of Dinophysistoxin-3 into Dinophysistoxin-1 in humans has recently been described in the literature, the consumption of shellfish contaminated with 7-O-acyl-derivatives dinophysistoxin-1 could be a major reason that explains the diarrhetic symptoms shown by the intoxicated patients. PMID:17077585

  5. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. PMID:26956177

  6. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication.

  7. High butyric acid amounts induce oxidative stress, alter calcium homeostasis, and cause neurite retraction in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Kamio, Noriaki; Seki, Keisuke; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-07-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite by-product produced by oral pathogenic bacteria and is detected in high amounts in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontal disease. Previous works have demonstrated that BA can cause oxidative stress in various cell types; however, this was never explored using neuronal cells. Here, we exposed nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC1(2) cells to varying BA concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM). We measured total heme, H(2)O(2), catalase, and calcium levels through biochemical assays and visualized the neurite outgrowth after BA treatment. Similarly, we determined the effects of other common periodontal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on neurite outgrowth for comparison. We found that high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA concentrations induced oxidative stress and altered calcium homeostasis, whereas low (0.5 mM) BA concentration had no significant effect. Moreover, compared to other SCFAs, we established that only BA was able to induce neurite retraction.

  8. High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Ueno, M; Ogino, S; Kubo, K; Nagata, J; Takeuchi, M

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the ability of Garcinia cambogia extract containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) to suppress body fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats. We also examined histopathologically the safety of its high doses. Diets containing different levels of HCA (0, 10, 51, 102 and 154 mmol/kg diet) were fed to 6-week-old rats for 92 or 93 days. Each diet group was pair-fed to the 154 mmol HCA/kg diet group. Epididymal fat accumulation and histopathological changes in tissues were observed. The highest dose of HCA-containing Garcinia cambogia (154 mmol HCA/kg diet) showed significant suppression of epididymal fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, compared with the other groups. However, the diets containing 102 mmol HCA/kg diet and higher (778 and 1244 mg HCA/kg BW/d, respectively) caused potent testicular atrophy and toxicity, whereas diets containing 51 mmol HCA/kg diet (389 mg HCA/kg BW/d) or less did not. Accordingly, 51 mmol HCA/kg diet (389 mg HCA/kg BW/d) was deemed to be the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). PMID:15680676

  9. Cellular cholesterol accumulation modulates high fat high sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced ER stress and hepatic inflammasome activation in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Amir; Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Sue-Chue-Lam, Ian; Chien, Kevin; Maguire, Graham F; Naples, Mark; Zhang, Jing; Magomedova, Lilia; Adeli, Khosrow; Cummins, Carolyn L; Ng, Dominic S

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is the form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease posing risk to progress into serious long term complications. Human and pre-clinical models implicate cellular cholesterol dysregulation playing important role in its development. Mouse model studies suggest synergism between dietary cholesterol and fat in contributing to NASH but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our laboratory previously reported the primary importance of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol (ER-Chol) in regulating hepatic ER stress by comparing the responses of wild type, Ldlr-/-xLcat+/+ and Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice, to a 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD). Here we further investigated the roles of ER-Chol and ER stress in HFHS diet-induced NASH using the same strains. With HFHS diet feeding, both WT and Ldlr-/-xLcat+/+ accumulate ER-Chol in association with ER stress and inflammasome activation but the Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice are protected. By contrast, all three strains accumulate cholesterol crystal, in correlation with ER-Chol, albeit less so in Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice. By comparison, HCD feeding per se (i) is sufficient to promote steatosis and activate inflammasomes, and (ii) results in dramatic accumulation of cholesterol crystal which is linked to inflammasome activation in Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice, independent of ER-Chol. Our data suggest that both dietary fat and cholesterol each independently promote steatosis, cholesterol crystal accumulation and inflammasome activation through distinct but complementary pathways. In vitro studies using palmitate-induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells confirm the key roles by cellular cholesterol in the induction of steatosis and inflammasome activations. These novel findings provide opportunities for exploring a cellular cholesterol-focused strategy for treatment of NASH. PMID:27090939

  10. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  11. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production.

  12. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence. PMID:19700495

  13. Accumulated metal speciation in earthworm populations with multigenerational exposure to metalliferous soils: cell fractionation and high-energy synchrotron analyses.

    PubMed

    Andre, Jane; Charnock, John; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Hodson, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Predicting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soil organisms is complicated by site-specific biotic and abiotic parameters. In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. Our main findings were (i) earthworms were resident in soils with concentrations of Pb and Zn ranging from 1200 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) and 200 to 34,000 mg kg(-1), respectively; (ii) Pb and Zn primarily accumulated in the posterior alimentary canal in nonsoluble subcellular fractions of earthworms; (iii) site-specific differences in the tissue and subcellular partitioning profiles of populations were observed, with earthworms from a calcareous site partitioning proportionally more Pb to their anterior body segments and Zn to the chloragosome-rich subcellular fraction than their acidic-soil inhabiting counterparts; (iv) XAS indicated that the interpopulation differences in metal partitioning between organs were not accompanied by qualitative differences in ligand-binding speciation, because crystalline phosphate-containing pyromorphite was a predominant chemical species in the whole-worm tissues of all mine soil residents. Differences in metal (Pb, Zn) partitioning at both organ and cellular levels displayed by field populations with protracted histories of metal exposures may reflect theirinnate ecophysiological responses to essential edaphic variables, such as Ca2+ status. These observations are highly significant in the challenging exercise of interpreting holistic biomarker data delivered by "omic" technologies. PMID:19764255

  14. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  15. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  16. A new high-precision technique for measurement of N2O concentration in polar ice cores with small amount of samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yeongjun; Yang, Ji-Woong; Ahn, Jinho

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide, one of the major greenhouse gases, has about 300 times higher GWP for 100 years, although its mixing ratio is a thousand time less than that of CO2. Since N2O has important roles in biogeochemical nitrogen cycles, atmospheric ozone destruction, and long term scale climate feedback, it is crucial to comprehend the underlying mechanisms that lead changes in global inventories of greenhouse gases in the past. Because previous data from ice core studies have large uncertainty of 5 ppbv with relatively low temporal resolutions, they are not sufficient for interpreting centennial to multi-centennial variations. Here we present a new high-precision technique for measuring N2O concentration of ancient air occluded in ice cores. We use a wet extraction method (melting-refreezing method) to extract gas from the ice core, and GC-ECD to determine N2O concentration. The optimized setting for GC-ECD permits high sensitivity for N2O, and minimizes volume of ice core sample that is requisite to get reliable results. Here we present preliminary results that we obtained from 15 ~ 20 g of ice core samples. The values for solubility correction is measured by an additional melting-refreezing process. The amount of correction is about 3 ppbv for 329.88 ppbv N2O standard gas air (calibrated from NOAA) with an uncertainty of < 1 ppbv. We also compare the results with those from a dry extraction method for validation, and present preliminary results from Styx ice core, Antarctica. The updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  17. New automated synthesis of [18F]FP-CIT with base amount control affording high and stable radiochemical yield: a 1.5-year production report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Moon, Woo Yeon; Choi, Moon Seok; Kim, Jae Seung; Chi, Dae Yoon; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook

    2011-05-01

    We describe new [(18)F]Fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenyl-nor-tropane ([(18)F]FP-CIT) automatic preparation method by (1) using 2-methyl-2-butanol as [(18)F]fluorination solvent, (2) base amount control to minimize side reaction and (3) salt elution method to elute trapped [(18)F]fluoride. We developed manual synthesis procedures for automatic synthesis application. In this manual synthesis, we trapped [(18)F]F(-) on ion exchange cartridge and eluted with 0.2 M potassium methanesulfonate solution. We have [(18)F]fluorination at 100°C with 2-methyl-2-butanol as protic solvent for [(18)F]fluorination. After high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we have 69.3±3.2% of [(18)F]F(-) incorporation ratio on the manual synthesis and applied these conditions to automatic preparation with GE TracerLab FX module. After setting-up of automatic synthesis and quality control procedures for clinical procedures, we have routine production of [(18)F]FP-CIT with 86.9±9.5 GBq/2.5 ml of [(18)F]F(-) as initial radioactivity and have 192 productions for 1.5 year. We have 42.5±10.9% of decay corrected radiochemical yields and they were satisfied all quality control procedures and stability to 6 h. New [(18)F]FP-CIT automatic preparation method showed high and reliable radiochemical yield and we could have enough >35 patient doses of [(18)F]FP-CIT from one production.

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase Deficiency Promotes Adipose Tissue Growth and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Male Mice on High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Stout, Michael B; Jensen, Michael D; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Despite numerous reports of relationships between weight gain and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), this enzyme's role in the genesis of obesity remains unclear, but recent research points to strong links with ghrelin, the "hunger hormone." The availability of BChE knockout (KO) mice provides an opportunity to clarify the causal relationship between BChE and obesity onset. We now find that young KO mice have abnormally high plasma ghrelin levels that slowly decline during long-term high-fat feeding and ultimately drop below those in wild-type mice. On such a diet, the KO mice gained notably more weight, more white fat, and more hepatic fat than wild-type animals. In addition to a greater burden of hepatic triglycerides, the livers of these KO mice show distinctly higher levels of inflammatory markers. Finally, their energy expenditure proved to be lower than in wild-type mice despite similar activity levels and increased caloric intake. A gene transfer of mouse BChE with adeno-associated virus vector restored nearly all aspects of the normal phenotype. Our results indicate that BChE strongly affects fat metabolism, has an important impact on fat accumulation, and may be a promising tool for combating obesity. PMID:27300766

  19. Accumulation of high-value lipids in single-cell microorganisms: a mechanistic approach and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; German, J Bruce

    2014-04-01

    In recent years attention has been focused on the utilization of microorganisms as alternatives for industrial and nutritional applications. Considerable research has been devoted to techniques for growth, extraction, and purification of high-value lipids for their use as biofuels and biosurfactants as well as high-value metabolites for nutrition and health. These successes argue that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the microbial biosynthesis of such molecules, which are far from being completely understood, now will yield spectacular opportunities for industrial scale biomolecular production. There are important additional questions to be solved to optimize the processing strategies to take advantage of the assets of microbial lipids. The present review describes the current state of knowledge regarding lipid biosynthesis, accumulation, and transport mechanisms present in single-cell organisms, specifically yeasts, microalgae, bacteria, and archaea. Similarities and differences in biochemical pathways and strategies of different microorganisms provide a diverse toolset to the expansion of biotechnologies for lipid production. This paper is intended to inspire a generation of lipid scientists to insights that will drive the biotechnologies of microbial production as uniquely enabling players of lipid biotherapeutics, biofuels, biomaterials, and other opportunity areas into the 21st century. PMID:24628496

  20. Accumulation of High-Value Lipids in Single-Cell Microorganisms: A Mechanistic Approach and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years attention has been focused on the utilization of microorganisms as alternatives for industrial and nutritional applications. Considerable research has been devoted to techniques for growth, extraction, and purification of high-value lipids for their use as biofuels and biosurfactants as well as high-value metabolites for nutrition and health. These successes argue that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the microbial biosynthesis of such molecules, which are far from being completely understood, now will yield spectacular opportunities for industrial scale biomolecular production. There are important additional questions to be solved to optimize the processing strategies to take advantage of the assets of microbial lipids. The present review describes the current state of knowledge regarding lipid biosynthesis, accumulation, and transport mechanisms present in single-cell organisms, specifically yeasts, microalgae, bacteria, and archaea. Similarities and differences in biochemical pathways and strategies of different microorganisms provide a diverse toolset to the expansion of biotechnologies for lipid production. This paper is intended to inspire a generation of lipid scientists to insights that will drive the biotechnologies of microbial production as uniquely enabling players of lipid biotherapeutics, biofuels, biomaterials, and other opportunity areas into the 21st century. PMID:24628496

  1. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  2. Constitutive high-level SOS1 expression and absence of HKT1;1 expression in the salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya.

    PubMed

    Katschnig, D; Bliek, T; Rozema, J; Schat, H

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity on ion accumulation and expression of candidate salt tolerance genes in the highly tolerant salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya and the taxonomically related glycophytic Spinacia oleracea. S. dolichostachya, in comparison with S. oleracea, constitutively expressed SOS1 at a high level, but did not detectably express HKT1;1. These findings suggest that the constitutive high level of shoot salt accumulation in S. dolichostachya is accomplished through enhancement of SOS1-mediated Na(+) xylem loading, in combination with complete suppression of HKT1;1-mediated Na(+) retrieval from the xylem. Our findings demonstrate the importance of gene expression comparisons between highly tolerant halophytes and taxonomically related glycophytes to improve the understanding of mechanisms of Na(+) movement and salt tolerance in plants. PMID:25804817

  3. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  4. Potential accumulation of contaminated sediments in a reservoir of a high-Andean watershed: Morphodynamic connections with geochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, María. Teresa; Müllendorff, Daniel; Pastén, Pablo; Pizarro, Gonzalo E.; Paola, Chris; Escauriaza, Cristián.

    2015-05-01

    Rapid changes due to anthropic interventions in high-altitude environments, such as the Altiplano region in South America, require new approaches to understand the connections between physical and geochemical processes. Alterations of the water quality linked to the river morphology can affect the ecosystems and human development in the long term. The future construction of a reservoir in the Lluta River, located in northern Chile, will change the spatial distribution of arsenic-rich sediments, which can have significant effects on the lower parts of the watershed. In this investigation, we develop a coupled numerical model to predict and evaluate the interactions between morphodynamic changes in the Lluta reservoir, and conditions that can potentially desorb arsenic from the sediments. Assuming that contaminants are mobilized under anaerobic conditions, we calculate the oxygen concentration within the sediments to study the interactions of the delta progradation with the potential arsenic release. This work provides a framework for future studies aimed to analyze the complex connections between morphodynamics and water quality, when contaminant-rich sediments accumulate in a reservoir. The tool can also help to design effective risk management and remediation strategies in these extreme environments. This article was corrected on 15 JUNE 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  5. Cinnamaldehyde supplementation prevents fasting-induced hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Jain, Yachna; Baboota, Ritesh K; Mangal, Priyanka; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Sharma, Shyam S; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi K; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive component of cinnamon, is increasingly gaining interest for its preventive and therapeutic effects against metabolic complications like type-2 diabetes. This study is an attempt to understand the effect of cinnamaldehyde in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated increase in fasting-induced hyperphagia and related hormone levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and inflammation, and selected cecal microbial count in mice. Cinnamaldehyde, at 40 µM dose, prevented lipid accumulation and altered gene expression toward lipolytic phenotype in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines. In vivo, cinnamaldehyde coadministration prevented HFD-induced body weight gain, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, as well as circulating leptin and leptin/ghrelin ratio. In addition to that, cinnamaldehyde altered serum biochemical parameters related to lipolysis, that is, glycerol and free fatty acid levels. At transcriptional level, cinnamaldehyde increased anorectic gene expression in hypothalamus and lipolytic gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde also decreased serum IL-1β and inflammatory gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. However, cinnamaldehyde did not modulate the population of selected gut microbial (Lactobacillus, Bifidibaceria, and Roseburia) count in cecal content. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde increased adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, normalized circulating levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio, and reduced inflammation in HFD-fed mice, which augurs well for its antiobesity role. PMID:26893251

  6. Accumulated metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hilvo, Mika; de Santiago, Ines; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Schmitt, Wolfgang D.; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Aittokallio, Tero; Markowetz, Florian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Frezza, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease of low prevalence, but poor survival. Early diagnosis is critical for survival, but is often challenging because the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle and become apparent only during advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the identification of robust biomarkers of early disease is a clinical priority. Metabolomic profiling is an emerging diagnostic tool enabling the detection of biomarkers reflecting alterations in tumor metabolism, a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue from 158 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and 100 control patients with benign or non-neoplastic lesions. We report metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with tumor burden and patient survival. The accumulation of HBA metabolites caused by HGSOC was also associated with reduced expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by ALDH5A1), and with the presence of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature, implying a role for these metabolic alterations in cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our findings represent the first comprehensive metabolomics analysis in HGSOC and propose a new set of metabolites as biomarkers of disease with diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. PMID:26685161

  7. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H; Maloney, Christopher A; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13-14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  8. D-psicose increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Onishi, Kana; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of D-psicose by increasing energy expenditure in rats pair-fed the high-sucrose diet (HSD). Wistar rats were divided into two dietary groups: HSD containing 5% cellulose (C) and 5% d-psicose (P). The C dietary group was further subdivided into two groups: rats fed the C diet ad libitum (C-AD) and pair-fed the C diet along with those in the P group (C-PF). Resting energy expenditure during darkness and lipoprotein lipase activity in the soleus muscle were significantly higher in the P group than in the C-PF group. Serum levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue; and body fat accumulation were all significantly lower in the P group than in the C-PF group. The anti-obesity effects of D-psicose could be induced not only by suppressing lipogenic enzyme activity but also by increasing EE in rats.

  9. Accumulated Metabolites of Hydroxybutyric Acid Serve as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hilvo, Mika; de Santiago, Ines; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Schmitt, Wolfgang D; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Aittokallio, Tero; Markowetz, Florian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Frezza, Christian; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Braicu, Elena Ioana

    2016-02-15

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease of low prevalence, but poor survival. Early diagnosis is critical for survival, but it is often challenging because the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle and become apparent only during advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the identification of robust biomarkers of early disease is a clinical priority. Metabolomic profiling is an emerging diagnostic tool enabling the detection of biomarkers reflecting alterations in tumor metabolism, a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue from 158 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and 100 control patients with benign or non-neoplastic lesions. We report metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with tumor burden and patient survival. The accumulation of HBA metabolites caused by HGSOC was also associated with reduced expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by ALDH5A1), and with the presence of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition gene signature, implying a role for these metabolic alterations in cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our findings represent the first comprehensive metabolomics analysis in HGSOC and propose a new set of metabolites as biomarkers of disease with diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. PMID:26685161

  10. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S.; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H.; Maloney, Christopher A.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13–14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  11. Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

  12. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

  13. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale.

  14. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  15. Argon, oxygen, and boron isotopic evidence documenting 40ArE accumulation in phengite during water-rich high-pressure subduction metasomatism of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menold, Carrie A.; Grove, Marty; Sievers, Natalie E.; Manning, Craig E.; Yin, An; Young, Edward D.; Ziegler, Karen

    2016-07-01

    were even older, exceeding the time of eclogite formation by a factor of 1.7. In contrast, lower pressure retrograde muscovite present within the host gneiss and in discrete shear zones cutting the selvage yield 40Ar/39Ar ages that were younger than the time of HP metamorphism and consistent with regional cooling age patterns. Our observation of high 40ArE concentrations in phengite from schistose rocks infiltrated by regionally extensive fluids at HP conditions runs contrary to widely held expectations. Conventional wisdom dictates that low phengite/fluid partition coefficients for argon (Dphg/fluid Ar =10-3to10-5) coupled with the dry, closed systems conditions that are widely reported to characterize HP metamorphism of continental crust explains why high concentrations of 40ArE partitions are able to accumulate within phengite. We alternatively propose that phengite/fluid partition coefficients for argon increase linearly with pressure to values as high as 10-2 to allow phengites to accumulate large amounts of 40ArE from aqueous fluids under HP to UHP conditions.

  16. Physiological differences in response to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low- and high-DBP accumulating cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Cao, Gang; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding on the mechanisms of cultivar difference in contaminant accumulation in crops, this study was designed to compare the physiological responses to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low (Lvbao70) and high (Huaguan) DBP cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). Under high DBP exposure, significant differences in various physiological responses were observed between the two cultivars, which might account for the variation in DBP accumulation. Ultrastructure observation also showed different alterations or damages in the mesophyll cell structures between both cultivars, especially for the chloroplast disintegration, starch grain quantity, and plastoglobuli accumulation. Compared with Huaguan, Lvbao70 suffered greater decreases in biomass, chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and antioxidase activities, which would have resulted in a great reduction of photosynthetic capacity. Although Lvbao70 enhanced energy dissipation and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, they did not provide sufficient protection against oxidative damage caused by DBP. The result suggested that the lower DBP tolerance of Lvbao70 might be associated with its poor physiological performances, which was responsible for its lower DBP accumulation to protect itself from toxicity. Additionally, Lvbao70 had a significantly lower transpiration rate and stomatal conductance than Huaguan, which might be the factors regulating DBP-accumulation variation. PMID:26608873

  17. Physiological differences in response to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low- and high-DBP accumulating cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Cao, Gang; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding on the mechanisms of cultivar difference in contaminant accumulation in crops, this study was designed to compare the physiological responses to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low (Lvbao70) and high (Huaguan) DBP cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). Under high DBP exposure, significant differences in various physiological responses were observed between the two cultivars, which might account for the variation in DBP accumulation. Ultrastructure observation also showed different alterations or damages in the mesophyll cell structures between both cultivars, especially for the chloroplast disintegration, starch grain quantity, and plastoglobuli accumulation. Compared with Huaguan, Lvbao70 suffered greater decreases in biomass, chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and antioxidase activities, which would have resulted in a great reduction of photosynthetic capacity. Although Lvbao70 enhanced energy dissipation and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, they did not provide sufficient protection against oxidative damage caused by DBP. The result suggested that the lower DBP tolerance of Lvbao70 might be associated with its poor physiological performances, which was responsible for its lower DBP accumulation to protect itself from toxicity. Additionally, Lvbao70 had a significantly lower transpiration rate and stomatal conductance than Huaguan, which might be the factors regulating DBP-accumulation variation.

  18. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  19. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management. PMID:26900108

  20. Organic carbon accumulation in Baffin Bay and paleoenvironment in high northern latitudes during the past 20 m. y

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R. )

    1991-04-01

    The results of the investigation of organic carbon deposition in Baffin Bay provide important information about paleoenvironmental evolution in high northern latitudes during Cenozoic time. During Miocene to Quaternary time, organic carbon enrichment of up to 3% in sediments sampled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 645 was controlled mainly by increased supply of terrigenous organic matter. Two distinct maxima were identified: (1) a middle Miocene maximum, possibly reflecting a dense vegetation cover and fluvial sediment supply from adjacent islands, which decreased during late Miocene and early Pliocene time because of expansion of tundra vegetation due to global climatic deterioration; (2) a late Pliocene-Pleistocene maximum probably caused by glacial erosion and meltwater outwash. Significant amounts of marine organic carbon were deposited in Baffin Bay during middle Miocene time, suggesting higher surface-water productivity triggered by the inflow of cold and nutruent-rich Arctic water masses. The decrease in average surface-water productivity to values similar to those of modern Baffin Bay occured during the late Miocene and were probably caused by development of a seasonal sea-ice cover, reaching maximum expansion during the past 3.4 m.y.

  1. The influence of climate change on recent peat accumulation patterns of Distichia muscoides cushion bogs in the high-elevation tropical Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Juan C.; Vitt, Dale H.; Wieder, R. Kelman

    2013-12-01

    Extensive cushions of Distichia muscoides found at high elevations in the Andes form deep deposits of peat and function as peatland. The location of Distichia peatlands at the highest elevations makes them susceptible to the effects of global change including global warming. Accumulation rates of organic matter are the key function of peatland ecosystems and are highly susceptible to changes in climate. This study used 210Pb chronologies to infer the recent dynamics of three Distichia muscoides peatlands located above 4000 m in elevation. Chronological markers from dated volcanic eruptions were correlated to the 210Pb chronologies of Distichia peat and validated the 210Pb chronologies. Changes in 210Pb activity with depth indicated rapid accumulation in recent times. Organic matter had a mean accumulation rate of 1400 g m-2 yr-1 during the past 10 years, with values well above the observed regional accumulation rate of 300-400 g m-2 yr-1. The same pattern was observed in peat accretion rates, with growth rates of 1-2 cm per year during the last 10 years. Cushion plants engineer their own environment, allowing the system to be less susceptible to direct changes in climate. However, the high rates of peat accretion in recent times may be originated from increasing temperatures and excess water from nearby glacier melt. However, glaciers are predicted to disappear during the next 20 years in the northern Andes, reducing water inputs in tropical high-elevation ecosystems.

  2. High iron accumulation in hair and nail of people living in iron affected areas of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Banerjee, Saumen; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum

    2014-12-01

    Human populace of Assam, India repeatedly exposed to high concentration of iron in groundwater results in adverse health effects like hemochromatosis, liver cirrhosis and siderosis. In the present study, human hair and nail analysis were carried out to establish a possible relationship between iron toxicity and its deposition among the residents. Nail and hair iron concentrations ranged from 28.2 to 1046μgg(-1) (n=114) and 26.5-838 (n=108)μgg(-1) levels, respectively, among all the study participants. The iron content of the groundwater (421-5340μgL(-1)) (n=64) used for drinking purposes was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.788, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.709, p<0.0001) iron concentrations. Age- and sex-matched controls corresponding to each group were selected from population residing in other parts of the country where groundwater does not have excess iron. All the study groups included population drinking iron-contaminated water above the WHO/BIS limit (>300µgL(-1)) for 5 years (Group 1), for more than 5-10 years (Group 2) and for more than 10 years (Group 3). Results suggested that the participants consuming groundwater exceeding the WHO limit of iron had significantly more iron accumulation than those using groundwater containing ≤300μgL(-1) iron (p<0.01). There was statistically higher concentration of iron in the nail samples than the hair samples in all the study groups (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation in iron concentration and the residence time of the participants (p<0.01). Iron levels in the male participants were significantly higher than the female participants in the present study (p<0.01). The current findings are sufficiently compelling to warrant more extensive study of iron exposure through drinking water and adverse effects to the human in the areas where iron concentration is high.

  3. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  4. Understanding sugar yield loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolisis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, not all oligosaccharides can be fully hydrolyzed and they may accumulate to 18-...

  5. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m−2 hr−1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  6. Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Hartwig; Rudloff, Eike; Schöne, Friedrich; Schumann, Wolfgang; Hüther, Liane; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    The nutritive value of genetically modified myristic acid-rich rapeseed, in which a acyl-thioesterase gene inserted, was studied. Crude nutrients, amino acid and fatty acid profiles as well as mineral and glucosinolate contents were determined and compared with those of the non-transgenic parental cultivar. The concentration of crude nutrients, minerals and amino acids were found to be within the range of natural variance. The myristic and palmitic acid content increased from 0.1 - 11.4% and from 3.6-20%, respectively, at the expense of oleic acid, which decreased from 68.6-42.6% of total fatty acids. The glucosinolate contents increased from 12.4 micromol/g in the parental plant to 19 micromol/g DM in the GM-plant. Full-fat rapeseed of both cultivars was incorporated in pig diets at a level of 15%, and the digestibility and the production efficiency were tested under ad libitum feeding conditions with ten pigs each over the growing finishing period from 32-105 kg BW. The experimental diets did not show significant differences in digestibility and energetic feeding value. However, feed intake and weight gain decreased presumably due to the increasing glucosinolate intake associated with the feeding of transgenic rapeseed. The dietary fatty acids profile influenced the fatty acid profile of body fat. Myristic acid accumulated in back fat and intramuscular fat while the oleic acid content decreased. The increased glucosinolate intake affected the weight of thyroid glands and their iodine concentration.

  7. A compilation of the pressures measured on a wing and aileron with various amounts of sweep in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, Richard T

    1948-01-01

    A compilation is made in tabular form of all the pressures measured on a thin high-aspect-ratio wing and aileron with no sweep and with 30 degree and 45 degree of sweepback and sweepforward at high subsonic Mach numbers in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel.

  8. The leader peptide of a human rec. MnSOD as molecular carrier which delivers high amounts of Cisplatin into tumor cells inducing a fast apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Antonella; Schiattarella, Antonietta; Mancini, Roberto; Morelli, Franco; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Gori, Enrico; Mancini, Aldo

    2011-01-15

    The leader peptide of a recombinant MnSOD (rMnSOD-Lp) constitutes the carrier that allows rMnSOD to penetrate tumor cells. A synthetic preparation of rMnSOD-Lp was ⁶⁸Ga labeled (rMnSOD-Lp- ⁶⁸Ga) and injected into animals bearing spontaneous mammary cancers, followed by PET examinations, which demonstrated unambiguously the tumor sites in all the animals, suggesting that if rMnSOD-Lp was able to transport the radioisotope into tumor cells, it would also be able to deliver cytotoxic molecules. The rMnSOD-Lp was, therefore, conjugated to cisplatin (rMnSOD-Lp-CC) and added to cultured tumor cells. Equal concentrations of cisplatin were used for the tests. After treating the ovarian cancer cells with 11.1 μg of cisplatin alone, analysis by atomic absorbance spectrophotometry was able to detect only 6 ng of platinum, whereas when the same cells were treated with the same amount of cisplatin conjugated to leader peptide rMnSOD, 387 ng of platinum were detected, i.e., an amount 80 times greater. Only the tumor cells died following treatment with rMnSOD-Lp-CC; molecular analysis revealed that its addition generated an increasing expression of Erk-2 and Bax products, which could be inhibited only by a selective MAP/ERK kinase inhibitor (PD98059), revealing that rMnSOD-Lp-CC has an apoptotic function, exactly as occurs when using the cisplatin alone. Data are statistically significant and indicate that by using rMnSOD-Lp-CC, the cisplatin can be transformed from an agent with antireplicative activity into a specific and selective antitumor molecule, increasing its therapeutic index. We think that rMnSOD-Lp-CC deserves to be considered as a new antitumor agent.

  9. A solitary large radioiodine accumulative lung lesion in high-dose 131i therapeutic scan: bronchial atresia with mucocele.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Park, Jung Mi; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2015-02-01

    We reported a large radioiodine accumulative lung lesion on I therapeutic whole-body scan performed in a 50-year-old woman for thyroid cancer ablation therapy. Previously, her chest radiography and contrast-enhanced chest CT images showed bronchial atresia in the left upper lobar bronchus and mucus-filled dilated distal bronchus. Bronchial mucocele was confirmed by CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration. Bronchial atresia is a rare congenital abnormality associated with the mucocele.

  10. Theaflavin Synthesized in a Selective, Domino-Type, One-Pot Enzymatic Biotransformation Method with Camellia sinensis Cell Culture Inhibits Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Masumi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Saijo, Ryoyasu

    2016-08-01

    The polyphenolic compound theaflavin, which is the main red pigment present in black tea, is reported to elicit various physiological effects. Because of the extremely low concentration of theaflavin present in black tea, its extraction from black tea leaves in quantities sufficient for use in medical studies has been difficult. We have developed a simple, inexpensive, selective, domino-type, one-pot enzymatic biotransformation method for the synthesis of theaflavin that is suitable for use in medical studies. Subsequent administration of this synthetic theaflavin to high-fat diet-induced obese mice inhibited both body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, with no significant difference in the amount of faeces between the experimental and control mice.

  11. CKA2 functions in H2O2-induced apoptosis and high-temperature stress tolerance by regulating NO accumulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Li, Yun-Hui; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in yeast responses to various environmental factors, such as H2O2 and high temperature. However, the gene encoding NO synthase (NOS) in yeast has not yet been identified, and the mechanism underlying the regulation of NOS-like activity is poorly understood. Here, we report on the involvement of CKA2 in H2O2-induced yeast apoptosis and yeast high-temperature stress tolerance. Our results showed that although Δcka2 mutant had reduced NO accumulation with decreased apoptosis after H2O2 exposure, treatment with a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, resulted in similar survival rate of Δcka2 mutant compared to that of wild-type yeast when subjected to H2O2 stress. This finding occurred because H2O2-enhanced NOS-like activity in wild-type yeast was significantly repressed in Δcka2. Our additional experiments indicated that both high-temperature-enhanced NO accumulation and NOS-like activity were also suppressed in Δcka2, leading to the hypersensitivity of the mutant to high temperature in terms of changes in survival rate. Thus, our results showed that CKA2 functioned in H2O2-induced apoptosis and high-temperature stress tolerance by regulating NOS-like-dependent NO accumulation in yeast.

  12. A high-dose Shiitake mushroom increases hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol in rats fed a high-fat diet: underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Dian; Meyer, Barbara J; Chen, Jiezhong; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-02-12

    Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty Wistar rats were divided into control group were given HFD and treatment group were fed HFD, enriched with Shiitake mushroom powder at a low dose (LD-M): 0.7%, medium dose (MD-M): 2%, or high dose (HD-M): 6% (wt:wt) for six weeks. Diets were isocaloric containing ~50% energy from fat. After six weeks' dietary intervention, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples were collected. The HD-M group showed a significantly higher ratio of liver weight to 100 g body weight (p < 0.05), a more severe hepatic steatosis marker, such as hepatocyte ballooning (p < 0.0001), and more liver triacylglycerol content than LD-M and MD-M (p < 0.05). HD-M also showed a significantly decreased ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to HFD (p < 0.05), however, there were no differences compared to HD-M and MD-M. Our results also showed a positive association between the dosage, liver TAG, and liver ballooning histology. A negative association was found between the mushroom dosage and the ratio of liver PC to PE. This study showed the mechanism of how high-dose Shiitake mushroom (HD-M) prevents obesity by increasing TAG accumulation in the liver, rather than adipose tissue.

  13. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  14. Morin reduces hepatic inflammation-associated lipid accumulation in high fructose-fed rats via inhibiting sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Gu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Chen-Yu; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Yun-Wei; Hong, Ye; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2013-12-15

    SphK1/S1P signaling pathway is involved in the development of hepatic inflammation and injury. But its role in high fructose-induced NAFLD has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crucial role of SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in high fructose-induced hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation in rats. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effects of morin, a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipedimic activities, on these hepatic changes in rats were investigated. High fructose-fed rats were orally treated with morin (30 and 60mg/kg) and pioglitazone (4mg/kg) for 8 weeks, respectively. Fructose feeding induced hyperlipidemia, and activated SphK1/S1P signaling pathway characterized by the elevation of SphK1 activity, S1P production as well as SphK1, S1PR1 and S1PR3 protein levels, which in turn caused NF-κB signaling activation to produce IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and inflammation in the liver of rats. Subsequently, hepatic insulin and leptin signaling impairment and lipid metabolic disorder were observed in this animal model, resulting in liver lipid accumulation. Morin restored high fructose-induced the activation of hepatic SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in rats. Subsequently, the reduced NF-κB signaling activation by morin decreased inflammatory cytokine production, recovered insulin and leptin signaling impairment to reduce lipid accumulation and injury in the rat liver. These effects of morin were confirmed in Buffalo rat liver (BRL3A) cell model stimulated with 5mM fructose. Thus, the inhibition of hepatic SphK1/S1P signaling pathway may be a novel mechanism by which morin exerts hepatoprotection in high fructose-fed rats, possibly involving liver inflammation inhibition and lipid accumulation recovery.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Low- and High-Cadmium-Accumulating Genotypes of Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) in Response to Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Guo, Jing-Jie; He, Chun-Tao; Shen, Chuang; Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Jing-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-21

    To reduce cadmium (Cd) pollution of food chains, screening and breeding of low-Cd-accumulating cultivars are the focus of much study. Two previously identified genotypes, a low-Cd-accumulating genotype (LAJK) and a high-Cd-accumulating genotype (HAJS) of pakchoi (Brassica chinesis L.), were stressed by Cd (12.5 μM) for 0 h (T0), 3 h (T3) and 24 h (T24). By comparative transcriptome analysis for root tissue, 3005 and 4343 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in LAJK at T3 (vs T0) and T24 (vs T3), respectively, whereas 8677 and 5081 DEGs were detected in HAJS. Gene expression pattern analysis suggested a delay of Cd responded transcriptional changes in LAJK compared to HAJS. DEG functional enrichments proposed genotype-specific biological processes coped with Cd stress. Cell wall biosynthesis and glutathione (GSH) metabolism were found to involve in Cd resistance in HAJS, whereas DNA repair and abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction pathways played important roles in LAJK. Furthermore, the genes participating in Cd efflux such as PDR8 were overexpressed in LAJK, whereas those responsible for Cd transport such as YSL1 were more enhanced in HAJS, exhibiting different Cd transport processes between two genotypes. These novel findings should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of low-Cd-accumulating genotypes for pakchoi. PMID:27228483

  16. Primary breast cancer tumours contain high amounts of IgA1 immunoglobulin: an immunohistochemical analysis of a possible carrier of the tumour-associated Tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Charlotte; Baldetorp, Bo; Blixt, Ola; Grabau, Dorthe; Jansson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr) as defined by the binding of the lectin, helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) or anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies, is known to be exposed in a majority of cancers, and it has also been shown to correlate positively with the metastatic capacity in breast carcinoma. The short O-glycan that forms the antigen is carried by a number of different proteins. One potential carrier of the Tn antigen is immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which we surprisingly found in tumour cells of the invasive parts of primary breast carcinoma. Conventional immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded sections from primary breast cancers showed IgA1 to be present in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of 35 out of 36 individual primary tumours. The immunohistochemical staining of HPA and anti-Tn antibody (GOD3-2C4) did to some extent overlap with the presence of IgA1 in the tumours, but differences were seen in the percentage of stained cells and in the staining pattern in the different breast cancers analysed. Anti-Tn antibody and HPA were also shown to specifically bind to a number of possible constellations of the Tn antigen in the hinge region of IgA1. Both reagents could also detect the presence of Tn positive IgA in serum. On average 51% of the tumour cells in the individual breast cancer tumour sections showed staining for IgA1. The overall amount of staining in the invasive part of the tumour with the anti Tn antibody was 67%, and 93% with HPA. The intra-expression or uptake of IgA1 in breast cancer makes it a new potential carrier of the tumour associated and immunogenic Tn antigen.

  17. Highly selective fusion and accumulation of hybrid liposomes into primary effusion lymphoma cells along with induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Towata, Tomomi; Komizu, Yuji; Suzu, Shinya; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Okada, Seiji

    2010-03-12

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpes virus-8 infection, and is generally resistant to chemotherapy. Hybrid liposomes, composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}(EO){sub 21}) (HL-21), were rapidly accumulated in the membrane of PEL cells. HL-21 also increased membrane fluidity of PEL cells, and induced caspase-3 activation along with cell death. These results suggest that HL-21 should be an effective and attractive regent for PEL treatment.

  18. Sensitive determination of Amaranth in drinks by highly dispersed CNT in graphene oxide "water" with the aid of small amounts of ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yinlu; Yang, Xiongbo; Zhao, Jianwei

    2015-07-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a pH-dependent amphiphile. In this paper, it was found that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be highly dispersed in graphene oxide "water" with the aid of prototype ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]). The introduction of [BMIM][PF6] not only can minimize the defects of poor electrical conductivity of GO, but also can improve the dispersibility of CNT in water. Hence, a new composite of CNT/GO-[BMIM][PF6] with high dispersibility and strong conductivity was presented for the first time and employed in the sensitive determination of Amaranth in soft drinks. The detection limit achieved (0.1 nM) is much lower than the guideline values in soft drinks. The ease of preparation, low background current, high sensitivity and stability can create novel avenues and applications for fabricating robust sensors for determination of other azo dyes in foods.

  19. Parental obesity and overweight affect the body-fat accumulation in the offspring: the possible effect of a high-fat diet through epigenetic inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Suzuki, M

    2006-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adults has been rising continually, as has the prevalence of childhood obesity, and a large number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between parental obesity and childhood obesity. In this paper, we review the effect of diet, the intrauterine environment, and the genetic inheritance on obesity. We described a study in detail that used experimental animals as a model to investigate the effect of a parental high-fat diet on body-fat accumulation in their offspring. Fertilized eggs were transplanted in that study, and body-fat accumulation in the offspring of the parents fed a high-fat diet was found to be greater than in the offspring of the parents fed a low-fat diet, even when the experimental conditions were the same in the intrauterine and subsequent environment. The results suggested that a parental high-fat diet before intrauterine developmental stage may increase body-fat accumulation in the offspring. We discuss the possibility that parental diet may influence the lifelong health of offspring and epigenetic inheritance may be occurred.

  20. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  1. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  2. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD. PMID:25994136

  3. High concentrations of isovaleric acid in the fats of odontocetes: variation and patterns of accumulation in blubber vs. stability in the melon.

    PubMed

    Koopman, H N; Iverson, S J; Read, A J

    2003-04-01

    Isovaleric acid (iso5:0) is an unusual fatty acid that is important for echolocation and hearing in acoustic tissues of some odontocetes, but its functional significance in blubber is unknown. We examined patterns of accumulation of this compound in blubber in 30 species of odontocetes ( n=299). Iso5:0 concentrations in blubber varied with phylogeny, ontogeny and body topography. Iso5:0 accumulated in greater quantities in superficial/outer blubber than in deep/inner blubber. In the outer blubber of northern right whale and Hector's dolphins, iso5:0 accounted for one-third to one-half of all fatty acids. Total blubber burden of iso5:0 in harbour porpoises represented up to 15 times the amount deposited in the melon. The composition of the melon does not change during starvation in harbour porpoises, supporting the hypothesis that lipids in melon are conserved for a specific function. Some odontocetes continually deposit iso5:0 in blubber after levels in melon have reached asymptotic levels, suggesting independent control of iso5:0 synthesis and storage in these compartments. Dolphins and porpoises inhabiting cold waters possess higher concentrations of iso5:0 in their outer blubber layers than species from warmer regions. We propose that this relationship represents an adaptive secondary role for iso5:0 in maintaining blubber flexibility in cold environments. PMID:12743728

  4. High-fat diet intake accelerates aging, increases expression of Hsd11b1, and promotes lipid accumulation in liver of SAMP10 mouse.

    PubMed

    Honma, Taro; Shinohara, Nahoko; Ito, Junya; Kijima, Ryo; Sugawara, Soko; Arai, Tatsuya; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of aging is important for prevention of age-related diseases. In this study, we examined age-dependent changes in lipid metabolism in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM)P10 fed a high-fat diet to investigate the effects of high-fat intake and aging. Tissue weights and biological parameters in plasma and liver were measured at 6 and 12 months old in SAMP10 mice fed a high-fat diet. These mice showed marked increases in liver triacylglycerol and plasma insulin levels with intake of a high-fat diet intake and aging. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and morphological aberrations and hypertrophy in pancreatic islets were also promoted by a high-fat diet and aging. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, the activities and mRNA levels for enzymes associated with lipid metabolism in liver were measured. The results indicated that the lipid metabolic system was activated by a high-fat diet and aging. Liver mRNA level for hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd11b1), which exhibit age-dependent increases and promote insulin secretion, was also markedly increased. These results suggest that a high-fat diet accelerated aging in the liver of SAMP10 mice by increasing liver mRNA level for Hsd11b1, increasing insulin secretion, and promoting lipid accumulation in the liver.

  5. ROS accumulation and oxidative damage to cell structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains during fermentation of high-sugar-containing medium.

    PubMed

    Landolfo, Sara; Politi, Huguette; Angelozzi, Daniele; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2008-06-01

    To further elucidate the impact of fermentative stress on Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, we have here evaluated markers of oxidative stress, oxidative damage and antioxidant response in four oenological strains of S. cerevisiae, relating these to membrane integrity, ethanol production and cell viability during fermentation in high-sugar-containing medium. The cells were sampled at different fermentation stages and analysed by flow cytometry to evaluate membrane integrity and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the same time, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, trehalose accumulation, and protein carbonylation and degradation were measured. The results indicate that the stress conditions occurring during hypoxic fermentation in high-sugar-containing medium result in the production of ROS and trigger an antioxidant response. This involves superoxide dismutase and trehalose for the protection of cell structures from oxidative damage, and protein catabolism for the removal of damaged proteins. Cell viability, membrane integrity and ethanol production depend on the extent of oxidative damage to cellular components. This is, in turn, related to the 'fitness' of each strain, which depends on the contribution of individual cells to ROS accumulation and scavenging. These findings highlight that the differences in individual cell resistances to ROS contribute to the persistence of wine strains during growth under unfavourable culture conditions, and they provide further insights into our understanding of yeast behaviour during industrial fermentation.

  6. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  7. Age-dependent effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in liver and kidney of rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by variable coexistence of metabolic and pathophysiological alterations which are important risk factors for developing of type II diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases. Increased of MS patients in worldwide has stimulated the development of experimental models. However, it is still challenging to find an dietetic model that most closely approximates human MS and, in addition, is not yet fully established the effect of different diets of MS in lipid metabolism in rats of different ages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different diets of MS in lipid metabolism and ectopic fat deposition and define the most appropriate diet for inducing the characteristic disturbances of the human MS in rats of different ages. Methods Young (4 weeks old) and adult rats (12 weeks old) were given a high-fat (FAT) or high-fructose diet (FRU) for 13 weeks and biochemical, physiological, histological and biometric parameters were evaluated. Results In young rats, the FAT diet induced increased mean blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), body weight after 6 to 10 weeks, and in the 13th week, increased the liver, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat weights, fasting glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and reduced HDL cholesterol; and also induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and renal inflammatory infiltrates. In adult rats, the FRU diet induced transient elevations of MAP and HR in the 6th week, and, at 13 weeks, increased fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, AST and ALT; increased liver, kidneys and retroperitoneal fat weights; and induced macrovesicular and microvesicular NAFLD, the presence of fat cells in the kidney, glomerular sclerosis, and liver and kidney inflammation. Additionally, the FAT and FRU diets induced, respectively, increases in liver glycogen in adults and young rats. Conclusions Our data show that FRU diet

  8. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated.

  9. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  10. The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T.; Melanson, Kathleen J.; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E.; Rippe, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters. PMID:24642950

  11. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters. PMID:24642950

  12. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  13. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  14. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  15. Effects of high Zn and Pb concentrations on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel: Photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation capacity under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, A; Salvatori, E; Guerrini, V; Fusaro, L; Canepari, S; Manes, F

    2016-01-01

    The response of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel to zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) was studied separately in two hydroponic tests, during a three weeks experiment. The effects on ecophysiology and biomass partitioning were evaluated during the metal treatments and at the recovery, and total metal content and accumulation capacity in different plant organs were assessed. Zn and Pb had different effects on the overall measured parameters, highlighting different mechanism of action. In particular, Zn concentration was higher in roots and, being a micronutrient, it was translocated into leaves, producing a reduction of assimilation rate, stomatal conductance (-71.9 and -81.3% respect to the control plant respectively), and a strong down regulation of photosystems functionality both at PSII and PSI level. Otherwise, Pb was accumulated mainly in the more lignified tissue such as rhizomes, with slightly effect on gas exchange. Chlorophyll a fluorescence highlighted that Pb inhibits the electron transfer process at the PSI donor side, without recovery after the removal of the metal stress. Despite these physiological limitations, P. australis showed a high capacity to accumulate both metals, and only slight reduction of biomass, being therefore a suitable species for phytoremediation interventions.

  16. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen.

  17. Explaining the Accumulation of Intercontinental Biomass Burning Pollution: High Versus Low Processes, Africa Versus South America, Cooking Versus Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Podolske, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The intercontinental buildup of tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and other pollutants over the South Atlantic has been attributed to biomass burning over distant continents. We address several of the large questions regarding the nature and budget of this buildup have remained: What is the role of turning In South America or various portions of Africa in this accumulation? What are the relative roles of shallow and deep convection for emplacing various compounds in the free troposphere? Can we understand the ozone budget? We report the first simulations of a three-dimensional pollutant transport model, (GRACES) transport which is driven by fully reconstructed meteorology for the TRACE-A/SAFARI period of 1992. Greater detail is provided by a two-dimensional, detailed-chemistry model of more restricted regions of Africa. We find a predominant role for African emissions affecting the Atlantic during this period. Boundary-layer venting via PBL convection tends to build the observed carbon monoxide column over the ocean, while deep cumulonimbus processes tend to explain rather more of the ozone column.

  18. Selection of microalgae for high CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid accumulation from ten Chlorella strains using municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Zhou, Jiti; Liu, Guangfei; Gui, Bing

    2016-08-01

    As significant differences in cellular physiology, metabolic potential and genetics occur among strains with morphological similarity, the screening of appropriate microalgae species for effective CO2 fixation and biodiesel production is extremely critical. In this study, ten strains of Chlorella were cultivated in municipal wastewater influent (MWI) and their tolerance for MWI, CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid productivity were assessed. The results showed that the biomass concentrations of four strains (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella 64.01, Chlorella regularis var. minima and Chlorella sp.) were significantly higher than other strains. When the cultivation systems were aerated with 10% CO2, Chlorella sp. showed the highest CO2 fixation efficiency (35.51%), while the highest lipid accumulation (58.48%) was observed with C. vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the cells of both Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris kept their normal morphologies after 15day batch culture. These findings indicated that Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris have fairly good tolerance for MWI, and moreover, Chlorella sp. was appropriate for CO2 fixation while C. vulgaris represented the highest potential for producing biodiesel.

  19. Selection of microalgae for high CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid accumulation from ten Chlorella strains using municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Zhou, Jiti; Liu, Guangfei; Gui, Bing

    2016-08-01

    As significant differences in cellular physiology, metabolic potential and genetics occur among strains with morphological similarity, the screening of appropriate microalgae species for effective CO2 fixation and biodiesel production is extremely critical. In this study, ten strains of Chlorella were cultivated in municipal wastewater influent (MWI) and their tolerance for MWI, CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid productivity were assessed. The results showed that the biomass concentrations of four strains (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella 64.01, Chlorella regularis var. minima and Chlorella sp.) were significantly higher than other strains. When the cultivation systems were aerated with 10% CO2, Chlorella sp. showed the highest CO2 fixation efficiency (35.51%), while the highest lipid accumulation (58.48%) was observed with C. vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the cells of both Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris kept their normal morphologies after 15day batch culture. These findings indicated that Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris have fairly good tolerance for MWI, and moreover, Chlorella sp. was appropriate for CO2 fixation while C. vulgaris represented the highest potential for producing biodiesel. PMID:27521939

  20. Zinc Excess Triggered Polyamines Accumulation in Lettuce Root Metabolome, As Compared to Osmotic Stress under High Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Colla, Giuseppe; Bernardo, Letizia; Kane, David; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity and metal contaminations are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect crop productivity worldwide. Crop responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex processes for which “-omic” approaches such as metabolomics is giving us a newest view of biological systems. The aim of the current research was to assess metabolic changes in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), by specifically probing the root metabolome of plants exposed to elevated isomolar concentrations of NaCl and ZnSO4. Most of the metabolites that were differentially accumulated in roots were identified for stress conditions, however the response was more intense in plants exposed to NaCl. Compounds identified in either NaCl or ZnSO4 conditions were: carbohydrates, phenolics, hormones, glucosinolates, and lipids. Our findings suggest that osmotic stress and the consequent redox imbalance play a major role in determining lettuce root metabolic response. In addition, it was identified that polyamines and polyamine conjugates were triggered as a specific response to ZnSO4. These findings help improve understanding of how plants cope with abiotic stresses. This information can be used to assist decision-making in breeding programs for improving crop tolerance to salinity and heavy metal contaminations. PMID:27375675

  1. High Resolution Quantification of Crystalline Cellulose Accumulation in Arabidopsis Roots to Monitor Tissue-specific Cell Wall Modifications.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Yulia; Holland, Neta; Elbaum, Rivka; Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall, the composition of which determines their final size and shape. The cell wall is composed of a complex matrix containing polysaccharides that include cellulose microfibrils that form both crystalline structures and cellulose chains of amorphous organization. The orientation of the cellulose fibers and their concentrations dictate the mechanical properties of the cell. Several methods are used to determine the levels of crystalline cellulose, each bringing both advantages and limitations. Some can distinguish the proportion of crystalline regions within the total cellulose. However, they are limited to whole-organ analyses that are deficient in spatiotemporal information. Others relying on live imaging, are limited by the use of imprecise dyes. Here, we report a sensitive polarized light-based system for specific quantification of relative light retardance, representing crystalline cellulose accumulation in cross sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. In this method, the cellular resolution and anatomical data are maintained, enabling direct comparisons between the different tissues composing the growing root. This approach opens a new analytical dimension, shedding light on the link between cell wall composition, cellular behavior and whole-organ growth. PMID:27214583

  2. Zinc Excess Triggered Polyamines Accumulation in Lettuce Root Metabolome, As Compared to Osmotic Stress under High Salinity.

    PubMed

    Rouphael, Youssef; Colla, Giuseppe; Bernardo, Letizia; Kane, David; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity and metal contaminations are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect crop productivity worldwide. Crop responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex processes for which "-omic" approaches such as metabolomics is giving us a newest view of biological systems. The aim of the current research was to assess metabolic changes in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), by specifically probing the root metabolome of plants exposed to elevated isomolar concentrations of NaCl and ZnSO4. Most of the metabolites that were differentially accumulated in roots were identified for stress conditions, however the response was more intense in plants exposed to NaCl. Compounds identified in either NaCl or ZnSO4 conditions were: carbohydrates, phenolics, hormones, glucosinolates, and lipids. Our findings suggest that osmotic stress and the consequent redox imbalance play a major role in determining lettuce root metabolic response. In addition, it was identified that polyamines and polyamine conjugates were triggered as a specific response to ZnSO4. These findings help improve understanding of how plants cope with abiotic stresses. This information can be used to assist decision-making in breeding programs for improving crop tolerance to salinity and heavy metal contaminations. PMID:27375675

  3. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  4. Pancreatic Fat Accumulation, Fibrosis, and Acinar Cell Injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Fed a Chronic High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Methods Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. Results In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05), and lipid droplets were observed in acinar cells. Subsequently, at 24 weeks of age in this group, pancreatic fibrosis and the serum exocrine pancreatic enzyme levels were increased significantly relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions In ZDF rats fed a chronic high-fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury. PMID:24717823

  5. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  6. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups.

  7. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups. PMID:27384013

  8. Effects of astragalosides from Radix Astragali on high glucose-induced proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XIAO; WANG, DONG-DONG; WEI, TONG; HE, SU-MEI; ZHANG, GUAN-YING; WEI, QUN-LI

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) exhibits a deteriorating course that may lead to end-stage renal failure. Astragalosides have been clinically tested for the treatment of DN, but the mechanism is unclear at present. In this study, the effects of astragalosides were investigated on high glucose-induced proliferation and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type IV collagen (colIV) and fibronectin (FN) in glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). Cell proliferation was determined by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine assay, and the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, colIV and FN mRNA and proteins in MCs was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA assay, respectively. The results showed that high glucose clearly induced the proliferation of MCs and increased the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, colIV and FN. Treatment with 50, 100, 200 µg/ml astragalosides inhibited cell proliferation and the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, colIV and FN induced by high glucose. Thus, it is concluded that astragalosides inhibit the increased cell proliferation and expression of major extracellular matrix proteins that are induced by high glucose, indicating their value for the prophylaxis and therapy of DN. PMID:27313676

  9. Long-rotation sugarcane in Hawaii sustains high carbon accumulation and radiation use efficiency in 2nd year of growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been a major agronomic crop in Hawaii with an unique, high-yield, two-year production system. However,parameters relevant to advanced, cellulosic biofuel production, such as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and radiation use efficiency (RUE), have not been evaluated in Hawaii under com...

  10. Accumulation of DOC in Low Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (LPLC) area: is it related to higher production under high N:P ratio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauriac, R.; Moutin, T.; Baklouti, M.

    2010-09-01

    The biogeochemistry of carbon and nutrients (N, P) in the surface layer of the ocean strongly depends on the interaction between C, N and P at the cell level and at the population level where interaction between primary producers (phytoplankton) and remineralizers (heterotrophic bacteria) impact the overall stock and dynamics of organic carbon. To understand these interactions in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea, we implemented, using Eco3M, a multi-element, steady state, mechanistic model. This cell-based model intend to represent the growth of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria under various amount of nutrients. As a results, it displays the expected biogeochemical characteristics of the system and give us insight on the expected interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria both in term of competition for inorganic nutrients and in term of commensalism for organic carbon. In this study, we found a good quantitative agreement between model results and literrature data for stocks and fluxes of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition, for phytoplankton we show how the uncoupling between carbon production and growth could impact the overall DOC dynamic and based on these results, we proposed a new explanantion for the observed DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin

  12. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin

  13. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents.

  14. Impact of high dietary zinc on zinc accumulation, enzyme activity and proteomic profiles in the pancreas of piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Martin, L; Schunter, N; Villodre Tudela, C; Weise, C; Klopfleisch, R; Zentek, J; Einspanier, R; Bondzio, A

    2015-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas plays an important role in zinc homeostasis. Feeding very high (2000-3000mgzinc/kg diet) levels of zinc oxide to piglets for short periods is a common practice in the swine industry to improve performance and prevent diseases. The impact on pancreatic function and possible side effects during long-term feeding of high dietary zinc levels are still poorly understood. A total of 54 weaned piglets were either fed with low (57mg/kg, LZn), normal (164mg/kg, NZn) or high (2425mg/kg, HZn) zinc concentration in the diets. After 4 weeks of feeding, ten piglets per treatment were euthanized and pancreas samples were taken. Tissue zinc concentration and metallothionein abundance was greater with HZn compared with NZn and LZn (P<0.05). Similarly, activity of α-amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin was higher with HZn as compared with NZn and LZn diets (P<0.05), whereas elastase activity was unchanged. Total trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity of pancreas tissue was higher with HZn diets compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Pancreatic protein profiles of NZn and HZn fed piglets were obtained by 2D-DIGE technique and revealed 15 differentially expressed proteins out of 2100 detected spots (P<0.05). The differentially expressed proteins aldose reductase, eukaryotic elongation factor II and peroxiredoxin III were confirmed by immunoblotting. Identified proteins include zinc finger-containing transcription factors and proteins mainly associated with oxidative stress response and signal transduction in HZn compared with NZn pigs. Histologic examination however showed no morphologic changes. The results suggest that long-term supply of very high dietary zinc increases zinc and metallothionein concentration, and digestive enzyme activity, but also triggers oxidative stress reactions in the pancreas of young pigs. The data provide new insights into pancreatic function under outbalanced zinc homeostasis.

  15. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications.

  16. Archean high δ18O Mg-diorite: crustal-derived melt hybridized with enriched mafic accumulated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Guo, Jing-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The genesis of Mg-diorite or sanukitoids has significances to understand the crustal growth and tectonic style in Archean. The chemical compositions of minerals and rocks, whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope, zircon SIMS U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes of Zhulagou (ZLG) Mg-diorite and their mafic enclaves (Yinshan Block, North China Craton) were studied to place constraints on their sources and genesis, and therefore provide information about dynamic processes. The ~2520 Ma ZLG diorites have intermediate SiO2 (59.4-65.5 wt.%), high Mg# (49-52), Cr (90.4-438 ppm), Ni (15.0-95.9 ppm), Sr (436-882 ppm) and Ba (237-1206 ppm) contents with fractionated rare earth elements (REE, LaN/YbN = 9.1-40.5) and depleted high field-strength element (HFSE, e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti). These geochemical signatures are similar to those Archean high-Mg diorites and sanukitoids. However, they are sodic with low K2O/Na2O (0.14-0.49) ratios, exhibiting an affinity with Archean trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG). Abundant coeval amphibole-bearing mafic enclaves (~2525 Ma) are enclosed within the ZLG diorites. They display low SiO2 (46.5-50.3 wt.%) contents but high concentrations of MgO (9.0-14.5 wt.%), Cr (647-1946 ppm) and Ni (197-280 ppm). They are enriched in K2O (0.64-3.43 wt.%) and large ion lithophile element (LILE), depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. Combined with their concave REE patterns and prominent negative Eu anomaly, we suggest that they are cumulates of the melt which probably derived from subduction-related Archean metasomatized mantle source. Mineral trace element modelling results, similar ɛNd(t) (+0.6 to +2.3) and δ18O(Zrc) values (~8.6-9.0 ‰) of the diorites and mafic enclaves, strongly reflect that they had experienced intense interaction and hybridization. Evolved whole-rock Nd isotopes (TDM = 2.80-2.70 Ga), variable zircon ɛHf (t) (-1.6 to +6.0) and high δ18O (~9.0 ‰) values of the diorites indicate that they most likely originated from melting of an older continental crust (≥ 2

  17. High level accumulation of gamma linolenic acid (C18:3Δ6.9,12 cis) in transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L; Shewmaker, Christine; Harry, Indra; Yurchenko, Olga P; Zhang, Mei; Reed, Catherine; Oinam, Gunamani S; Zaplachinski, Steve; Fidantsef, Ana; Boothe, Joseph G; Moloney, Maurice M

    2012-04-01

    Gamma linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3Δ6,9,12 cis), also known as γ-Linolenic acid, is an important essential fatty acid precursor for the synthesis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and important pathways involved in human health. GLA is synthesized from linoleic acid (LA; C18:2Δ9,12 cis) by endoplasmic reticulum associated Δ6-desaturase activity. Currently sources of GLA are limited to a small number of plant species with poor agronomic properties, and therefore an economical and abundant commercial source of GLA in an existing crop is highly desirable. To this end, the seed oil of a high LA cultivated species of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) was modified by transformation with Δ6-desaturase from Saprolegnia diclina resulting in levels exceeding 70% (v/v) of GLA. Levels around 50% (v/v) of GLA in seed oil was achieved when Δ12-/Δ6-desaturases from Mortierella alpina was over-expressed in safflower cultivars with either a high LA or high oleic (OA; C18:1Δ9 cis) background. The differences in the overall levels of GLA suggest the accumulation of the novel fatty acid was not limited by a lack of incorporation into the triacylgylcerol backbone (>66% GLA achieved), or correlated with gene dosage (GLA levels independent of gene copy number), but rather reflected the differences in Δ6-desaturase activity from the two sources. To date, these represent the highest accumulation levels of a newly introduced fatty acid in a transgenic crop. Events from these studies have been propagated and recently received FDA approval for commercialization as Sonova™400.

  18. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  19. Non-invasive assessment of negative pressure wound therapy using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound: oedema reduction and new tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen R; Hampton, Sylvie; Martin, Robin

    2013-08-01

    Tissue oedema plays an important role in the pathology of chronic and traumatic wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is thought to contribute to active oedema reduction, yet few studies have showed this effect. In this study, high frequency diagnostic ultrasound at 20 MHz with an axial resolution of 60 µm was used to assess the effect of NPWT at - 80 mmHg on pressure ulcers and the surrounding tissue. Wounds were monitored in four patients over a 3-month period during which changes in oedema and wound bed thickness (granulation tissue) were measured non-invasively. The results showed a rapid reduction of periwound tissue oedema in all patients with levels falling by a mean of 43% after 4 days of therapy. A 20% increase in the thickness of the wound bed was observed after 7 days due to new granulation tissue formation. Ultrasound scans through the in situ gauze NPWT filler also revealed the existence of macrodeformation in the tissue produced by the negative pressure. These preliminary studies suggest that non-invasive assessment using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound could be a valuable tool in clinical studies of NPWT.

  20. The role of topoisomerase I in suppressing genome instability associated with a highly transcribed guanine-rich sequence is not restricted to preventing RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Puja; Owiti, Norah; Kim, Nayun

    2016-01-01

    Highly transcribed guanine-run containing sequences, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, become unstable when topoisomerase I (Top1) is disrupted. Topological changes, such as the formation of extended RNA:DNA hybrids or R-loops or non-canonical DNA structures including G-quadruplexes has been proposed as the major underlying cause of the transcription-linked genome instability. Here, we report that R-loop accumulation at a guanine-rich sequence, which is capable of assembling into the four-stranded G4 DNA structure, is dependent on the level and the orientation of transcription. In the absence of Top1 or RNase Hs, R-loops accumulated to substantially higher extent when guanine-runs were located on the non-transcribed strand. This coincides with the orientation where higher genome instability was observed. However, we further report that there are significant differences between the disruption of RNase Hs and Top1 in regards to the orientation-specific elevation in genome instability at the guanine-rich sequence. Additionally, genome instability in Top1-deficient yeasts is not completely suppressed by removal of negative supercoils and further aggravated by expression of mutant Top1. Together, our data provide a strong support for a function of Top1 in suppressing genome instability at the guanine-run containing sequence that goes beyond preventing the transcription-associated RNA:DNA hybrid formation. PMID:26527723

  1. Arrest of segregation leads to accumulation of highly intertwined catenated dimers: dissection of the final stages of SV40 DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Sundin, O; Varshavsky, A

    1981-09-01

    When SV40-infected cells are placed into hypertonic medium, newly synthesized DNA accumulates as form C catenated dimers. These molecules consist of two supercoiled monomer circles of SV40 DNA interlocked by one or more topological inter-twinings and are seen as transiently labeled inter-mediates during normal replication. Form C catenated dimers represent pure segregation intermediates, replicative DNA structures in which DNA synthesis is complete but which still require topological separation of the two daughter circles. Hypertonic shock seems to block selectively a type II topoisomerase activity involved in disentangling the two circles. This is reflected in the fact that form C catenated dimers that accumulate during the block are highly intertwined with catenation linkage numbers up to C(L) = 20. While initiation of replication is also inhibited by hypertonic treatment, ongoing SV40 DNA synthesis is not affected, and replication is free to proceed from the earliest cairns structure through to form C catenated dimers. The block to segregation is rapidly and completely released by shifting the cells back to normal medium. A much slower recovery of DNA segregation takes place on prolonged incubation in hypertonic medium, perhaps because of some cellular homeostatic mechanism. The results of this work lead to a detailed view of the final stages of SV40 DNA replication.

  2. Exogenous spermine ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytic apoptosis via decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation through inhibiting p38/JNK and JAK2 pathways.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqin; Yang, Jinxia; Li, Hongzhu; Shao, Hongjiang; Wei, Can; Wang, Yuehong; Li, Meixiu; Xu, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been suggested to play a vital role in the initiation and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies reveal that spermine possesses proliferative, antiaging and antioxidative properties. Thus, we hypothesized that spermine could decrease apoptosis via suppressing ROS accumulation induced by high glucose (HG) in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG) (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) in the presence or absence of spermine for 48 h. The cell activity, apoptosis, ROS production, T-SOD and GSH activities, MDA content and GSSG level were assessed. The results showed that HG induced lipid peroxidation and the increase of intracellular ROS formation and apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Spermine could obviously improve the above-mentioned changes. Western blot analysis revealed that spermine markedly inhibited HG-induced the phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPKs and JAK2. Moreover, spermine had better antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects than N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, the present data suggested that spermine could suppress ROS accumulation to decrease cardiomyocytes apoptosis in HG condition, which may be attributed to the inhibition of p38/JNK and JAK2 activation and its natural antioxidative property. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26884823

  3. Exogenous spermine ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytic apoptosis via decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation through inhibiting p38/JNK and JAK2 pathways

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuqin; Yang, Jinxia; Li, Hongzhu; Shao, Hongjiang; Wei, Can; Wang, Yuehong; Li, Meixiu; Xu, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been suggested to play a vital role in the initiation and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies reveal that spermine possesses proliferative, antiaging and antioxidative properties. Thus, we hypothesized that spermine could decrease apoptosis via suppressing ROS accumulation induced by high glucose (HG) in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG) (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) in the presence or absence of spermine for 48 h. The cell activity, apoptosis, ROS production, T-SOD and GSH activities, MDA content and GSSG level were assessed. The results showed that HG induced lipid peroxidation and the increase of intracellular ROS formation and apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Spermine could obviously improve the above-mentioned changes. Western blot analysis revealed that spermine markedly inhibited HG-induced the phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPKs and JAK2. Moreover, spermine had better antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects than N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, the present data suggested that spermine could suppress ROS accumulation to decrease cardiomyocytes apoptosis in HG condition, which may be attributed to the inhibition of p38/JNK and JAK2 activation and its natural antioxidative property. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26884823

  4. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI2 nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI2 that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5-5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor-acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  5. Efficient photoinduced charge accumulation in reduced graphene oxide coupled with titania nanosheets to show highly enhanced and persistent conductance.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xingke; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Ozawa, Tadashi C; Funatsu, Asami; Ma, Renzhi; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-06-01

    Tuning of the electrical properties of graphene via photoexcitation of a heteroassembled material has started to attract attention for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Actually photoinduced carrier doping from the hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate greatly modulated the transport property of the top layer graphene, showing promising potential for this approach. However, for practical applications, the large scale production of this two-dimensional heterostructure is needed. Here, a superlattice film constructed from reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and photoactive titania nanosheets (Ti0.87O2(0.52-)) was employed as a channel to construct a field effect transistor (FET) device, and its UV light response on the electrical transport property was examined. The UV light illumination induced significant improvement of the electrical conductance by ∼7 times on the basis of simultaneous enhancements of the electron carrier concentration and its mobility in rGO. Furthermore, the polarity of the FET response changed from ambipolar to n-type unipolar. Such modulated properties persisted in vacuum even after the UV light was turned off. These interesting behaviors may be explained in terms of photomodulation effects from Ti0.87O2(0.52-) nanosheets. The photoexcited electrons in Ti0.87O2(0.52-) are injected into rGO to increase the electron carrier concentration as high as 7.6×10(13) cm(-2). On the other hand, the holes are likely trapped in the Ti0.87O2(0.52-) nanosheets. These photocarriers undergo reduction and oxidation of oxygen and water molecules adsorbed in the film, respectively, which act as carrier scattering centers, contributing to the enhancement of the carrier mobility. Since the film likely contains more water molecules than oxygen, upon extinction of UV light, a major portion of electrons (∼80% of the concentration at the UV off) survives in rGO, showing the highly enhanced conductance for days. This surpassing photomodulated FET response and

  6. Curcumin prevents liver fat accumulation and serum fetuin-A increase in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Koçak, Hikmet; Seyidhanoğlu, Muhammed; Gürdöl, Figen; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Yildirim, Funda; Çevik, Aydin; Uysal, Müjdat

    2013-12-01

    Fetuin-A is synthesized in the liver and is secreted into the bloodstream. Clinical studies suggest involvement of fetuin-A in metabolic disorders such as visceral obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and fatty liver. Curcumin is extracted from the rhizome Curcuma longa and has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on serum fetuin-A levels as well as hepatic lipids and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was fed control diet (10 % of total calories from fat). Groups 2 and 3 were given curcumin (100 and 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively ) by gavage for 8 weeks and were fed control diet. Group 4 was fed with HFD (60 % of total calories from fat). Groups 5 and 6 received HFD together with the two doses of curcumin, respectively. Curcumin treatment appeared to be effective in reducing liver triglycerides and serum fetuin-A levels. These findings suggest that the reduction of fetuin-A may contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  7. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation.

  8. Acetylshikonin from Zicao Prevents Obesity in Rats on a High-Fat Diet by Inhibiting Lipid Accumulation and Inducing Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Banghao

    2016-01-01

    Various drugs have been developed to treat obesity, but these have undesirable secondary effects, and an efficient but non-toxic anti-obesity drug from natural sources is desired. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin (AS)—which is used in traditional Chinese medicine—in rats on a high-fat diet (HFD). Rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD; the latter group was received no treatment or were treated with 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg AS extract by intragastric administration for 6 weeks. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AS and the effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis were evaluated by western blot analysis of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid-metabolizing enzyme levels and the phosphorylation status of protein kinase (PK) A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). AS prevented HFD-induced obesity including reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue content, liver mass, and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in rats. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic differentiation transcription factors and decreased the expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Furthermore, AS treatment induced lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and increased in PKA and HSL phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that AS has anti-obesity effects in a rat model and may be a safe treatment for obesity in humans. PMID:26771185

  9. Simultaneous determination of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin accumulated human breast cancer cells, by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jiang; Weng, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Su

    2005-09-01

    Quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin are the most important constituents in ginkgo flavonoids. A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to simultaneously determine quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin absorped by human breast cancer cells. Cells were treated with ginkgo flavonols and then lysed with Triton-X 100. The flavonols in the samples were measured by RP-HPLC with a C18 column after a simple extraction with a mixture of ether and acetone. The mobile phase contained phosphate buffer (pH 2.0; 10 mM) tetrahydrofuran, methanol and isopropanol (65:15:10:20, v/v/v/v). The ultraviolet detector was operated at 380 nm. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 1.0 microM (r > 0.999) for each flavonol. The mean extraction efficiency was about 70%. The recovery of the assay was between 98.9 and 100.6%. The limit of detection was 0.01 microM for quercetin and kaempferol and 0.05 microM for isorhamnetin. The limit of quantitation was 0.1 microM (R.S.D.<10%) for each flavonol. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10% (R.S.D.). The validated method was applied to quantify quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in human breast cancer Bcap37 and Bcap37/MDR1 cells. PMID:15905060

  10. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  11. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean. PMID:26460024

  12. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-10-27

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean.

  13. Differential Accumulation of Mercury and Selenium in Brown Trout Tissues of a High-Gradient Urbanized Stream in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S J; Nimmo, D R; Carsella, J S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Turner, J A; Gregorich, J M; Heuvel, B D Vanden; Nehring, R B; Foutz, H P

    2016-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 11 internal and external tissues and stomach contents from 23 brown trout, Salmo trutta, of a 22.9-km reach of a high-gradient stream (upper Fountain Creek) in Colorado, USA, impacted by coal-fired power plants, shale deposits, and urbanization. Trout and water were sampled from four sites ranging from 2335 to 1818 m elevation. Lengths, weights, and ages of fish between pairs of the four sites were not significantly different. The dry weight (dw) to wet weight (ww) conversion factor for each tissue was calculated with egg-ovary highest at 0.379 and epaxial muscle fourth highest at 0.223. THg and Se in stomach contents indicated diet and not ambient water was the major source of Hg and Se bioaccumulated. Mean THg ww in kidney was 40.33 µg/kg, and epaxial muscle second highest at 36.76 µg/kg. None of the tissues exceeded the human critical threshold for Hg. However, all 23 trout had at least one tissue type that exceeded 0.02 mg/kg THg ww for birds, and four trout tissues exceeded 0.1 mg/kg THg ww for mammals, indicating that piscivorous mammals and birds should be monitored. Se concentrations in tissues varied depending on ww or dw listing. Mean Se dw in liver was higher than ovary at the uppermost site and the two lower sites. Liver tissue, in addition to egg-ovary, should be utilized as an indicator tissue for Se toxicity. PMID:26608694

  14. Differential Accumulation of Mercury and Selenium in Brown Trout Tissues of a High-Gradient Urbanized Stream in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S J; Nimmo, D R; Carsella, J S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Turner, J A; Gregorich, J M; Heuvel, B D Vanden; Nehring, R B; Foutz, H P

    2016-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 11 internal and external tissues and stomach contents from 23 brown trout, Salmo trutta, of a 22.9-km reach of a high-gradient stream (upper Fountain Creek) in Colorado, USA, impacted by coal-fired power plants, shale deposits, and urbanization. Trout and water were sampled from four sites ranging from 2335 to 1818 m elevation. Lengths, weights, and ages of fish between pairs of the four sites were not significantly different. The dry weight (dw) to wet weight (ww) conversion factor for each tissue was calculated with egg-ovary highest at 0.379 and epaxial muscle fourth highest at 0.223. THg and Se in stomach contents indicated diet and not ambient water was the major source of Hg and Se bioaccumulated. Mean THg ww in kidney was 40.33 µg/kg, and epaxial muscle second highest at 36.76 µg/kg. None of the tissues exceeded the human critical threshold for Hg. However, all 23 trout had at least one tissue type that exceeded 0.02 mg/kg THg ww for birds, and four trout tissues exceeded 0.1 mg/kg THg ww for mammals, indicating that piscivorous mammals and birds should be monitored. Se concentrations in tissues varied depending on ww or dw listing. Mean Se dw in liver was higher than ovary at the uppermost site and the two lower sites. Liver tissue, in addition to egg-ovary, should be utilized as an indicator tissue for Se toxicity.

  15. Suppression of hepatic fat accumulation by highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid prevents the progression of d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Satoshi; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Akiko; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the importance of hepatic fat accumulation on the progression of hepatitis. BALB/cA mice were fed with a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 14 days followed by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine (DGalN) or vehicle. After 20-21 h, plasma and liver tissue were collected and analyzed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in plasma were increased significantly in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN compared to STD-fed mice treated with DGalN. This exacerbation by the HFHSD was also observed in the plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) levels, and hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the fibrogenic gene expression, such as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and osteopontin (OPN) in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN. The triglyceride contents of the liver were significantly increased by the HFHSD. When eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a suppressor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), was administered to HFHSD-fed mice, the sensitivity of DGalN, as a result of plasma ALT and AST levels, was suppressed accompanied by reduced plasma sTNFR2 level and hepatic levels of triglyceride, ROS, and fibrogenic parameters, and by increased plasma adiponectin levels. These data suggest that the progression of steatotic liver injury closely depends on the accumulation of fat in the liver and is prevented by EPA through the suppression of the fatty liver change. PMID:19416647

  16. Ultra-low specific on-resistance high-voltage vertical double diffusion metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with continuous electron accumulation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, Ma; Xiao-Rong, Luo; Jie, Wei; Qiao, Tan; Kun, Zhou; Jun-Feng, Wu

    2016-04-01

    A new ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp) vertical double diffusion metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (VDMOS) with continuous electron accumulation (CEA) layer, denoted as CEA-VDMOS, is proposed and its new current transport mechanism is investigated. It features a trench gate directly extended to the drain, which includes two PN junctions. In on-state, the electron accumulation layers are formed along the sides of the extended gate and introduce two continuous low-resistance current paths from the source to the drain in a cell pitch. This mechanism not only dramatically reduces the R on,sp but also makes the R on,sp almost independent of the n-pillar doping concentration (N n). In off-state, the depletion between the n-pillar and p-pillar within the extended trench gate increases the N n, and further reduces the R on,sp. Especially, the two PN junctions within the trench gate support a high gate-drain voltage in the off-state and on-state, respectively. However, the extended gate increases the gate capacitance and thus weakens the dynamic performance to some extent. Therefore, the CEA-VDMOS is more suitable for low and medium frequencies application. Simulation indicates that the CEA-VDMOS reduces the R on,sp by 80% compared with the conventional super-junction VDMOS (CSJ-VDMOS) at the same high breakdown voltage (BV). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176069 and 61376079) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. ZYGX2014Z006).

  17. Ultra-low specific on-resistance high-voltage vertical double diffusion metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor with continuous electron accumulation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, Ma; Xiao-Rong, Luo; Jie, Wei; Qiao, Tan; Kun, Zhou; Jun-Feng, Wu

    2016-04-01

    A new ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp) vertical double diffusion metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (VDMOS) with continuous electron accumulation (CEA) layer, denoted as CEA-VDMOS, is proposed and its new current transport mechanism is investigated. It features a trench gate directly extended to the drain, which includes two PN junctions. In on-state, the electron accumulation layers are formed along the sides of the extended gate and introduce two continuous low-resistance current paths from the source to the drain in a cell pitch. This mechanism not only dramatically reduces the R on,sp but also makes the R on,sp almost independent of the n-pillar doping concentration (N n). In off-state, the depletion between the n-pillar and p-pillar within the extended trench gate increases the N n, and further reduces the R on,sp. Especially, the two PN junctions within the trench gate support a high gate–drain voltage in the off-state and on-state, respectively. However, the extended gate increases the gate capacitance and thus weakens the dynamic performance to some extent. Therefore, the CEA-VDMOS is more suitable for low and medium frequencies application. Simulation indicates that the CEA-VDMOS reduces the R on,sp by 80% compared with the conventional super-junction VDMOS (CSJ-VDMOS) at the same high breakdown voltage (BV). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176069 and 61376079) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. ZYGX2014Z006).

  18. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  19. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  20. Elevated CO2-mitigation of high temperature stress associated with maintenance of positive carbon balance and carbohydrate accumulation in Kentucky bluegrass.

    PubMed

    Song, Yali; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism.

  1. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved.

  2. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved. PMID:26697490

  3. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  4. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  5. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  6. Highly sensitive detection of neodymium ion in small amount of spent nuclear fuel samples using novel fluorescent macrocyclic hexadentate polyaminocarboxylate probe in capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shingo; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakano, Yuta; Asai, Shiho; Kameo, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Shibukawa, Masami

    2012-04-01

    A rapid and high-sensitive detection method for the total concentration of Nd ion (total Nd) in a small amount of a spent nuclear fuel sample is urgently required since the precise quantification of total Nd ion makes it possible for burnup (degree of fuel consumption) to be determined. In this work, a capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescent detection method (CE-LIF) is proposed for the analysis of total Nd in a spent fuel sample solution, with the use of a newly synthesized metal fluorescent probe which has a fluorescein and a macrocylic hexadentate chelating group, FTC-ABNOTA, for lanthanide (Ln) ions. Ln ions were derivatized to form a strongly fluorescent complex with the probe to suppress the quenching of the ligand-centered emission. The detection of Ln complexes in the CE-LIF indicated that the interaction between Ln ions and the FTC-ABNOTA was strong enough not to dissociate during migration. The mutual separation among the Ln-FTC-ABNOTA complexes in CE-LIF was achieved by pH control providing a dynamic ternary complexation (DTC) with hydroxide ions. Using the DTC separation mode, a high resolution of Nd from other Ln ions with high resolution of 1.3-1.9 and a theoretical plate number of 68,000, and a very low detection limit of 22 pM (3.2 ppt, 0.11 attomole amount basis) were successfully obtained. A simulated spent fuel sample containing various metal ions was examined in this method with a good quantification result of 102.1% recovery obtained even with a large excess of U.

  7. Optimization of the detection coil of high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance for discriminating a minimum amount of liver tumor of rats in microtesla fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsien; Huang, Kai-Wen; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er; Liao, Shu-Hsien

    2013-08-01

    This study presents an optimization of the detection coil of high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in microtesla fields for discriminating a minimum amount of liver tumor in rats by characterizing the longitudinal relaxation rate, T1-1, of tested samples. The detection coil, which was coupled to the SQUID through a flux transformer, was optimized by varying the copper wires' winding turns and diameters. When comparing the measured NMR signals, we found that the simulated NMR signal agrees with simulated signals. When discriminating liver tumors in rats, the averaged longitudinal relaxation rate was observed to be T1-1 = 3.3 s-1 for cancerous liver tissue and T1-1 = 6.6 s-1 for normal liver tissue. The results suggest that it can be used to successfully discriminate cancerous liver tissue from normal liver tissues in rats. The minimum amount of samples that can be detected is 0.2 g for liver tumor and 0.4 g for normal liver tissue in 100 μT fields. The specimen was not damaged; it can be used for other pathological analyses. The proposed method provides more possibilities for examining undersized specimens.

  8. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract inhibits lipid accumulation on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat mice.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun; Park, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Hee-June; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Jin-Kyu

    2012-07-23

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  9. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p<0.05) in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. ZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway.

  10. A highly sensitive quantification method for the accumulation of alarmone ppGpp in Arabidopsis thaliana using UPLC-ESI-qMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuta; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Shinji

    2015-05-01

    Recently, a bacterial second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), has been detected in chloroplasts. However, because ppGpp concentration in plants is much lower than that in bacteria, detailed analysis of ppGpp in plants has not been performed. A highly sensitive quantification method is required for further characterization of ppGpp function in chloroplasts. Here, we report a new method that allows for the highly sensitive and selective high-throughput quantification of ppGpp by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS/MS) equipped with an electrospray interface (ESI). This method requires only ~100 mg of plant tissue for ppGpp quantification. We used this method to measure ppGpp levels in Arabidopsis thaliana under different light conditions. A. thaliana accumulated ppGpp during dark periods. This method will be helpful to further characterize the stringent response in higher plants.

  11. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week). PMID:20683609

  12. Transient Proliferation of Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Cells on the Epidermal Apex Contributes to Highly Aluminum-Resistant Root Elongation in Camphor Tree1[W

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  13. Accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates in lymphoblasts is a determinant of antileukemic effects in vivo. A rationale for high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed Central

    Masson, E; Relling, M V; Synold, T W; Liu, Q; Schuetz, J D; Sandlund, J T; Pui, C H; Evans, W E

    1996-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is commonly given in high doses. However, the rationale for high-dose MTX (HDMTX) has been challenged recently. To determine whether higher MTX polyglutamate (MTXPG) concentrations in ALL blasts translate into greater antileukemic effects, 150 children with newly diagnosed ALL were randomized to initial treatment with either HDMTX (1,000 mg/m2 intravenously over 24 h) or lower-dose MTX (30 mg/m2 by mouth every 6 h x 6). ALL blasts accumulated higher concentrations of MTXPG and long-chain MTXPG (MTXPGLC) after HDMTX (P < 0.00001). Of 101 patients evaluable for peripheral blast cytoreduction, MTXPG concentrations were higher in patients whose blast count decreased within 24 h (P = 0.005) and in those who had no detectable circulating blasts within 4 days (P = 0.004). The extent of inhibition of de novo purine synthesis in ALL blasts was significantly related to the blast concentration of MTXPGLC (IC95% = 483 pmol/10(9) blasts). The percentage of patients with 44-h MTXPGLC exceeding the IC95% was greater after HDMTX (81%) than LDMTX (46%, P < 0.0001). These data indicate that higher blast concentrations of MTXPG are associated with greater antileukemic effects, establishing a strong rationale for HD-MTX in the treatment of childhood ALL. PMID:8550853

  14. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 accumulates to high levels in culture medium of senescent and quiescent human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S; Moerman, E J; Jones, R A; Baxter, R C

    1991-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA levels were consistently higher in both senescent normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) at late passage (old cells) and prematurely senescent HDFs from a subject with Werner syndrome (WS) during serum depletion and repletion of growth medium and during proliferation from sparse to high-density inhibited cultures, compared to normal early-passage (young) HDFs. However, IGFBP-3 protein accumulated to higher levels in conditioned medium of old cells than in medium of WS and young cells, in that order, under the same conditions. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was not detected in naive medium or in any of the media conditioned by these three cell types, whereas IGF-II was detectable in serum-repleted medium and remained relatively constant. Thus, molar ratios of IGFBP-3/IGF-II were consistently higher in old and WS cells and increased substantially as all three cell types became quiescent, due to either serum depletion or high cell density. These data are consistent with either an adaptive or a causal role for IGFBP-3 protein in the senescent and quiescent growth arrest of HDFs.

  15. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, N A; Ushakova, S A; Kovaleva, N P; Gribovskaya, I V; Tikhomirov, A A

    2005-01-01

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 degrees C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 micromoles/m2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground

  16. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes, in particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable to utilize NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of biological life support systems (BLSS). In preliminary experiments it was shown, that S.europaea plants, basically, can grow on urine subjected to physicochemical processing and urease-fermentative decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation, but for all that oppression of plants growth process was observed. In this connection, the purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantity of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human's fluid excretions changed within certain limits two variants of modeling solutions were prepared. In the first variant concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to minimum salt content in the human's fluid excretions and compounded: K - 1,5 g/l, P - 0,5 g/l, S - 0,5 g/l, Mg - 0,07 g/l, Ca - 0,2 g/l. In the second variant the content of mineral salts corresponded to maximum salt content in the human's fluid excretions and was the following: K - 3,0 g/l, P - 0,7g/l, S - 1,2 g/l, Mg - 0,2 g/l, Ca - 0,97 g/l. As the control the modified solution under B.I.Tokarev's formulation containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and Knop's solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all 4 variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24°, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 150 W/m2 PAR. NaCl concentration in solutions compounded 1 %. The researches conducted showed that the dry above-ground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and compounded 11,2 g. In the second variant S.europaea productivity decreased, and the dry above-ground biomass of an average plant

  17. Ecotoxicological investigation of the effect of accumulation of PAH and possible impact of dispersant in resting high arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus.

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Gustavson, Kim; Møller, Eva Friis; Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna; Mosbech, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Due to high lipid content and a slow metabolism, there is a higher risk of bioaccumulation of oil compounds in Arctic than in temperate copepods. There is also a concern that the bioavailability of oil compounds is higher when oil is dispersed with dispersants. The purpose of this project was to increase the knowledge on how the use of dispersants on an oil spill may affect the passive uptake of PAHs in resting high arctic copepods using Calanus hyperboreus as a model organism. To evaluate this, resting high arctic C. hyperboreus were caught in Disko Bay at>250 meters depth, November 2013, and subsequent experimental work was initiated immediately after, at nearby Arctic Station at Disko Island Western Greenland. C. hyperboreus females were incubated in phenanthrene (111, 50 and 10 nM), pyrene (57, 28 and 6 nM) and benzo(a) pyrene (10, 5 and 1 nM) for three days in treatments with and without oil (corn oil) and dispersant (AGMA DR372). After exposure, the highest measured concentrations of respectively phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a) pyrene in the copepods were 129, 30 and 6 nmol PAH g female(-1). Results showed that with addition of oil and dispersant to the water, the accumulation of PAH was significantly reduced, due to the deposition of the PAHs in the oil phase, decreasing the available PAHs for copepod uptake. While PAH metabolites and a depuration of the PAHs were observed, the copepods still contained PAHs after 77 days of incubation in clean seawater. Differences of treatments with and without oil and dispersant on the egg production were not statistically conclusive, although it is the most likely an effect of the highly variable day-to-day egg production between individual copepods. Equally, although there was an indication that the addition of dispersant and oil increased the mortality rate, there was no statistical difference. PMID:26253790

  18. Selection-driven accumulation of suppressor mutants in bacillus subtilis: the apparent high mutation frequency of the cryptic gudB gene and the rapid clonal expansion of gudB(+) suppressors are due to growth under selection.

    PubMed

    Gunka, Katrin; Stannek, Lorena; Care, Rachel A; Commichau, Fabian M

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacteria like Bacillus subtilis can cope with many growth conditions by adjusting gene expression and metabolic pathways. Alternatively, bacteria can spontaneously accumulate beneficial mutations or shape their genomes in response to stress. Recently, it has been observed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the catabolically active glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), RocG, mutates the cryptic gudB(CR) gene at a high frequency. The suppressor mutants express the active GDH GudB, which can fully replace the function of RocG. Interestingly, the cryptic gudB(CR) allele is stably inherited as long as the bacteria synthesize the functional GDH RocG. Competition experiments revealed that the presence of the cryptic gudB(CR) allele provides the bacteria with a selective growth advantage when glutamate is scarce. Moreover, the lack of exogenous glutamate is the driving force for the selection of mutants that have inactivated the active gudB gene. In contrast, two functional GDHs are beneficial for the cells when glutamate was available. Thus, the amount of GDH activity strongly affects fitness of the bacteria depending on the availability of exogenous glutamate. At a first glance the high mutation frequency of the cryptic gudB(CR) allele might be attributed to stress-induced adaptive mutagenesis. However, other loci on the chromosome that could be potentially mutated during growth under the selective pressure that is exerted on a GDH-deficient mutant remained unaffected. Moreover, we show that a GDH-proficient B. subtilis strain has a strong selective growth advantage in a glutamate-dependent manner. Thus, the emergence and rapid clonal expansion of the active gudB allele can be in fact explained by spontaneous mutation and growth under selection without an increase of the mutation rate. Moreover, this study shows that the selective pressure that is exerted on a maladapted bacterium strongly affects the apparent mutation frequency of mutational hot spots.

  19. Amounts of substrate carbon and nitrogen control the decomposition of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. J. A.; Sun, J.; Finley, B. K.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, mainly caused by rising atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition due to human activities, is postulated to increase energy and nutrient inputs to soils that can accelerate or retard soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, a phenomenon called the priming effect. Yet, the direction and magnitude of priming in response to different amounts of energy and nutrient inputs remain elusive. Here we examined the effects of carbon (C) and N additions on priming, microbial turnover, extracellular enzyme activities, CO2 fluxes, and C accumulation in four different ecosystems. We applied low and high C (13C glucose; 350 and 1000 μg C g-1 wk-1) and C with N (NH4NO3; 35 and 100 μg N g-1 wk-1) for five weeks. We found: 1) high C and high C+N stimulated weekly priming in the first two weeks and then leveled off, indicating soil microorganisms may have a short-term of accelerated growth and activity but quickly adapt to frequent inputs of high substrate amounts, 2) high C induced greater cumulative priming, microbial turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than low C, 3) high C+N had significantly lower cumulative priming, turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than high C, 4) high C and high C+N stimulated greater CO2 fluxes and C accumulations than low substrate inputs. These results suggest that the amount of substrate (energy and nutrient) was a determinant factor in modulating the rate of SOM decomposition, microbial turnover, enzyme activities, and C balance. Overall we demonstrate that increased energy inputs can quickly accelerate SOM decomposition, but concurrent nutrient inputs can suppress such process, which could have a huge impact on terrestrial C storage and global biogeochemical C cycling under climate change.

  20. Amazonian mid- to high-latitude glaciation on Mars: Supply-limited ice sources, ice accumulation patterns, and concentric crater fill glacial flow and ice sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    Concentric crater fill (CCF) occurs in the interior of impact craters in mid- to high latitudes on Mars and is interpreted to have formed by glacial ice flow and debris covering. We use the characteristics and orientation of deposits comprising CCF, the thickness of pedestal deposits in mid- to high-latitude pedestal craters (Pd), the volumes of the current polar caps, and information about regional slopes and ice rheology to address questions about (1) the maximum thickness of regional ice deposits during the Late Amazonian, (2) the likelihood that these deposits flowed regionally, (3) the geological regions and features most likely to induce ice-flow, and (4) the locations and environments in which ice is likely to have been sequestered up to the present. We find that regional ice flow under Late Amazonian climate conditions requires ice thicknesses exceeding many hundreds of meters for slopes typical of the vast majority of the surface of Mars, a thickness for the mid-latitudes that is well in excess of the total volume available from polar ice reservoirs. This indicates that although conditions for mid- to high-latitude glaciation may have persisted for tens to hundreds of millions of years, the process is “supply limited”, with a steady state reached when the polar ice cap water ice supply becomes exhausted. Impact craters are by far the most abundant landform with associated slopes (interior wall and exterior rim) sufficiently high to induce glacial ice flow under Late Amazonian climate conditions, and topographic slope data show that Amazonian impact craters have been clearly modified, undergoing crater interior slope reduction and floor shallowing. We show that these trends are the predictable response of ice deposition and preferential accumulation and retention in mid- to high-latitude crater interiors during episodes of enhanced spin-axis obliquity. We demonstrate that flow from a single episode of an inter-crater terrain layer comparable to Pedestal

  1. A conceptual model for hydrocarbon accumulation and seepage processes inside Chapopote asphalt volcanism site, Southern Gulf of Mexico: from high resolution seismic point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Spiess, V.; Fekete, N.; Keil, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the German R/V Meteor M67/2 expedition in 2006 to the southern Gulf of Mexico, a set of 2D high resolution seismic profiles was acquired across the Chapopote knoll to study sea floor asphalt occurrences and their origin. Based on regional seismic stratigraphy studies, correlated to DSDP sites, a higher reflective coarse grained sediment unit of Late Miocene age is identified as a potential shallow gas reservoir, overlain by a low permeability fine grained Pliocene and Pleistocene cover. As a result of salt diapirism, local uplift has caused reduced accumulation rates above the diaper since the late Pliocene, while the rates had been uniform throughout the area before. This has further improved the seal properties, since more fine grained material deposited in elevated locations. Nevertheless, on the crest of Chapopote, sediments above the coarse sediment unit are only around 150-75 m thick. Since oil and gas production can well be expected at depth in Jurassic and Tertiary source rocks, the presence of high amplitude reflector packages within the reservoir unit is interpreted as a result of the presence of hydrocarbons. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that some reflectors are cross-cutting and/or reveal a drop in instantaneous frequency. But, the thin seal above the reservoir unit, located directly underneath a widespread occurrence of asphalts at the sea floor, probably facilitates the leakage of hydrocarbons trapped inside the reservoir through a ~ 750 m wide acoustically chaotic zone partly aided by faulting. Since the top of Chapopote shows a high structural complexity, more seepage sites may exist beyond where seafloor asphalts have been found so far. Evolution and structure of the migration and reservoir system, which may be deep rooted, will be discussed both with respect to shallow gas and asphalt occurrences.

  2. 20 CFR 228.52 - Restored amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restored amount. 228.52 Section 228.52... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.52 Restored amount. (a) General. A restored amount...(er) had ten years of creditable railroad service prior to January 1, 1975. (b) Amount. The amount...

  3. 20 CFR 228.52 - Restored amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restored amount. 228.52 Section 228.52... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.52 Restored amount. (a) General. A restored amount...(er) had ten years of creditable railroad service prior to January 1, 1975. (b) Amount. The amount...

  4. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  5. Biocontrol of Potato Common Scab is Associated with High Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Populations and Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Biosynthetic Transcript Accumulation in the Potato Geocaulosphere.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonads are often used as biocontrol agents because they display a broad range of mechanisms to control diseases. Common scab of potato, caused by Streptomyces scabies, was previously reported to be controlled by Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 through phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) production. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the population dynamics of LBUM223 and the expression of phzC, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of PCA, in the rhizosphere and geocaulosphere of potato plants grown under controlled and field conditions. Results obtained from controlled experiments showed that soil populations of LBUM223 significantly declined over a 15-week period. However, at week 15, the presence of S. scabies in the geocaulosphere was associated with significantly higher populations of LBUM223 than when the pathogen was absent. It also led to the detection of significantly higher phzC gene transcript numbers. Under field conditions, soil populations of LBUM223 followed a similar decline in time when a single inoculation was applied in spring but remained stable when reinoculated biweekly, which also led to greater phzC gene transcripts accumulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LBUM223 must colonize the potato geocaulosphere at high levels (10(7) bacteria/g of soil) in order to achieve biocontrol of common scab through increased PCA production. PMID:27088392

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in oil-contaminated peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence and X-ray radiometry represent easy and simple methods to determine concentrations of heavy metals in the ash of peat soils contaminated with oil and can be applied for soil monitoring purposes. Oil spills on peat bogs produce two contamination zones differing in the composition of heavy metals. In the zone of primary contamination, the peat surface is covered by a bitumen crust with V, Ni, Sr, Ba, Ce, and La accumulating there. This zone adjoins the zone of secondary peat contamination, where heavy alkaline-earth metals (Sr, Ba) and lanthanides (Ce and La) are accumulated to a lesser extent. Biological preparations recommended for remediation of oil-contaminated peat soils should be tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly, V, Ni, and Ba that are present in the oil contaminated soils in relatively high amounts.

  7. Cynanchum wilfordii Radix attenuates liver fat accumulation and damage by suppressing hepatic cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon-A; Lee, SungRyul; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Yang, Jaehyuk; Park, Dae Won; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Kwon, Jung Eun; Song, Hae Seong; Cho, Young Mi; Meng, Xue; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-09-01

    Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice were fed either a normal diet or an atherogenic diet with fructose (ATHFR) in the presence or absence of CWE (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; n=6/group). Treatment with ATHFR induced a hepatosplenomegaly-like condition (increased liver and spleen weight); this pathological change was attenuated in the presence of CWE. The ATHFR group exhibited impaired liver function, as evidenced by increased blood levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, fat accumulation in the liver, and lipid profiles. Supplementation of CWE (100 and 200 mg/kg, P<.05) ameliorated these impaired liver functions. Atherogenic diet with fructose increased the protein levels of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These signaling pathways, which are associated with the inflammatory response, were markedly suppressed after CWE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg). In summary, CWE supplementation reduced high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced fat accumulation and damage in the liver by suppressing COX-2, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK. PMID:27632911

  8. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo.

  9. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  10. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  11. Dieldrin and DDT: accumulation from water and food by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    In the laboratory we measured the amounts of dieldrin and p,p'DDT accumulated by fish from contaminated water and food to determine how fish from Lake Michigan accumulate high concentrations of these insecticides from an environment where the concentrations in water are generally less than 0.01 ppb. Eight groups of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to different combinations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and food. Concentrations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT ranged from 0.006 to 0.010 ppb in water and from 1,700 to 2,300 ppb in food (Oregon moist pellets). After 152 days of exposure to insecticides in water, fish had accumulated an average of 478 ppb dieldrin or 352 ppb p,p'DDT. Fish exposed to dieldrin and p,p'DDT in food accumulated 470 and 648 ppb, respectively. However, it was difficult to determine exactly how much of either insecticide was accumulated from the food because trace amounts (0.003-0.004 ppb) had leached from food or feces. After exposure to the insecticide was terminated, fish eliminated dieldrin at a much faster rate than p,p'DDT. In fish exposed to a combination of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and then held for 125 days in uncontaminated water, the total amount of dieldrin (I?g) declined 89%, but the total amount of p,p'DDT remained unchanged. We used data from this study to estimate how much p,p'DDT adult Lake Michigan coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) accumulated from water and from food during a 104-day period (May-August 1968). The estimates suggest that during these months coho salmon accumulated most of the body burden of p,p'DDT from food.

  12. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  13. Forest dynamics and tip-up pools drive pulses of high carbon accumulation rates in a tropical peat dome in Borneo (Southeast Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, René; Cobb, Alexander R.; Joosten, Hans; Glaser, Paul H.; Chua, Amy F. L.; Gandois, Laure; Kai, Fuu-Ming; Noren, Anders; Salim, Kamariah A.; Su'ut, N. Salihah H.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands of Southeast Asia store large pools of carbon but the mechanisms of peat accumulation in tropical forests remain to be resolved. Patch dynamics and forest disturbance have seldom been considered as drivers that can amplify or dampen rates of peat accumulation. Here we used a modified piston corer, noninvasive geophysical measurements, and geochemical and paleobotanical techniques to establish the effect of tree fall on carbon accumulation rates in a peat swamp forest dominated by Shorea albida in Brunei (Borneo). Carbon initially accumulated in a mangrove forest at over 300 g C m-2 yr-1 but declined to less than 50 g C m-2 yr-1 with the establishment of a peat swamp forest. A rapid accumulation pulse of 720-960 g C m-2 yr-1 occurred around 1080 years ago as a tip-up pool infilled. Tip-up pools are common in the peatlands of northwest Borneo where windthrow and lightning strikes produce tree falls at a rate of 4 trees ha-1 every decade. A simulation model indicates that tip-up pools, which are formed across the entire forested peat dome, produce local discontinuities in the peat deposit, when peat is removed to create a pool that is rapidly filled with younger material. The resulting discontinuities in peat age at the base and sides of pool deposits obscure linkages between carbon accumulation rates and climate and require new approaches for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Our results suggest that carbon accumulation in tropical peat swamps may be based on fundamentally different peat-forming processes than those of northern peatlands.

  14. Hydrological Dynamics, Fire History and Carbon Accumulation in the Last Millennium in Western Siberia Reconstructed from a High Resolution Ombrotrophic Peat Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, M.; Slowinski, M. M.; Marcisz, K.; Kolaczek, P.; Neumann, M.; Kaliszan, K.; Lapshina, E.; Gilbert, D.; Buttler, A.; Fialkiewicz-Koziel, B.; Jassey, V.; Laggoun-Defarge, F.

    2014-12-01

    Northern peatlands are important sinks of carbon. However, ongoing climate change and human impact trigger emission of the stored carbon into the atmosphere. Because of the progressive disturbances there is an urgent need to recognize these processes in space and time. We investigated a profile from a Mukhrino bog located close to the Mukhrino Field Station, about 20 km from Khanty-Mansiysk (60°54' N, 68°42' E). One meter peat core was subsampled in one-centimeter intervals. Pollen, testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, bulk density and carbon content were analyzed in high-resolution to reconstruct hydrology, droughts and carbon accumulation rates during the last 1200 years. We hypothesize that continental bogs of Siberia have been existing in under summer drought stress during the last millennium and hydrological change (dry shift) is also reflected in local fires. Palaeoecological work was accompanied by surface sampling to collect testate amoebae training set for transfer function development. These microorganisms have been scarcely studied in this part of the world. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that 23.7% of variance is explained by the model. Furthermore, water table appeared to be the most significant variable for sampled communities. Testate amoebae calibration data set performed the reliably using weighted averaging model (RMSEPboot=7.9, R2boot=0.74). According to our quantitative reconstruction, higher charcoal influx was inferred between AD 1975 and 1990 what suggests higher fire frequency. However, water table was the lowest between AD 1150 and AD 1965. The data show lack of correlation between peatland wetness and regional fires. Consequently, it suggests that peatland hydrological dynamics might be independent from fires frequency, as fires were caused by recent human activities in concomitance with the positive Arctic Oscillation Index during the last decade.

  15. Combining the enrichment and accumulation step in non-axenic PHA production: Cultivation of Plasticicumulans acidivorans at high volume exchange ratios.

    PubMed

    Marang, Leonie; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2016-08-10

    The process for non-axenic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from organic waste generally comprises three steps: acidogenic fermentation of the waste stream, enrichment of a PHA-producing culture, and production of the PHA. This study assesses the feasibility of combining the enrichment and production step. Harvesting PHA-rich biomass directly from the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) used for enrichment of the microbial culture reduces capital cost, but may increase downstream-processing cost if the PHA content is significantly lowered. Operating an acetate-fed SBR at a volume exchange ratio of 0.75 (18h cycles, 1 d SRT) allowed the production of biomass with 70wt% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in a single-step process. By increasing the exchange ratio to 0.83 (20h cycles) the PHB content of the harvested biomass increased to 75wt%, but the operational stability decreased. SBR operation at these high exchange ratios makes that bacteria have to increase their growth rate and external substrate is available for relatively long periods. This allows the establishment of larger flanking populations and negatively affected the kinetic properties of Plasticicumulans acidivorans, the predominant organism. Maximizing the volume exchange ratio is, therefore, a suitable strategy to produce large amounts of PHA in the SBR, but does not ensure the enrichment of a culture with superior PHA productivity. PMID:27316831

  16. Determining Recoverable and Irrecoverable Contributions to Accumulated Strain in a NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy During Thermomechanical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, J. A.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Bigelow, G.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S., II

    2011-01-01

    When Ni(29.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30 shape memory alloy is thermally cycled under stress, significant strain can accumulate due to elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and plasticity. The strain due to remnant martensite can be recovered by further thermal cycling under 0 MPa until the original transformation-induced volume change and martensite coefficient of thermal expansion are obtained. Using this technique, it was determined that the 8.15% total accumulated strain after cycling under 200 MPa consisted of 0.38%, 3.97% and 3.87% for elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and creep/plasticity, respectively.

  17. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  18. Synoptic controls on precipitation pathways and snow delivery to high-accumulation ice core sites in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, K. E.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Trompetter, W. J.

    2010-11-01

    Dominant storm tracks to two ice core sites on the western margin of the Ross Sea, Antarctica (Skinner Saddle (SKS) and Evans Piedmont Glacier), are investigated to establish key synoptic controls on snow accumulation. This is critical in terms of understanding the seasonality, source regions, and transport pathways of precipitation delivered to these sites. In situ snow depth and meteorological observations are used to identify major accumulation events in 2007-2008, which differ considerably between sites in terms of their magnitude and seasonal distribution. While snowfall at Evans Piedmont Glacier occurs almost exclusively during summer and spring, Skinner Saddle receives precipitation year round with a lull during the months of April and May. Cluster analysis of daily back trajectories reveals that the highest-accumulation days at both sites result from fast-moving air masses, associated with synoptic-scale low-pressure systems. There is evidence that short-duration pulses of snowfall at SKS also originate from mesocyclone development over the Ross Ice Shelf and local moisture sources. Changes in the frequency and seasonal distribution of these mechanisms of precipitation delivery will have a marked impact on annual accumulation over time and will therefore need careful consideration during the interpretation of stable isotope and geochemical records from these ice cores.

  19. Characterization of oleaginous yeasts accumulating high levels of lipid when cultivated in glycerol and their potential for lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-12-01

    This study attempted to identify oleaginous yeasts and selected the strain that accumulated the largest quantity of lipid for lipid production from glycerol. Two-step screening of 387 yeast strains revealed 23 oleaginous strains that accumulated quantities of lipid higher than 20 % of their biomass when cultivated in glycerol. These strains were identified to be four ascomycetous yeast species i.e. Candida silvae, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma caribbica, and Pichia manshurica, and five basidiomycetous yeast species i.e. Cryptococcus cf. podzolicus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 accumulated the highest quantity of lipid equal to 65.2 % of its biomass (3.9 g L(-1) lipid and 6.0 g L(-1) biomass) by shaking flask cultivation in crude glycerol. The main fatty acids in the accumulated lipid of this strain consisted of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Therefore, R. fluviale DMKU-RK253 has potential for producing lipid for biodiesel manufacturing using crude glycerol as a feedstock.

  20. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  1. Spatial variation in rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in a boreal bog

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlson, M.; Oekland, R.H.

    1998-12-01

    Although previous studies hint at the occurrence of substantial spatial variation in the accumulation rates of C and N in bogs, the extent to which rates may vary on high-resolution spatial and temporal scales is not known. A main reason for the lack of knowledge is that it is problematic to determine the precise age of peat at a given depth. The authors determined rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the uppermost decimeters of a bog ecosystem using the pine method, which enables accurate dating of surface peat layers. They combined accumulation data with numerical and geostatistical analyses of the recent vegetation to establish the relationship between bog vegetation and rate of peat accumulation. Use of a laser technique for spatial positioning of 151 age-determined peat cores within a 20 x 20 m plot made it possible to give the first tine-scaled account of spatial and temporal variation in rates of mass, carbon, and nitrogen accumulation during the last century. Rates of C and N accumulation were highly variable at all spatial scales studied. For example, after {approximately}125 yr of peat growth, C and N accumulation varied by factors of five and four, respectively, from 25 to 125 g/dm{sup 2} for C, and from 0.7 to 2.6 g/dm{sup 2} for N. It takes 40 yr of peat accumulation before significant amounts of C are lost through decay. Hummocks built up by Sphagnum fuscum and S. rubellum were able to maintain average rates of C accumulation that exceed 2 g{center_dot}dm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot} yr{sup {minus}1} during 50 yr of growth. The authors argue that data on spatial variation in rates of C accumulation are necessary to understand the role of boreal peatlands in the greenhouse effect and global climate.

  2. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  3. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  4. Multiple episodes of fluid flow in the SW Barents Sea (Loppa High) evidenced by gas flares, pockmarks and gas hydrate accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, S.; Thorsnes, T.; Rise, L.; Brunstad, H.; Stoddart, D.; Bøe, R.; Lågstad, P.; Svolsbru, T.

    2012-05-01

    Gas and gas hydrates have gained considerable attention in the last 20 yr due to their possible impact on global climate change from methane escalations. Our study area, the SW Barents Sea, is unique in its evolution due to the effect of glaciations which removed thick layers of sediment from the seabed. Unloading due to erosion and deglaciation resulted in opening of pre-existing faults and creation of new ones, facilitating fluid migration and eventually escape into the water from the subsurface. Expressions of hydrocarbon gas accumulation and fluid flow such as gas hydrates and pockmarks are widely distributed in the Barents Sea. Several gas flares, some of them 200 m high in echograms, occur along a segment of the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex, indicating open fractures and active fluid flow. Observation of gas flares along regional fault complexes outside pockmark regions indicates that present gas escape occurs along faults only. The pockmark formation and gas flares belong to different episodes of fluid flow. The pockmarks are absent outside soft sediment depocentres indicating that their existence is related to the presence of recording medium. The thin sediment cover in pockmarks and their penetration down into glaciomarine sediments indicate that they formed after deposition of these sediments and that fluid escape was active to the very recent past. Methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ) modelling shows that after the last glacial maximum 18 000-20 000 14C years ago, the MHSZ has thinned from 600 m to zero in most parts of the SW Barents Sea. The fluid expulsion probably happened after retreat of the glaciers causing release of methane from dissociation of methane hydrates through fluid escape processes which lasted until recently. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) observed are probably due to structure II hydrates formed from gas containing higher order hydrocarbon components such as ethane, propane, etc. along with methane. The study area falls close

  5. 20 CFR 228.51 - Takeback amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Takeback amount. 228.51 Section 228.51... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.51 Takeback amount. (a) The 1983 amendments to the... annuity component be offset from the amount of the tier II annuity. This amount is the takeback...

  6. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount recoverable. 340.2 Section 340.2... RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.2 Amount recoverable. For purposes of this part, an “amount recoverable” is an amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment...

  7. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13....13 Guarantee amount. (a) Under Section 101(a)(1) of the Act, the Board is authorized to enter into... loan amount guaranteed to a single air carrier may not exceed that amount that, in the Board's...

  8. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.243 Exempt amount. Amount payable to the taxpayer... exempt from levy as follows: (a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to: (1) The sum of:...

  9. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.930 Amount. (a) Generally, a 504 loan may not exceed 40..., the Debenture amount will be reduced by the amount that the unused contingency reserve exceeds...

  10. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.930 Amount. (a) Generally, a 504 loan may not exceed 40..., the Debenture amount will be reduced by the amount that the unused contingency reserve exceeds...

  11. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.243 Exempt amount. Amount payable to the taxpayer... exempt from levy as follows: (a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to: (1) The sum of:...

  12. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form of... for less than the maximum amount established by statute, and to limit the number of times a...

  13. 20 CFR 228.51 - Takeback amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Takeback amount. 228.51 Section 228.51... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.51 Takeback amount. (a) The 1983 amendments to the... annuity component be offset from the amount of the tier II annuity. This amount is the takeback...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  19. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  20. Development of a novel transgenic rice with hypocholesterolemic activity via high-level accumulation of the α' subunit of soybean β-conglycinin.

    PubMed

    Cabanos, Cerrone; Kato, Naoki; Amari, Yoshiki; Fujiwara, Keigo; Ohno, Tomoki; Shimizu, Kousuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Masaya; Kuroda, Masaharu; Masuda, Taro; Takaiwa, Fumio; Utsumi, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Soybean 7S globulin, known as β-conglycinin, has been shown to regulate human plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the α' subunit of β-conglycinin has specifically been shown to possess low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering activity. Therefore, accumulation of the α' subunit of β-conglycinin in rice seeds could lead to the production of new functional rice that could promote human health. Herein, we used the low-glutelin rice mutant 'Koshihikari' (var. a123) and suppressed its glutelins and prolamins, the major seed storage proteins of rice, by RNA interference. The accumulation levels of the α' subunit in the lines with suppressed glutelin and prolamin levels were >20 mg in 1 g of rice seeds, which is considerably higher than those in previous studies. Oral administration of the transgenic rice containing the α' subunit exhibited a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; the serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly reduced when compared to those of the control rice (var. a123). The cholesterol-lowering action by transgenic rice accumulating the α' subunit induces a significant increase in fecal bile acid excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. This is the first report that transgenic rice exhibits a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats in vivo by using the β-conglycinin α' subunit.

  1. Salicylic acid induction-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis express PR-2 and PR-5 and accumulate high levels of camalexin after pathogen inoculation.

    PubMed Central

    Nawrath, C; Métraux, J P

    1999-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, systemic acquired resistance against pathogens has been associated with the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of the pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5. We report here the isolation of two nonallelic mutants impaired in the pathway leading to SA biosynthesis. These SA induction-deficient (sid) mutants do not accumulate SA after pathogen inoculation and are more susceptible to both virulent and avirulent forms of Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica. However, sid mutants are not as susceptible to these pathogens as are transgenic plants expressing the nahG gene encoding an SA hydroxylase that degrades SA to catechol. In contrast to NahG plants, only the expression of PR-1 is strongly reduced in sid mutants, whereas PR-2 and PR-5 are still expressed after pathogen attack. Furthermore, the accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin is normal. These results indicate that SA-independent compensation pathways that do not operate in NahG plants are active in sid mutants. One of the mutants is allelic to eds5 (for enhanced disease susceptibility), whereas the other mutant has not been described previously. PMID:10449575

  2. Dietary protein alters tubular iron accumulation after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Nankivell, B J; Tay, Y C; Boadle, R A; Harris, D C

    1994-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in progression of disease in the rat remnant kidney (RK) model of chronic renal failure. Substantial amounts of iron accumulate in proximal tubular lysosomes of RK and could damage tubules by ROS generation. The effect of dietary protein intake on ROS, tubular damage and iron accumulation assessed by energy dispersive analysis was determined in RK (5/6 nephrectomy, N = 12) and sham-operated kidneys (SO, N = 10). In RK, mean lysosomal iron concentration, urinary iron and protein excretion and morphological damage were increased and GFR decreased. Dietary protein loading (40% vs. 12%) increased the number of iron-containing lysosomes (P < 0.05) and the mean lysosomal iron (P < 0.02) in proximal tubular cells after four weeks. In RK, high protein diet increased renal weight (P < 0.01), numerical density of iron-containing lysosomes and tubular damage (both P < 0.05). ROS generation, assessed by tissue and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), was also increased (both P < 0.05). Plasma MDA correlated with tubular iron accumulation (r = 0.75). In RK fed a high protein diet (N = 18) treatment with the iron-chelator desferrioxamine reduced serum iron, urinary volume, and tubular iron accumulation and damage compared to controls (P < 0.01). In summary, in RK dietary protein manipulation altered urinary iron and protein excretion, proximal tubular iron accumulation, renal cortical ROS generation and ultrastructural damage. Desferrioxamine treatment reduced tubular lysosomal iron and ultrastructural damage. These results suggest a role for tubular iron as a determinant of tubular injury associated with dietary protein loading in rats with partial nephrectomy.

  3. Phytochelatins do not correlate with the level of Cd accumulation in Chlamydomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kahoko; Onodera, Ai; Tominaga, Noriko

    2006-06-01

    Chlamydomonas acidophila KT-1 and Chlamydomonas acidophila DVB238 exhibit a strong heavy metal tolerance, but C. acidophila DVB238 can accumulate a much higher amount of Cadmium (Cd) than C. acidophila KT-1. Phytochelatins (PCs) are known to play an important role in the detoxification of several toxic heavy metals, but the relationship between PCs and Cd accumulation is not clear. PC metabolism and Cd accumulation were investigated by using three Chlamydomonas strains including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii C-9 as a standard alga. The results showed that the PC content did not correlate closely with the level of Cd accumulation, maintenance of a high GSH level seeming to be more important for Cd accumulation. The ultrastructure of C. acidophila KT-1 was extremely disrupted by a great increase in starch granules, which resulted in a moribund state, but hyper-accumulator C. acidophila DVB238 did not exhibit an increase in starch granules in its cells, in spite of Cd accumulation in its chloroplasts, cytosol and vacuoles. These results indicated that C. acidophila DVB238 probably has a developed detoxification system preventing such as destruction of the cells due to Cd toxicity.

  4. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  5. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  6. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  7. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  8. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  9. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10... IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property... following maximum loan amounts: (i) Single family property improvement loans—$25,000, except that a loan...

  10. 29 CFR 4302.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4302.3 Section 4302.3 Labor Regulations... PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN MULTIEMPLOYER PLAN NOTICES § 4302.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4302 of ERISA shall be $110....

  11. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  12. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  13. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  14. 29 CFR 4071.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4071.3 Section 4071.3 Labor Regulations... FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN NOTICES OR OTHER MATERIAL INFORMATION § 4071.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4071 of ERISA shall be $1,100....

  15. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used... the amount of $35,000,000. (b) Evidence of financial responsibility established and maintained by...

  16. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of...

  17. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amount. 308.100 Section 308.100 Shipping... and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  18. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used... the amount of $35,000,000. (b) Evidence of financial responsibility established and maintained by...

  19. 5 CFR 838.1006 - Amounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts payable. 838.1006 Section 838... Benefits § 838.1006 Amounts payable. (a) Money held by an executive agency or OPM that may be payable at... payments (refunds), the amount of the lump-sum credit. (3) In cases involving former spouse annuities,...

  20. 29 CFR 4302.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4302.3 Section 4302.3 Labor Regulations... PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN MULTIEMPLOYER PLAN NOTICES § 4302.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4302 of ERISA shall be $110....

  1. 29 CFR 4071.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4071.3 Section 4071.3 Labor Regulations... FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN NOTICES OR OTHER MATERIAL INFORMATION § 4071.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4071 of ERISA shall be $1,100....

  2. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insured amount. 308.100 Section 308.100 Shipping... and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  3. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  4. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insured amounts. 308.403 Section 308.403 Shipping... Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during... 10 percent, all as determined from the builder's records. (b) Postlaunching period. The...

  5. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  6. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  7. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  8. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts. 308.403 Section 308.403 Shipping... Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during... 10 percent, all as determined from the builder's records. (b) Postlaunching period. The...

  9. 12 CFR 1208.75 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 1208.75 Section 1208.75 Banks... Wage Garnishment § 1208.75 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the garnishment order issued under... period the amount of garnishment described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section. (b) Subject...

  10. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of...

  11. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  12. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  13. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  14. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES JOHN HEINZ NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Funding Allocation and Criteria § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form...

  15. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  16. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  17. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  18. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  19. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  20. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  1. Accumulation of particles on the surface of leaves during leaf expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gong, Huili; Liao, Wenbo; Wang, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Plants can effectively remove airborne particles from ambient air and consequently improve air quality and human health. The accumulation of particles on the leaf surfaces of three plant species with different epicuticular wax ultrastructures, such as thin films, platelets and tubules, was investigated during leaf expansion in Beijing under extremely high particulate matter (PM) concentration. The accumulation of particles on the leaf surfaces after bud break rapidly reached a high amount within 4-7 days. Rainfall occasionally resulted in a considerable increase in the accumulation of particles on the leaf surfaces at a high PM concentration, which resulted from the wet deposition of PM, and balanced the amount of PM on the leaf surfaces over a longer period. The equilibrium value of the particle cover area on the adaxial leaf surface of the three test species in this study was 10%-50% compared with 3%-35% on the abaxial leaf surface. The epicuticular wax ultrastructures contributed significantly to the PM adsorption of the leaves. The capability of these ultrastructures to capture PM decreased in the following order: thin films, platelets and tubules. The ridges (at a scale of 1-2 μm) on the leaf surfaces were more efficient at accumulating PM, particularly PM2.5, compared with the roughness (P-V distance) at a 5-20-μm scale. PMID:26093221

  2. Accumulation of particles on the surface of leaves during leaf expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gong, Huili; Liao, Wenbo; Wang, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Plants can effectively remove airborne particles from ambient air and consequently improve air quality and human health. The accumulation of particles on the leaf surfaces of three plant species with different epicuticular wax ultrastructures, such as thin films, platelets and tubules, was investigated during leaf expansion in Beijing under extremely high particulate matter (PM) concentration. The accumulation of particles on the leaf surfaces after bud break rapidly reached a high amount within 4-7 days. Rainfall occasionally resulted in a considerable increase in the accumulation of particles on the leaf surfaces at a high PM concentration, which resulted from the wet deposition of PM, and balanced the amount of PM on the leaf surfaces over a longer period. The equilibrium value of the particle cover area on the adaxial leaf surface of the three test species in this study was 10%-50% compared with 3%-35% on the abaxial leaf surface. The epicuticular wax ultrastructures contributed significantly to the PM adsorption of the leaves. The capability of these ultrastructures to capture PM decreased in the following order: thin films, platelets and tubules. The ridges (at a scale of 1-2 μm) on the leaf surfaces were more efficient at accumulating PM, particularly PM2.5, compared with the roughness (P-V distance) at a 5-20-μm scale.

  3. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  4. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  5. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  6. Congenital Cataract-Causing Mutation G129C in γC-Crystallin Promotes the Accumulation of Two Distinct Unfolding Intermediates That Form Highly Toxic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yi-Bo; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Zhao, Wei-Jie; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2015-08-28

    Cataract is a lens opacification disease prevalent worldwide. Cataract-causing mutations in crystallins generally lead to the formation of light-scattering particles in the lens. However, it remains unclear for the detailed structural and pathological mechanisms of most mutations. In this study, we showed that the G129C mutation in γC-crystallin, which is associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract, perturbed the unfolding process by promoting the accumulation of two distinct aggregation-prone intermediates under mild denaturing conditions. The abnormally accumulated intermediates escaped from the chaperone-like function of αA-crystallin during refolding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the mutation altered domain pairing geometry and allowed the penetration of extra solvent molecules into the domain binding interface, thereby weakening domain binding energy. Under mild denaturation conditions, the increased domain movements may facilitate the formation of non-native oligomers via domain swapping, which further assembled into amyloid-like fibrils. The intermediate that appeared at 1.6M guanidine hydrochloride was more compact and less aggregatory than the one populated at 0.9 M guanidine hydrochloride, which was caused by the increased solvation of acidic residues in the ion-pairing network via the competitive binding of guanidinium ions. More importantly, both the amyloid-like fibrils preformed in vitro and intracellular aggresomes formed by exogenously overexpressed mutant proteins significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death. The combined data from spectroscopic, structural and cellular studies strongly suggest that both the formation of light-scattering aggregates and the toxic effects of the aggregates may contribute to the onset and development of cataract.

  7. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats, Clara; Pedersen, Henrik D; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure volume measurements, and intramyocardial lipid accumulation was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Cardiac AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) levels were measured by Western blotting. Finally, an ischemia-reperfusion study was performed after 56 wk of feeding. FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed significant intramyocardial lipid accumulation, and cardiac hypertrophy became pronounced between 24 and 36 wk of feeding. FFFRs showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction during unstressed conditions, but their hearts were much more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion and had a decreased level of phosphorylated AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications.

  8. Accumulation of MS2, GA, and Qβ phages on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and drinking water biofilms under flow/non-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Pelleïeux, Sandra; Bertrand, Isabelle; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Mathieu, Laurence; Francius, Grégory; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    Accumulation of enteric viruses on surfaces within a drinking water distribution system was investigated in a reactor using three F-specific RNA bacteriophages (MS2, GA, and Qβ) as models of human pathogenic viruses. The influence of hydrodynamic versus hydrostatic conditions and the effect of the colonization of HDPE surfaces with two-month-old biofilms were assessed for virus accumulation on surfaces. In order to work under controlled laminar conditions and to study various wall shear stresses at the same time, a new rotating disc reactor was designed. Among the wall shear rates applied in the reactor (450 to 1640 s(-1)) no significant differences were observed concerning both the total number of bacteria, which was found to be around 1.7 × 10(7) cells/cm(2) and the virus concentrations on surfaces were about 3 × 10(4), 5 × 10(5) and 3 × 10(5) eq PFU/cm(2) for MS2, GA and Qβ phages, respectively. Comparison between static versus dynamic conditions revealed that both Brownian diffusion and convective diffusion were involved in the transport of these soft colloidal particles and an increase reaching about 1 log in virus concentrations measured on surfaces appeared when hydrodynamic conditions where applied. Our results also showed the influence of the colonization by two-month-old drinking water biofilms which led to a change in the level of virus adhesion. The implication of the physico-chemical properties was also underlined since different adhesion profiles were obtained for the three bacteriophages and MS2 phage was found to be the less adherent one whatever the conditions applied.

  9. Gene limiting cadmium accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisei; Yamaji, Naoki; Kono, Izumi; Huang, Chao Feng; Ando, Tsuyu; Yano, Masahiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2010-09-21

    Intake of toxic cadmium (Cd) from rice caused Itai-itai disease in the past and it is still a threat for human health. Therefore, control of the accumulation of Cd from soil is an important food-safety issue, but the molecular mechanism for the control is unknown. Herein, we report a gene (OsHMA3) responsible for low Cd accumulation in rice that was isolated from a mapping population derived from a cross between a high and low Cd-accumulating cultivar. The gene encodes a transporter belonging to the P(1B)-type ATPase family, but shares low similarity with other members. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that the transporter from the low-Cd cultivar is functional, but the transporter from the high-Cd cultivar had lost its function, probably because of the single amino acid mutation. The transporter is mainly expressed in the tonoplast of root cells at a similar level in both the low and high Cd-accumulating cultivars. Overexpression of the functional gene from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar selectively decreased accumulation of Cd, but not other micronutrients in the grain. Our results indicated that OsHMA3 from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar limits translocation of Cd from the roots to the above-ground tissues by selectively sequestrating Cd into the root vacuoles.

  10. Differential cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in sixteen tobacco cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.; Brennan, E. )

    1989-10-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plant genotype on cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in tobacco. When low levels of CdCl{sub 2} were added to the nutrient solution of 16 tobacco cultivars growing in sand culture, the heavy metal was partitioned in the following order: leaves > roots > stems. Because leaves are the commercial product, this pattern of partitioning is highly undersirable. The concentration of Cd accumulated in the tissues varied with plant genotype and level of Cd treatment. At the 0.25 ppm Cd treatment, a maximum of 127.6 ppm Cd was found in foliage of the Coker-48 variety, and at the 1.0 ppm Cd treatment, a maximum of 382.6 ppm Cd was detected in the foliage of NC-232. None of the Cd-treated tobacco plants exhibited visual foliar symptoms commonly observed in other plant species. A concentration of 0.25 ppm Cd stimulated shoot height, internode length and leaf number but inhibited total dry weight and percent dry weight. Cd phytotoxicity was found to vary with plant genotype and level of Cd treatment but not with the amount of Cd accumulated by the plant.

  11. Reversible mitochondrial DNA accumulation in nuclei of pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joel S; Cheng, Xin; Zhao, Qingshi; Underbayev, Chingiz; Gonzalez, J Patrick; Raveche, Elizabeth S; Fraidenraich, Diego; Ivessa, Andreas S

    2014-11-15

    According to the endosymbiotic hypothesis, the precursor of mitochondria invaded the precursor of eukaryotic cells, a process that began roughly 2 billion years ago. Since then, the majority of the genetic material translocated from the mitochondria to the nucleus, where now almost all mitochondrial proteins are expressed. Only a tiny amount of DNA remained in the mitochondria, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In this study, we report that the transfer of mtDNA fragments to the nucleus of pluripotent stem cells is still ongoing. We show by in situ hybridization and agarose DNA two-dimensional gel technique that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells contain high levels of mtDNA in the nucleus. We found that a large proportion of the accumulated mtDNA sequences appear to be extrachromosomal. Accumulation of mtDNA in the nucleus is present not only in the iPS cells, but also in embryonic stem (ES) cells. However upon differentiation, the level of mtDNA in the nuclei of iPS and ES cells is substantially reduced. This reversible accumulation of mtDNA in the nucleus supports the notion that the nuclear copy number of mtDNA sequences may provide a novel mechanism by which chromosomal DNA is dynamically regulated in pluripotent stem cells.

  12. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  13. Effect of albumin on net copper accumulation by fibroblasts and hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, G.L.; Palida, F.A.; Hadi, M.; Lonergan, P.A.; Ettinger, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The liver accumulates copper rapidly and preferentially from plasma. The effects of albumin on net copper accumulation by fibroblasts and hepatocytes were compared to determine whether preferential uptake involves hepatocyte-specific sequestering of copper. Although albumin inhibits the initial rates (30 s) of copper transport by fibroblasts and hepatocytes similarly, the effects of albumin on net copper accumulation (4 h) by these cell types were strikingly different. Fibroblasts accumulate only approximately 15% as much copper when equimolar albumin is present as from albumin-free media; hepatocytes accumulate about the same amount of copper with or without extracellular albumin present. Copper efflux data show that the special capacity of hepatocytes to accumulate copper in the presence of extracellular albumin is due to greater copper retention by hepatocytes than fibroblasts. The ability of hepatocytes to accumulate copper does not seem to be due to albumin-receptor-mediated uptake, since albumin was not co-transported with copper. The data are consistent with an equilibrium model of copper accumulation in which intracellular and extracellular copper are in equilibrium with intracellular and extracellular ligands. A high-affinity, copper-binding fraction that was previously identified in cytosols from hepatocytes was low or absent in fibroblasts. This may contain a liver-specific protein(s) that helps hepatocytes sequester and retain copper from albumin or serum-containing media. Irrespective of the exact species involved, the data are consistent with rapid, preferential copper uptake by the liver being due in part to a liver-specific, intracellular copper-binding protein(s) with a high binding affinity for copper.

  14. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium (137Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4–5 months after the Fukushima Dai–ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of 137Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total 137Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more 137Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of 137Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of 137Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing. PMID:24682011

  15. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2014-03-31

    This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4-5 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of (137)Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total (137)Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more (137)Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of (137)Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of (137)Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing.

  16. Single-Kernel Ionomic Profiles Are Highly Heritable Indicators of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Elemental Accumulation in Maize Grain (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan R.; Ziegler, Gregory; Lahner, Brett; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Foley, Rachel; Danku, John; Armstrong, Paul; Salt, David E.; Hoekenga, Owen A.

    2014-01-01

    The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel can be viewed in at least two distinct ways. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food and feed for people and animals. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can summarize the life history of a plant, combining genetic programs and environmental interactions. We assert that single-kernel-based phenotyping of the ionome is an effective method of analysis, as it represents a reasonable compromise between precision, efficiency, and power. Here, we evaluate potential pitfalls of this sampling strategy using several field-grown maize sample sets. We demonstrate that there is enough genetically determined diversity in accumulation of many of the elements assayed to overcome potential artifacts. Further, we demonstrate that environmental signals are detectable through their influence on the kernel ionome. We conclude that using single kernels as the sampling unit is a valid approach for understanding genetic and environmental effects on the maize kernel ionome. PMID:24489944

  17. Single-kernel ionomic profiles are highly heritable indicators of genetic and environmental influences on elemental accumulation in maize grain (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Baxter, Ivan R; Ziegler, Gregory; Lahner, Brett; Mickelbart, Michael V; Foley, Rachel; Danku, John; Armstrong, Paul; Salt, David E; Hoekenga, Owen A

    2014-01-01

    The ionome, or elemental profile, of a maize kernel can be viewed in at least two distinct ways. First, the collection of elements within the kernel are food and feed for people and animals. Second, the ionome of the kernel represents a developmental end point that can summarize the life history of a plant, combining genetic programs and environmental interactions. We assert that single-kernel-based phenotyping of the ionome is an effective method of analysis, as it represents a reasonable compromise between precision, efficiency, and power. Here, we evaluate potential pitfalls of this sampling strategy using several field-grown maize sample sets. We demonstrate that there is enough genetically determined diversity in accumulation of many of the elements assayed to overcome potential artifacts. Further, we demonstrate that environmental signals are detectable through their influence on the kernel ionome. We conclude that using single kernels as the sampling unit is a valid approach for understanding genetic and environmental effects on the maize kernel ionome.

  18. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  19. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts withheld. 32.8 Section 32.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8...

  20. 20 CFR 617.45 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7), between such locations... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount. 617.45 Section 617.45 Employees... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.45 Amount. (a) Items allowable. The...

  1. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject to withholding... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 313.95 Section 313.95 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of...

  2. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  3. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  4. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  5. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is...

  6. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is...

  7. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  8. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  9. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  10. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  11. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  12. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  13. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  14. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  15. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  16. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  17. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth. PMID:27141848

  18. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth. PMID:27141848

  19. Protein cryoprotective activity of a cytosolic small heat shock protein that accumulates constitutively in chestnut stems and is up-regulated by low and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Matas, Maria-Angeles; Nuñez, Paulina; Soto, Alvaro; Allona, Isabel; Casado, Rosa; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, Maria-Angeles; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Gomez, Luis

    2004-04-01

    Heat shock, and other stresses that cause protein misfolding and aggregation, trigger the accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in virtually all organisms. Among the HSPs of higher plants, those belonging to the small HSP (sHSP) family remain the least characterized in functional terms. We analyzed the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative organs of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), a temperate woody species that exhibits remarkable freezing tolerance. A constitutive sHSP subject to seasonal periodic changes of abundance was immunodetected in stems. This protein was identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and internal peptide sequencing as CsHSP17.5, a cytosolic class I sHSP previously described in cotyledons. Expression of the corresponding gene in stems was confirmed through cDNA cloning and reverse transcription-PCR. Stem protein and mRNA profiles indicated that CsHSP17.5 is significantly up-regulated in spring and fall, reaching maximal levels in late summer and, especially, in winter. In addition, cold exposure was found to quickly activate shsp gene expression in both stems and roots of chestnut seedlings kept in growth chambers. Our main finding is that purified CsHSP17.5 is very effective in protecting the cold-labile enzyme lactate dehydrogenase from freeze-induced inactivation (on a molar basis, CsHSP17.5 is about 400 times more effective as cryoprotectant than hen egg-white lysozyme). Consistent with these observations, repeated freezing/thawing did not affect appreciably the chaperone activity of diluted CsHSP17.5 nor its ability to form dodecameric complexes in vitro. Taken together, these results substantiate the hypothesis that sHSPs can play relevant roles in the acquisition of freezing tolerance.

  20. High-level accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomatoes expressing a synthetic miraculin gene with optimized codon usage terminated by the native miraculin terminator.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 μg/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage. PMID:21076835

  1. Betanin reduces the accumulation and cross-links of collagen in high-fructose-fed rat heart through inhibiting non-enzymatic glycation.

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Tan, Chang; Wang, Yiheng; Yang, Shaobin; Tan, Dehong

    2015-02-01

    We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has antioxidant properties would be protective against fructose-induced diabetic cardiac fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fructose water solution (30%) was accessed freely, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was administered by intra-gastric gavage continuously for 60 d. Rats were sacrificed after overnight fast. The rat blood and left ventricle were collected. In vitro antiglycation assay in bovine serum albumin/fructose system was also performed. In rats treated only with fructose, levels of plasma markers: glucose, insulin, HOMA and glycated hemoglobin rised, left ventricle collagen accumulated and cross-linked, profibrotic factor-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein expression increased, and soluble collagen decreased, compared with those in normal rats, showing fructose induces diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with betanin antagonized the changes of these parameters, demonstrating the antifibrotic role of betanin in the selected diabetic models. In further mechanistic study, betanin decreased protein glycation indicated by the decreased levels of protein glycation reactive intermediate (methylglyoxal), advanced glycation end product (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), antagonized oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation elicited by fructose feeding, suggesting inhibition of glycation, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation may be involved in the antifibrotic mechanisms. Betanin also showed anitglycative effect in BSA/fructose system, which supported that anitglycation was involved in betanin's protective roles in vivo. Taken together, the potential for using betanin as an auxillary therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy deserves to be explored further.

  2. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  3. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  4. Results of a pilot study and a proposal to build a high current pulsed nanosecond low energy Si ion beam for the detection of trace amounts of heavy impurities in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, F.M.; Zarcone, M.J.; Steski, D.; Smith, K.; Thieberger, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Throwe, J.; Cholewa, M. |

    1996-01-01

    Next generations of Very Large Scale Integrated circuits will require impurity contamination below 10{sup 8} atoms/cm. To detect such small quantities at or near the surface, new techniques have to be developed. The authors propose to build a high current nanosecond pulsed Si ion beam which can detect such small quantities of heavy impurities with a high mass resolution. A pilot study shows that the approach can be used to detect impurities in silicon below the 10{sup 7} atoms/cm{sup 2} level.

  5. Ethanol extract of the Prunus mume fruits stimulates glucose uptake by regulating PPAR-γ in C2C12 myotubes and ameliorates glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Ju; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to examine whether a 70% ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruits (EMS) exhibits anti-diabetic effects. Treatment with EMS increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, and also increased PPAR-γ activity or PPAR-γ mRNA expression. To confirm these in vitro results, we next conducted an animal experiment. A high-fat diet significantly increased the body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose levels in mice. Under the same conditions, 5% EMS attenuated the high-fat diet-induced increase in body weight and fat accumulation and improved the impaired fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that EMS contained chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, naringin, apigenin-7-glucoside, and hesperidin. Taken together, these findings suggest that EMS exerts an anti-diabetic effect both in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of PPAR-γ.

  6. Ethanol extract of the Prunus mume fruits stimulates glucose uptake by regulating PPAR-γ in C2C12 myotubes and ameliorates glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Ju; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to examine whether a 70% ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruits (EMS) exhibits anti-diabetic effects. Treatment with EMS increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, and also increased PPAR-γ activity or PPAR-γ mRNA expression. To confirm these in vitro results, we next conducted an animal experiment. A high-fat diet significantly increased the body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose levels in mice. Under the same conditions, 5% EMS attenuated the high-fat diet-induced increase in body weight and fat accumulation and improved the impaired fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that EMS contained chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, naringin, apigenin-7-glucoside, and hesperidin. Taken together, these findings suggest that EMS exerts an anti-diabetic effect both in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of PPAR-γ. PMID:23993593

  7. Lipid accumulation by oleaginous and non-oleaginous yeast strains in nitrogen and phosphate limitation.

    PubMed

    Kolouchová, Irena; Maťátková, Olga; Sigler, Karel; Masák, Jan; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species accumulating large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp.) and traditional biotechnological non-oleaginous ones characterized by high biomass yield (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as potential producers of biofuel-utilizable and nutritionally valuable lipids. The main objective was to increase lipid accumulation by increasing C/P ratio together with higher C/N ratio, while maintaining high biomass yield. The C/N ratio of 30 was found to lead to higher biomass content and the total lipid content increased significantly with higher C/P ratio. With higher ratios of both C/N and C/P, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in cell lipids increased while polyunsaturated FAs decreased. Oleaginous yeast species had a lower proportion of unsaturated FAs (approx. 80 %) than non-oleaginous strains (approx. 90 %). At a C/N ratio of 30 and C/P ratio 1043, T. cutaneum produced a high amount of ω-6 unsaturated linoleic acid, the precursor of some prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, while Candida sp. and K. polysporus accumulated a high content of palmitoleic acid.

  8. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chan, Christina K; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [(35)S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  9. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH.

  10. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  11. Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.

    PubMed

    Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

    2013-06-01

    Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 μg g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow.

  12. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  13. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  14. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  15. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  16. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  17. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped. PMID:25023479

  18. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped.

  19. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  20. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  1. Oxidative stress in marine bivalves tissues in response to accumulation of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chelomin, V.P.; Belcheva, N.N.; Zakartsev, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Using model aquarium experiments the authors have shown that the accumulation of heavy metals (copper and cadmium) by the tissues of marine bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mizuhopecten yessoensis) is followed by a complex of alterations in the lipid matrix of some membrane organelles. It is supposed that the disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes is the main mechanism in heavy metal-inducible damage, of membranes. This possibility is supported by results of levels of conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and Shiff`s bases, determined as indicators of lipid peroxidation in different tissues of molluscs, markedly increased with metal accumulation. Unlike to cadmium, the copper possess prooxidative activity, stimulating the peroxidation of membrane lipids directly. In spite of some distinctions the intracellular antioxidative systems (glutathione system and tocopherol) showed extreme sensitivity to the accumulation of both metals. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of these metals was followed by die changes of glutathione and tocopherol contents and the inhibition of glutathione-reductase. activity,, but it was not correlated with changes of Se-depending glutathioneperoxidase activity. As it results from kinetic data the most damages of glutathione system are revealed on this earliest stages of metal accumulation when metallothionein synthesis is on the low level. The amount of glutathione in the tissues was restored almost to their original level when metallothionein synthesis increases markedly. But, total amount of peroxides is retained on the high level for a long period of time. On the basis of results it is reasonable to assume that the accumulation of these metals by mollusc tissues does not proceed without leaving a trace. This process is a potential menace for increasing of destructive events in consequence of disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes.

  2. Accumulation of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight 134Cs and 607,000 Bq kg−1 dry weight 137Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil. PMID:24256969

  3. Spin accumulation in Si channels using CoFe/MgO/Si and CoFe/AlO{sub x}/Si tunnel contacts with high quality tunnel barriers prepared by radical-oxygen annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Akushichi, T. Shuto, Y.; Sugahara, S.; Takamura, Y.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate spin injection into Si channels using three-terminal spin-accumulation (3T-SA) devices with high-quality CoFe/MgO/n-Si and CoFe/AlO{sub x}/n-Si tunnel spin-injectors whose tunnel barriers are formed by radical oxidation of Mg and Al thin films deposited on Si(100) substrates and successive annealing under radical-oxygen exposure. When the MgO and AlO{sub x} barriers are not treated by the radical-oxygen annealing, the Hanle-effect signals obtained from the 3T-SA devices are closely fitted by a single Lorentz function representing a signal due to trap spins. On the other hand, when the tunnel barriers are annealed under radical-oxygen exposure, the Hanle-effect signals can be accurately fitted by the superposition of a Lorentz function and a non-Lorentz function representing a signal due to accumulated spins in the Si channel. These results suggest that the quality improvement of tunnel barriers treated by radical-oxygen annealing is highly effective for spin-injection into Si channels.

  4. Development of a novel fluorimetric bulk optode membrane based on meso-tetrakis(2-hydroxynaphthyl) porphyrin (MTHNP) for highly sensitive and selective monitoring of trace amounts of Hg2+ ions.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Marzieh; Beyzavi, Mohammad Hassan; Sharghi, Hashem

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescence spectra and response characteristics of two porphyrin compounds meso-tetrakis(2-hydroxynaphthyl) porphyrin and meso-tetra (2-thiophene) porphyrin (MTHNP) to Hg(2+) were investigated. MTHNP showed preferable fluorescence response to Hg(2+). Thereby, an efficient and selective fluorimetric optode membrane based on the fluorescence quenching of MTHNP for Hg(2+) ion determination at low concentration levels has been developed. The sensing membrane containing MTHNP reversibly responded to Hg(2+) with a working concentration range covering from 5.0×10(-9) to 1.25×10(-5)M with a relatively fast response time less than 3min. In addition to high stability, reversibility and reproducibility, the sensor showed extremely high selectivity toward Hg(2+) ion with respect to some alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metal ions. The limit of detection for Hg(2+) was 5.0×10(-9)M. The proposed fluorescent sensor was successfully applied to the direct determination of mercury content of biofenac eye drop, hair and different water samples. PMID:25579943

  5. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  6. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed.

  7. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

  8. NAD+ accumulation during pollen maturation in Arabidopsis regulating onset of germination.

    PubMed

    Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Kentaro; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Goto, Fumiyuki; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Although the nicotinamide nucleotides NAD(H) and NADP(H) are essential for various metabolic reactions that play major roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the significance of NAD biosynthesis is not well understood. Here, we investigated the dynamics of pollen nicotinamide nucleotides in response to imbibition, a representative germination cue. Metabolic analysis with capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that excess amount of NAD+ is accumulated in freshly harvested dry pollen, whereas it dramatically decreased immediately after contact with water. Importantly, excess of NAD+ impaired pollen tube growth. Moreover, NAD+ accumulation was retained after pollen was imbibed in the presence of NAD+-consuming reaction inhibitors and pollen germination was greatly retarded. Pollen deficient in the nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT) gene, encoding a key enzyme in NAD biosynthesis, and a lack of NAD+ accumulation in the gametophyte, showed precocious pollen tube germination inside the anther locule and vigorous tube growth under high-humidity conditions. Hence, the accumulation of excess NAD+ is not essential for pollen germination, but instead participates in regulating the timing of germination onset. These results indicate that NAD+ accumulation acts to negatively regulate germination and a decrease in NAD+ plays an important role in metabolic state transition.

  9. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability.

  10. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability. PMID:26742090

  11. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thalianaT-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth. PMID:24176057

  12. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth.

  13. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth. PMID:24176057

  14. The Herbal Medicine KBH-1 Inhibits Fat Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Reduces High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity through Regulation of the AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Taesoo; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Kwang Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Yun, Bora; Jeon, Jongwook; Kim, Sang Kyum; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel formulation of an herbal extract, KBH-1, has an inhibitory effect on obesity. To determine its anti-obesity effects and its underlying mechanism, we performed anti-obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were analyzed for lipid accumulation as well as the protein and gene expression of molecular targets involved in fatty acid synthesis. To determine whether KBH-1 oral administration results in a reduction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we examined five groups (n = 9) of C57BL/6 mice as follows: 10% kcal fat diet-fed mice (ND), 60% kcal fat diet-fed mice (HFD), HFD-fed mice treated with orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin, marketed under the trade name Xenical), HFD-fed mice treated with 150 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 150) and HFD-fed mice treated with 300 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 300). During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, KBH-1 significantly reduced lipid accumulation and down-regulated the expression of master adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β, C/EBP α and peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor (PPAR) γ, which led to the suppression of the expression of several adipocyte-specific genes and proteins. KBH-1 also markedly phosphorylated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, KBH-1-induced the inhibition effect on lipid accumulation and AMPK-mediated signal activation were decreased by blocking AMPK phosphorylation using AMPK siRNA. Furthermore, daily oral administration of KBH-1 resulted in dose-dependent decreases in body weight, fat pad mass and fat tissue size without systemic toxicity. These results suggest that KBH-1 inhibits lipid accumulation by down-regulating the major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway by regulating the AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice with HFD-induced obesity. These results implicate KBH-1, a safe herbal

  15. Heat-killed Lactobacillus Reuteri GMNL-263 Prevents Epididymal Fat Accumulation and Cardiac Injury in High-Calorie Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Po-Hsiang; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Padma, V Vijaya; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-calorie diet-induced obesity leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction and apoptosis. Impaired regulation of epididymal fat content in obese patients has been known to increase the risk of cardiac injury. In our study, a lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263, was evaluated for its potential to reduce body weight and body fat ratio and to prevent heart injury in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Lactic acid bacteria supplementation restored the cardiac function and decreased the physiological changes in the heart of the obese rats. In addition, the Fas/Fas-associated protein pathway-induced caspase 3/e Poly polymerase mediated apoptosis in the cardiomyocytes of the obese rats was reversed in the Lr263-treated rats. These results reveal that fed with Lr-263 reduces body fat ratio, inhibits caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and restores cardiac function in obese rats through recovery of ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Our results indicated that the administration of Lr263 lactic acid bacteria can significantly down-regulate body fat and prevent cardiomyocyte injury in obese rats. PMID:27499689

  16. Transgenic potato tubers accumulate high levels of 1-kestose and nystose: functional identification of a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) blossom discs.

    PubMed

    Hellwege, E M; Gritscher, D; Willmitzer, L; Heyer, A G

    1997-11-01

    By screening a cDNA library of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) blossom discs for fructosyltransferases, we isolated a clone designated Cy21. The deduced amino acid sequence shows homology to acid beta-fructosyl hydrolases and to the sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) of barley. Transiently expressed in Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts, the Cy21 gene-product synthesized 1-kestose, indicating that Cy21 codes for a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST). The enzyme worked at physiologically relevant sucrose concentrations (25 mM sucrose). In the protoplast system, 1-kestose seemed to be the only fructan product of the 1-SST. The enzyme activity was not affected by pyridoxal-HCl, an inhibitor of both the beta-fructosyl hydrolase and the fructosyltransferase activity of invertases. The fructosyltransferase activity of the Cy21 gene-product, however, could be inhibited by Zn2+, Ag+ and Cu2+ ions. In artichoke plants the Cy21 transcript was highly abundant in primary roots and blossom discs. Transgenic potato tubers expressing Cy21 contain high levels of 1-kestose along with nystose and traces of fructosyl-nystose, supporting the conclusion that the Cy21 clone encodes a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase.

  17. Heat-killed Lactobacillus Reuteri GMNL-263 Prevents Epididymal Fat Accumulation and Cardiac Injury in High-Calorie Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Po-Hsiang; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Padma, V. Vijaya; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-calorie diet-induced obesity leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction and apoptosis. Impaired regulation of epididymal fat content in obese patients has been known to increase the risk of cardiac injury. In our study, a lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263, was evaluated for its potential to reduce body weight and body fat ratio and to prevent heart injury in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Lactic acid bacteria supplementation restored the cardiac function and decreased the physiological changes in the heart of the obese rats. In addition, the Fas/Fas-associated protein pathway-induced caspase 3/e Poly polymerase mediated apoptosis in the cardiomyocytes of the obese rats was reversed in the Lr263-treated rats. These results reveal that fed with Lr-263 reduces body fat ratio, inhibits caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and restores cardiac function in obese rats through recovery of ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Our results indicated that the administration of Lr263 lactic acid bacteria can significantly down-regulate body fat and prevent cardiomyocyte injury in obese rats. PMID:27499689

  18. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    PubMed Central

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  19. Re-analysis of protein data reveals the germination pathway and up accumulation mechanism of cell wall hydrolases during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum- a high altitude plant.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vivek; Bagler, Ganesh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum seed Germination protein interaction Network (PGN) was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein (DAP) data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein-protein interaction network (AtPIN). The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10,519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, eight proteins which are known to be involved in signaling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification, and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum.

  20. Re-analysis of protein data reveals the germination pathway and up accumulation mechanism of cell wall hydrolases during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum- a high altitude plant

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Vivek; Bagler, Ganesh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum seed Germination protein interaction Network (PGN) was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein (DAP) data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein–protein interaction network (AtPIN). The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10,519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, eight proteins which are known to be involved in signaling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification, and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum. PMID:26579141

  1. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  2. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity.

  3. A Fusion between Domains of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Maize 27 kD γ-Zein Accumulates to High Levels in the Endoplasmic Reticulum without Forming Protein Bodies in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Ceresoli, Valentina; Mainieri, Davide; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Weinstein, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2) is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodeling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD γ-zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad) in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs. PMID:27047526

  4. Accumulation of CD11b⁺Gr-1⁺ cells in the lung, blood and bone marrow of mice infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Long, James P; Kotur, Mark S; Stark, Gregory V; Warren, Richard L; Kasoji, Manjula; Craft, Jeremy L; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Katze, Michael G; Waters, Katrina M; Vasconcelos, Daphne; Sabourin, Patrick J; Bresler, Herbert S; Sabourin, Carol L

    2013-06-01

    Infection with pathogenic influenza viruses is associated with intense inflammatory disease. Here, we investigated the innate immune response in mice infected with H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/04 and with reassortant human H1N1 A/Texas/36/91 viruses containing the virulence genes hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and NS1 of the 1918 pandemic virus. Inclusion of the 1918 HA and NA glycoproteins rendered a seasonal H1N1 virus capable of inducing an exacerbated host innate immune response similar to that observed for highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/04 virus. Infection with 1918 HA/NA:Tx/91 and A/Vietnam/1203/04 were associated with severe lung pathology, increased cytokine and chemokine production, and significant immune cell changes, including the presence of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in the blood, lung and bone marrow. Significant differential gene expression in the lung included pathways for cell death, apoptosis, production and response to reactive oxygen radicals, as well as arginine and proline metabolism and chemokines associated with monocyte and neutrophil/granulocyte accumulation and/or activation. Arginase was produced in the lung of animals infected with A/Vietnam/1204. These results demonstrate that the innate immune cell response results in the accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells and products that have previously been shown to contribute to T cell suppression.

  5. Rice RCN1/OsABCG5 mutation alters accumulation of essential and nonessential minerals and causes a high Na/K ratio, resulting in a salt-sensitive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Nagasawa, Hidetaka; Yamashiro, Nobuhiro; Yasuno, Naoko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Kitazawa, Hideyuki; Takano, Sho; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Tani, Masayuki; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2014-07-01

    Mineral balance and salt stress are major factors affecting plant growth and yield. Here, we characterized the effects of rice (Oryza sativa L.) reduced culm number1 (rcn1), encoding a G subfamily ABC transporter (OsABCG5) involved in accumulation of essential and nonessential minerals, the Na/K ratio, and salt tolerance. Reduced potassium and elevated sodium in field-grown plants were evident in rcn1 compared to original line 'Shiokari' and four independent rcn mutants, rcn2, rcn4, rcn5 and rcn6. A high Na/K ratio was evident in the shoots and roots of rcn1 under K starvation and salt stress in hydroponically cultured plants. Downregulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 in rcn1 shoots under salt stress demonstrated that normal function of RCN1/OsABCG5 is essential for upregulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 under salt stress. The accumulation of various minerals in shoots and roots was also altered in the rcn1 mutant compared to 'Shiokari' under control conditions, potassium starvation, and salt and d-sorbitol treatments. The rcn1 mutation resulted in a salt-sensitive phenotype. We concluded that RCN1/OsABCG5 is a salt tolerance factor that acts via Na/K homeostasis, at least partly by regulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 in shoots.

  6. High Preformed Vitamin A Intake during Pregnancy Prevents Embryonic Accumulation of Intact β-Carotene from the Maternal Circulation in Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Costabile, Brianna; Rodas, Rebeka; Quadro, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The vitamin A precursor β-carotene (BC) promotes mammalian embryonic development by serving as a source of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) to the developing tissues. In the Western world, increased consumption of dietary supplements, including vitamin A and BC, is common; however, the consequences of maternal high preformed vitamin A intake on embryonic uptake and metabolism of BC are poorly understood. Objective: This study investigated vitamin A and BC metabolism in developing mouse tissues after a single BC administration to pregnant wild-type (WT) mice fed purified diets with different vitamin A concentrations. Methods: WT dams fed a sufficient vitamin A (VA-S; 4.2 μg of retinol/g of diet), high vitamin A (VA-H; 33 μg of retinol/g of diet), or excess vitamin A (VA-E; 66 μg of retinol/g of diet) diet throughout gestation were intraperitoneally injected with BC or vehicle at 13.5 d postcoitum (dpc). At 14.5 dpc, retinoid and BC concentrations in maternal serum and liver, placenta, and embryo were quantified by HPLC; expressions of genes controlling retinoid and BC homeostasis were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Maternal lipoprotein BC concentrations were analyzed by density gradient ultracentrifugation followed by HPLC. Results: Intact BC was undetectable only in embryos from VA-E + BC dams. Relative to the VA-S + vehicle group, placentas from VA-S + BC dams showed 39% downregulation of LDL-receptor–related protein 1 (Lrp1 ); 35% downregulation of VLDL receptor (Vldlr); 56% reduced mRNA expression of β-carotene 15,15′-oxygenase (Bco1); and 80% upregulation of β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase (Bco2). Placental cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (Cyp26A1) was upregulated 2-fold in the VA-E group compared with the VA-S group, regardless of maternal treatment. Conclusions: In mice, transfer of intact BC to the embryo is attenuated by high tissue vitamin A concentrations. Maternal vitamin A intake and BC

  7. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.A.; Caldwell, M.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1984-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in sodium uptake between populations of A. tridentata, A. falcata and A. gardneri, with some populations having less than 0.1% leaf sodium and other populations having up to 5 or 6%. In three experiments (a field study, a greenhouse pot study and a hydroponics study) there were no significant differences in salinity tolerance between sodium accumulating and nonaccumulating A. canescens: both genotypes were highly salt tolerant. There was a significant buildup of sodium in the soil beneath sodium accumulating Atriplex plants, both in natural populations and on revegetated oil shale study plots. The sodium buildup was not sufficient to be detrimental to the growth or establishment of most herbaceous species, but with older Atriplex plants or with more saline soil, the buildup could potentially be detrimental. 14 references, 42 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Role of sooty mold fungi in accumulation of fine-particle-associated PAHs and metals on deciduous leaves.

    PubMed

    Jouraeva, Venera A; Johnson, David L; Hassett, John P; Nowak, David J; Shipunova, Natalia A; Barbarossa, Dana

    2006-11-01

    The focus of this research was on elucidation of the role of deciduous tree ecosystems in accumulation of fine-particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals on leaves of deciduous trees. The studied species were Tilia x euchlora (frequently infested by sooty mold fungi) and Pyrus calleryana (unaffected by sooty mold fungi). The selected species have similar leaf morphology and were exposed to identical environmental conditions. Intra-species comparison showed that moldy linden leaves accumulate significantly higher amounts of PAHs and metals than unaffected linden leaves. Inter-species comparison revealed that in the absence of sooty mold fungi, physico-chemical properties of epicuticular waxes, rather than the amounts of waxes, might play an important role in accumulation of particulate matter on leaves. The accumulation and/or degradation of a number of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs on leaves was temperature dependent. The results show that the presence of sooty mold fungi on deciduous leaves alters either the accumulation modes and/or degradation pathways of PAHs on deciduous leaves.

  9. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  10. Frequency and duty cycle modulation optimization in minimizing thermal accumulation effect in Z-scan measurement with high-repetition-rate laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnan Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Noor, Ahmad Shukri Muhammad; Rashid, Suraya Abdul; Adzir Mahdi, Mohd

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the optimization of the chopper frequency and duty cycle in a Z-scan measurement with a 250 MHz high-repetition-rate (HRR) femtosecond laser to minimize the thermal lensing effect due to cumulative heating of the sample. The result shows that such minimization can be achieved by keeping the modulated exposure time on the sample shorter than the thermal diffusivity decay time tc. The minimum chopper frequency fmin is predicted by relating the duty cycle factor F with tc, while maintaining stable peak and valley transmittances, i.e., ΔTp and ΔTv, respectively. Furthermore, a lower fmin is obtained by taking a stable range of the peak-valley difference ΔTpv into consideration. The optimization allows for the low operational modulation frequency of Z-scan measurement with reduced thermal influence, thus enabling simple management of the thermal lensing effect.

  11. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  12. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  13. Long-term hyperphagia and caloric restriction caused by low- or high-density husbandry have differential effects on zebrafish postembryonic development, somatic growth, fat accumulation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Leibold, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia) and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI) displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis

  14. Long-Term Hyperphagia and Caloric Restriction Caused by Low- or High-Density Husbandry Have Differential Effects on Zebrafish Postembryonic Development, Somatic Growth, Fat Accumulation and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia) and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI) displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis

  15. Relationship of p53 accumulation in peripheral tissues of high-fat diet-induced obese rats with decrease in metabolic and oncogenic signaling of insulin.

    PubMed

    Homayounfar, Reza; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Cheraghpour, Makan; Ghorbani, Asghar; Zand, Hamid

    2015-04-01

    This paper aimed to explore the role of p53 in adipose and some other peripheral tissues of a diet-induced obese model and targeted it using pharmacological approach to ameliorate diet-induced insulin resistance. Five week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed on low-fat diet (13% control lean group), high-fat diet (41% obese group), or high-fat diet plus a single dose of pifithrin-α in the end of experiments (PFT group). Insulin, glucose, and other serum parameters were analyzed by standard colorimetric kits. Protein levels were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence methods. After 12weeks, both body weight and insulin resistance were significantly higher in obese rats than in the control ones. P53 and PTEN protein levels were markedly elevated in peripheral tissues in addition to adipose tissues. AKT activation was decreased in the peripheral tissues of obese rats and was in correlation with the increase of p53 and PTEN level. Systemic pifithrin-α administration considerably diminished p53 levels and ameliorated AKT phosphorylation in all peripheral tissues including adipose tissues. Interestingly, the systemic inhibition of p53 was in correlation with improving insulin glucose at serum level. The present results clearly showed that p53 activation in peripheral tissues was in correlation with decreased insulin action. These results indicated p53 activation in the peripheral tissues of obese subjects as a protective mechanism against chronic insulin elevation, suggested that p53 could be a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  16. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...