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Sample records for accumulates high levels

  1. The HSP terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana induces a high level of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kurokawa, Natsuko; Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Kato, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-28

    High-level accumulation of the target recombinant protein is a significant issue in heterologous protein expression using transgenic plants. Miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, was accumulated in transgenic tomatoes using an expression cassette in which the miraculin gene was expressed by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the heat shock protein (HSP) terminator (MIR-HSP). The HSP terminator was derived from heat shock protein 18.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana . Using this HSP-containing cassette, the miraculin concentration in T0 transgenic tomato lines was 1.4-13.9% of the total soluble protein (TSP), and that in the T1 transgenic tomato line homozygous for the miraculin gene reached 17.1% of the TSP. The accumulation level of the target protein was comparable to levels observed with chloroplast transformation. The high-level accumulation of miraculin in T0 transgenic tomato lines achieved by the HSP terminator was maintained in the successive T1 generation, demonstrating the genetic stability of this accumulation system. PMID:21861502

  2. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  3. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1). PMID:25056754

  4. High hepcidin level accounts for the nigral iron accumulation in acute peripheral iron intoxication rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Song, Ning; Xie, Anmu; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Hepcidin is considered to be a circulatory hormone and a major mechanism regulating iron homeostasis. Our previous publication revealed that acute iron intoxication induced iron deposit and dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) of a rat model. However, whether and how hepcidin functions in this nigral iron accumulation has not been elucidated. In the present study, we observed a decreased of FPN1 protein level in the SN triggered by peripheral iron overload within 4 h, which correlated with a high hepcidin level. To further investigate the role of intracellular hepcidin under iron overload circumstances, we assessed the expression of hepcidin mRNA and FPN1 protein in vitro. We observed that hepcidin mRNA level was up-regulated and FPN1 protein level was down-regulated in MES23.5 dopaminergic cells in a period of 4h incubation with iron. Both in pCMV-XL4-hepcidin transfected and hepcidin-treated cells, decreased FPN1 protein levels were observed. Our data provide direct evidence that the role for intracellular hepcidin generated in the SN is particularly relevant to restrict iron release by down-regulation FPN1 expression in this region, thus an important contributor to the abnormal iron deposit occurred at an early stage in conditions of peripheral iron intoxication. PMID:22659129

  5. High-Level Accumulation of Triacylglycerol and Starch in Photoautotrophically Grown Chlamydomonas debaryana NIES-2212.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae have the potential to produce triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch, which provide alternative sources of biofuel. A problem in using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model for TAG production has been that this alga lacks phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is thought to be important for TAG synthesis in plants. We found that C. debaryana is one of the rare species of Chlamydomonas having PC. Here we show that this strain, grown under complete photoautotrophic conditions, accumulated TAG and starch up to 20 and 250 pg per cell, respectively, during the stationary phase without nutrient deprivation. Addition of nutrients in this state did not cause loss of TAG, which was found in dilution with fresh medium. The photosynthetically produced TAG contained a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, which is a preferred property as a material for biodiesel. The oil bodies were present in the cytoplasm, either between the cytoplasmic membrane and the chloroplast or between the chloroplast and the nucleus, whereas the starch granules were present within the chloroplast. Oil bodies were also deposited as a broad layer in the peripheral space of the cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, and might be easily released from the cells by genetic, chemical or mechanical manipulation. These results suggest that C. debaryana is a promising seed organism for developing a good biofuel producer.

  6. High REDOX RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 Levels Result in Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Arabidopsis thaliana Shoots and Roots.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Johnson, Joy Michal; Hieno, Ayaka; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Godfrey, Rinesh; Obokata, Junichi; Sherameti, Irena; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Böhmer, Frank-D; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1) in Arabidopsis is rapidly and transiently upregulated by H2O2, as well as biotic- and abiotic-induced redox signals. RRTF1 is highly conserved in angiosperms, but its physiological role remains elusive. Here we show that inactivation of RRTF1 restricts and overexpression promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to stress. Transgenic lines overexpressing RRTF1 are impaired in root and shoot development, light sensitive, and susceptible to Alternaria brassicae infection. These symptoms are diminished by the beneficial root endophyte Piriformospora indica, which reduces ROS accumulation locally in roots and systemically in shoots, and by antioxidants and ROS inhibitors that scavenge ROS. More than 800 genes were detected in mature leaves and seedlings of transgenic lines overexpressing RRTF1; ∼ 40% of them have stress-, redox-, ROS-regulated-, ROS-scavenging-, defense-, cell death- and senescence-related functions. Bioinformatic analyses and in vitro DNA binding assays demonstrate that RRTF1 binds to GCC-box-like sequences in the promoter of RRTF1-responsive genes. Upregulation of RRTF1 by stress stimuli and H2O2 requires WRKY18/40/60. RRTF1 is co-regulated with the phylogenetically related RAP2.6, which contains a GCC-box-like sequence in its promoter, but transgenic lines overexpressing RAP2.6 do not accumulate higher ROS levels. RRTF1 also stimulates systemic ROS accumulation in distal non-stressed leaves. We conclude that the elevated levels of the highly conserved RRTF1 induce ROS accumulation in response to ROS and ROS-producing abiotic and biotic stress signals.

  7. Aluminosilicate Formation in High Level Waste Evaporators: A Mechanism for Uranium Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2002-02-08

    High level waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site (SRS) process radioactive waste to concentrate supernate and thus conserve tank space. In June of 1997, difficulty in evaporator operation was initially observed. This operational difficulty evidenced itself as a plugging of the evaporator's gravity drain line (GDL). The material blocking the GDL was determined to be a sodium aluminosilicate. Following a mechanical cleaning of the GDL, the evaporator was returned to service until October 1999. At this time massive deposits were discovered in the evaporator pot. As a result of the changes in evaporator chemistry and the resulting formation of aluminosilicate deposits in the evaporator, a comprehensive research and development program has been undertaken. This program is underway in order to assist in understanding the new evaporator chemistry and gain insight into the deposition phenomena. Key results from testing in FY01 have demonstrated that the chemistry of the evaporator feed favors aluminosilicate formation. Both the reaction kinetics and particle growth of the aluminosilicate material under SRS evaporator conditions has been demonstrated to occur within the residence times utilized in the SRS evaporator operation. Batch and continuous-flow experiments at known levels of supersaturation have shown a significant correlation between the deposition of aluminosilicates and mixing intensity in the vessel. Advances in thermodynamic modeling of the evaporator chemistry have been accomplished. The resulting thermodynamic model has been related to the operational history of the evaporator, is currently assisting in feed selection, and could potentially assist in expanding the operating envelopes technical baselines for evaporator operation.

  8. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. )

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

  10. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale.

  11. Constitutive high-level SOS1 expression and absence of HKT1;1 expression in the salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya.

    PubMed

    Katschnig, D; Bliek, T; Rozema, J; Schat, H

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity on ion accumulation and expression of candidate salt tolerance genes in the highly tolerant salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya and the taxonomically related glycophytic Spinacia oleracea. S. dolichostachya, in comparison with S. oleracea, constitutively expressed SOS1 at a high level, but did not detectably express HKT1;1. These findings suggest that the constitutive high level of shoot salt accumulation in S. dolichostachya is accomplished through enhancement of SOS1-mediated Na(+) xylem loading, in combination with complete suppression of HKT1;1-mediated Na(+) retrieval from the xylem. Our findings demonstrate the importance of gene expression comparisons between highly tolerant halophytes and taxonomically related glycophytes to improve the understanding of mechanisms of Na(+) movement and salt tolerance in plants. PMID:25804817

  12. Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Park, Hyunwoo; Koster, Karen L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nguyen, Hanh T M; Shanklin, John; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-01-01

    Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:1∆9) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1∆11), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical ∆9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to ∆9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant ∆9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with ~17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the ∆9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to ~5% of the seed oil versus ~12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications. PMID:25065607

  13. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  14. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  15. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen.

  16. High level accumulation of gamma linolenic acid (C18:3Δ6.9,12 cis) in transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L; Shewmaker, Christine; Harry, Indra; Yurchenko, Olga P; Zhang, Mei; Reed, Catherine; Oinam, Gunamani S; Zaplachinski, Steve; Fidantsef, Ana; Boothe, Joseph G; Moloney, Maurice M

    2012-04-01

    Gamma linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3Δ6,9,12 cis), also known as γ-Linolenic acid, is an important essential fatty acid precursor for the synthesis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and important pathways involved in human health. GLA is synthesized from linoleic acid (LA; C18:2Δ9,12 cis) by endoplasmic reticulum associated Δ6-desaturase activity. Currently sources of GLA are limited to a small number of plant species with poor agronomic properties, and therefore an economical and abundant commercial source of GLA in an existing crop is highly desirable. To this end, the seed oil of a high LA cultivated species of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) was modified by transformation with Δ6-desaturase from Saprolegnia diclina resulting in levels exceeding 70% (v/v) of GLA. Levels around 50% (v/v) of GLA in seed oil was achieved when Δ12-/Δ6-desaturases from Mortierella alpina was over-expressed in safflower cultivars with either a high LA or high oleic (OA; C18:1Δ9 cis) background. The differences in the overall levels of GLA suggest the accumulation of the novel fatty acid was not limited by a lack of incorporation into the triacylgylcerol backbone (>66% GLA achieved), or correlated with gene dosage (GLA levels independent of gene copy number), but rather reflected the differences in Δ6-desaturase activity from the two sources. To date, these represent the highest accumulation levels of a newly introduced fatty acid in a transgenic crop. Events from these studies have been propagated and recently received FDA approval for commercialization as Sonova™400.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 accumulates to high levels in culture medium of senescent and quiescent human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S; Moerman, E J; Jones, R A; Baxter, R C

    1991-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA levels were consistently higher in both senescent normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) at late passage (old cells) and prematurely senescent HDFs from a subject with Werner syndrome (WS) during serum depletion and repletion of growth medium and during proliferation from sparse to high-density inhibited cultures, compared to normal early-passage (young) HDFs. However, IGFBP-3 protein accumulated to higher levels in conditioned medium of old cells than in medium of WS and young cells, in that order, under the same conditions. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was not detected in naive medium or in any of the media conditioned by these three cell types, whereas IGF-II was detectable in serum-repleted medium and remained relatively constant. Thus, molar ratios of IGFBP-3/IGF-II were consistently higher in old and WS cells and increased substantially as all three cell types became quiescent, due to either serum depletion or high cell density. These data are consistent with either an adaptive or a causal role for IGFBP-3 protein in the senescent and quiescent growth arrest of HDFs.

  18. Development of a novel transgenic rice with hypocholesterolemic activity via high-level accumulation of the α' subunit of soybean β-conglycinin.

    PubMed

    Cabanos, Cerrone; Kato, Naoki; Amari, Yoshiki; Fujiwara, Keigo; Ohno, Tomoki; Shimizu, Kousuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Masaya; Kuroda, Masaharu; Masuda, Taro; Takaiwa, Fumio; Utsumi, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Soybean 7S globulin, known as β-conglycinin, has been shown to regulate human plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the α' subunit of β-conglycinin has specifically been shown to possess low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering activity. Therefore, accumulation of the α' subunit of β-conglycinin in rice seeds could lead to the production of new functional rice that could promote human health. Herein, we used the low-glutelin rice mutant 'Koshihikari' (var. a123) and suppressed its glutelins and prolamins, the major seed storage proteins of rice, by RNA interference. The accumulation levels of the α' subunit in the lines with suppressed glutelin and prolamin levels were >20 mg in 1 g of rice seeds, which is considerably higher than those in previous studies. Oral administration of the transgenic rice containing the α' subunit exhibited a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; the serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly reduced when compared to those of the control rice (var. a123). The cholesterol-lowering action by transgenic rice accumulating the α' subunit induces a significant increase in fecal bile acid excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. This is the first report that transgenic rice exhibits a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats in vivo by using the β-conglycinin α' subunit.

  19. High-level accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomatoes expressing a synthetic miraculin gene with optimized codon usage terminated by the native miraculin terminator.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 μg/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage. PMID:21076835

  20. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  1. Characterization of oleaginous yeasts accumulating high levels of lipid when cultivated in glycerol and their potential for lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-12-01

    This study attempted to identify oleaginous yeasts and selected the strain that accumulated the largest quantity of lipid for lipid production from glycerol. Two-step screening of 387 yeast strains revealed 23 oleaginous strains that accumulated quantities of lipid higher than 20 % of their biomass when cultivated in glycerol. These strains were identified to be four ascomycetous yeast species i.e. Candida silvae, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma caribbica, and Pichia manshurica, and five basidiomycetous yeast species i.e. Cryptococcus cf. podzolicus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 accumulated the highest quantity of lipid equal to 65.2 % of its biomass (3.9 g L(-1) lipid and 6.0 g L(-1) biomass) by shaking flask cultivation in crude glycerol. The main fatty acids in the accumulated lipid of this strain consisted of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Therefore, R. fluviale DMKU-RK253 has potential for producing lipid for biodiesel manufacturing using crude glycerol as a feedstock.

  2. Salicylic acid induction-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis express PR-2 and PR-5 and accumulate high levels of camalexin after pathogen inoculation.

    PubMed Central

    Nawrath, C; Métraux, J P

    1999-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, systemic acquired resistance against pathogens has been associated with the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of the pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5. We report here the isolation of two nonallelic mutants impaired in the pathway leading to SA biosynthesis. These SA induction-deficient (sid) mutants do not accumulate SA after pathogen inoculation and are more susceptible to both virulent and avirulent forms of Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica. However, sid mutants are not as susceptible to these pathogens as are transgenic plants expressing the nahG gene encoding an SA hydroxylase that degrades SA to catechol. In contrast to NahG plants, only the expression of PR-1 is strongly reduced in sid mutants, whereas PR-2 and PR-5 are still expressed after pathogen attack. Furthermore, the accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin is normal. These results indicate that SA-independent compensation pathways that do not operate in NahG plants are active in sid mutants. One of the mutants is allelic to eds5 (for enhanced disease susceptibility), whereas the other mutant has not been described previously. PMID:10449575

  3. Transgenic potato tubers accumulate high levels of 1-kestose and nystose: functional identification of a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) blossom discs.

    PubMed

    Hellwege, E M; Gritscher, D; Willmitzer, L; Heyer, A G

    1997-11-01

    By screening a cDNA library of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) blossom discs for fructosyltransferases, we isolated a clone designated Cy21. The deduced amino acid sequence shows homology to acid beta-fructosyl hydrolases and to the sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) of barley. Transiently expressed in Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts, the Cy21 gene-product synthesized 1-kestose, indicating that Cy21 codes for a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST). The enzyme worked at physiologically relevant sucrose concentrations (25 mM sucrose). In the protoplast system, 1-kestose seemed to be the only fructan product of the 1-SST. The enzyme activity was not affected by pyridoxal-HCl, an inhibitor of both the beta-fructosyl hydrolase and the fructosyltransferase activity of invertases. The fructosyltransferase activity of the Cy21 gene-product, however, could be inhibited by Zn2+, Ag+ and Cu2+ ions. In artichoke plants the Cy21 transcript was highly abundant in primary roots and blossom discs. Transgenic potato tubers expressing Cy21 contain high levels of 1-kestose along with nystose and traces of fructosyl-nystose, supporting the conclusion that the Cy21 clone encodes a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase.

  4. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residue in edible cattle tissues from northeastern part of Egypt: High accumulation level of OCPs in tongue.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abdallah Fikry A; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yohannes, Yared B; Darwish, Wageh S; Eldaly, Elsaid A; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In order to assess the potential human health risks associated with OCPs, edible cattle tissues (liver, kidney and tongue) were collected from three slaughter houses in Mansoura, Zagazig and Ismailia cities, Egypt. Levels of 22 OCPs such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin and endrin (Drins), chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HPTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues were investigated. Among the investigated OCPs, HCHs represented the most dominant group with high proportions of γ-HCH isomer (53-91% of total HCHs). Mansoura city had the highest OCPs contamination load ranged from 0.1 to 2827 ng g(-1) lw (lipid weight). Surprisingly, tongue samples collected from Mansoura showed the highest concentration of HCHs (448 ng g(-1) lw) in comparison to liver (152 ng g(-1) lw) and kidney (266 ng g(-1) lw). Generally, contamination pattern of OCPs was in the order of HCHs > Drins > CHLs > DDTs ≅ HCB and HPTs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) through dietary consumption of cattle tissues were lower than the recommended acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) established by FAO/WHO. However, the hazard ratios (HRs) based on cancer risk were greater than 1.0 for HCHs based on the average and 95th centile concentrations, indicating carcinogenic effects to consumers through cattle tissues consumption.

  5. Subsidy policies with capital accumulation: maintaining employment levels.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Gang, I N; Gangopadhyay, S

    1989-12-01

    The authors study a dual economy model of growth and unemployment in the presence of Harris-Todaro type labor migration. The model is a discrete time model of economic growth with a given population but endogenous migration of labor. The economy tries to reach development in the quickest possible time while not allowing unemployment to rise above a socially acceptable level. The authors also characterize situations under which maximizing the accumulation of capital in each period is optimal and study how particular taxes and subsidies affect unemployment and capital accumulation. Finally, they show that a higher initial capital stock does not necessarily mean a quicker attainment of self- sustained full employment.

  6. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped. PMID:25023479

  7. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped.

  8. A Fusion between Domains of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Maize 27 kD γ-Zein Accumulates to High Levels in the Endoplasmic Reticulum without Forming Protein Bodies in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Ceresoli, Valentina; Mainieri, Davide; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Weinstein, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2) is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodeling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD γ-zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad) in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs. PMID:27047526

  9. The association of very high hair manganese accumulation and high oxidative stress in Mongolian people.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Kiyomi; Kawabata, Terue; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative stress induces several diseases and early aging. Previously, we reported that Mongolians are exposed in high oxidative stress, which may cause their early aging. In this study, to know the reason of high oxidative stress, we measured hair metals. This investigation was performed in Murun city, in the northern area of this country, and 469 healthy subjects, ranging from 10 to 82 years of age, were randomly enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Antioxidant capacity (AOC) was estimated by the levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Scalp hair metals were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Murun subjects showed high ROM levels of 394+/-75 Carr U (n=342), compared with Japanese healthy subjects (n=356, 326+/-51 Carr U, p<0.001). MDA-LDL and 8-OHdG levels also showed high levels. While, BAP levels of Murun subjects were 2263+/-203 micromol/L (n=210), Japanese subjects (n=356, 2087+/-215 micromol/L, p<0.001). SOD activities were also high, suggesting that the high oxidative may accelerate the state of AOC. Murun subjects demonstrated high accumulation of several metals in the hairs. In particular, Mn accumulation exhibited from 2 fold to 40 fold increases of Japanese standard. These findings are indicative that the high Mn accumulation may contribute to the high oxidative stress. The mechanism of its high accumulation was not explained by food materials or drinking water. We should further investigate another influence such as sandy wind. In order to suppress the high oxidative stress, elimination of the high Mn accumulation should be urgently studied. PMID:20021397

  10. Accumulated p53 protein and UVA protection level of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Seité, S; Moyal, D; Verdier, M P; Hourseau, C; Fourtanier, A

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear p53 expression is a sensitive parameter for the detection of ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage, and it has been used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness of sunscreens. In this study, we compared the protection provided by two sunscreens having identical sun protection factors (SPF) but different UVA protection factors (UVA-PF) measured by the persistent pigment darkening method (PPD). The SPF of the sunscreens was 7 and the UVA-PF were respectively 7 and 3. Nuclear p53 protein was quantified in human skin biopsies treated with sunscreens and exposed 8 times to 5 MED of solar simulated radiation (SSR). The results showed that both sunscreens offered only partial protection against the increased expression of nuclear p53 protein induced by repetitive SSR exposures. However, a significantly lower level of p53-positive cells was found in areas protected with the sunscreen having the higher UVA-PF compared to the other sunscreen protected areas. In order to verify whether the difference in efficacy of these products was due to the difference in UVA absorption capacity, we quantified epidermal p53 protein accumulation after 8 exposures to either UVA (320-400 nm) or UVA1 (340-400 nm). We showed that as with SSR, repetitive exposures to 12.5 and 25 J/cm2 of UVA or UVA1 induced a significant increase in p53-positive cells in the human epidermis. These results confirmed that SPF determined on the basis of an acute erythemal reaction does not predict the level of protection against cumulative damage. They also showed that the protection provided by two sunscreens with different UVA protection factors is different (based on nuclear p53 protein accumulation), and that the PPD method can distinguish varying levels of sunscreen efficacy against UVA-induced cell damage. PMID:10721857

  11. Phytochelatins do not correlate with the level of Cd accumulation in Chlamydomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kahoko; Onodera, Ai; Tominaga, Noriko

    2006-06-01

    Chlamydomonas acidophila KT-1 and Chlamydomonas acidophila DVB238 exhibit a strong heavy metal tolerance, but C. acidophila DVB238 can accumulate a much higher amount of Cadmium (Cd) than C. acidophila KT-1. Phytochelatins (PCs) are known to play an important role in the detoxification of several toxic heavy metals, but the relationship between PCs and Cd accumulation is not clear. PC metabolism and Cd accumulation were investigated by using three Chlamydomonas strains including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii C-9 as a standard alga. The results showed that the PC content did not correlate closely with the level of Cd accumulation, maintenance of a high GSH level seeming to be more important for Cd accumulation. The ultrastructure of C. acidophila KT-1 was extremely disrupted by a great increase in starch granules, which resulted in a moribund state, but hyper-accumulator C. acidophila DVB238 did not exhibit an increase in starch granules in its cells, in spite of Cd accumulation in its chloroplasts, cytosol and vacuoles. These results indicated that C. acidophila DVB238 probably has a developed detoxification system preventing such as destruction of the cells due to Cd toxicity.

  12. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  13. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  14. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  15. Impurity accumulation in plasma regimes with high energy confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L. B.; Roberts, D. E.; Yang, H. R.; Dodel, G.; Gentle, K.; Von Goeler, S.; Holzhauer, E.; Hübner, K.; Keilhacker, M.; Korotkov, A.; Luce, T. C.; Miura, Y.; Tsois, N.; Würz, H.; Fussmann, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Krieger, K.; Müller, E. R.; Nolte, R.; Röhr, H.; Steuer, K. H.; Becker, G.; Bomba, B.; Bruhns, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Giannone, L.; Von Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Herrmann, H.; Kaesdorf, S.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lang, R.; Lee, P.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Poschenrieder, W.; Preis, R.; Rapp, H.; Rudyj, A.; Sandmann, W.; Schneider, F.; Schnider, U.; Siller, G.; Simmet, E.; Speth, E.; Söldner, F.; Stäbler, A.; Steinmetz, K.; Stroth, U.; Vollmer, O.; Zasche, D.

    1989-04-01

    Investigations of impurity accumulation phenomena in ASDEX are reviewed. There are four different operating regimes where pronounced accumulation is observed and these regimes are also characterized by improved energy confinement. In particular, medium-Z metallic ions are involved in accumulation processes whereas low-Z ions appear almost unaffected. The rapid accumulation observed in the case of metallic ions may be explained by neoclassical inward drifts if we assume that the anomalous diffusion is sufficiently suppressed, some indication of this being found from laser blow-off studies. The present results, however, can only be partly explained by neoclassical theory, according to which accumulation of low-Z impurities should also occur. The temporal behaviour of accumulation and the retarding effect of proton dilution for collision dominated transport are also discussed. Finally, we conclude that the full benefits of improved energy confinement can be achieved only if the impurity influxes are kept to a sufficiently low level. Expressed in terms of concentrations under low confinement conditions we have to postulate, for ASDEX, concentrations ≲ 10 -4 for metals and ≲ 2% for all light impurities.

  16. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  17. Levels of lycopene β-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

  18. Purification and Partial Kinetic and Physical Characterization of Two Chloroplast-Localized NADP-Specific Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Their Preferential Accumulation in Chlorella sorokiniana Cells Cultured at Low or High Ammonium Levels 1

    PubMed Central

    Bascomb, Newell F.; Schmidt, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two ammonium-inducible, chloroplast-localized NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity from Chlorella sorokiniana. These isoenzymes were homopolymers of either α- or β-subunits with molecular weights of 55,500 or 53,000, respectively. The α-isoenzyme was preferentially induced at low ammonium concentrations (2 millimolar or lower), whereas only the β-isoenzyme accumulated after cells were fully induced (120 minutes) at high ammonium concentrations (29 millimolar). Purification of isoenzymes was achieved by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel-filtration, anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, and affinity chromatography. The α- and β-isoenzymes were separated by their differential binding to Type 4 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-Sepharose. Both isoenzymes bound to an antibody affinity column to which purified antibody (prepared against β-isoenzyme) was covalently attached. Peptide mapping of the subunits showed them to have a high degree of sequence homology. Both subunits were synthesized in vitro from precursor protein(s) with a molecular weight of 58,500. Although the subunits have similar chemical, physical, and antigenic properties, their holoenzymes have strikingly different ammonium Km values. The ammonium Km of the β-isoenzyme remained constant at approximately 75 millimolar, whereas this Km of the α-isoenzyme ranged from 0.02 to 3.5 millimolar, depending upon nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16665219

  19. Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of delta6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Smith, M A; Lapinskas, P; Stobart, A K; Dobson, G; Christie, W W; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1997-04-15

    gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3 delta(6,9,12)) is a component of the seed oils of evening primrose (Oenothera spp.), borage (Borago officinalis L.), and some other plants. It is widely used as a dietary supplement and for treatment of various medical conditions. GLA is synthesized by a delta6-fatty acid desaturase using linoleic acid (C18:2 delta(9,12)) as a substrate. To enable the production of GLA in conventional oilseeds, we have isolated a cDNA encoding the delta6-fatty acid desaturase from developing seeds of borage and confirmed its function by expression in transgenic tobacco plants. Analysis of leaf lipids from a transformed plant demonstrated the accumulation of GLA and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 delta(6,9,12,15)) to levels of 13.2% and 9.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The borage delta6-fatty acid desaturase differs from other desaturase enzymes, characterized from higher plants previously, by the presence of an N-terminal domain related to cytochrome b5.

  20. Influence of vesicle size distribution on level and selectivity of accumulation of liposomal photosensitizer Tiosens in tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Gennady A.; Meerovich, Igor G.; Gurevich, Daria G.; Vorobyov, Sergey I.; Pevgov, Vyacheslav G.; Smirnova, Zoya S.; Oborotova, Natalia A.; Lukyanets, Evgeny A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Yu.

    2008-06-01

    The work was performed to estimate the influence of liposomal size distribution on the level and selectivity of accumulation of photosensitizer of near-IR spectral range Tiosens (liposomal form of aluminium hydroxide phenylthiophthalocyanine) in tumor. Tiosens liposome dispersions were prepared using classic Bangham procedure. Particle size was reduced and unified using Avanti Mini-Extruder equipped with Nucleopore membranes and high-pressure homogenizer Donor-1. Liposomal size distribution was determined by means of laser correlation spectroscopy. Dynamics and selectivity of Tiosens accumulation in Erlich tumor were measured in vivo using fluorescence spectroscopy. It was shown that level and selectivity of accumulation of liposome-encapsulated drug is determined mostly by content of small-sized fractions, while fractions of larger size are quickly cleared from blood by RES and not contribute in photosensitizer accumulation.

  1. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your provider will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults: selective update of 2001 US Preventive Services Task Force Review. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and ... 2016:chap 206. Siu AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure in adults: U.S. ...

  3. TRMM Version 7 Level 3 Gridded Monthly Accumulations of GPROF Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, E. F.; Kelley, O. A.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2011, improved versions of the retrieval algorithms were approved for TRMM. All data starting with June 2011 are produced only with the version 7 code. At the same time, version 7 reprocessing of all TRMM mission data was started. By the end of August 2011, the 14+ years of the reprocessed mission data became available online to users. This reprocessing provided the opportunity to redo and enhance upon an analysis of V7 impacts on L3 data accumulations that was presented at the 2010 EGU General Assembly. This paper will discuss the impact of algorithm changes made in th GPROF retrieval on the Level 2 swath products. Perhaps the most important change in that retrieval was to replacement of a model based a priori database with one created from Precipitation Radar (PR) and TMI brightness temperature (Tb) data. The radar pays a major role in the V7 GPROF (GPROF2010) in determining existence of rain. The level 2 retrieval algorithm also introduced a field providing the probability of rain. This combined use of the PR has some impact on the retrievals and created areas, particularly over ocean, where many areas of low-probability precipitation are retrieved whereas in version 6, these areas contained zero rain rates. This paper will discuss how these impacts get translated to the space/time averaged monthly products that use the GPROF retrievals. The level 3 products discussed are the gridded text product 3G68 and the standard 3A12 and 3B31 products. The paper provides an overview of the changes and explanation of how the level 3 products dealt with the change in the retrieval approach. Using the .25 deg x .25 degree grid, the paper will show that agreement between the swath product and the level 3 remains very high. It will also present comparisons of V6 and V7 GPROF retrievals as seen both at the swath level and the level 3 time/space gridded accumulations. It will show that the various L3 products based on GPROF level 2 retrievals are in close agreement. The

  4. Localizing Organomercury Uptake And Accumulation in Zebrafish Larvae at the Tissue And Cellular Level

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, M.; Blechinger, S.R.; Krone, P.H.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-20

    Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping, we have examined the uptake and localization of organic mercury in zebrafish larvae. Strikingly, the greatest accumulation of methyl and ethyl mercury compounds was highly localized in the rapidly dividing lens epithelium, with lower levels going to brain, optic nerve, and various other organs. The data suggest that the reported impairment of visual processes by mercury may arise not only from previously reported neurological effects, but also from direct effects on the ocular tissue. This novel approach is a powerful tool for directly investigating the molecular toxicology of heavy metals, and should be equally applicable to the study of a wide range of elements in developing embryos.

  5. Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. PMID:22041027

  6. COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase complexes repress anthocyanin accumulation under low light and high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexander; Hoecker, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and many other plant species, anthocyanin pigments accumulate only after light exposure and not in darkness. Excess light of very high fluence rates leads to a further, very strong increase in anthocyanin levels. How excess light is sensed is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the key repressor of light signaling, the COP1/SPA complex, cause a strong hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins not only under normal light but also under excess, high light conditions. Hence, normal light signaling via COP1/SPA is required to prevent hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins under these high light conditions. However, since cop1 and spa mutants show a similar high-light responsiveness of anthocyanin accumulation as the wild type it remains to be resolved whether COP1/SPA is directly involved in the high-light response itself.

  7. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) lead to sustained and high levels of GABA accumulation in rice kernels.

    PubMed

    Shimajiri, Yasuka; Oonishi, Takayuki; Ozaki, Kae; Kainou, Kumiko; Akama, Kazuhito

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid commonly present in all organisms. Because cellular levels of GABA in plants are mainly regulated by synthesis (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD) and catabolism (GABA-transaminase, GABA-T), we attempted seed-specific manipulation of the GABA shunt to achieve stable GABA accumulation in rice. A truncated GAD2 sequence, one of five GAD genes, controlled by the glutelin (GluB-1) or rice embryo globulin promoters (REG) and GABA-T-based trigger sequences in RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes controlled by one of these promoters as well, was introduced into rice (cv. Koshihikari) to establish stable transgenic lines under herbicide selection using pyriminobac. T₁ and T₂ generations of rice lines displayed high GABA concentrations (2-100 mg/100 g grain). In analyses of two selected lines from the T₃ generation, there was a strong correlation between GABA level and the expression of truncated GAD2, whereas the inhibitory effect of GABA-T expression was relatively weak. In these two lines both with two T-DNA copies, their starch, amylose, and protein levels were slightly lower than non-transformed cv. Koshihikari. Free amino acid analysis of mature kernels of these lines demonstrated elevated levels of GABA (75-350 mg/100 g polished rice) and also high levels of several amino acids, such as Ala, Ser, and Val. Because these lines of seeds could sustain their GABA content after harvest (up to 6 months), the strategy in this study could lead to the accumulation GABA and for these to be sustained in the edible parts.

  8. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  9. Intraspecific variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation of a high-biomass tropical tree Averrhoa carambola L.: implication for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zi-yun; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jin-tian

    2011-06-01

    Averrhoa carambola L., a high-biomass tropical tree, has recently been shown to be a strong accumulator of cadmium (Cd) and has great potential for Cd phytoextraction. In the present study, field studies and a controlled-environment experiment were combined to establish the extent of variation in Cd tolerance and accumulation at the cultivar level using 14 to 19 cultivars of A. carambola. The results indicated that all cultivars tested could accumulate Cd at high but different levels, and that Cd tolerance also varied greatly between these cultivars. It is confirmed that the high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity are species-level and constitutional traits in A. carambola. However, no correlation was detected between tolerance index and accumulation of Cd in different cultivars, suggesting that the two traits are independent in this woody Cd accumulator. More importantly, cultivar Wuchuan Sweet (WCT) was shown to have the highest Cd-extraction potential; it yielded a high shoot biomass of 30 t ha(-1) in 230 d, and extracted 330 g ha(-1) Cd in the aerial tissues grown in Cd-contaminated field soil, which accounted for 12.8% of the total soil Cd in the top 20 cm of the soil profile.

  10. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  11. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  12. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  13. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  14. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  15. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  16. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  17. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks.

  18. [Regeneration of photoreceptor organs in freshwater planarians at different levels of accumulation of natural methylmercury compounds].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, I V; Gremiachikh, V A; Zheltov, S V; Bogdanenko, O V; Aksenova, I A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of natural methylmercury compounds on regeneration of photoreceptor organs were studied in three freshwater planarians: Polycelis tenuis, Dugesia lugubris, and D. tigrina. Accumulation of methyl mercury in the planarian body suppressed regeneration of P. tenuis with numerous photoreceptor organs to a greater extent than in two other planarians that have only two eyes. High methyl mercury concentrations inhibited the restoration of photoreceptor organs in asexual and sexual D. tigrina races.

  19. Low levels of astroglial markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to α-synuclein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Williams, Belinda; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Guttman, Mark; Boileau, Isabelle; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Although gliosis is a normal response to brain injury, reports on the extent of astrogliosis in the degenerating substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) are conflicting. It has also been recently suggested that accumulation of nigral α-synuclein in this disorder might suppress astrocyte activation which in turn could exacerbate the degenerative process. This study examined brain protein levels (intact protein, fragments, and aggregates, if any) of astroglial markers and their relationship to α-synuclein in PD and in the positive control parkinson-plus conditions multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsied brain homogenates of patients with PD (n=10), MSA (n=11), PSP (n=11) and matched controls (n=10) were examined for the astroglial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) by quantitative immunoblotting. As expected, both MSA (putamen>substantia nigra>caudate>frontal cortex) and PSP (substantia nigra>caudate>putamen, frontal cortex) showed widespread but regionally specific pattern of increased immunoreactivity of the markers, in particular for the partially proteolyzed fragments (all three) and aggregates (GFAP). In contrast, immunoreactivity of the three markers was largely normal in PD in brain regions examined with the exception of trends for variably increased levels of cleaved vimentin in substantia nigra and frontal cortex. In patients with PD, GFAP levels in the substantia nigra correlated inversely with α-synuclein accumulation whereas the opposite was true for MSA. Our biochemical findings of generally normal protein levels of astroglial markers in substantia nigra of PD, and negative correlation with α-synuclein concentration, are consistent with some recent neuropathology reports of mild astroglial response and with the speculation that astrogliosis might be suppressed in this disorder by excessive α-synuclein accumulation. Should astrogliosis protect, to

  20. Dissecting the molecular basis of the contribution of source strength to high fructan accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; Kooiker, Maarten; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Fructans represent the major component of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the maturing stem of temperate cereals and are an important temporary carbon reserve for grain filling. To investigate the importance of source carbon availability in fructan accumulation and its molecular basis, we performed comparative analyses of WSC components and the expression profiles of genes involved in major carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis in the flag leaves of recombinant inbred lines from wheat cultivars Seri M82 and Babax (SB lines). High sucrose levels in the mature flag leaf (source organ) were found to be positively associated with WSC and fructan concentrations in both the leaf and stem of SB lines in several field trials. Analysis of Affymetrix expression array data revealed that high leaf sucrose lines grown in abiotic-stress-prone environments had high expression levels of a number of genes in the leaf involved in the sucrose synthetic pathway and photosynthesis, such as Calvin cycle genes, antioxidant genes involved in chloroplast H(2)O(2) removal and genes involved in energy dissipation. The expression of the majority of genes involved in fructan and starch synthetic pathways were positively correlated with sucrose levels in the leaves of SB lines. The high level of leaf fructans in high leaf sucrose lines is likely attributed to the elevated expression levels of fructan synthetic enzymes, as the mRNA levels of three fructosyltransferase families were consistently correlated with leaf sucrose levels among SB lines. These data suggest that high source strength is one of the important genetic factors determining high levels of WSC in wheat.

  1. Endogenous salicylic acid levels correlate with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Shulaev, V.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be an endogenous regulator of local and systemic disease resistance and an inducer of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins among plants. High levels of PR proteins have been observed in an uninoculated amphidiploid hybrid of Nicotiana glutinosa [times] N. debneyi, which is highly resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Fluoresence, UV, and mass spectral analysis established that the levels of SA in healthy N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi leaves were 30 times greater than in N. tabacum [open quotes]Xanthi-nc[close quotes] tobacco, which does not constitutively express PR proteins and is less resistant to TMV. Upon TMV-inoculation SA levels increased at least 70-fold leaves of Xanthi-nc but role only slightly in the hybrid. Phloem exudates of N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi contained at least 500 times more SA than those of Xanthi-nc. SA treatment caused the appearance of PR-1 protein in Xanthi-nc but did not affect constitutively high levels of PR-1 protein in N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi. In contrast to Xanthi-nc tobacco, TMV-inoculated N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi kept at 32 C accumulated more than 0.5 [mu]g SA/g fresh weight, maintained high levels of PR proteins, and developed a hypersensitive response to TMV. PR proteins have previously been shown to accumulate in the lower leaves of healthy, flowering Xanthi-nc tobacco, which exhibited increased resistance to TMV. These developmentally induced increases in resistance and PR-1 proteins positively correlated with tissue levels of SA. These results affirm the regulatory role of SA in disease resistance and PR protein production. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Steve A.

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  3. Refractory dissolved organic nitrogen accumulation in high-elevation lakes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S J; Ball, G I; Allen, B C; Schladow, S G; Simpson, A J; Masoom, H; Soong, R; Graven, H D; Aluwihare, L I

    2015-01-01

    The role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as either a sink for inorganic nutrients or an additional nutrient source is an often-neglected component of nutrient budgets in aquatic environments. Here, we examined the role of DOM in reactive nitrogen (N) storage in Sierra Nevada (California, USA) lakes where atmospheric deposition of N has shifted the lakes toward seasonal phosphorus (P)-limitation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and isotope analyses performed on DOM isolated from Lake Tahoe reveal the accumulation of refractory proteinaceous material with a 100-200-year residence time. In contrast, smaller lakes in the same watershed contain DOM with typical terrestrial characteristics, indicating that proteins in Lake Tahoe are autochthonously produced. These data support the role of DOM as a possible sink for reactive N in these lake ecosystems and identify a potential role for DOM in affecting the inorganic nutrient stoichiometry of these environments. PMID:25704539

  4. Transcript levels, alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage of TFIIIA control 5S rRNA accumulation during Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    PubMed

    Layat, Elodie; Cotterell, Sylviane; Vaillant, Isabelle; Yukawa, Yasushi; Tutois, Sylvie; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is critical for eukaryotic cells and requires coordinated synthesis of the protein and rRNA moieties of the ribosome, which are therefore highly regulated. 5S ribosomal RNA, an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and specifically requires transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). To obtain insight into the regulation of 5S rRNA transcription, we have investigated the expression of 5S rRNA and the exon-skipped (ES) and exon-including (EI) TFIIIA transcripts, two transcript isoforms that result from alternative splicing of the TFIIIA gene, and TFIIIA protein amounts with respect to requirements for 5S rRNA during development. We show that 5S rRNA quantities are regulated through distinct but complementary mechanisms operating through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of TFIIIA transcripts as well as at the post-translational level through proteolytic cleavage of the TFIIIA protein. During the reproductive phase, high expression of the TFIIIA gene together with low proteolytic cleavage contributes to accumulation of functional, full-length TFIIIA protein, and results in 5S rRNA accumulation in the seed. In contrast, just after germination, the levels of TFIIIA-encoding transcripts are low and stable. Full-length TFIIIA protein is undetectable, and the level of 5S rRNA stored in the embryo progressively decreases. After day 4, in correlation with the reorganization of 5S rDNA chromatin to a mature state, full-length TFIIIA protein with transcriptional activity accumulates and permits de novo transcription of 5S rRNA.

  5. A high-frequency response relaxed eddy accumulation flux measurement system for sampling short-lived biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Mowry, Fred L.; Hampton, Gary A.

    2013-05-01

    second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m-2 hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozone removal procedure to allow for the measurement of highly reactive species such as β-caryophyllene and polar terpenoids such as linalool. A two-component internal standard continuously added to the accumulators was used to correct for switching-induced volumetric errors and as a check on VOC losses exceeding accumulator tube adsorption limits. In addition, the internal standards were used to demonstrate that accumulators quickly return to target flow rates at segregation valve switching frequencies up to at least 0.8 Hz. The system was able to measure daytime hourly fluxes of individual biogenic VOC including oxygenated terpenoids, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes.

  6. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  7. Proline accumulation protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase from ethanol stress by reducing reactive oxygen species levels.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Junpei; Kaino, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    During fermentation processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to multiple stresses, including a high concentration of ethanol that represents toxicity through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We previously reported that proline protected yeast cells from damage caused by various stresses, such as freezing and ethanol. As an anti-oxidant, proline is suggested to scavenge intracellular ROS. In this study, we examined the role of intracellular proline during ethanol treatment in S. cerevisiae strains that accumulate different concentrations of proline. When cultured in YPD medium, there was a significant accumulation of proline in the put1 mutant strain, which is deficient in proline oxidase, in the stationary phase. Expression of the mutant PRO1 gene, which encodes the γ-glutamyl kinase variant (Asp154Asn or Ile150Thr) with desensitization to feedback inhibition by proline in the put1 mutant strain, showed a prominent increase in proline content as compared with that of the wild-type strain. The oxidation level was clearly increased in wild-type cells after exposure to ethanol, indicating that the generation of ROS occurred. Interestingly, proline accumulation significantly reduces the ROS level and increases the survival rate of yeast cells in the stationary phase under ethanol stress conditions. However, there was not a clear correlation between proline content and survival rate in yeast cells. An appropriate level of intracellular proline in yeast might be important for its stress-protective effect. Hence, the engineering of proline metabolism could be promising for breeding stress-tolerant industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26833688

  8. Effect of cadmium accumulation on mineral nutrient levels in vegetable crops: potential implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danping; Guo, Zhiqiang; Green, Iain D; Xie, Deti

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of vegetables is often the predominant route whereby humans are exposed to the toxic metal Cd. Health impacts arising from Cd consumption may be influenced by changes in the mineral nutrient content of vegetables, which may occur when plants are exposed to Cd. Here, we subjected model root (carrot) and leaf (lettuce) vegetables to soil Cd concentrations of 0.3, 1.5, 3.3, and 9.6 μg g(-1) for 10 weeks to investigate the effect of Cd exposure on Cd accumulation, growth performance, and mineral nutrient homeostasis. The findings demonstrated that Cd accumulation in lettuce (20.1-71.5 μg g(-1)) was higher than that in carrot (3.2-27.5 μg g(-1)), and accumulation exceeded the maximum permissible Cd concentration in vegetables when soil contained more than 3.3 μg g(-1) of Cd. There was a marked hormetic effect on carrot growth at a soil Cd concentration of 3.3 μg g(-1), but increasing the Cd concentration to 9.6 μg g(-1) caused decreased growth in both crops. Additionally, in most cases, there was a positive correlation between Cd and the mineral nutrient content of vegetables, which was due to physiological changes in the plants causing increased uptake and/or translocation. This may suggest a general mechanism whereby the plant compensated for disrupted mineral nutrient metabolism by increasing nutrient supply to its tissues. Increased nutrient levels could potentially offset some risks posed to humans by increased Cd levels in crops, and we therefore suggest that changes in mineral nutrient levels should be included more widely in the risk assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination. Graphical abstract The Cd concentration (μg g-1 in dry matter) in the root, shoot and translocation factor (TF) of Cd from root to shoot in the carrot and lettuce, and the percentage of root Cd to the gross Cd contents (%) in carrot (C) and lettuce (D) exposed to soil Cd (0 (control), 1, 3, and 9 μg g-1) for 70 days. Values are means ± SD (n = 5

  9. Effect of cadmium accumulation on mineral nutrient levels in vegetable crops: potential implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danping; Guo, Zhiqiang; Green, Iain D; Xie, Deti

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of vegetables is often the predominant route whereby humans are exposed to the toxic metal Cd. Health impacts arising from Cd consumption may be influenced by changes in the mineral nutrient content of vegetables, which may occur when plants are exposed to Cd. Here, we subjected model root (carrot) and leaf (lettuce) vegetables to soil Cd concentrations of 0.3, 1.5, 3.3, and 9.6 μg g(-1) for 10 weeks to investigate the effect of Cd exposure on Cd accumulation, growth performance, and mineral nutrient homeostasis. The findings demonstrated that Cd accumulation in lettuce (20.1-71.5 μg g(-1)) was higher than that in carrot (3.2-27.5 μg g(-1)), and accumulation exceeded the maximum permissible Cd concentration in vegetables when soil contained more than 3.3 μg g(-1) of Cd. There was a marked hormetic effect on carrot growth at a soil Cd concentration of 3.3 μg g(-1), but increasing the Cd concentration to 9.6 μg g(-1) caused decreased growth in both crops. Additionally, in most cases, there was a positive correlation between Cd and the mineral nutrient content of vegetables, which was due to physiological changes in the plants causing increased uptake and/or translocation. This may suggest a general mechanism whereby the plant compensated for disrupted mineral nutrient metabolism by increasing nutrient supply to its tissues. Increased nutrient levels could potentially offset some risks posed to humans by increased Cd levels in crops, and we therefore suggest that changes in mineral nutrient levels should be included more widely in the risk assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination. Graphical abstract The Cd concentration (μg g-1 in dry matter) in the root, shoot and translocation factor (TF) of Cd from root to shoot in the carrot and lettuce, and the percentage of root Cd to the gross Cd contents (%) in carrot (C) and lettuce (D) exposed to soil Cd (0 (control), 1, 3, and 9 μg g-1) for 70 days. Values are means ± SD (n = 5).

  10. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  11. Mineral accumulation by perennial grasses in a high rainfall environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw produced as a co-product of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed production in the high rainfall area of western Oregon as well as clippings from urban and recr...

  12. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes. PMID:26503801

  13. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  14. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  15. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-10-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  16. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  17. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p < 0.01), while the energy intake was not significantly different. Quercetin supplementation lowered hepatic lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p < 0.01). (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance serum lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  18. HIGH INTENSITY EFFECTS IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A; Shishlo, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  19. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  20. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  1. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  2. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  3. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  4. Organochlorine accumulation on a highly consumed bivalve (Scrobicularia plana) and its main implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2013-09-01

    Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated along a spatial gradient in water, sediments and in commercially important bivalve species Scrobicularia plana, from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Organochlorines dissolved in water were below detection limit and concerning suspended particulate matter, only PCBs were quantified, ranging from 3.8 to 5.8 ng∙g(-1) DW (Σ13PCBs). There was a distinct spatial gradient regarding PCB accumulation in sediments. The highest concentrations were found in deeper layers and closest to the pollution source, decreasing gradually along a 3 km area. Contamination in sediments exceeded the Canadian and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines, inducing potential toxic effects in related biota. PCBs tended to bioaccumulate throughout S. plana lifespan but with different annual rates along the spatial gradient. The maximum values were found in older individuals up to 3+ years old, reaching 19.4 ng∙g(-1) DW. HCB concentrations were residual and no bioaccumulation pattern was evident. Congeners 138, 153 and 180 were the most accumulated due to their abundance and long-term persistence in the environment. In the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 km(2)), the species was able to remove up to 0.4 g of PCBs annually from sediments into their own tissues, which is consequently free for trophic transfer (biomagnification). Concerning human health, and despite the high concentrations found in sediments, PCB levels in bivalves do not exceed the limit established by the European Union for fishery products and are largely below tolerable daily intake. Although PCBs in Scrobicularia plana are present at low levels, their impact to human health after consumption over many years might be harmful and should be monitored in future studies.

  5. Accumulation and mobility of zinc in soil amended with different levels of pig-manure compost.

    PubMed

    Asada, Kei; Toyota, Koki; Nishimura, Taku; Ikeda, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Kaneaki

    2010-05-01

    Applying manure compost not only results in zinc accumulation in the soil but also causes an increase in zinc mobility and enhances zinc leaching. In this study, the physical and chemical characteristics of zinc, zinc profiles, and zinc balance were investigated to characterise the fate of zinc in fields where the quality and amount of pig manure compost applied have been known for 13 years. Moreover, we determined zinc fractionation in both 0.1 mol L(-1)HCl-soluble (mobile) and -insoluble (immobile) fractions. Adsorption of zinc in the soil was enhanced with increasing total carbon content following the application of pig manure compost. The 159.6 mg ha(-1) year(-1)manure applied plot (triplicate) exceeded the Japanese regulatory level after only 6 years of applying pig manure compost, whereas the 53.2 mg ha(-1) year(-1) manure applied plot (standard) reached the regulatory level after 13 years. The zinc loads in the plots were 17.0 and 5.6 kg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. However, 5.9 % and 17.2 % of the zinc loaded in the standard and the triplicate pig manure compost applied plots, respectively, were estimated to be lost from the plough layer. Based on the vertical distribution of mobile and immobile zinc content, a higher rate of applied manure compost caused an increase in the mobile zinc fraction to a depth of 40 cm. Although the adsorption capacity of zinc was enhanced following the application of pig manure compost, a greater amount of mobile zinc could move downward through the manure amended soil than through non manure-amended soil.

  6. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation.

  7. High accumulation of arsenic in the esophagus of mice after exposure to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Daigo; Tsurumoto, Miyu; Yoshino, Yuri; Inoue, Masahisa; Yokobori, Takehiko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic-induced toxicity appears to be dependent on the tissue- or cell-specific accumulation of this metalloid. An early study showed that arsenic was retained in the esophagus as well as the liver, kidney cortex and skin of marmosets after intraperitoneal administration of (74)As-arsenite. However, there is little available information regarding the distribution of arsenic in the esophagus. Here, we compared the retention of arsenic in the esophagus, liver, lung, kidney and heart in mice intraperitoneally administered 1 or 5 mg/kg sodium arsenite (As(III)) daily for 3 or 7 days. The results showed that the arsenic concentration was highest in the esophagus. We compared the mRNA levels of aquaglyceroporin (AQP) 3, AQP7 and AQP9, which are responsible for arsenic influx, and those of multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) 1 and MRP2, which are responsible for arsenic efflux. The levels of AQP3 mRNA in the esophagus were much higher than those in liver, lung and heart, while the mRNA levels of MRP2 were very low in the esophagus. In addition, we found extremely low expression of Nrf2 in the esophagus at the basal and under the activated conditions, which might have resulted in low levels of glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic and modulatory subunits, and subsequently in the low levels of glutathione. Thus, the highest retention of arsenic was detected in the esophagus after intraperitoneal administration of As(III) to mice, and this appeared to result from multiple factors, including high expression of AQP3, low expression of MRP2, low capacity of glutathione synthesis and low activation of Nrf2.

  8. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  9. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  10. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

    2010-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars.

  11. [Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake and residents' health effects in an air pollution area--relationship between arsenic accumulative intake level and arsenicism prevalence].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports the results of epidemiological survey on health effects of residents exposed to arsenic in a pollution area and estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level (EAAIL) based on calculating accumulative rice consumption and via inhalation way. 795 persons were sampled randomly from the polluted area, among whom 674 persons and 83 persons were diagnosed with Chronic Arsenic Absorption (CAA) and Chronic Arsenicism (CA) according to the National Diagnose Standard respectively. There were 60.98% CAA in 30 years old and younger age-groups and 97.59% CA in 30 years old and older age-groups. The one youngest case of CA occurred in 15 years old age group, while its EAAIL was at 1846.47 mg. The highest EAAIL was at 8706.47 mg. The rate of CA had gone obviously up at 30 years old age group. Its EAAIL was at 3833.42 mg. One equation of relationship between the rate of CA (%) and EAAIL (mg) was fitted by means of curve fitting, its is followed: Y = X1.843/e12.694 -2.866, r2 = 0.945.

  12. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and Professional Employees. 630.301 Section 630.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.301 Annual leave...

  13. Regulation of S-like ribonuclease levels in Arabidopsis. Antisense inhibition of RNS1 or RNS2 elevates anthocyanin accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bariola, P.A.; MacIntosh, G.C.; Green, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The S-like ribonucleases (RNases) RNS1 and RNS2 of Arabidopsis are members of the widespread T{sub 2} ribonuclease family, whose members also include the S-RNases, involved in gametophytic self-incompatibility in plants. Both RNS1 and RNS2 mRNAs have been shown previously to be induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. In this study the authors examined this regulation at the protein level and determined the effects of diminishing RNS1 and RNS2 expression using antisense techniques. The Pi-starvation control of RNS1 and RNS2 was confirmed using antibodies specific for each protein. These specific antibodies also demonstrated that RNS1 is secreted, whereas RNS2 is intracellular. By introducing antisense constructs, mRNA accumulation was inhibited by up to 90% for RNS1 and up to 65% for NS2. These plants contained abnormally high levels of anthocyanins, the production of which is often associated with several forms of stress, including Pi starvation. This effect demonstrates that diminishing the amounts of either RNS1 or RNS2 leads to effects that cannot be compensated for by the actions of other RNases, even though Arabidopsis contains a large number of different RNase activities. These results, together with the differential localization of the proteins, imply that RNS1 and RNS2 have distinct functions in the plant.

  14. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, ammonia fiber expansion: AFEX and extractive ammonia: EA). The methodology for large-scale separation of ...

  15. Characterization of upregulated genes associated with high phosphorus accumulation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Priya; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Sahi, Shivendra V

    2011-12-01

    Excessive application of phosphorus (P)-rich manures to agricultural lands often results in P-accumulation in soils leading to water pollution through runoffs and leaching. Use of suitable plant species that can extract and sequester excess P from soil into their biomass is an effective method of remediation of P-contaminated soils. Knowledge on the molecular responses of plants to high P-accumulation and tolerance is lacking. Therefore, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy was employed to identify and elucidate the pattern of gene expression related to P-tolerance and accumulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a P-accumulator plant. RNA isolated from cucumber grown in high P was used for 'tester' cDNA synthesis and SSH library preparation. A total of 63 cDNAs were identified as showing upregulated expression in this plant in response to high P. No putative function could be assigned to 7 (11%) of the 63 upregulated high P-modulated genes and 11 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (17%) did not match database entries. The remaining 45 ESTs were grouped into five functional classes. The majority of these ESTs belonged to three groups: 'metabolism', 'protein synthesis/degradation and signaling' and 'cell structure/cell wall'. Only six 'stress/defense'-related ESTs were identified from this library. The results of reverse northern blot analysis was further confirmed and validated through semi-quantitative RT-PCR carried out with representative ESTs identified in this study. The research reported here may contribute to a preliminary understanding of the high P-related gene expression in this P-accumulating plant. PMID:21883253

  16. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  17. High hydrostatic pressure leads to free radicals accumulation in yeast cells triggering oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bravim, Fernanda; Mota, Mainã M; Fernandes, A Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular organism that during the fermentative process is exposed to a variable environment; hence, resistance to multiple stress conditions is a desirable trait. The stress caused by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in S. cerevisiae resembles the injuries generated by other industrial stresses. In this study, it was confirmed that gene expression pattern in response to HHP displays an oxidative stress response profile which is expanded upon hydrostatic pressure release. Actually, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration level increased in yeast cells exposed to HHP treatment and an incubation period at room pressure led to a decrease in intracellular ROS concentration. On the other hand, ethylic, thermic and osmotic stresses did not result in any ROS accumulation in yeast cells. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of genes related to methionine metabolism, appearing to be a specific cellular response to HHP, and not related to other stresses, such as heat and osmotic stresses. Next, we investigated whether enhanced oxidative stress tolerance leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. Overexpression of STF2 is known to enhance tolerance to oxidative stress and we show that it also leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. PMID:27388472

  18. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  19. [Correlation of arsenic accumulative intake and its health effects to the residents in arsenic polluted area. Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in arsenic polluted area].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-08-01

    In order to evaluate arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in an area with arsenic pollution in the air, the level of arsenic accumulative intake is measured by calculating residents' accumulative rice consumption and the measurement of the level via inhalation. The results show that ignoring the non-polluted time periods, the highest arsenic accumulative intake level (AAIL) appears in residents aged 50 and above who have the highest level of air inhalation and rice consumption in comparison with young residents after 32 years exposure, and their AAIL detected via inhalation are 591.4 mg for female and 612.9 for male respectively. There is 3488.74 mg arsenic obtained by their daily diet. Total AAIL are 4080.14 mg for female and 4101.66 mg for male respectively, being about 80% of estimation level reflected by daily exposure level multiplied by total exposure time (day).

  20. A one-dimensional biomorphodynamic model of tidal flats: Sediment sorting, marsh distribution, and carbon accumulation under sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zeng; Ye, Qinghua; Coco, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    We develop a biomorphodynamic model to investigate sediment and vegetation dynamics on a schematic intertidal flat characterized by an initially well-mixed sand-mud mixture. Major interactions between tides, wind waves, salt marshes, sediment transport and sea level rise (SLR) are taken into account. For a bare flat under only tidal action, the model predicts a convex cross-shore profile with the surficial distribution of mud and sand on the upper and lower part of the intertidal flat, respectively. When wind waves are strong, the intertidal flat is highly eroded resulting in a concave profile near the high water mark. This behavior is pronouncedly altered when the intertidal flat is vegetated with the presence of salt marshes. Numerical results suggest that a considerable amount of mud can still remain in the vegetated region even when wave action is strong. A steeper transition zone forms at the boundary between salt marshes and bare flats because of the differential sediment deposition in the two neighboring regions. The inclusion of wind waves is found to considerably enhance the size of the marsh-edge transition zone. For the numerical experiments designed in this study, the profile shape and sediment sorting behavior of tidal flats are not significantly modified by a gradual rising sea level. However, the impacts of SLR on vegetated tidal flats are still manifold: (a) driving the landward migration of intertidal zone and salt marshes; (b) enhancing sediment erosion on intertidal flats; and (c) drowning salt marshes under limited sediment supply with the constrain of seawalls. Finally, model results suggest that organic carbon accumulation on marshlands may be enhanced with an increasing SLR rate provided that salt marshes are not drowned.

  1. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague–Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:23510587

  2. Effect of Nutrient Starvation under High Irradiance on Lipid and Starch Accumulation in Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Jerez, Celia G; Malapascua, José R; Sergejevová, Magda; Figueroa, Félix L; Masojídek

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur limitation under high irradiance (PAR) was studied in the green microalga Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) in order to follow lipid and/or starch accumulation. Growth, biomass composition and the changes in photosynthetic activity (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were followed in the trials. The full nutrient culture showed high biomass production and starch accumulation at Day 1, when photosynthetic activity was high. Gradual deprivation (no nutrients added) became evident when photosynthesis was significantly suppressed (Day 3 onwards), which entailed a decrease of maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), accompanied by the onset of lipid accumulation and decline in starch content. In N- and S-starved cultures, rETRmax significantly decreased by Day 3, which caused a substantial drop in biomass production, cell number, biovolume and induction of lipid and starch accumulation. High starch content (45-50 % of DW) was found at the initial stage in full nutrient culture and at the stationary phase in nutrient-starved cultures. By the end of the trial, all treatments showed high lipid content (~30 % of DW). The full nutrient culture had higher biomass yield than starved treatments although starch (~0.2 g L(-1) day(-1)) and lipid (~0.15 g L(-1) day(-1) productivities were fairly similar in all the cultures. Our results showed that we could enrich biomass of C. fusca (% DW) in lipids using a two-stage strategy (a nutrient replete stage followed by gradual nutrient limitation) while under either procedure, N- or S-starvation, both high lipid and starch contents could be achieved.

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  4. Identification of Leaf Proteins Differentially Accumulated between Wheat Cultivars Distinct in Their Levels of Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yanwei; Dong, Liwei; Deng, Xiong; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    The drought-tolerant ‘Ningchun 47’ (NC47) and drought-sensitive ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were treated with different PEG6000 concentrations at the three-leaf stage. An analysis on the physiological and proteomic changes of wheat seedling in response to drought stress was performed. In total, 146 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots were separated and recognised using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, 101 DAP spots representing 77 unique proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These proteins were allocated to 10 groups according to putative functions, which were mainly involved in carbon metabolism (23.4%), photosynthesis/respiration (22.1%) and stress/defence/detoxification (18.2%). Some drought stress-related proteins in NC47, such as enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, fibrillin-like protein, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 and 70-kDa heat shock protein, were more upregulated than those in CS. Multivariate principal components analysis revealed obvious differences between the control and treatments in both NC47 and CS, while cluster analysis showed that the DAPs displayed five and six accumulation patterns in NC47 and CS, respectively. Protein–protein interaction network analysis showed that some key DAPs, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein, 50S ribosomal protein L1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and 70-kDa heat shock protein, with upregulated accumulation in NC47, had complex interactions with other proteins related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism, energy pathway, signal transduction, stress/defence/detoxification, protein folding and nucleotide metabolism. These proteins could play important roles in drought-stress tolerance and contribute to the relatively stronger drought tolerance of NC47

  5. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  6. Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Bhandari, Uma; Jamadagni, Shrirang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG) on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days+AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) from day 8 to 28), respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)) activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes. PMID:24868532

  7. Demise of reef-flat carbonate accumulation with late Holocene sea-level fall: Evidence from Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engels, M.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Field, M.; Conger, C.L.; Bochicchio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve cores from the protected reef-flat of Molokai revealed that carbonate sediment accumulation, ranging from 3 mm year-1 to less than 1 mm year-1, ended on average 2,500 years ago. Modern sediment is present as a mobile surface veneer but is not trapped within the reef framework. This finding is consistent with the arrest of deposition at the end of the mid-Holocene highstand, known locally as the "Kapapa Stand of the Sea," ???2 m above the present datum ca. 3,500 years ago in the main Hawaiian Islands. Subsequent erosion, non-deposition, and/or a lack of rigid binding were probable factors leading to the lack of reef-flat accumulation during the late Holocene sea-level fall. Given anticipated climate changes, increased sedimentation of reef-flat environments is to be expected as a consequence of higher sea level. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Accumulation of secondary metabolites in healthy and diseased barley, grown under future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, B L; Olsen, C E; Lyngkjær, M F

    2015-10-01

    Plants produce secondary metabolites promoting adaptation to changes in the environment and challenges by pathogenic microorganisms. A future climate with increased temperature and CO2 and ozone levels will likely alter the chemical composition of plants and thereby plant-pathogen interactions. To investigate this, barley was grown at elevated CO2, temperature and ozone levels as single factors or in combination resembling future climatic conditions. Increased basal resistance to the powdery mildew fungus was observed when barley was grown under elevated CO2, temperature and ozone as single factors. However, this effect was neutralized in the combination treatments. Twenty-five secondary metabolites were putatively identified in healthy and diseased barley leaves, including phenylpropanoids, phenolamides and hydroxynitrile glucosides. Accumulation of the compounds was affected by the climatic growth conditions. Especially elevated temperature, but also ozone, showed a strong impact on accumulation of many compounds, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in adaptation to unfavorable growth conditions. Many compounds were found to increase in powdery mildew diseased leaves, in correlation with a strong and specific influence of the climatic growth conditions. The observed disease phenotypes could not be explained by accumulation of single compounds. However, decreased accumulation of the powdery mildew associated defense compound p-coumaroylhydroxyagmatine could be implicated in the increased disease susceptibility observed when barley was grown under combination of elevated CO2, temperature and ozone. The accumulation pattern of the compounds in both healthy and diseased leaves from barley grown in the combination treatments could not be deduced from the individual single factor treatments. This highlights the complex role and regulation of secondary metabolites in plants' adaptation to unfavorable growth conditions.

  9. Enhanced lipid accumulation of photoautotrophic microalgae by high-dose CO2 mimics a heterotrophic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Wu, Jun; He, Bing; Wang, Yuancong; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess higher photosynthetic efficiency and accumulate more neutral lipids when supplied with high-dose CO2. However, the nature of lipid accumulation under conditions of elevated CO2 has not been fully elucidated so far. We now revealed that the enhanced lipid accumulation of Chlorella in high-dose CO2 was as efficient as under heterotrophic conditions and this may be attributed to the driving of enlarged carbon source. Both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures were established by using Chlorella sorokiniana CS-1. A series of changes in the carbon fixation, lipid accumulation, energy conversion, and carbon-lipid conversion under high-dose CO2 (1-10%) treatment were characterized subsequently. The daily carbon fixation rate of C. sorokiniana LS-2 in 10% CO2 aeration was significantly increased compared with air CO2. Correspondingly, double oil content (28%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, close to 32.3% produced under heterotrophic conditions. In addition, with 10% CO2 aeration, the overall energy yield (Ψ) in Chlorella reached 12.4 from 7.3% (with air aeration) because of the enhanced daily carbon fixation rates. This treatment also improved the energetic lipid yield (Ylipid/Es) with 4.7-fold, tending to the heterotrophic parameters. More significantly, 2.2 times of carbon-lipid conversion efficiency (ηClipid/Ctotal, 42.4%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, towards to 53.7% in heterotrophic cultures, suggesting that more fixed carbon might flow into lipid synthesis under both 10% CO2 aeration and heterotrophic conditions. Taken together, all our evidence showed that 10% CO2 may push photoautotrophic Chlorella to display heterotrophic-like efficiency at least in lipid production. It might bring us an efficient model of lipid production based on microalgal cells with high-dose CO2, which is essential to sustain biodiesel production at large scales. PMID:26712624

  10. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn K; Genc, Yusuf; Pedas, Pai; Hayes, Julie E; Toubia, John; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2014-01-01

    High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7 were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays characteristics of low-affinity Zn transport. The unique function of HvZIP7 provides new insights into the role of ZIP genes in Zn homeostasis in monocots, and offers opportunities to develop Zn biofortification strategies in cereals.

  11. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  12. High-Affinity Accumulation of a Maytansinoid in Cells via Weak Tubulin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Goldmacher, Victor S.; Audette, Charlene A.; Guan, Yinghua; Sidhom, Eriene-Heidi; Shah, Jagesh V.; Whiteman, Kathleen R.; Kovtun, Yelena V.

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-targeting maytansinoids accumulate in cells and induce mitotic arrest at 250- to 1000-fold lower concentrations than those required for their association with tubulin or microtubules. To identify the mechanisms of this intracellular accumulation and exceptional cytotoxicity of maytansinoids we studied interaction of a highly cytotoxic maytansinoid, S-methyl DM1 and several other maytansinoids with cells. S-methyl DM1 accumulated inside the cells with a markedly higher apparent affinity than to tubulin or microtubules. The apparent affinities of maytansinoids correlated with their cytotoxicities. The number of intracellular binding sites for S-methyl DM1 in MCF7 cells was comparable to the number of tubulin molecules per cell (~ 4–6 × 107 copies). Efflux of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 from cells was enhanced in the presence of an excess of non-labeled S-methyl DM1, indicating that re-binding of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 to intracellular binding sites contributed to its intracellular retention. Liposomes loaded with non-polymerized tubulin recapitulated the apparent high-affinity association of S-methyl DM1 to cells. We propose a model for the intracellular accumulation of maytansinoids in which molecules of the compounds diffuse into a cell and associate with tubulin. Affinities of maytansinoids for individual tubulin molecules are weak, but the high intracellular concentration of tubulin favors, after dissociation of a compound-tubulin complex, their re-binding to a tubulin molecule, or to a tip of a microtubule in the same cell, over their efflux. As a result, a significant fraction of microtubule tips is occupied with a maytansinoid when added to cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, inducing mitotic arrest and cell death. PMID:25671541

  13. Effects of salicylic acid on thermotolerance and cardenolide accumulation under high temperature stress in Digitalis trojana Ivanina.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    Long periods of high temperature or transitory increased temperature, a widespread agricultural problem, may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield, affecting plant growth and development in many areas of the world. Heat stress causes many anatomical and physiological changes in plants. Its unfavorable effects can be alleviated by thermotolerance induced by exogenous application of plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants or by gradual application of temperature stress. Digitalis trojana Ivanina is an important medicinal plant species well known mainly for its cardenolides. The production of cardenolides via traditional agriculture is commercially inadequate. In this study, elicitation strategies were employed for improving crop thermotolerance and accumulation of cardenolides. For these purposes, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and/or high temperature treatments in inducing cardenolide accumulation and thermotolerance were tested in callus cultures of D. trojana. Considerable increases in the production of cardenolides (up to 472.28 μg.g(-1) dry weight, dw) and induction of thermotolerance capacity were observed when callus cultures were exposed to high temperature for 2 h after pretreating with SA. High temperature treatments (2 h and 4 h) caused a marked reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activities, while SA pretreatment increased their activities. High temperature and/or SA appeared to increase the levels of proline, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. Elevated phenolic accumulation could be associated with increased stress protection. These results indicated that SA treatments induced synthesis of antioxidants and cardenolides, which may play a significant role in resistance to high temperature stress. PMID:27105421

  14. Molecular nitrogen in natural gas accumulations: Generation from sedimentary organic matter at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Littke, R.; Krooss, B.; Frielingsdorf, J.; Idiz, E.

    1995-03-01

    The occurrence of natural gas accumulations with high percentages (up to 100%) of molecular nitrogen in various hydrocarbon provinces represents a largely unresolved problem and a serious exploration risk. In this context, a geochemical and basin modeling study was performed to evaluate the potential of sedimentary organic matter to generate molecular nitrogen. The masses of nitrogen present in coals - if converted into molecular nitrogen - are sufficient to fill commercial gas reservoirs. A calculation for gas accumulations in northern Germany, where percentages of molecular nitrogen range from less than 5 to greater than 90%, reveals that the molecular nitrogen generated in underlying coal-bearing strata is sufficient to account for the nitrogen gas even in the largest fields. In addition, much of the total nitrogen in clay-rich rock types, such as shales and mudstones, is fixed in sedimentary organic matter and may add to the nitrogen generation capacity of the coals.

  15. Accumulation and degradation of thiamin-binding protein and level of thiamin in wheat seeds during seed maturation and germination.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Katsumi; Nishida, Naoko; Adachi, Takashi; Ueda, Motoko; Mitsunaga, Toshio; Kawamura, Yukio

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the levels of thiamin-binding globulin and thiamin in wheat seeds during maturation and germination were studied. The thiamin-binding activity of the seed proteins increased with seed development after flowering. The thiamin content of the seeds also increased with development. Thiamin-binding activity decreased during seed germination. On the other hand, immunological analysis using an antibody directed against the thiamin-binding protein isolated from wheat seeds showed that the thiamin-binding globulin accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds during maturation, and then the protein was degraded and disappeared during seed germination. These results suggested that the thiamin-binding globulin of wheat seeds was synthesized and accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds with seed development, similar to the thiamin-binding albumin in sesame seeds, and that thiamin bound to the thiamin-binding globulin in the dormant wheat seeds for germ growth during germination.

  16. Reflectance of litter accumulation levels at five wavelengths within the 0.5- to 2.5 micron waveband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Gausman, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance was measured for 1-m2 range grass plots with two canopy treatments (standing and clipped) and four levels of litter accumulation and for grain sorghum with two canopy treatments. Reflectance was significantly higher at the 0.65- to 1.65-, and 2.20-micrometer. Wavelengths for both grass and grain sorghum canopies when the canopies were clipped and the resulting litter was removed. The natural accumulation of litter under the grass canopy did not significantly affect reflectance. The 1.65- and 2.20-micrometer wavelength reflectances of the live grass and the intact litter were 21.8% and 16.2%, respectively, and those of grain sorghum were 21.8% and 16.5%, respectively.

  17. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1-8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination. PMID:26648137

  18. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1–8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination. PMID:26648137

  19. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-12-09

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1-8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination.

  20. T1 Relaxation Rate (R1) Indicates Nonlinear Mn Accumulation in Brain Tissue of Welders With Low-Level Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Flynn, Michael R.; Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Fry, Rebecca; Herring, Amy H.; Van Buren, Eric; Van Buren, Scott; Smeester, Lisa; Kong, Lan; Yang, Qing; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Although the essential element manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high doses, the effects of lower exposure are unclear. MRI T1-weighted (TIW) imaging has been used to estimate brain Mn exposure via the pallidal index (PI), defined as the T1W intensity ratio in the globus pallidus (GP) versus frontal white matter (FWM). PI may not, however, be sensitive to Mn in GP because Mn also may accumulate in FWM. This study explored: (1) whether T1 relaxation rate (R1) could quantify brain Mn accumulation more sensitively; and (2) the dose-response relationship between estimated Mn exposure and T1 relaxation rate (R1). Thirty-five active welders and 30 controls were studied. Occupational questionnaires were used to estimate hours welding in the past 90 days (HrsW) and lifetime measures of Mn exposure. T1W imaging and T1-measurement were utilized to generate PI and R1 values in brain regions of interest (ROIs). PI did not show a significant association with any measure of Mn and/or welding-related exposure. Conversely, in several ROIs, R1 showed a nonlinear relationship to HrsW, with R1 signal increasing only after a critical exposure was reached. The GP had the greatest rate of Mn accumulation. Welders with higher exposure showed significantly higher R1 compared either with controls or with welders with lower exposure. Our data are additional evidence that Mn accumulation can be assessed more sensitively by R1 than by PI. Moreover, the nonlinear relationship between welding exposure and Mn brain accumulation should be considered in future studies and policies. PMID:25953701

  1. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly…

  2. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  3. Carbon accumulation rate of peatland in the High Arctic, Svalbard: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Uchida, Masaki; Sasaki, Akiko; Kondo, Miyuki; Yoshitake, Shinpei; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Moss tundra that accumulates a thick peat layer is one of the most important ecosystems in the High Arctic, Svalbard. The importance of this ecosystem for carbon sequestration was estimated from the apparent rates of carbon accumulation based on the 14C age and amount of peat in the active layer. The study site at Stuphallet, Brøgger Peninsula, northwestern Svalbard was covered with a thick peat layer dominated by moss species such as Calliergon richardsonii, Paludella squarrosa, Tomenthypnum nitens, and Warnstorfia exannulata. The average thickness of the active layer (brown moss and peat) was approximately 28 cm in 1 August 2011. The calibrated (cal) age of peat from the bottom of the active layer (20-30 cm below the peatland surface) ranged from 81 to 701 cal yr BP (median value of 2σ range). Based on the total carbon (4.5-9.2 kg C m-2), the apparent rate of carbon accumulation in the active layer was 9.0-19.2 (g C m-2 yr-1), which is similar to or greater than the net ecosystem production or net primary production reported for other vegetation types in this area. Our data suggest that moss tundra plays an important role in carbon sequestration in this area.

  4. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogs regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae. PMID:25741321

  5. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogs regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  6. Ustilago maydis accumulates beta-carotene at levels determined by a retinal-forming carotenoid oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Alejandro F; Brefort, Thomas; Mengel, Carina; Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Alder, Adrian; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2009-10-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, has emerged as a model organism for dimorphism and fungal phytopathogenicity. In this work, we line out the key conserved enzymes for beta-carotene biosynthesis encoded by the U. maydis genome and show that this biotrophic fungus accumulates beta-carotene. The amount of this pigment depended on culture pH and aeration but was not affected by light and was not increased by oxidative stress. Moreover, we identified the U. maydis gene, cco1, encoding a putative beta-carotene cleavage oxygenase. Heterologous overexpression and in vitro analyses of purified enzyme demonstrated that Cco1 catalyzes the symmetrical cleavage of beta-carotene to yield two molecules of retinal. Analyses of beta-carotene and retinal contents in U. maydiscco1 deletion and over-expression strains confirmed the enzymatic function of Cco1, and revealed that Cco1 determines the beta-carotene content. Our data indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in U. maydis is carried out to provide retinal rather than to deliver protective pigments. The U. maydis genome also encodes three potential opsins, a family of photoactive proteins that use retinal as chromophore. Two opsin genes showed different light-regulated expression patterns, suggesting specialized roles in photobiology, while no mRNA was detected for the third opsin gene in the same experiments. However, deletion of the cco1 gene, which should abolish function of all the retinal-dependent opsins, did not affect growth, morphology or pathogenicity, suggesting that retinal and opsin proteins play no relevant role in U. maydis under the tested conditions.

  7. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Lenstra, Wytze; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Sapart, Célia J.; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands), we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2–0.8 mol m-2 yr-1) during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50–170 nmol cm-3 d-1) both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1) reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years), thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1) allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic) methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments. PMID:27560511

  8. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Egger, Matthias; Lenstra, Wytze; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip J R; Sapart, Célia J; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands), we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2-0.8 mol m-2 yr-1) during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50-170 nmol cm-3 d-1) both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1) reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years), thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1) allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic) methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments. PMID:27560511

  9. How sea level rise affects sedimentation, plant growth, and carbon accumulation on coastal salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, S. M.; Howell, S. M.; Morris, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of accretion on coastal salt marshes depends on feedbacks between flow, macrophyte growth, and sedimentation. Under favourable conditions, marsh accretion rates will keep pace with the local rate of sea level rise. Marsh accretion is driven by both organic and inorganic sedimentation; mineral rich marshes will need less organic sedimentation to keep pace with sea level rise. Here we use a numerical model of marsh accretion, calibrated by sediment cores, to explore the relationship between sea level rise and carbon sequestration on salt marshes in the face of differing supplies of inorganic sediment. The model predicts that changes in carbon storage resulting from changing sediment supply or sea-level rise are strongly dependant on the background sediment supply: if inorganic sediment supply is reduced in an already sediment poor marsh the storage of organic carbon will increase to a far greater extent than in a sediment-rich marsh, provided that the rate of sea-level rise does not exceed a threshold. These results imply that altering sediment supply to estuaries (e.g., by damming upstream rivers or altering littoral sediment transport) could lead to significant changes in the carbon budgets of coastal salt marshes.

  10. Trehalose accumulation induced during the oxidative stress response is independent of TPS1 mRNA levels in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; González-Párraga, Pilar; Pedreño, Yolanda; Alvarez-Peral, Francisco J; Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Growing cells of the Candida albicans trehalose-deficient mutant tps1/tps1 were extremely sensitive to severe oxidative stress exposure (H2O2). However, their viability was not affected after saline stress or heat-shock treatments, being roughly equivalent to that of the parental strain. In wild-type cells, these adverse conditions induced the intracellular accumulation of trehalose together with activation of trehalose-6P synthase, whereas the endogenous trehalose content and the corresponding biosynthetic activity were barely detectable in the tps1/tps1 mutant. The addition of cycloheximide did not prevent the marked induction of trehalose-6P synthase activity. Furthermore, the presence of H2O2 decreased the level of TPS1 mRNA expression. Hence, the conspicuous trehalose accumulation in response to oxidative stress is not induced by increased transcription of TPS1. Our results are consistent with a specific requirement of trehalose in order to withstand a severe oxidative stress in C. albicans, and suggest that trehalose accumulation observed under these conditions is a complex process that most probably involves post-translational modifications of the trehalose synthase complex.

  11. Abscisic acid promotes accumulation of toxin ODAP in relation to free spermine level in grass pea seedlings (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, You-Cai; Xing, Geng-Mei; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Shao-Ming; Fan, Xian-Wei; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Wang, Ya-Fu

    2006-01-01

    Interrelationship among abscisic acid (ABA) content, accumulation of free polyamines and biosynthesis of beta-N-oxalyl-l-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) was studied in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seedlings under drought stress induced by 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Increase of ABA content occurred prior to that of ODAP and polyamine contents, and was found significantly positive correlation between ABA content and ODAP content. Addition of exogenous ABA increased ODAP content in leaves. On the other hand, pretreatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, significantly suppressed the accumulation of free putrescine (Put), free spermidine (Spd) and free spermine (Spm), which in turn inhibited biosynthesis of ODAP in well-watered leaves. Meanwhile, addition of exogenous Put alleviated DFMA-induced inhibition on the biosynthesis of Put and Spd, but did not affect the biosynthesis of Spm and ODAP in well-watered leaves. Same result was also achieved in drought-stressed leaves. Increasing accumulation of ODAP was significantly correlated with increasing Spm content (R=0.7957**) but not with that of Spd and Put. Therefore, it can be argued that ABA stimulated the biosynthesis of ODAP simultaneously with increasing the level of free Spm under drought stress condition.

  12. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. PMID:27329221

  13. An examination of the southern California field test for the systematic accumulation of the optical refraction error in geodetic leveling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Brown, B.W., Jr.; Gilmore, T.D.; Mark, R.K.; Wilson, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Appraisals of the two levelings that formed the southern California field test for the accumulation of the atmospheric refraction error indicate that random error and systematic error unrelated to refraction competed with the systematic refraction error and severely complicate any analysis of the test results. If the fewer than one-third of the sections that met less than second-order, class I standards are dropped, the divergence virtually disappears between the presumably more refraction contaminated long-sight-length survey and the less contaminated short-sight-length survey. -Authors

  14. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  15. High-level waste processing and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

  16. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  17. Characteristic of nitrous oxide production in partial denitrification process with high nitrite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production during the partial denitrification process with nitrate (NO3(-)-N) to nitrite (NO2(-)-N) transformation ratio of 80% was investigated in this study. Results showed that N2O was seldom observed before complete depletion of NO3(-)-N, but it was closely related to the reduction of NO2(-)-N rather than NO3(-)-N. High COD/NO3(-)-N was in favor of N2O production in partial denitrification with high NO2(-)-N accumulation. It was seriously enhanced at constant acidic pH due to the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. However, the N2O production was much lower at initial pH of 5.5 and 6.5 due to the pH increase during denitrification process. Significantly, the pH turning point could be chosen as a controlled parameter to denote the end of NO3(-)-N reduction, which could not only achieve high NO2(-)-N accumulation but also decrease the N2O production significantly for practical application.

  18. High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Ueno, M; Ogino, S; Kubo, K; Nagata, J; Takeuchi, M

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the ability of Garcinia cambogia extract containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) to suppress body fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats. We also examined histopathologically the safety of its high doses. Diets containing different levels of HCA (0, 10, 51, 102 and 154 mmol/kg diet) were fed to 6-week-old rats for 92 or 93 days. Each diet group was pair-fed to the 154 mmol HCA/kg diet group. Epididymal fat accumulation and histopathological changes in tissues were observed. The highest dose of HCA-containing Garcinia cambogia (154 mmol HCA/kg diet) showed significant suppression of epididymal fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, compared with the other groups. However, the diets containing 102 mmol HCA/kg diet and higher (778 and 1244 mg HCA/kg BW/d, respectively) caused potent testicular atrophy and toxicity, whereas diets containing 51 mmol HCA/kg diet (389 mg HCA/kg BW/d) or less did not. Accordingly, 51 mmol HCA/kg diet (389 mg HCA/kg BW/d) was deemed to be the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). PMID:15680676

  19. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production frommore » cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  20. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) under nutrient starvation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Duckweed can thrive on anthropogenic wastewater and produce tremendous biomass production. Due to its relatively high starch and low lignin percentage, duckweed is a good candidate for bioethanol fermentation. Previous studies have observed that water devoid of nutrients is good for starch accumulation, but its molecular mechanism remains unrevealed. Results This study globally analyzed the response to nutrient starvation in order to investigate the starch accumulation in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). L. punctata was transferred from nutrient-rich solution to distilled water and sampled at different time points. Physiological measurements demonstrated that the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the key enzyme of starch synthesis, as well as the starch percentage in duckweed, increased continuously under nutrient starvation. Samples collected at 0 h, 2 h and 24 h time points respectively were used for comparative gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq. A comprehensive transcriptome, comprising of 74,797 contigs, was constructed by a de novo assembly of the RNA-Seq reads. Gene expression profiling results showed that the expression of some transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis was up-regulated, while the expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in starch consumption were down-regulated, the expression of some photosynthesis-related transcripts were down-regulated during the first 24 h, and the expression of some transporter transcripts were up-regulated within the first 2 h. Very interestingly, most transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were highly expressed regardless of starvation, while transcripts encoding laccase, the last rate-limiting enzyme of lignifications, exhibited very low expression abundance in all three samples. Conclusion Our study provides a comprehensive expression profiling of L. punctata under nutrient starvation, which indicates that nutrient starvation down

  2. Do oral aluminium phosphate binders cause accumulation of aluminium to toxic levels?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity was frequent in the 1980s in patients ingesting Al containing phosphate binders (Alucaps) whilst having HD using water potentially contaminated with Al. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of Al toxicity in HD patients receiving Alucaps but never exposed to contaminated dialysate water. Methods HD patients only treated with Reverse Osmosis(RO) treated dialysis water with either current or past exposure to Alucaps were given standardised DFO tests. Post-DFO serum Al level > 3.0 μmol/L was defined to indicate toxic loads based on previous bone biopsy studies. Results 39 patients (34 anuric) were studied. Mean dose of Alucap was 3.5 capsules/d over 23.0 months. Pre-DFO Al levels were > 1.0 μmol/L in only 2 patients and none were > 3.0 μmol/L. No patients had a post DFO Al levels > 3.0 μmol/L. There were no correlations between the serum Al concentrations (pre-, post- or the incremental rise after DFO administration) and the total amount of Al ingested. No patients had unexplained EPO resistance or biochemical evidence of adynamic bone. Conclusions Although this is a small study, oral aluminium exposure was considerable. Yet no patients undergoing HD with RO treated water had evidence of Al toxicity despite doses equivalent to 3.5 capsules of Alucap for 2 years. The relationship between the DFO-Al results and the total amount of Al ingested was weak (R2 = 0.07) and not statistically significant. In an era of financial prudence, and in view of the recognised risk of excess calcium loading in dialysis patients, perhaps we should re-evaluate the risk of using Al-based phosphate binders in HD patients who remain uric. PMID:21992770

  3. The high-affinity phosphate-binding protein PstS is accumulated under high fructose concentrations and mutation of the corresponding gene affects differentiation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Margarita; Esteban, Ana; Fernández-Abalos, José Manuel; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2005-08-01

    The secreted protein pattern of Streptomyces lividans depends on the carbon source present in the culture media. One protein that shows the most dramatic change is the high-affinity phosphate-binding protein PstS, which is strongly accumulated in the supernatant of liquid cultures containing high concentrations (>3 %) of certain sugars, such as fructose, galactose and mannose. The promoter region of this gene and that of its Streptomyces coelicolor homologue were used to drive the expression of a xylanase in S. lividans that was accumulated in the culture supernatant when grown in the presence of fructose. PstS accumulation was dramatically increased in a S. lividans polyphosphate kinase null mutant (Deltappk) and was impaired in a deletion mutant lacking phoP, the transcriptional regulator gene of the two-component phoR-phoP system that controls the Pho regulon. Deletion of the pstS genes in S. lividans and S. coelicolor impaired phosphate transport and accelerated differentiation and sporulation on solid media. Complementation with a single copy in a S. lividans pstS null mutant returned phosphate transport and sporulation to levels similar to those of the wild-type strain. The present work demonstrates that carbon and phosphate metabolism are linked in the regulation of genes and that this can trigger the genetic switch towards morphogenesis.

  4. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  5. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  6. Do we understand high-level vision?

    PubMed

    Cox, David Daniel

    2014-04-01

    'High-level' vision lacks a single, agreed upon definition, but it might usefully be defined as those stages of visual processing that transition from analyzing local image structure to analyzing structure of the external world that produced those images. Much work in the last several decades has focused on object recognition as a framing problem for the study of high-level visual cortex, and much progress has been made in this direction. This approach presumes that the operational goal of the visual system is to read-out the identity of an object (or objects) in a scene, in spite of variation in the position, size, lighting and the presence of other nearby objects. However, while object recognition as a operational framing of high-level is intuitive appealing, it is by no means the only task that visual cortex might do, and the study of object recognition is beset by challenges in building stimulus sets that adequately sample the infinite space of possible stimuli. Here I review the successes and limitations of this work, and ask whether we should reframe our approaches to understanding high-level vision.

  7. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  8. High molecular weight complexes of mutant superoxide dismutase 1: age-dependent and tissue-specific accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiou; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2002-03-01

    Mutations in the cytosolic enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1, have been identified as the cause of motor neuron disease in a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It has been postulated that the injurious property of mutant enzyme resides in its propensity to aggregate or its propensity to catalyze deleterious, copper-mediated, chemistries. Aggregates of SOD1 have been identified, histologically, in neurons and astroglia of the spinal cords of SOD1-linked FALS patients and in transgenic mice that express these mutant proteins. In the present study, we have employed a technique used in detecting and quantifying aggregates of mutant huntingtin (cellulose acetate filtration) to examine the molecular characteristics of mutant SOD1 in three previously characterized transgenic mouse models of FALS. We show that the brains and spinal cords of these mice accumulate mutant SOD1 complexes that can be trapped by cellulose acetate filtration. The relative abundance of these structures increases dramatically with age. Although expressed to the same level in nonnervous tissues, mutant SOD1 was not found in high molecular weight structures. We conclude that some aspect of the biology of neural tissues (in a setting of declining motor neuron function) predisposes to the accumulation of high molecular weight complexes of mutant SOD1.

  9. Decreased drug accumulation and increased tolerance to DNA damage in tumor cells with a low level of cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, C; Perego, P; Supino, R; Romanelli, S; Pensa, T; Carenini, N; Viano, I; Colangelo, D; Leone, R; Apostoli, P; Cassinelli, G; Gambetta, R A; Zunino, F

    1998-04-15

    In an attempt to examine the cellular changes associated with cisplatin resistance, we selected a cisplatin-resistant (A43 1/Pt) human cervix squamous cell carcinoma cell line following continuous in vitro drug exposure. The resistant subline was characterized by a 2.5-fold degree of resistance. In particular, we investigated the expression of cellular defence systems and other cellular factors probably involved in dealing with cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Resistant cells exhibited decreased platinum accumulation and reduced levels of DNA-bound platinum and interstrand cross-link frequency after short-term drug exposure. Analysis of the effect of cisplatin on cell cycle progression revealed a cisplatin-induced G2M arrest in sensitive and resistant cells. Interestingly, a slowdown in S-phase transit was found in A431/Pt cells. A comparison of the ability of sensitive and resistant cells to repair drug-induced DNA damage suggested that resistant cells were able to tolerate higher levels of cisplatin-induced DNA damage than their parental counterparts. Analysis of the expression of proteins involved in DNA mismatch repair showed a decreased level of MSH2 in resistant cells. Since MSH2 seems to be involved in recognition of drug-induced DNA damage, this change may account for the increased tolerance to DNA damage observed in the resistant subline. In conclusion, the involvement of accumulation defects and the increased tolerance to cisplatin-induced DNA damage in these cisplatin-resistant cells support the notion that multiple changes contribute to confer a low level of cisplatin resistance. PMID:9719480

  10. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits.

  11. Shishaldin volcano: Aleutian high-alumina basalts and the question of plagioclase accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fournelle, J.; Marsh, B.D. )

    1991-03-01

    High-alumina basalts (HABs) from volcanic arcs commonly contain 30%-50% (modal) plagioclase. It has been suggested that they reflect plagioclase addition and are not primary compositions. In rocks from the Aleutian volcano Shishaldin, the authors search for evidence of plagioclase accumulation: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and Na{sub 2}O vs. modal plagioclase; europium anomalies in HABs; plagioclase-liquid equilibrium; and the HAB groundmass. The HABs do not appear to be results of plagioclase addition to liquids of dacitic, Fe-Ti enriched, or high-Mg basaltic compositions. Plagioclase loss from HABs does appear to yield the Fe-Ti-enriched basalts. Shishaldin HABs may reflect near-primary compositions, and HAB phase equilibria may thus be useful in evaluating the origin of such arc basalts.

  12. Plants tolerant of high boron levels.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Omori, Hiroyuki; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2007-11-30

    Reduced crop productivity due to soils containing toxic levels of boron (B) is a worldwide problem in food production. It is estimated that up to 17% of the barley yield losses in southern Australia are caused by B toxicity. We found that the expression of AtBOR4, an Arabidopsis paralog of BOR1, the first identified boron transporter gene, generates plants that are tolerant of high B levels. BOR4 is a polarly localized borate exporter that enhances B efflux from roots. The present study is a foundation for the improvement of crop productivity in soils containing excess B, which are distributed in arid areas of the world. PMID:18048682

  13. High-energy carbonate-sand accumulation, the Quicksands, southwest Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Lidz, Barbara H.; Holmes, Charles W.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of the Quicksands, located along a broad ridge on the platform shelf west of Key West, Florida, indicate a significant deposit of non-oolitic carbonate sand occurs in a belt 47 km long by 28 km wide. The surface of the belt is ornamented by large (5 m), migrating tidal bars, oriented in a north-south direction, on which sand waves, oriented in an east-west direction, are superimposed. Some of the sand waves are awash at low tide. The sand waves are formed by strong reversing tidal currents flowing between the Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of Florida. The waves migrate directly over Pleistocene bedrock to the east, but the deposit thickens to the west and sand waves there overlie non-oolitic Holocene accumulations as thick as 12 m. Westward-dipping accretionary bedding indicates that net migration of the sands is to the west, despite north-south movement of tidal currents. The westward edge of the accumulation has accreted over deeper, muddier deposits. Although tidal currents and resultant bedforms appear identical to those of active ooid deposits in the Bahamas and elsewhere, no oolitically coated grains were found in this study. Thin-section analyses show the principal component (average 48%) of the sands is fragmented plates of species of the green alga Halimeda , followed by particulate coral (average 17%), which increases off the flanks of the main sand body. Short vibracores confirm the presence of cross-bedding.

  14. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-02-12

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4(+) into NO3(-) subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3(-) accumulation and loss. We found that 87-92% of the applied (15)N-labelled NH4(+) was rapidly recovered as NO3(-) since day 3 and only 2-4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3(-) but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between (15)N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn't decrease soil total NO3(-) accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself.

  15. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-01-01

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4+ into NO3− subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3− accumulation and loss. We found that 87–92% of the applied 15N-labelled NH4+ was rapidly recovered as NO3− since day 3 and only 2–4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3− but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between 15N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn’t decrease soil total NO3− accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself. PMID:26868028

  16. Detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating bacteria from domestic wastewater treatment plant using highly sensitive PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Pi-Ling; Semblante, Galilee Uy; You, Sheng-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a class of biodegradable plastics that have great potential applications in the near future. In this study, the micro-biodiversity and productivity of PHA-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were investigated. A previously reported primer set and a selfdesigned primer set (phaCF1BO/phaCR2BO) were both used to amplify the PHA synthase (phaC) gene of isolated colonies. The new primers demonstrated higher sensitivity for phaC, and combining the PCR results of the two primer sets was able to widen the range of detected genera and raise the sensitivity to nearly 90%. Results showed that 85.3% of the identified bacteria were Gram-negative, with Ralstonia as the dominant genus, and 14.7% were Gram-positive. In addition, Zoogloea and Rhizobium contained the highest amounts of intracellular PHA. It is apparent that glucose was a better carbon source than pentone or tryptone for promoting PHA production in Micrococcus. Two different classes, class I and class II, of phaC were detected from alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and gammaproteobacteria, indicating the wide diversity of PHA-accumulating bacteria in this particular sampling site. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and PHA production is promising by adopting the high PHAaccumulating bacteria isolated from activated sludge.

  17. Atmospheric Controls of Snow Accumulation on Glaciers and Ice Caps in High Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, D.; Curio, J.

    2015-12-01

    Snowfall is the major contributor to snow accumulation on glaciers and ice caps. Unfortunately, its quantification is rather difficult, both by observations and by numerical modelling. Field measurements of snowfall are generally problematic, and particularly inaccurate in mountainous regions. This holds true also for data from remote sensing systems like the TRMM. Numerical modelling of precipitation in general, and of snowfall in particular, is depending on parameterization of sub-grid processes occurring at a wide range of spatial scales. The scarcity of reliable observational data on snowfall required to test and validate the relevant parameterization schemes is one of the major obstacles for deepening our understanding of atmospheric controls of snow accumulation on glaciers and ice caps. In addition, the often made assumption that easy-to-measure snow accumulation equals snowfall is not valid in areas where other processes like snowdrift or avalanches cause snow deposition or erosion. Besides a general discussion of the above-mentioned problems, the presentation will focus on results obtained from a gridded atmospheric data set, i.e., the so-called High Asia Refined analysis (HAR), covering the study region by two nested domains of 30 km and 10 km grid spacing. Starting from autumn 2000, three-hourly (30 km) and hourly (10 km) data are available for a comprehensive set of atmospheric variables (see www.klima.tu-berlin.de/HAR). HAR data was used to analyse annual and seasonal patterns of precipitation and atmospheric water transport, as well as to drive numerical models for surface mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets. A new study, which is the main subject of this presentation, reveals specific regimes of dynamic controls of precipitation in different regions of High Asia. One of the striking results is that the analysis identified a specific regime that is able to explain some of the atmospheric controls behind the so-called Karakoram anomaly (glaciers in

  18. Contemporary deposition and long-term accumulation of sediment and nutrients by tidal freshwater forested wetlands impacted by sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary deposition (artificial marker horizon, 3.5 years) and long-term accumulation rates (210Pb profiles, ~150 years) of sediment and associated carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were measured in wetlands along the tidal Savannah and Waccamaw rivers in the southeastern USA. Four sites along each river spanned an upstream-to-downstream salinification gradient, from upriver tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW), through moderately and highly salt-impacted forested wetlands, to oligohaline marsh downriver. Contemporary deposition rates (sediment, C, N, and P) were greatest in oligohaline marsh and lowest in TFFW along both rivers. Greater rates of deposition in oligohaline and salt-stressed forested wetlands were associated with a shift to greater clay and metal content that is likely associated with a change from low availability of watershed-derived sediment to TFFW and to greater availability of a coastal sediment source to oligohaline wetlands. Long-term accumulation rates along the Waccamaw River had the opposite spatial pattern compared to contemporary deposition, with greater rates in TFFW that declined to oligohaline marsh. Long-term sediment and elemental mass accumulation rates also were 3–9× lower than contemporary deposition rates. In comparison to other studies, sediment and associated nutrient accumulation in TFFW are lower than downriver/estuarine freshwater, oligohaline, and salt marshes, suggesting a reduced capacity for surface sedimentation (short-term) as well as shallow soil processes (long-term sedimentation) to offset sea level rise in TFFW. Nonetheless, their potentially large spatial extent suggests that TFFW have a large impact on the transport and fate of sediment and nutrients in tidal rivers and estuaries.

  19. High-Level Waste Melter Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ahearne, J.; Gentilucci, J.; Pye, L. D.; Weber, T.; Woolley, F.; Machara, N. P.; Gerdes, K.; Cooley, C.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning for the method of choice for accomplishing this task is to vitrify (glassify) this waste for disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes the results of the DOE-chartered independent review of alternatives for solidification of Hanford HLW that could achieve major cost reductions with reasonable long-term risks, including recommendations on a path forward for advanced melter and waste form material research and development. The potential for improved cost performance was considered to depend largely on increased waste loading (fewer high-level waste canisters for disposal), higher throughput, or decreased vitrification facility size.

  20. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  1. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  2. High level intelligent control of telerobotics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James

    1988-01-01

    A high level robot command language is proposed for the autonomous mode of an advanced telerobotics system and a predictive display mechanism for the teleoperational model. It is believed that any such system will involve some mixture of these two modes, since, although artificial intelligence can facilitate significant autonomy, a system that can resort to teleoperation will always have the advantage. The high level command language will allow humans to give the robot instructions in a very natural manner. The robot will then analyze these instructions to infer meaning so that is can translate the task into lower level executable primitives. If, however, the robot is unable to perform the task autonomously, it will switch to the teleoperational mode. The time delay between control movement and actual robot movement has always been a problem in teleoperations. The remote operator may not actually see (via a monitor) the results of high actions for several seconds. A computer generated predictive display system is proposed whereby the operator can see a real-time model of the robot's environment and the delayed video picture on the monitor at the same time.

  3. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  4. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae. PMID:22938823

  5. Butyrylcholinesterase Deficiency Promotes Adipose Tissue Growth and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Male Mice on High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Stout, Michael B; Jensen, Michael D; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Despite numerous reports of relationships between weight gain and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), this enzyme's role in the genesis of obesity remains unclear, but recent research points to strong links with ghrelin, the "hunger hormone." The availability of BChE knockout (KO) mice provides an opportunity to clarify the causal relationship between BChE and obesity onset. We now find that young KO mice have abnormally high plasma ghrelin levels that slowly decline during long-term high-fat feeding and ultimately drop below those in wild-type mice. On such a diet, the KO mice gained notably more weight, more white fat, and more hepatic fat than wild-type animals. In addition to a greater burden of hepatic triglycerides, the livers of these KO mice show distinctly higher levels of inflammatory markers. Finally, their energy expenditure proved to be lower than in wild-type mice despite similar activity levels and increased caloric intake. A gene transfer of mouse BChE with adeno-associated virus vector restored nearly all aspects of the normal phenotype. Our results indicate that BChE strongly affects fat metabolism, has an important impact on fat accumulation, and may be a promising tool for combating obesity. PMID:27300766

  6. Burst train generator of high energy femtosecond laser pulses for driving heat accumulation effect during micromachining.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Saeid; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2015-05-01

    A new method for generating high-repetition-rate (12.7-38.2 MHz) burst trains of femtosecond laser pulses has been demonstrated for the purpose of tailoring ultrashort laser interactions in material processing that can harness the heat accumulation effect among pulses separated by a short interval (i.e., 26 ns). Computer-controlled time delays were applied to synchronously trigger the high frequency switching of a high voltage Pockels cell to specify distinctive values of polarization rotation for each round-trip of a laser pulse cycling within a passive resonator. Polarization dependent output coupling facilitated the flexible shaping of the burst envelope profile to provide burst trains of up to ∼1  mJ of burst energy divided over a selectable number (1 to 25) of pulses. Individual pulses of variable energy up to 150 μJ and with pulse duration tunable over 70 fs to 2 ps, were applied in burst trains to generate deep and high aspect ratio holes that could not form with low-repetition-rate laser pulses. PMID:25927785

  7. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  8. Cinnamaldehyde supplementation prevents fasting-induced hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Jain, Yachna; Baboota, Ritesh K; Mangal, Priyanka; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Sharma, Shyam S; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi K; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive component of cinnamon, is increasingly gaining interest for its preventive and therapeutic effects against metabolic complications like type-2 diabetes. This study is an attempt to understand the effect of cinnamaldehyde in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated increase in fasting-induced hyperphagia and related hormone levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and inflammation, and selected cecal microbial count in mice. Cinnamaldehyde, at 40 µM dose, prevented lipid accumulation and altered gene expression toward lipolytic phenotype in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines. In vivo, cinnamaldehyde coadministration prevented HFD-induced body weight gain, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, as well as circulating leptin and leptin/ghrelin ratio. In addition to that, cinnamaldehyde altered serum biochemical parameters related to lipolysis, that is, glycerol and free fatty acid levels. At transcriptional level, cinnamaldehyde increased anorectic gene expression in hypothalamus and lipolytic gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde also decreased serum IL-1β and inflammatory gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. However, cinnamaldehyde did not modulate the population of selected gut microbial (Lactobacillus, Bifidibaceria, and Roseburia) count in cecal content. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde increased adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, normalized circulating levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio, and reduced inflammation in HFD-fed mice, which augurs well for its antiobesity role. PMID:26893251

  9. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-21

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  10. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  11. Elevated Plasma Level of Interferon-λ1 in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Upregulated Expression in CD8+ and Epithelial Cells and Induction of Inflammatory Cell Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. F.; Gao, X. Q.; Xu, Y. N.; Li, D. N.; Wang, H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Interferon- (IFN-) λ1 is regarded as a potent bio-active molecule in innate immunity. However, little is known about its role in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We therefore investigated expression of IFN-λ1 in CSU, its cellular location, and its influence on inflammatory cell accumulation by using flow cytometry analysis, skin tissue dispersion, immunohistochemical stain, and a mouse peritoneal inflammation model. The results showed that level of IFN-λ1 was 2.0-fold higher in plasma of the patients with CSU than the level in healthy control (HC) subjects. Among leukocytes examined, only CD8+ T cells expressed more IFN-λ1 in CSU blood. Double labeling immunohistochemical staining revealed that IFN-λ1+ inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, B cells, neutrophils, and macrophages were mainly located in dermis, whereas epidermis tissue highly expressed IFN-λ1. IFN-λ1 induced a dose-dependent increase in number of eosinophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils in the peritoneum of mice at 6 h following injection, which was inhibited by pretreatment of the animals with anti-intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM-) 1 and/or anti-L-selectin antibodies. In conclusion, IFN-λ1 is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of CSU. Blocking IFN-λ1 production may help to reduce the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the involved CSU skin. PMID:27445435

  12. Accumulation of PrLeg, a Perilla legumin protein in potato tuber results in enhanced level of sulphur-containing amino acids.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young-Min; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Min-Kyung; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2013-09-01

    Potato is the fourth staple food in the world, following rice, wheat, and maize, whereas tubers contain high quality of starch, relatively high amounts of vitamin C and many other important substances. It also contains relatively good quality of protein (about 3 to 6% of the dried weight) and patatin, and 11S globulin is a major storage protein with high level of lysine. However, tuber protein contains relatively low amounts of sulphur-containing amino acids, which may result in low nutritional value. Recently, we cloned a gene encoding PrLeg polypeptide, a seed storage protein from Perilla, which contains relatively higher levels of sulphur-containing amino acids. We transformed PrLeg cDNA into a potato plant to over-express under the direction of the tuber-specific promoter, patatin. Most of the transgenic lines identified through PCR and RT-PCR analyses were able to accumulate high amount of prLeg transcript in their tuber tissue, while very little or no transcript that were detected in their leaf tissues. The level of methionine content was elevated up to three-fold compared to non-transgenic parental line, without any significant changes in other amino acids, suggesting that further research is required to get a deeper insight into their nutritional value. PMID:24161240

  13. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  14. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  15. The effects of high level infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

  16. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  17. Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

  18. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  19. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  20. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence. PMID:19700495

  1. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rasheed, F.N. )

    1993-03-27

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm[sup 3]. This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group.

  2. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  3. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-06-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  4. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  5. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  6. High-level waste: View from Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1994-12-31

    {open_quotes}Instead of acknowledging the serious shortcomings of the current waste program, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to tighten the screws on Nevada,{close_quotes} says Nevada Governor Bob Miller. Nevada`s opposition to the federal government`s proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain has grown out of fundamental flaws within the siting process, says Miller. {open_quotes}This process has left the nation with one technically flawed site as its sole prospect for nuclear waste disposal,{close_quotes} he says. Miller claims that DOE has acknowledged that the site is inadequate. Nevertheless, he says, the agency has insisted on pressing ahead with its plans, attempting to {open_quotes}adjust the standards to fit the site.{close_quotes} Miller concludes that dry and/or above-ground waste storage at reactor site represents a more sensible - and less costly - disposal method for high-level wastes, at least in the short term.

  7. Transcript level coordination of carbon pathways during silicon starvation-induced lipid accumulation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah R; Glé, Corine; Abbriano, Raffaela M; Traller, Jesse C; Davis, Aubrey; Trentacoste, Emily; Vernet, Maria; Allen, Andrew E; Hildebrand, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. To characterize the transcript level component of metabolic regulation, genome-wide changes in transcript abundance were documented in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana on a time-course of silicon starvation. Growth, cell cycle progression, chloroplast replication, fatty acid composition, pigmentation, and photosynthetic parameters were characterized alongside lipid accumulation. Extensive coordination of large suites of genes was observed, highlighting the existence of clusters of coregulated genes as a key feature of global gene regulation in T. pseudonana. The identity of key enzymes for carbon metabolic pathway inputs (photosynthesis) and outputs (growth and storage) reveals these clusters are organized to synchronize these processes. Coordinated transcript level responses to silicon starvation are probably driven by signals linked to cell cycle progression and shifts in photophysiology. A mechanistic understanding of how this is accomplished will aid efforts to engineer metabolism for development of algal-derived biofuels. PMID:26844818

  8. Accumulation of DNA damage and reduced levels of nicotine adenine dinucleotide in the brains of Atm-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Stern, Nora; Hochman, Ayala; Zemach, Naty; Weizman, Nir; Hammel, Ilan; Shiloh, Yosef; Rotman, Galit; Barzilai, Ari

    2002-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a human genetic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the ATM gene. A-T patients display a pleiotropic phenotype, in which a major neurological feature is progressive ataxia due to degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje and granule neurons. Disruption of the mouse Atm locus creates a murine model of A-T that exhibits most of the clinical and cellular features of the human disease, but the neurological phenotype is barely expressed. We present evidence for the accumulation of DNA strand breaks in the brains of Atm(-/-), supporting the notion that ATM plays a major role in maintaining genomic stability. We also show a perturbation of the steady state levels of pyridine nucleotides. There is a significant decrease in both the reduced and the oxidized forms of NAD and in the total levels of NADP(T) and NADP(+) in the brains of Atm(-/-) mice. The changes in NAD(T), NADH, NAD(+), NADP(T), and NADP(+) were progressive and observed primarily in the cerebellum of 4-month-old Atm(-/-) mice. Higher rates of mitochondrial respiration were also recorded in 4-month-old Atm(-/-) cerebella. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that absence of functional ATM results in continuous stress, which may be an important cause of the degeneration of cerebellar neurons in A-T. PMID:11679583

  9. Application of cyclic damage accumulation life prediction model to high temperature components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A high temperature, low cycle fatigue life prediction method was developed. This method, Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA), was developed for use in predicting the crack initiation lifetime of gas turbine engine materials, but it can be applied to other materials as well. The method is designed to account for the effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loading such as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, waveshapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features of this model were developed to make it practical for application to actual component analysis, such as the ability to handle nonisothermal loading (including TMF), arbitrary cycle paths, and multiple damage modes. The CDA life prediction model was derived from extensive specimen tests conducted on cast nickel-base superalloy B1900 + Hf. These included both monotonic tests (tensile and creep) and strain-controlled fatigue experiments (uniaxial, biaxial, TMF, mixed creep-fatigue, and controlled mean stress). Additional specimen tests were conducted on wrought INCO 718 to verify the applicability of the final CDA model to other high-temperature alloys. The model will be available to potential users in the near future in the form of a FORTRAN-77 computer program.

  10. Selection and molecular characterization of a high tocopherol accumulation rice mutant line induced by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Eun; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Kim, Jin-Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si-Yong; Kim, Dong Sub

    2014-11-01

    Tocopherols are micronutrients with antioxidant properties. They are synthesized by photosynthetic bacteria and plants, and play important roles in animal and human nutrition. In this study, we isolated a new rice mutant line with elevated tocopherol content (MRXII) from an in vitro mutagenized population induced by gamma irradiation. The mutant exhibited greater seed longevity than the control, indicating a crucial role for tocopherols in maintaining viability during quiescence, and displayed faster seedling growth during the early growth stage. To study the molecular mechanism underlying vitamin E biosynthesis, we examined the expression patterns of seven rice genes encoding vitamin E biosynthetic enzymes. Accumulation levels of the OsVTE2 transcript and OsVTE2 protein in the MRXII mutant were significantly higher than in the control. Sequence analysis revealed that the MRXII mutant harbored a point mutation in the OsVTE2 promoter region, which resulted in the generation of MYB transcription factor-binding cis-element. These results help identify the promoter regions that regulate OsVTE2 transcription, and offer insights into the regulation of tocopherol content.

  11. High-fat diet intake accelerates aging, increases expression of Hsd11b1, and promotes lipid accumulation in liver of SAMP10 mouse.

    PubMed

    Honma, Taro; Shinohara, Nahoko; Ito, Junya; Kijima, Ryo; Sugawara, Soko; Arai, Tatsuya; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of aging is important for prevention of age-related diseases. In this study, we examined age-dependent changes in lipid metabolism in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM)P10 fed a high-fat diet to investigate the effects of high-fat intake and aging. Tissue weights and biological parameters in plasma and liver were measured at 6 and 12 months old in SAMP10 mice fed a high-fat diet. These mice showed marked increases in liver triacylglycerol and plasma insulin levels with intake of a high-fat diet intake and aging. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and morphological aberrations and hypertrophy in pancreatic islets were also promoted by a high-fat diet and aging. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, the activities and mRNA levels for enzymes associated with lipid metabolism in liver were measured. The results indicated that the lipid metabolic system was activated by a high-fat diet and aging. Liver mRNA level for hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd11b1), which exhibit age-dependent increases and promote insulin secretion, was also markedly increased. These results suggest that a high-fat diet accelerated aging in the liver of SAMP10 mice by increasing liver mRNA level for Hsd11b1, increasing insulin secretion, and promoting lipid accumulation in the liver.

  12. Endogenous post-transcriptional gene silencing of flavone synthase resulting in high accumulation of anthocyanins in black dahlia cultivars.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ayumi; Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2013-05-01

    Black color in flowers is a highly attractive trait in the floricultural industry, but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was performed to identify the bases of the high accumulation of anthocyanidins in black cultivars and to determine whether the high accumulation of total anthocyanidins alone leads to the black appearance. Our approach was to compare black dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cultivars with purple cultivars and a purple flowering mutant of a black cultivar, using pigment and molecular analyses. Black cultivars characteristically exhibited low lightness, high petal accumulation of cyanidin and total anthocyanidins without flavones, and marked suppression of flavone synthase (DvFNS) expression. A comparative study using black and purple cultivars revealed that neither the absence of flavones nor high accumulation of total anthocyanidins is solely sufficient for black appearance, but that cyanidin content in petals is also an important factor in the phenotype. A study comparing the black cultivar 'Kokucho' and its purple mutant showed that suppression of DvFNS abolishes the competition between anthocyanidin and flavone synthesis and leads to accumulation of cyanidin and total anthocyanidins that produce a black appearance. Surprisingly, in black cultivars the suppression of DvFNS occurred in a post-transcriptional manner, as determined by small RNA mapping. PMID:23389674

  13. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability.

  14. Hepatic oxidative stress and catalyst metals accumulation in goldfish exposed to carbon nanotubes under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinghao; Qu, Ruijuan; Huang, Qingguo; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three different carbon nanotubes [single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs), and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs)] on antioxidant parameters and metals accumulation in the liver of Carassius auratus. A semi-static test system was used to expose C. auratus to either a freshwater control, 0.1, or 0.5mg/L CNTs at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, and 9.0) for 3 and 12 days. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver on the 3rd and 12th day. The results showed that there was a significant increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in fish exposed to CNTs, indicating that CNTs exposure induces an oxidative stress response in fish. According to integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the effect of these three CNTs on liver can be ordered as SWCNTs>OH-MWCNTs>COOH-MWCNTs and they are more toxic to fish in an alkaline environment. Moreover, the concentrations of catalyst metals (Co, Ni, and Mo) and bioelements (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se) in liver were changed, depending on the CNTs concentration, the pH level, and the exposure duration. Generally, all CNTs groups showed that catalyst metals could be concentrated significantly into the liver of fish, and changes in hepatic Cu, Zn, Fe, and Se contents are consistent with the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Hepatic oxidative stress and catalyst metals accumulation in goldfish exposed to carbon nanotubes under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinghao; Qu, Ruijuan; Huang, Qingguo; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three different carbon nanotubes [single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs), and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs)] on antioxidant parameters and metals accumulation in the liver of Carassius auratus. A semi-static test system was used to expose C. auratus to either a freshwater control, 0.1, or 0.5mg/L CNTs at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, and 9.0) for 3 and 12 days. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver on the 3rd and 12th day. The results showed that there was a significant increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in fish exposed to CNTs, indicating that CNTs exposure induces an oxidative stress response in fish. According to integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the effect of these three CNTs on liver can be ordered as SWCNTs>OH-MWCNTs>COOH-MWCNTs and they are more toxic to fish in an alkaline environment. Moreover, the concentrations of catalyst metals (Co, Ni, and Mo) and bioelements (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se) in liver were changed, depending on the CNTs concentration, the pH level, and the exposure duration. Generally, all CNTs groups showed that catalyst metals could be concentrated significantly into the liver of fish, and changes in hepatic Cu, Zn, Fe, and Se contents are consistent with the activity of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25625523

  16. High-level connectionist models. Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The major achievement of this semiannum was the significant revision and extension of the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM) work for publication in the journal Artificial Intelligence. Included as an appendix to this report, the article includes several new elements: (1) Background - The work was more clearly set into the area of recursive distributed representations, machine learning, and the adequacy of the connectionist approach for high-level cognitive modeling; (2) New Experiment - RAAM was applied to finding compact representations for sequences of letters; (3) Analysis - The developed representations were analyzed as features which range from categorical to distinctive. Categorical features distinguish between conceptual categories while distinctive features vary within categories and discriminate or label the members. The representations were also analyzed geometrically; and (4) Applications - Feasibility studies were performed and described on inference by association, and on using RAAM-generated patterns along with cascaded networks for natural language parsing. Both of these remain long-term goals of the project.

  17. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. PMID:27136060

  18. Crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit currents in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Loo, D D; Diamond, J M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a condition in rabbits characterized by CaCO3 crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit current (Isc) in the urinary bladder. The incidence of the condition was high in rabbits kept for 2 mo or more in the vivarium. The crystal mass in the bladder increased with age or time until it occupied up to one-third of the bladder volume and occasionally aggregated as stones, and the urine attained a sludgy consistency. In animals with sludgy urine, the urine excreted had a crystal content 20 times lower than that of urine contained in the bladder at time of death, implying retention of crystals in the bladder. Kidney stones were not detected in rabbits with bladder crystals, and bladder crystals were absent in rabbits with kidney stones induced experimentally by uremia. In old rabbits with sludgy urine the Isc, a measure of Na+ transport, was up to 46 microA/cm2 and averaged 12 microA/cm2, seven times the Isc of rabbits with nonsludgy urine. The increased Isc was entirely amiloride sensitive. Noise analysis showed it to arise entirely from increased channel density, without change in single-channel current. With one possible exception, we could not find bacterial infection or abnormalities in plasma aldosterone, GFR, or urinary [Na+], [Ca2+], pH, or osmolality that could explain the condition. The exception is that some unidentified component accounting for half the osmolality of nonsludgy urine is absent or at low concentration in sludgy urine. It remains unknown why the condition develops and whether CaCO3 crystals cause high Isc or vice versa or whether both result from a third factor. PMID:3970165

  19. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  20. Monitoring of Wet Snow and Accumulations at High Alpine Glaciers Using Radar Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendleder, A.; Heilig, A.; Schmitt, A.; Mayer, C.

    2015-04-01

    Conventional studies to assess the annual mass balance for glaciers rely on single point observations in combination with model and interpolation approaches. Just recently, airborne and spaceborne data is used to support such mass balance determinations. Here, we present an approach to map temporal changes of the snow cover in glaciated regions of Tyrol, Austria, using SAR-based satellite data. Two dual-polarized SAR images are acquired on 22 and 24 September 2014. As X and C-band reveal different backscattering properties of snow, both TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images are analysed and compared to ground truth data. Through application of filter functions and processing steps containing a Kennaugh decomposition, ortho-rectification, radiometric enhancement and normalization, we were able to distinguish between dry and wet parts of the snow surface. The analyses reveal that the wet-snow can be unambiguously classified by applying a threshold of -11 dB. Bare ice at the surface or a dry snowpack does not appear in radar data with such low backscatter values. From the temporal shift of wet-snow, a discrimination of accumulation areas on glaciers is possible for specific observation dates. Such data can reveal a periodic monitoring of glaciers with high spatial coverage independent from weather or glacier conditions.

  1. Rare Earth Ion Mediated Fluorescence Accumulation on a Single Microbead: An Ultrasensitive Strategy for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity at the Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Chenghui; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Hui; Li, Zhengping

    2015-12-01

    A single microbead-based fluorescence imaging (SBFI) strategy that enables detection of protein kinase activity from single cell lysates is reported. We systematically investigated the ability of various rare earth (RE) ions, immobilized on the microbead, for specific capturing of kinase-induced phosphopeptides, and Dy(3+) was found to be the most prominent one. Through the efficient concentration of kinase-induced fluorescent phosphopeptides on a Dy(3+) -functionalized single microbead, kinase activity can be detected and quantified by reading the fluorescence on the microbead with a confocal fluorescence microscope. Owing to the extremely specific recognition of Dy(3+) towards phosphopeptides and the highly-concentrated fluorescence accumulation on only one microbead, ultrahigh sensitivity has been achieved for the SBFI strategy which allows direct kinase analysis at the single-cell level. PMID:26482714

  2. Rare Earth Ion Mediated Fluorescence Accumulation on a Single Microbead: An Ultrasensitive Strategy for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity at the Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Chenghui; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Hui; Li, Zhengping

    2015-12-01

    A single microbead-based fluorescence imaging (SBFI) strategy that enables detection of protein kinase activity from single cell lysates is reported. We systematically investigated the ability of various rare earth (RE) ions, immobilized on the microbead, for specific capturing of kinase-induced phosphopeptides, and Dy(3+) was found to be the most prominent one. Through the efficient concentration of kinase-induced fluorescent phosphopeptides on a Dy(3+) -functionalized single microbead, kinase activity can be detected and quantified by reading the fluorescence on the microbead with a confocal fluorescence microscope. Owing to the extremely specific recognition of Dy(3+) towards phosphopeptides and the highly-concentrated fluorescence accumulation on only one microbead, ultrahigh sensitivity has been achieved for the SBFI strategy which allows direct kinase analysis at the single-cell level.

  3. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26880924

  4. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  5. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m−2 hr−1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  6. Plastid-expressed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes provide high level glyphosate tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ye, G N; Hajdukiewicz, P T; Broyles, D; Rodriguez, D; Xu, C W; Nehra, N; Staub, J M

    2001-02-01

    Plastid transformation (transplastomic) technology has several potential advantages for biotechnological applications including the use of unmodified prokaryotic genes for engineering, potential high-level gene expression and gene containment due to maternal inheritance in most crop plants. However, the efficacy of a plastid-encoded trait may change depending on plastid number and tissue type. We report a feasibility study in tobacco plastids to achieve high-level herbicide resistance in both vegetative tissues and reproductive organs. We chose to test glyphosate resistance via over-expression in plastids of tolerant forms of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Immunological, enzymatic and whole-plant assays were used to prove the efficacy of three different prokaryotic (Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Bacillus) EPSPS genes. Using the Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS as a model we identified translational control sequences that direct a 10,000-fold range of protein accumulation (to >10% total soluble protein in leaves). Plastid-expressed EPSPS could provide very high levels of glyphosate resistance, although levels of resistance in vegetative and reproductive tissues differed depending on EPSPS accumulation levels, and correlated to the plastid abundance in these tissues. Paradoxically, higher levels of plastid-expressed EPSPS protein accumulation were apparently required for efficacy than from a similar nuclear-encoded gene. Nevertheless, the demonstration of high-level glyphosate tolerance in vegetative and reproductive organs using transplastomic technology provides a necessary step for transfer of this technology to other crop species.

  7. SU-E-T-315: The Change of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters (OSLDs) Sensitivity by Accumulated Dose and High Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Choi, S; Park, S; Yoo, H; Yi, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate radiation sensitivity of optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) by accumulated dose and high dose. Methods: This study was carried out in Co-60 unit (Theratron 780, AECL, and Canada) and used InLight MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL) for reading. We annealed for 30 min using optical annealing system which contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ∼780 nm). To evaluate change of OSLDs sensitivity by repeated irradiation, the dosimeters were repeatedly irradiated with 1 Gy. And whenever a repeated irradiation, we evaluated OSLDs sensitivity. To evaluate OSLDs sensitivity after accumulated dose with 5 Gy, We irradiated dose accumulatively (from 1 Gy to 5 Gy) without annealing. And OSLDs was also irradiated with 15, 20, 30 Gy to certify change of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation. After annealing them, they were irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly. Results: The OSLDs sensitivity increased up to 3% during irradiating seven times and decreased continuously above 8 times. That dropped by about 0.35 Gy per an irradiation. Finally, after 30 times irradiation, OSLDs sensitivity decreased by about 7%. For accumulated dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy, OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy increased until 4.4% after second times accumulated dose compared with before that. OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy decreased by 1.6% in five times irradiation. When OSLDs were irradiated ten times with 1Gy after irradiating high dose (10, 15, 20 Gy), OSLDs sensitivity decreased until 6%, 9%, 12% compared with it before high dose irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: This study certified OSLDs sensitivity by accumulated dose and high dose. When irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly, OSLDs sensitivity decreased linearly and the reduction rate of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation had dependence on irradiated dose.

  8. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  9. Accumulated metal speciation in earthworm populations with multigenerational exposure to metalliferous soils: cell fractionation and high-energy synchrotron analyses.

    PubMed

    Andre, Jane; Charnock, John; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Hodson, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Predicting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soil organisms is complicated by site-specific biotic and abiotic parameters. In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. Our main findings were (i) earthworms were resident in soils with concentrations of Pb and Zn ranging from 1200 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) and 200 to 34,000 mg kg(-1), respectively; (ii) Pb and Zn primarily accumulated in the posterior alimentary canal in nonsoluble subcellular fractions of earthworms; (iii) site-specific differences in the tissue and subcellular partitioning profiles of populations were observed, with earthworms from a calcareous site partitioning proportionally more Pb to their anterior body segments and Zn to the chloragosome-rich subcellular fraction than their acidic-soil inhabiting counterparts; (iv) XAS indicated that the interpopulation differences in metal partitioning between organs were not accompanied by qualitative differences in ligand-binding speciation, because crystalline phosphate-containing pyromorphite was a predominant chemical species in the whole-worm tissues of all mine soil residents. Differences in metal (Pb, Zn) partitioning at both organ and cellular levels displayed by field populations with protracted histories of metal exposures may reflect theirinnate ecophysiological responses to essential edaphic variables, such as Ca2+ status. These observations are highly significant in the challenging exercise of interpreting holistic biomarker data delivered by "omic" technologies. PMID:19764255

  10. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  11. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  12. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic–inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic–inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  13. Metal and metalloid levels and bio-accumulation characteristics in soil, sediment, land plants and hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) from the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; M'kandawire, Ethel; Yasuda, Jun; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-06-01

    Hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) are large semi-aquatic mammals that can be exposed to metals and metalloid from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, knowledge of metal and metalloid accumulation characteristics in hippopotami living in the national park is important from ecotoxicological point of view. Levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) and metalloid (As) in hippopotami liver from the South Luangwa National Park in Zambia were far lower compared to the established values of toxic levels in cattle. No temporal variations of metal levels in hippopotami were observed, probably because of good management condition and the lack of anthropogenic activities around the national park. However, hippopotami liver accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg compared to soil, sediment and their food (plants), most likely due to a process of biomagnification throughout a trophic chain. Moreover, hippopotami liver and land plants showed significantly higher Cd levels than those of soil. These results strongly suggest that hippopotami liver accumulate higher levels of these metals if surrounding environment is contaminated. Levels of Cr and Ni in hippopotami liver were higher compared to other toxic metals. Since this is the first report to show the Cr and Ni levels and bio-accumulation characteristics of Hg and Cd in hippopotami, we concluded that continuous monitoring and evaluation of toxic effects of these metals on hippopotami should be conducted.

  14. Metal and metalloid levels and bio-accumulation characteristics in soil, sediment, land plants and hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) from the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; M'kandawire, Ethel; Yasuda, Jun; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-06-01

    Hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) are large semi-aquatic mammals that can be exposed to metals and metalloid from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, knowledge of metal and metalloid accumulation characteristics in hippopotami living in the national park is important from ecotoxicological point of view. Levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) and metalloid (As) in hippopotami liver from the South Luangwa National Park in Zambia were far lower compared to the established values of toxic levels in cattle. No temporal variations of metal levels in hippopotami were observed, probably because of good management condition and the lack of anthropogenic activities around the national park. However, hippopotami liver accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg compared to soil, sediment and their food (plants), most likely due to a process of biomagnification throughout a trophic chain. Moreover, hippopotami liver and land plants showed significantly higher Cd levels than those of soil. These results strongly suggest that hippopotami liver accumulate higher levels of these metals if surrounding environment is contaminated. Levels of Cr and Ni in hippopotami liver were higher compared to other toxic metals. Since this is the first report to show the Cr and Ni levels and bio-accumulation characteristics of Hg and Cd in hippopotami, we concluded that continuous monitoring and evaluation of toxic effects of these metals on hippopotami should be conducted. PMID:22521811

  15. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  16. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  17. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    PubMed

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  18. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  19. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  20. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ebert

    2001-09-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  1. Fermilab tevatron high level RF accelerating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Reid, J.; Tawzer, S.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1985-10-01

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer. A cavity consists of two quarter-wave resonators placed back to back with a coaxial drift tube separating the two accelerating gaps by ..pi.. radians. The cavities are very similar to the prototype which has been previously described/sup 3/ and is operating as Station 8 in the Tevatron. Only additional water cooling around the high current region of the drift tube supports and a double loop used to monitor the unbalance current through the Hipernom mode damping resistor have been added. Each cavity has a Q of about7100, a shunt impedance of 1.2 M..cap omega.., and is capable of running cw with a peak accelerating voltage of 360

  2. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  3. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  4. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40 % of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Preculturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals.

  5. High Rates of Species Accumulation in Animals with Bioluminescent Courtship Displays.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Emily A; Oakley, Todd H

    2016-07-25

    One of the great mysteries of evolutionary biology is why closely related lineages accumulate species at different rates. Theory predicts that populations undergoing strong sexual selection will more quickly differentiate because of increased potential for genetic isolation [1-6]. Whether or not these population genetic processes translate to more species at macroevolutionary scales remains contentious [7]. Here we show that lineages with bioluminescent courtship, almost certainly a sexually selected trait, have more species and faster rates of species accumulation than their non-luminous relatives. In each of ten distantly related animal lineages from insects, crustaceans, annelid worms, and fishes, we find more species in lineages with bioluminescent courtship compared to their sister groups. Furthermore, we find under a Yule model that lineages with bioluminescent courtship displays have significantly higher rates of species accumulation compared to a larger clade that includes them plus non-luminous relatives. In contrast, we do not find more species or higher rates in lineages that use bioluminescence for defense, a function presumably not under sexual selection. These results document an association between the origin of bioluminescent courtship and increased accumulation of species, supporting theory predicting sexual selection increases rates of speciation at macroevolutionary scales to influence global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:27345160

  6. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD. PMID:25994136

  7. D-psicose increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Onishi, Kana; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of D-psicose by increasing energy expenditure in rats pair-fed the high-sucrose diet (HSD). Wistar rats were divided into two dietary groups: HSD containing 5% cellulose (C) and 5% d-psicose (P). The C dietary group was further subdivided into two groups: rats fed the C diet ad libitum (C-AD) and pair-fed the C diet along with those in the P group (C-PF). Resting energy expenditure during darkness and lipoprotein lipase activity in the soleus muscle were significantly higher in the P group than in the C-PF group. Serum levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue; and body fat accumulation were all significantly lower in the P group than in the C-PF group. The anti-obesity effects of D-psicose could be induced not only by suppressing lipogenic enzyme activity but also by increasing EE in rats.

  8. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  9. Stochastic Analysis and Forecasts of the Patterns of Speed, Acceleration, and Levels of Material Stock Accumulation in Society.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    The recent acceleration of urbanization and industrialization of many parts of the developing world, most notably in Asia, has resulted in a fast-increasing demand for and accumulation of construction materials in society. Despite the importance of physical stocks in society, the empirical assessment of total material stock of buildings and infrastructure and reasons for its growth have been underexplored in the sustainability literature. We propose an innovative approach for explaining material stock dynamics in society and create a country typology for stock accumulation trajectories using the ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) methodology, a stochastic approach commonly used in business studies and economics to inspect and forecast time series. This enables us to create scenarios for future demand and accumulation of building materials in society, including uncertainty estimates. We find that the so-far overlooked aspect of acceleration trends of material stock accumulation holds the key to explaining material stock growth, and that despite tremendous variability in country characteristics, stock accumulation is limited to only four archetypal growth patterns. The ability of nations to change their pattern will be a determining factor for global sustainability. PMID:26927731

  10. Stochastic Analysis and Forecasts of the Patterns of Speed, Acceleration, and Levels of Material Stock Accumulation in Society.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    The recent acceleration of urbanization and industrialization of many parts of the developing world, most notably in Asia, has resulted in a fast-increasing demand for and accumulation of construction materials in society. Despite the importance of physical stocks in society, the empirical assessment of total material stock of buildings and infrastructure and reasons for its growth have been underexplored in the sustainability literature. We propose an innovative approach for explaining material stock dynamics in society and create a country typology for stock accumulation trajectories using the ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) methodology, a stochastic approach commonly used in business studies and economics to inspect and forecast time series. This enables us to create scenarios for future demand and accumulation of building materials in society, including uncertainty estimates. We find that the so-far overlooked aspect of acceleration trends of material stock accumulation holds the key to explaining material stock growth, and that despite tremendous variability in country characteristics, stock accumulation is limited to only four archetypal growth patterns. The ability of nations to change their pattern will be a determining factor for global sustainability.

  11. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  12. Morin reduces hepatic inflammation-associated lipid accumulation in high fructose-fed rats via inhibiting sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Gu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Chen-Yu; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Yun-Wei; Hong, Ye; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2013-12-15

    SphK1/S1P signaling pathway is involved in the development of hepatic inflammation and injury. But its role in high fructose-induced NAFLD has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crucial role of SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in high fructose-induced hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation in rats. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effects of morin, a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipedimic activities, on these hepatic changes in rats were investigated. High fructose-fed rats were orally treated with morin (30 and 60mg/kg) and pioglitazone (4mg/kg) for 8 weeks, respectively. Fructose feeding induced hyperlipidemia, and activated SphK1/S1P signaling pathway characterized by the elevation of SphK1 activity, S1P production as well as SphK1, S1PR1 and S1PR3 protein levels, which in turn caused NF-κB signaling activation to produce IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and inflammation in the liver of rats. Subsequently, hepatic insulin and leptin signaling impairment and lipid metabolic disorder were observed in this animal model, resulting in liver lipid accumulation. Morin restored high fructose-induced the activation of hepatic SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in rats. Subsequently, the reduced NF-κB signaling activation by morin decreased inflammatory cytokine production, recovered insulin and leptin signaling impairment to reduce lipid accumulation and injury in the rat liver. These effects of morin were confirmed in Buffalo rat liver (BRL3A) cell model stimulated with 5mM fructose. Thus, the inhibition of hepatic SphK1/S1P signaling pathway may be a novel mechanism by which morin exerts hepatoprotection in high fructose-fed rats, possibly involving liver inflammation inhibition and lipid accumulation recovery.

  13. Effect of metal accumulation on metallothionein level and condition of the periwinkle Littorina littorea along the Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands).

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Heidi; De Wolf, Hans; Backeljau, Thierry; Blust, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Metal (i.e. Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in the soft tissue of Littorina littorea were measured along the heavily polluted Western Scheldt (WS) and relatively clean Eastern Scheldt (ES) estuary. Along the WS metal and MT levels in periwinkles reflected the known downstream decreasing pollution gradient. Surprisingly in ES animals As, Mn and Zn concentrations decreased from east to west reflecting past pollution. Compared to the WS metal concentrations of ES periwinkles were significantly lower and both estuaries were maximally discriminated from each other based on their Cd soft tissue concentration using a canonical discriminant analysis. Furthermore, no overall difference was found in MT levels among animals from both estuaries. Using previously obtained condition data (i.e. dry/wet weight ratio and lipid content) the relation between soft tissue metal concentration (i.e. Cd, Cu and Zn) and fitness indicators (i.e. MT and condition data) was examined using a canonical correlation analysis. Periwinkles with a high metal load (i.e. Cd and Zn) also had high MT levels but were in a relatively poor condition. PMID:19948373

  14. Mercury accumulation by lower trophic-level organisms in lentic systems within the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Moon, Gerald E.; Husby, Peter; Lincoff, Andrew; Carter, James L.; Croteau, Marie-Noële

    2005-01-01

    The water columns of four reservoirs (Almaden, Calero, Guadalupe and Lexington Reservoirs) and an abandoned quarry pit filled by Alamitos Creek drainage for recreational purposes (Lake Almaden) were sampled on September 14 and 15, 2004 to provide the first measurements of mercury accumulation by phytoplankton and zooplankton in lentic systems (bodies of standing water, as in lakes and reservoirs) within the Guadalupe River watershed, California. Because of widespread interest in ecosystem effects associated with historic mercury mining within and downgradient of the Guadalupe Riverwatershed, transfer of mercury to lower trophic-level organisms was examined. The propensity of mercury to bioaccumulate, particularly in phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the food web, motivated this attempt to provide information in support of developing trophic-transfer and solute-transport models for the watershed, and hence in support of subsequent evaluation of load-allocation strategies. Both total mercury and methylmercury were examined in these organisms. During a single sampling event, replicate samples from the reservoir water column were collected and processed for dissolved-total mercury, dissolved-methylmercury, phytoplankton mercury speciation, phytoplankton taxonomy and biomass, zooplankton mercury speciation, and zooplankton taxonomy and biomass. The timing of this sampling event was coordinated with sampling and analysis of fish from these five water bodies, during a period of the year when vertical stratification in the reservoirs generates a primary source of methylmercury to the watershed. Ancillary data, including dissolved organic carbon and trace-metal concentrations as well as vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and pH, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. This work, in support of the Guadalupe River Mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Study, provides

  15. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by

  16. High-field penning-malmberg trap: confinement properties and use in positron accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of the 60 kG cryogenic positron trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and compares the trap`s confinement properties with other nonneutral plasma devices. The device is designed for the accumulation of up to 2{times}10{sup 9} positrons from a linear-accelerator source. This positron plasma could then be used in Bhabha scattering experiments. Initial efforts at time-of-flight accumulation of positrons from the accelerator show rapid ({approximately}100 ms) deconfinement, inconsistent with the long electron lifetimes. Several possible deconfinement mechanisms have been explored, including annihilation on residual gas, injection heating, rf noise from the accelerator, magnet field curvature, and stray fields. Detailed studies of electron confinement demonstrate that the empirical scaling law used to design the trap cannot be extrapolated into the parameter regime of this device. Several possible methods for overcoming these limitations are presented.

  17. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. R.; Hollister, C. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  18. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  19. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  20. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  1. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  2. Globalism on the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presutti, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the International Sibling Program at Lewiston-Porter High School in Youngstown, New York. Notes that 10 "sibling schools" in eight countries participate by exchanging faculty and students. Suggests that the program has given students, staff, and the community many opportunities to interact with the real world. (RS)

  3. Formal Thought at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald

    1977-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the Piagetian stages of intellectual development of a group of Saskatchewan high school students. Results confirmed that the percentage of students at the final substage of formal thought was less than 50 percent, indicating serious problems. (JC)

  4. Rotavirus Increases Levels of Lipidated LC3 Supporting Accumulation of Infectious Progeny Virus without Inducing Autophagosome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldi, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giuditta; Mano, Miguel; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Wild, Peter; Eichwald, Catherine; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Replication of many RNA viruses benefits from subversion of the autophagic pathway through many different mechanisms. Rotavirus, the main etiologic agent of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, has been recently described to induce accumulation of autophagosomes as a mean for targeting viral proteins to the sites of viral replication. Here we show that the viral-induced increase of the lipidated form of LC3 does not correlate with an augmented formation of autophagosomes, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The LC3-II accumulation was found to be dependent on active rotavirus replication through the use of antigenically intact inactivated viral particles and of siRNAs targeting viral genes that are essential for viral replication. Silencing expression of LC3 or of Atg7, a protein involved in LC3 lipidation, resulted in a significant impairment of viral titers, indicating that these elements of the autophagic pathway are required at late stages of the viral cycle. PMID:24736649

  5. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  6. Suppression of hepatic fat accumulation by highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid prevents the progression of d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Satoshi; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Akiko; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the importance of hepatic fat accumulation on the progression of hepatitis. BALB/cA mice were fed with a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 14 days followed by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine (DGalN) or vehicle. After 20-21 h, plasma and liver tissue were collected and analyzed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in plasma were increased significantly in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN compared to STD-fed mice treated with DGalN. This exacerbation by the HFHSD was also observed in the plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) levels, and hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the fibrogenic gene expression, such as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and osteopontin (OPN) in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN. The triglyceride contents of the liver were significantly increased by the HFHSD. When eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a suppressor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), was administered to HFHSD-fed mice, the sensitivity of DGalN, as a result of plasma ALT and AST levels, was suppressed accompanied by reduced plasma sTNFR2 level and hepatic levels of triglyceride, ROS, and fibrogenic parameters, and by increased plasma adiponectin levels. These data suggest that the progression of steatotic liver injury closely depends on the accumulation of fat in the liver and is prevented by EPA through the suppression of the fatty liver change. PMID:19416647

  7. [Pigment accumulation and functional activity of chloroplasts in common Pisum sativum L. mutants with low chlorophyll level (chlorotica)].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 with a low content of chlorophyll were studied. The mutant 2004 has light green leaves and stem, and the mutant 2014 has yellow green leaves and stem. They accumulate approximately 80 and 50% chlorophylls of the parent form of pea Torsdag cv. The content of carotene in carotenoids of the mutant 2004 was much lower, and the accumulation of lutein and violaxanthine was increased. The accumulation of all carotenoids in the mutant 2014 decreased almost proportionally to a decrease in the chlorophyll content. The rate of CO2 evolution in mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 was established to be lower. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants was 29-30% lower as compared to the control, and in hybrid plants it was 1.5-2-fold higher. It is assumed that the increase in the activity of the night-time respiration in gas exchange of chlorotica mutants and the drop of photosynthesis lead to a decrease in biomass increment. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the mutation of chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affects the genes controlling the formation and functioning of different components of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  8. Argonaute Proteins Affect siRNA Levels and Accumulation of a Novel Extrachromosomal DNA from the Dictyostelium Retrotransposon DIRS-1*

    PubMed Central

    Boesler, Benjamin; Meier, Doreen; Förstner, Konrad U.; Friedrich, Michael; Hammann, Christian; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The retrotransposon DIRS-1 is the most abundant retroelement in Dictyostelium discoideum and constitutes the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the six chromosomes in D. discoideum. The vast majority of cellular siRNAs is derived from DIRS-1, suggesting that the element is controlled by RNAi-related mechanisms. We investigated the role of two of the five Argonaute proteins of D. discoideum, AgnA and AgnB, in DIRS-1 silencing. Deletion of agnA resulted in the accumulation of DIRS-1 transcripts, the expression of DIRS-1-encoded proteins, and the loss of most DIRS-1-derived secondary siRNAs. Simultaneously, extrachromosomal single-stranded DIRS-1 DNA accumulated in the cytoplasm of agnA− strains. These DNA molecules appear to be products of reverse transcription and thus could represent intermediate structures before transposition. We further show that transitivity of endogenous siRNAs is impaired in agnA− strains. The deletion of agnB alone had no strong effect on DIRS-1 transposon regulation. However, in agnA−/agnB− double mutant strains strongly reduced accumulation of extrachromosomal DNA compared with the single agnA− strains was observed. PMID:25352599

  9. Nitrogen Accumulation and Partitioning in High Arctic Tundra from Extreme Atmospheric N Deposition Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, G. K.; Osborn, A.; Blaud, A.; Press, M. C.; Choudhary, S.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events. These events occur from the long-range transport of reactive N from pollution sources at lower latitudes and can deposit up to 80% of the annual N deposition in just a few days. To date, the fate and impacts of these extreme pollutant events has remained unknown. Using a field simulation study, we undertook the first assessment of the fate of acutely deposited N on arctic tundra. Extreme N deposition events were simulated on field plots at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79oN) at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 applied as NH4NO3 solution over 4 days, with 15N tracers used in the second year to quantify the fate of the deposited N in the plant, soil, microbial and leachate pools. Separate applications of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in the fate of N. Recovery of the 15N tracer at the end of the first growing season approached 100% of the 15N applied irrespective of treatment level, demonstrating the considerable capacity of High Arctic tundra to capture pollutant N from extreme deposition events. Most incorporation of the 15N was found in bryophytes, followed by the dominant vascular plant (Salix polaris) and the microbial biomass of the soil organic layer. Total recovery remained high in the second growing season (average of 90%), indicating highly conservative N retention. Between the two N forms, recovery of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were equal in the non-vascular plants, whereas in the vascular plants (particularly Salix polaris) recovery of 15NO3- was four times higher than of 15NH4+. Overall, these findings show that High Arctic tundra has considerable capacity to capture and retain the pollutant N deposited in acute extreme deposition events. Given they can represent much of the annual N deposition, extreme deposition events may be more important than increased chronic N deposition as a pollution source. Furthermore

  10. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Márton, László

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101∼192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (∼ 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils.

  11. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  12. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management. PMID:26900108

  13. High iron accumulation in hair and nail of people living in iron affected areas of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Banerjee, Saumen; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum

    2014-12-01

    Human populace of Assam, India repeatedly exposed to high concentration of iron in groundwater results in adverse health effects like hemochromatosis, liver cirrhosis and siderosis. In the present study, human hair and nail analysis were carried out to establish a possible relationship between iron toxicity and its deposition among the residents. Nail and hair iron concentrations ranged from 28.2 to 1046μgg(-1) (n=114) and 26.5-838 (n=108)μgg(-1) levels, respectively, among all the study participants. The iron content of the groundwater (421-5340μgL(-1)) (n=64) used for drinking purposes was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.788, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.709, p<0.0001) iron concentrations. Age- and sex-matched controls corresponding to each group were selected from population residing in other parts of the country where groundwater does not have excess iron. All the study groups included population drinking iron-contaminated water above the WHO/BIS limit (>300µgL(-1)) for 5 years (Group 1), for more than 5-10 years (Group 2) and for more than 10 years (Group 3). Results suggested that the participants consuming groundwater exceeding the WHO limit of iron had significantly more iron accumulation than those using groundwater containing ≤300μgL(-1) iron (p<0.01). There was statistically higher concentration of iron in the nail samples than the hair samples in all the study groups (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation in iron concentration and the residence time of the participants (p<0.01). Iron levels in the male participants were significantly higher than the female participants in the present study (p<0.01). The current findings are sufficiently compelling to warrant more extensive study of iron exposure through drinking water and adverse effects to the human in the areas where iron concentration is high.

  14. Fermilab Tevatron high level rf accelerating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Tawser, S.; Reid, J.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer.

  15. Increased expression of apolipoprotein E in transgenic rabbits results in reduced levels of very low density lipoproteins and an accumulation of low density lipoproteins in plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, J; Ji, Z S; Huang, Y; de Silva, H; Sanan, D; Mahley, R W; Innerarity, T L; Taylor, J M

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing human apo E3 were generated to investigate mechanisms by which apo E modulates plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Compared with nontransgenic littermates expressing approximately 3 mg/dl of endogenous rabbit apo E, male transgenic rabbits expressing approximately 13 mg/dl of human apo E had a 35% decrease in total plasma triglycerides that was due to a reduction in VLDL levels and an absence of large VLDL. With its greater content of apo E, transgenic VLDL had an increased binding affinity for the LDL receptor in vitro, and injected chylomicrons were cleared more rapidly by the liver in transgenic rabbits. In contrast to triglyceride changes, transgenic rabbits had a 70% increase in plasma cholesterol levels due to an accumulation of LDL and apo E-rich HDL. Transgenic and control LDL had the same binding affinity for the LDL receptor. Both transgenic and control rabbits had similar LDL receptor levels, but intravenously injected human LDL were cleared more slowly in transgenic rabbits than in controls. Changes in lipoprotein lipolysis did not contribute to the accumulation of LDL or the reduction in VLDL levels. These observations suggest that the increased content of apo E3 on triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins in transgenic rabbits confers a greater affinity for cell surface receptors, thereby increasing remnant clearance from plasma. The apo E-rich large remnants appear to compete more effectively than LDL for receptor-mediated binding and clearance, resulting in delayed clearance and the accumulation of LDL in plasma. PMID:9593771

  16. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Lele, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25°C), strong light intensity (6 klux) and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v) induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA) constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria. PMID:24031291

  17. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. PMID:27289059

  18. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-06-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  19. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  20. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  1. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  2. Effects of high Zn and Pb concentrations on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel: Photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation capacity under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, A; Salvatori, E; Guerrini, V; Fusaro, L; Canepari, S; Manes, F

    2016-01-01

    The response of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel to zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) was studied separately in two hydroponic tests, during a three weeks experiment. The effects on ecophysiology and biomass partitioning were evaluated during the metal treatments and at the recovery, and total metal content and accumulation capacity in different plant organs were assessed. Zn and Pb had different effects on the overall measured parameters, highlighting different mechanism of action. In particular, Zn concentration was higher in roots and, being a micronutrient, it was translocated into leaves, producing a reduction of assimilation rate, stomatal conductance (-71.9 and -81.3% respect to the control plant respectively), and a strong down regulation of photosystems functionality both at PSII and PSI level. Otherwise, Pb was accumulated mainly in the more lignified tissue such as rhizomes, with slightly effect on gas exchange. Chlorophyll a fluorescence highlighted that Pb inhibits the electron transfer process at the PSI donor side, without recovery after the removal of the metal stress. Despite these physiological limitations, P. australis showed a high capacity to accumulate both metals, and only slight reduction of biomass, being therefore a suitable species for phytoremediation interventions.

  3. Fructan accumulation induced by nitrogen deficiency in barley leaves correlates with the level of sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Van den Ende, W; Tillberg, J E

    2000-10-01

    Hydroponically cultivated barley plants were exposed to nitrogen (N)-deficiency followed by N-resupply. Metabolic and genetic regulation of fructan accumulation in the leaves were investigated. Fructan accumulated in barley leaves under N-deficiency was mobilized during N-resupply. The enhanced total activity of fructan-synthesizing enzymes, sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT; EC 2.4. 1.10) caused by N-deficiency decreased with the mobilization of fructan during N-resupply. The activity of the barley fructan-degrading enzyme, fructan exohydrolyase (EC 3.2.1.80) was less affected by the N status. The low level of foliar soluble acid invertase activity under N-deficiency conditions was maintained during the commencement of N-resupply but increased subsequently. Further analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot and northern blot demonstrated that the fructan accumulation and the total activity of fructan-synthesizing enzymes correlated with the 6-SFT mRNA level. We suggest that the changes in fructan levels under N stress are intimately connected with the regulation of fructan synthetic rate which is mostly controlled by 6-SFT.

  4. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  5. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  6. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  7. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  8. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  9. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin

  10. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin

  11. Nitrogen-Deprivation Elevates Lipid Levels in Symbiodinium spp. by Lipid Droplet Accumulation: Morphological and Compositional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  12. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  13. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  14. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  15. Differential mRNA Accumulation upon Early Arabidopsis thaliana Infection with ORMV and TMV-Cg Is Associated with Distinct Endogenous Small RNAs Level.

    PubMed

    Zavallo, Diego; Debat, Humberto Julio; Conti, Gabriela; Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in plant development and host-pathogen interactions. Several studies have highlighted the relationship between viral infections, endogenous sRNA accumulation and transcriptional changes associated with symptoms. However, few studies have described a global analysis of endogenous sRNAs by comparing related viruses at early stages of infection, especially before viral accumulation reaches systemic tissues. An sRNA high-throughput sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf samples infected either with Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) or crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-Cg) with slightly different symptomatology at two early stages of infection (2 and 4 dpi) was performed. At early stages, both viral infections strongly alter the patterns of several types of endogenous sRNA species in distal tissues with no virus accumulation suggesting a systemic signaling process foregoing to virus spread. A correlation between sRNAs derived from protein coding genes and the associated mRNA transcripts was also detected, indicating that an unknown recursive mechanism is involved in a regulatory circuit encompassing this sRNA/mRNA equilibrium. This work represents the initial step in uncovering how differential accumulation of endogenous sRNAs contributes to explain the massive alteration of the transcriptome associated with plant-virus interactions.

  16. Differential mRNA Accumulation upon Early Arabidopsis thaliana Infection with ORMV and TMV-Cg Is Associated with Distinct Endogenous Small RNAs Level

    PubMed Central

    Zavallo, Diego; Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in plant development and host-pathogen interactions. Several studies have highlighted the relationship between viral infections, endogenous sRNA accumulation and transcriptional changes associated with symptoms. However, few studies have described a global analysis of endogenous sRNAs by comparing related viruses at early stages of infection, especially before viral accumulation reaches systemic tissues. An sRNA high-throughput sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf samples infected either with Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) or crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-Cg) with slightly different symptomatology at two early stages of infection (2 and 4dpi) was performed. At early stages, both viral infections strongly alter the patterns of several types of endogenous sRNA species in distal tissues with no virus accumulation suggesting a systemic signaling process foregoing to virus spread. A correlation between sRNAs derived from protein coding genes and the associated mRNA transcripts was also detected, indicating that an unknown recursive mechanism is involved in a regulatory circuit encompassing this sRNA/mRNA equilibrium. This work represents the initial step in uncovering how differential accumulation of endogenous sRNAs contributes to explain the massive alteration of the transcriptome associated with plant-virus interactions. PMID:26237414

  17. Implication of eolian delivery and accumulation of highly reactive iron to the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. K.; Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Iron, although abundant in the Earth's crust, is present at low concentrations in sea water and is a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton. Eolian dust (loess) is a major source of this micronutrient, and its deposition has important implications for the global CO2 budget. In this study, we explore distributions of potentially bioreactive Fe, the soluble fraction required by phytoplankton for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation, in deep-sea sediments in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. We used a state-of-the-art Fe speciation technique to characterize Fe inputs from different source regions, specifically North Africa and Patagonia to address the patterns and implications across glacial-interglacial time scales. In many open-ocean regions the input of new iron to the surface waters is dominated by the atmospheric deposition of soluble iron in eolian dusts. Multiple records have shown dust accumulation is correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles - glacial periods are substantially dustier. Furthermore, the delivery of eolian dust to the North and South Atlantic Oceans are from two very different source regions and soil types. We analyzed IODP cores from these two regions and our preliminary data shows similar pattern of iron distribution from both the North and South Atlantic Oceans. To date we have found no simple global pattern of bioavailable iron distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. We have analyzed a range of size distributions to isolate the dust-dominated fraction and the data shows no size effects in bioavailable form of iron distribution. We will explore the role of deep-water dust dissolution and sedimentary redox implications and its role on the bioreactive Fe record in marine cores.

  18. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26595097

  19. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  20. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method. PMID:23702571

  1. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method.

  2. Pancreatic Fat Accumulation, Fibrosis, and Acinar Cell Injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Fed a Chronic High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Methods Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. Results In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05), and lipid droplets were observed in acinar cells. Subsequently, at 24 weeks of age in this group, pancreatic fibrosis and the serum exocrine pancreatic enzyme levels were increased significantly relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions In ZDF rats fed a chronic high-fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury. PMID:24717823

  3. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  4. Phytolacca americana inhibits the high glucose-induced mesangial proliferation via suppressing extracellular matrix accumulation and TGF-beta production.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Il; Kim, Kang Ju; Choo, Yong Kug; Keum, Kyung Soo; Choi, Bong Kyu; Jung, Kyu Yong

    2004-02-01

    This study describes a potential of Phytolaccaceae (Phytolacca americana var.) as an inhibitor of high glucose-stimulated production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and TGF-beta in cultured glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Raising the ambient glucose concentration for 24 hrs caused a dose-dependent increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation of GMCs, and the maximal response was achieved at 20 mM. Phytolaccaceae extracts (2.5-20 microg/ml) inhibited the high glucose-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations tested here did not affect to the cell viability. Exposure of the GMCs to 20 mM glucose caused both ECM (collagen and fibronectin) accumulation and TGF-beta secretion, and these changes were significantly diminished by treatment of GMCs with Phytolaccaceae (10 microg/ml). Taken together, these results indicate that Phytolaccaceae inhibits the high glucose-induced GMCs proliferation partially through suppressing accumulation of ECM components and TGF-beta production, suggesting that Phytolaccaceae may be a promising agent for treating the development and progression of diabetic glomerulopathy.

  5. Bilateral medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in high-level athletes.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yuichi; Matsushita, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kawakami, Yohei; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2014-10-01

    This report presents two cases of high-level athletes with bilateral patellar dislocations who were able to return to their preinjury level of activity after bilateral medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, without any major complications. Patient 1 was a 19-year-old male volleyball player for a top-level college volleyball team, and patient 2 was a 24-year-old woman who was a member of a national-level adult softball team. MPFL reconstruction could be an effective treatment for bilateral patellar dislocation in high-level athletes. Level of evidence V.

  6. Memorial stone (Cliosophic Society), level 270 Washington Monument, High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Cliosophic Society), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Benthic invertebrate metals exposure, accumulation, and community-level effects downstream from a hard-rock mine site

    SciTech Connect

    Beltman, D.J.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D.; Clements, W.H.

    1999-02-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the relationships among As, Co, and Cu concentrations in exposure media (surface water, sediment, and aufwuchs), As, Co, and Cu concentrations in aquatic macroinvertebrates, and invertebrate community structure in a mine-affected stream. Concentrations of As, Co, and Cu were significantly elevated in both exposure media and invertebrate tissue downstream from the mine. Copper in invertebrates was significantly correlated only with Cu in aufwuchs, and Co in invertebrates was significantly correlated only with dissolved Co in water, suggesting different mechanisms of invertebrate accumulation for these two metals. The invertebrate community was severely affected downstream from the mine, with a loss of metals-sensitive species and reductions in both total biomass and number of species. Total abundance was not affected. Principal components analysis was performed on the invertebrate community data to develop a simplified description of community response to mine inputs. Based on this index, metal concentrations in invertebrates were poor predictors of community structure. Copper concentrations in water, combined with an estimate of invertebrate drift from clean tributaries, were statistically significant predictors of community structure.

  8. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  9. Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237

  10. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Gilbert, P U P A; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L; Russell, Robin E; Pedersen, Joel A; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  11. A Framework for Translating a High Level Security Policy into Low Level Security Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Bahgat, Waleed M.

    2010-01-01

    Security policies have different components; firewall, active directory, and IDS are some examples of these components. Enforcement of network security policies to low level security mechanisms faces some essential difficulties. Consistency, verification, and maintenance are the major ones of these difficulties. One approach to overcome these difficulties is to automate the process of translation of high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. This paper introduces a framework of an automation process that translates a high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. The framework is described in terms of three phases; in the first phase all network assets are categorized according to their roles in the network security and relations between them are identified to constitute the network security model. This proposed model is based on organization based access control (OrBAC). However, the proposed model extend the OrBAC model to include not only access control policy but also some other administrative security policies like auditing policy. Besides, the proposed model enables matching of each rule of the high level security policy with the corresponding ones of the low level security policy. Through the second phase of the proposed framework, the high level security policy is mapped into the network security model. The second phase could be considered as a translation of the high level security policy into an intermediate model level. Finally, the intermediate model level is translated automatically into low level security mechanism. The paper illustrates the applicability of proposed approach through an application example.

  12. Constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation: suggestion for a high school curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouropatov, Anatoli; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2013-07-01

    Students have a tendency to see integral calculus as a series of procedures with associated algorithms and many do not develop a conceptual grasp giving them the desirable versatility of thought. Thus, instead of a proceptual view of the symbols in integration, they have, at best, a process-oriented view. On the other hand, it is not surprising that many students find concepts such as the integral difficult when they are unable to experience these processes directly in the classroom. With a view towards improving this situation, constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation has been proposed (Educ Stud Math. 1994;26:229-274; Integral as accumulation: a didactical perspective for school mathematics; Thessaloniki: PME; 2009. p. 417-424). In this paper, we discuss a curriculum that is based on this idea and a design for curriculum materials that are intended to develop an improved cognitive base for a flexible proceptual understanding of the integral and integration in high school. The main focus is on how we (mathematics teachers and mathematics educators) might teach the integral concept in order to help high school students to construct meaningful knowledge alongside acquiring technical abilities.

  13. Temporal characterization of mercury accumulation at different trophic levels and implications for metal biomagnification along a coastal food web.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, P G; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Azeiteiro, U M

    2014-10-15

    The main goal of this study was to assess temporal mercury variations along an estuarine food web to evaluate the mercury contamination level of the system and the risks that humans are exposed to, due to mercury biomagnification. The highest mercury concentrations in the sediments and primary producers (macrophytes) were observed during winter sampling. Instead, the highest mercury concentrations in the water, suspended particulate matter as well as in the zooplanktonic and suprabenthic communities were observed during summer sampling. Evidences of mercury biomagnification along the food web were corroborated by the positive biomagnification factors, particularly for omnivorous macrobenthic species. Comparing the mercury levels at distinct components with several environmental quality criteria it suggests that sediments, water and edible species (e.g., bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the crustacean Carcinus maenas) presented higher mercury levels than the values accepted by legislation which represent a matter of concern for the environment and human health. PMID:25172612

  14. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  15. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this section or requires a cargo to have...

  16. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  17. Low-level awareness accompanies "unconscious" high-level processing during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a matter of ongoing debate. Lately, continuous flash suppression (CFS), a technique for suppressing visual stimuli, has been widely used to demonstrate surprisingly high-level processing of invisible stimuli. Yet, recent studies showed that CFS might actually allow low-level features of the stimulus to escape suppression and be consciously perceived. The influence of such low-level awareness on high-level processing might easily go unnoticed, as studies usually only probe the visibility of the feature of interest, and not that of lower-level features. For instance, face identity is held to be processed unconsciously since subjects who fail to judge the identity of suppressed faces still show identity priming effects. Here we challenge these results, showing that such high-level priming effects are indeed induced by faces whose identity is invisible, but critically, only when a lower-level feature, such as color or location, is visible. No evidence for identity processing was found when subjects had no conscious access to any feature of the suppressed face. These results suggest that high-level processing of an image might be enabled by-or co-occur with-conscious access to some of its low-level features, even when these features are not relevant to the processed dimension. Accordingly, they call for further investigation of lower-level awareness during CFS, and reevaluation of other unconscious high-level processing findings. PMID:26756173

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  19. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  20. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  1. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  2. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  3. 1-FFT amino acids involved in high DP inulin accumulation in Viguiera discolor

    PubMed Central

    De Sadeleer, Emerik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Struyf, Tom; Le Roy, Katrien; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are important vacuolar reserve carbohydrates with drought, cold, ROS and general abiotic stress mediating properties. They occur in 15% of all flowering plants and are believed to display health benefits as a prebiotic and dietary fiber. Fructans are synthesized by specific fructosyltransferases and classified based on the linkage type between fructosyl units. Inulins, one of these fructan types with β(2-1) linkages, are elongated by fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases (1-FFT) using a fructosyl unit from a donor inulin to elongate the acceptor inulin molecule. The sequence identity of the 1-FFT of Viguiera discolor (Vd) and Helianthus tuberosus (Ht) is 91% although these enzymes produce distinct fructans. The Vd 1-FFT produces high degree of polymerization (DP) inulins by preferring the elongation of long chain inulins, in contrast to the Ht 1-FFT which prefers small molecules (DP3 or 4) as acceptor. Since higher DP inulins have interesting properties for industrial, food and medical applications, we report here on the influence of two amino acids on the high DP inulin production capacity of the Vd 1-FFT. Introducing the M19F and H308T mutations in the active site of the Vd 1-FFT greatly reduces its capacity to produce high DP inulin molecules. Both amino acids can be considered important to this capacity, although the double mutation had a much higher impact than the single mutations. PMID:26322058

  4. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the X-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the photon beam ion source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. An overview of the field, current plans, and future possibilities will be presented.

  5. Annual Sea Level Variability Induced by Changes in Sea Ice Extent and Accumulation on Ice Sheets: An Assessment Based on Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Giovinetto, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes of mean annual net accumulation at the surface on the grounded ice sheets of East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and Greenland in response to variations in sea ice extent are estimated using grid-point values 100 km apart. The data bases are assembled principally by bilinear interpolation of remotely sensed brightness temperature (Nimbus-5 ESMR, Nimbus-7 SMMR), surface temperature (Nimbus-7 THIR), and surface elevation (ERS-1 radar altimeter). These data, complemented by field data where remotely sensed data are not available, are used in multivariate analyses in which mean annual accumulation (derived from firn emissivity) is the dependent variable; the independent variables are latitude, surface elevation, mean annual surface temperature, and mean annual distance to open ocean (as a source of energy and moisture). The last is the shortest distance measured between a grid point and the mean annual position of the 10% sea ice concentration boundary, and is used as an index of changes in sea ice extent as well as of mean concentration. Stepwise correlation analyses indicate that variations in sea ice extent of +/-50 km would lead to changes in accumulation inversely of +/-4% on East Antarctica, +/- 10% on West Antarctica, and +4% on Greenland. These results are compared with those obtained in a previous study using visually interpolated values from contoured compilations of field data; they substantiate the findings for the Antarctic ice sheets (+/-4% on East Antarctica, +/-9% in West Antarctica), and suggest a reduction by one half of the probable change of accumulation on Greenland (from +/-8%). The results also suggest a reduction of the combined contribution to sea level variability to +/- 0.19 mm/a (from +/- 0.22 mm/a).

  6. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established.

  7. Fall armyworm and corn earworm resistance in the breeding crosses of maize inbreds with high levels of phytoalexins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop maize germplasm with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of reciprocal breeding crosses was made using maize inbred lines with high levels of kauralexins or zealexins. The evaluation of the breeding crosses for insect resistance utilized the rand...

  8. Relationship between mercury accumulation in young-of-the-year yellow perch and water-level fluctuations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, J.A.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Sydor, M.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year (2001 -2003) monitoring effort of 14 northeastern Minnesota lakes was conducted to document relationships between water-level fluctuations and mercury bioaccumulation in young-of-the-year (YOY) yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected in the fall of each year at fixed locations. Six of those lakes are located within or adjacent to Voyageurs National Park and are influenced by dams on the outlets of Rainy and Namakan lakes. One site on Sand Point Lake coincides with a location that has nine years of previous monitoring suitable for addressing the same issue over a longer time frame. Mean mercury concentrations in YOY yellow perch at each sampling location varied significantly from year to year. For the 12-year monitoring site on Sand Point Lake, values ranged from 38 ng gww-1 in 1998 to 200 ng gww -1 in 2001. For the 14-lake study, annual mean concentrations ranged by nearly a factor of 2, on average, for each lake over the three years of record. One likely factor responsible for these wide variations is that annual water-level fluctuations are strongly correlated with mercury levels in YOY perch for both data sets. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  9. Copper uptake by Eichhornia crassipes exposed at high level concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melignani, Eliana; de Cabo, Laura Isabel; Faggi, Ana María

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its ability to accumulate Cu from polluted water with high Cu concentrations and a mixture of other contaminants under short-term exposure, in order to use this species for the remediation of highly contaminated sites. Two hydroponic experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions for 7 days. One of them consisted of growing water hyacinth in Hoagland solution supplemented with 15 or 25 mg Cu/L and a control. The other one contained water hyacinth growing in polluted river water supplemented with 15 mg Cu/L and a control. Cu was accumulated principally in roots. The maximum Cu concentration was 23,387.2 mg/kg dw in the treatment of 25 mg Cu/L in Hoagland solution. Cu translocation from roots to leaves was low. The mixture of 15 mg Cu/L with polluted water did not appear to have toxic effects on the water hyacinth. This plant showed a remarkable uptake capacity under elevated Cu concentrations in a mixture of pollutants similar to pure industrial effluents in a short time of exposure. This result has not been reported before, to our knowledge. This species is suitable for phytoremediation of waters subject to discharge of mixed industrial effluents containing elevated Cu concentrations (≥15 mg Cu/L), as well as nutrient-rich domestic wastewaters.

  10. Copper uptake by Eichhornia crassipes exposed at high level concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melignani, Eliana; de Cabo, Laura Isabel; Faggi, Ana María

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its ability to accumulate Cu from polluted water with high Cu concentrations and a mixture of other contaminants under short-term exposure, in order to use this species for the remediation of highly contaminated sites. Two hydroponic experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions for 7 days. One of them consisted of growing water hyacinth in Hoagland solution supplemented with 15 or 25 mg Cu/L and a control. The other one contained water hyacinth growing in polluted river water supplemented with 15 mg Cu/L and a control. Cu was accumulated principally in roots. The maximum Cu concentration was 23,387.2 mg/kg dw in the treatment of 25 mg Cu/L in Hoagland solution. Cu translocation from roots to leaves was low. The mixture of 15 mg Cu/L with polluted water did not appear to have toxic effects on the water hyacinth. This plant showed a remarkable uptake capacity under elevated Cu concentrations in a mixture of pollutants similar to pure industrial effluents in a short time of exposure. This result has not been reported before, to our knowledge. This species is suitable for phytoremediation of waters subject to discharge of mixed industrial effluents containing elevated Cu concentrations (≥15 mg Cu/L), as well as nutrient-rich domestic wastewaters. PMID:25529492

  11. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of high-quality PbI2 nanopowders from depleted SLA accumulator anode and cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.; Fernandez, C.

    2016-07-01

    High-quality lead iodide (PbI2) nanoparticles were synthesized from both anode and cathode of a discarded sealed lead-acid accumulator as starting materials. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of washed PbI2 were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The XRD measurements indicated the presence of pure hexagonal PbI2 nanoparticles. Application of the Scherrer equation indicates crystal sizes between 13.703 and 14.320 nm. SEM indicated the presence of spherical particle agglomerations between 1.5 and 3.5 \\upmum in diameter. The measured band gap using two methods was consistent at 2.75 eV. EDS results suggest the absence of impurities in the synthesized nanoparticles. The overall results suggest that discarded sealed lead-acid accumulators can source pure hexagonal-phase lead iodide nanoparticles with potential applications in perovskite solar cells. The novelty aspect is that this approach has not been previously reported.

  13. Rapid transport and high accumulation of amorphous silica in the Congo deep-sea fan: A preliminary budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Ragueneau, Olivier; Jacques, Vincent; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Moriceau, Brivaëla; Khripounoff, Alexis; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the transfer and retention of silicon (Si) along continental margins are poorly understood, but play a major role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the oceanic biological pump of carbon. Deep-sea fans are well recognized as carbon sink spots, but we lack knowledge about the importance of the fans in the global Si cycle. Here, we provide a first estimate of the role played by the Congo deep-sea fan, one of the biggest in the world, in the Si cycle. Sediment cores sampled in the deep-sea fan were analyzed to build a Si mass balance. An exceptionally high accumulation rate of amorphous silica aSiO2 (2.29 ± 0.58 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) was found, due to a high sedimentation rate and the presence of aluminum in the sediments. Although favored by bioirrigation, recycling fluxes remained low (0.3 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) and reconstructed input fluxes could only be explained by lateral inputs coming from the canyon. Preliminary calculations show that the rapid transport of aSiO2 through the canyon and the excellent preservation efficiency in the sediments imply that 50% of aSiO2 river inputs from the Congo River accumulate annually in the deep-sea fan. Si:C ratios in deep-sea fan sediments were very low (0.2) and only three times as high as those measured in the river itself, which suggests that material from the river and the continental shelf was delivered directly through the canyon, with very little time for Si and C cycle decoupling to take place.

  14. Elevated CO2-mitigation of high temperature stress associated with maintenance of positive carbon balance and carbohydrate accumulation in Kentucky bluegrass.

    PubMed

    Song, Yali; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism.

  15. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. PMID:26956177

  16. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication.

  17. Identification and differential accumulation of two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit under high light stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A

    2004-12-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase coupling factor CF1 complex contains five nonidentical subunits, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon, with a stoichiometry of 3:3:1:1:1. The beta subunit contains the catalytic site for ATP synthesis during photooxidative phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In this study, we have identified two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit at 56 and 54 kDa in the chloroplast of Brassica rapa, through isolation/purification, proteolytic digestion and internal peptide sequencing. Examining their accumulation pattern demonstrates that both isoforms coexist during chloroplast biogenesis and in mature thylakoid membranes, but the 54 kDa isoform is more apparently upregulated by light or under light stress. LiDS-PAGE shows that the 56 kDa is a major isoform of the CF1-beta subunit under normal light conditions, and its amount was not influenced during high light or other light stress treatments. The 54 kDa isoform is a minor band at normal conditions; however, it significantly increased under excess light stresses, such as high or low light with drought and/or high temperature. Particularly, a ninefold increase was observed after 8-10 h of high light treatment with drought and high temperature. The results suggest that light stress induction of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform may present a positive response during chloroplast photoacclimation.

  18. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  19. Transformation of Solanum tuberosum plastids allows high expression levels of β-glucuronidase both in leaves and microtubers developed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Segretin, María Eugenia; Lentz, Ezequiel Matías; Wirth, Sonia Alejandra; Morgenfeld, Mauro Miguel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando Félix

    2012-04-01

    Plastid genome transformation offers an attractive methodology for transgene expression in plants, but for potato, only expression of gfp transgene (besides the selective gene aadA) has been published. We report here successful expression of β-glucuronidase in transplastomic Solanum tuberosum (var. Desiree) plants, with accumulation levels for the recombinant protein of up to 41% of total soluble protein in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the highest expression level reported for a heterologous protein in S. tuberosum. Accumulation of the recombinant protein in soil-grown minitubers was very low, as described in previous reports. Interestingly, microtubers developed in vitro showed higher accumulation of β-glucuronidase. As light exposure during their development could be the trigger for this high accumulation, we analyzed the effect of light on β-glucuronidase accumulation in transplastomic tubers. Exposure to light for 8 days increased β-glucuronidase accumulation in soil-grown tubers, acting as a light-inducible expression system for recombinant protein accumulation in tuber plastids. In this paper we show that plastid transformation in potato allows the highest recombinant protein accumulation in foliar tissue described so far for this food crop. We also demonstrate that in tubers high accumulation is possible and depends on light exposure. Because tubers have many advantages as protein storage organs, these results could lead to new recombinant protein production schemes based on potato.

  20. The role of topoisomerase I in suppressing genome instability associated with a highly transcribed guanine-rich sequence is not restricted to preventing RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Puja; Owiti, Norah; Kim, Nayun

    2016-01-01

    Highly transcribed guanine-run containing sequences, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, become unstable when topoisomerase I (Top1) is disrupted. Topological changes, such as the formation of extended RNA:DNA hybrids or R-loops or non-canonical DNA structures including G-quadruplexes has been proposed as the major underlying cause of the transcription-linked genome instability. Here, we report that R-loop accumulation at a guanine-rich sequence, which is capable of assembling into the four-stranded G4 DNA structure, is dependent on the level and the orientation of transcription. In the absence of Top1 or RNase Hs, R-loops accumulated to substantially higher extent when guanine-runs were located on the non-transcribed strand. This coincides with the orientation where higher genome instability was observed. However, we further report that there are significant differences between the disruption of RNase Hs and Top1 in regards to the orientation-specific elevation in genome instability at the guanine-rich sequence. Additionally, genome instability in Top1-deficient yeasts is not completely suppressed by removal of negative supercoils and further aggravated by expression of mutant Top1. Together, our data provide a strong support for a function of Top1 in suppressing genome instability at the guanine-run containing sequence that goes beyond preventing the transcription-associated RNA:DNA hybrid formation. PMID:26527723

  1. Exogenous spermine ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytic apoptosis via decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation through inhibiting p38/JNK and JAK2 pathways.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqin; Yang, Jinxia; Li, Hongzhu; Shao, Hongjiang; Wei, Can; Wang, Yuehong; Li, Meixiu; Xu, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been suggested to play a vital role in the initiation and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies reveal that spermine possesses proliferative, antiaging and antioxidative properties. Thus, we hypothesized that spermine could decrease apoptosis via suppressing ROS accumulation induced by high glucose (HG) in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG) (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) in the presence or absence of spermine for 48 h. The cell activity, apoptosis, ROS production, T-SOD and GSH activities, MDA content and GSSG level were assessed. The results showed that HG induced lipid peroxidation and the increase of intracellular ROS formation and apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Spermine could obviously improve the above-mentioned changes. Western blot analysis revealed that spermine markedly inhibited HG-induced the phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPKs and JAK2. Moreover, spermine had better antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects than N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, the present data suggested that spermine could suppress ROS accumulation to decrease cardiomyocytes apoptosis in HG condition, which may be attributed to the inhibition of p38/JNK and JAK2 activation and its natural antioxidative property. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26884823

  2. Exogenous spermine ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytic apoptosis via decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation through inhibiting p38/JNK and JAK2 pathways

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuqin; Yang, Jinxia; Li, Hongzhu; Shao, Hongjiang; Wei, Can; Wang, Yuehong; Li, Meixiu; Xu, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been suggested to play a vital role in the initiation and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies reveal that spermine possesses proliferative, antiaging and antioxidative properties. Thus, we hypothesized that spermine could decrease apoptosis via suppressing ROS accumulation induced by high glucose (HG) in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG) (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) in the presence or absence of spermine for 48 h. The cell activity, apoptosis, ROS production, T-SOD and GSH activities, MDA content and GSSG level were assessed. The results showed that HG induced lipid peroxidation and the increase of intracellular ROS formation and apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Spermine could obviously improve the above-mentioned changes. Western blot analysis revealed that spermine markedly inhibited HG-induced the phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPKs and JAK2. Moreover, spermine had better antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects than N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, the present data suggested that spermine could suppress ROS accumulation to decrease cardiomyocytes apoptosis in HG condition, which may be attributed to the inhibition of p38/JNK and JAK2 activation and its natural antioxidative property. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26884823

  3. The accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Huiqiao; Pang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Rongrong; Shen, Lu; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-15

    The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2α. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1α degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1α by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells. -- Highlights: ► Biphasic effects induced by different concentrations of arsenite. ► Different regulation of ERK or JNK signal pathway by arsenite. ► Different regulation of HIF1α or HIF 2α by arsenite.

  4. Luminance and color inputs to mid-level and high-level vision.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ben J; Martinovic, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the interdependence of activity within the luminance (L + M) and opponent chromatic (L - M and S - [L + M]) postreceptoral mechanisms in mid-level and high-level vision. Mid-level processes extract contours and perform figure-background organization whereas high-level processes depend on additional semantic input, such as object knowledge. We collected mid-level (good/poor continuation) and high-level (object/nonobject) two-alternative forced-choice discrimination threshold data over a range of conditions that isolate mechanisms or simultaneously stimulate them. The L - M mechanism drove discrimination in the presence of very low luminance inputs. Contrast-dependent interactions between the luminance and L - M as well as combined L - M and S - (L + M) inputs were also found, but S - (L + M) signals, on their own, did not interact with luminance. Mean mid-level and high-level thresholds were related, with luminance providing inputs capable of sustaining performance over a broader, linearly corresponding range of contrasts when compared to L - M signals. The observed interactions are likely to be driven by L - M signals and relatively low luminance signals (approximately 0.05-0.09 L + M contrast) facilitating each other. The results are consistent with previous findings on low-level interactions between chromatic and luminance signals and demonstrate that functional interdependence between the geniculate mechanisms extends to the highest stages of the visual hierarchy.

  5. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  6. Levels, tissue distribution, and age-related accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis): comparison to organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wei, Qiwei; Hu, Jianying; Jin, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhaobin; Zhen, Huajun; Liu, Jianyi

    2007-01-15

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was listed as a Grade I protected animal in China in 1989, and the observed intersexual phenomenon and sex ratio deviation have suggested that chemicals have posed a risk as environment pollutants. This study analyzed seven musk fragrances in liver, muscle, heart, gonad, stomach, intestines, adipose, gill, pancreas, kidney, gallbladder, and roe from 13 female Chinese sturgeons, and the toxicokinetic behavior of musks were studied and compared with some organochlorines. Of the seven musks, HHCB, AHTN, and musk xylene were detected, and the highest concentrations were observed in adipose tissue: from 33.7 to 62.1 ng/g wet weight (ww), from 1.0 to 5.4 ng/g ww, and from 1.1 to 13 ng/g ww, respectively. Similar to the tissue distribution of DDTs and HCB, musks were detected frequently in high lipid content tissues such as roe, adipose, and liver, suggesting that tissue distribution of musks is controlled by the affinity to lipids. The concentration ratios based on lipid weight between roe and adipose were estimated to be 0.47 for HHCB, 0.58 for AHTN, and 0.51 for musk xylene, and those for the total DDTs and HCB were 0.27 and 0.61, which were relatively low compared with mammals. Relatively high concentrations of p,p'-DDE (68.4-449 ng/g ww) were detected in 10 of total 11 samples, which would cause the feminization of Chinese sturgeons during embryonic development. It was found that lipid-corrected concentrations of HHCB, AHTN, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD increased with age in female sturgeon, of which the trends were similar to those in fishes and different from those in mammals.

  7. Cellular cholesterol accumulation modulates high fat high sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced ER stress and hepatic inflammasome activation in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Amir; Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Sue-Chue-Lam, Ian; Chien, Kevin; Maguire, Graham F; Naples, Mark; Zhang, Jing; Magomedova, Lilia; Adeli, Khosrow; Cummins, Carolyn L; Ng, Dominic S

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is the form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease posing risk to progress into serious long term complications. Human and pre-clinical models implicate cellular cholesterol dysregulation playing important role in its development. Mouse model studies suggest synergism between dietary cholesterol and fat in contributing to NASH but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our laboratory previously reported the primary importance of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol (ER-Chol) in regulating hepatic ER stress by comparing the responses of wild type, Ldlr-/-xLcat+/+ and Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice, to a 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD). Here we further investigated the roles of ER-Chol and ER stress in HFHS diet-induced NASH using the same strains. With HFHS diet feeding, both WT and Ldlr-/-xLcat+/+ accumulate ER-Chol in association with ER stress and inflammasome activation but the Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice are protected. By contrast, all three strains accumulate cholesterol crystal, in correlation with ER-Chol, albeit less so in Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice. By comparison, HCD feeding per se (i) is sufficient to promote steatosis and activate inflammasomes, and (ii) results in dramatic accumulation of cholesterol crystal which is linked to inflammasome activation in Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice, independent of ER-Chol. Our data suggest that both dietary fat and cholesterol each independently promote steatosis, cholesterol crystal accumulation and inflammasome activation through distinct but complementary pathways. In vitro studies using palmitate-induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells confirm the key roles by cellular cholesterol in the induction of steatosis and inflammasome activations. These novel findings provide opportunities for exploring a cellular cholesterol-focused strategy for treatment of NASH. PMID:27090939

  8. Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

  9. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LEVEL ALARM.” Cargo Temperature Control Systems ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  10. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LEVEL ALARM.” Cargo Temperature Control Systems ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  11. Decision Document for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-07-31

    This document establishes the combination of design and operational configurations that will be used to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. The chosen method--to use the primary and annulus ventilation systems to remove heat from the high-level waste tanks--is documented herein.

  12. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  13. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p<0.05) in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. ZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway.

  14. The Role of Sea Level Rise and in Situ Carbonate Accumulation on the Morphodynamic Evolution of a Carbonate Tidal Channel. The Case of the Bahamas Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhani, S.; Viparelli, E.; Imran, J.; Mahjabeen, N.; Abdo, K.; Kendall, C.; Rankey, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the problem of morphodynamic evolution of carbonate tidal channels, bounded seaward by the ocean and shoaling landward, as observed in coastal lagoons and estuaries. Governing model equations are the conservation of mass and momentum for the flow, and the conservation of sediment mass in the water column and in the bed deposit. We model carbonate accumulation in terms of a specified depth-dependent carbonate "production rate" based on modern rates of carbonate accumulation rate. We further assume that 1) there is no input of clastic sediments to the system, 2) cementation processes are slow when compared to carbonate accumulation, 3) there is an absence of particles in the silt/mud range, and 4) we treat the carbonate sediments as non-cohesive particles. Governing equations are integrated with finite volume for unsteady, two-dimensional, depth averaged shallow-water flow over arbitrary topography. This method is known to capture sharp fronts accurately. We use Roe's approximate Riemann solver for the computation of fluxes at the interfaces between one finite volume and the other. For second order accuracy we implement MUSCL (Monotone Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws) and a predictor-corrector time stepping scheme. We validate the model at field scale by comparing the numerical results with field data collected in the Bahamas channels. The comparison is presented in terms of flow velocities, bed profiles and grain size distributions of the bed surface. Finally, we use the validated model to explore how different rates of sea level rise will affect the morphodynamic evolution of the tidal channels under different "production rate" scenarios, e.g. constant, depth dependent.

  15. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production.

  16. Sucrose Transporter AtSUC9 Mediated by a Low Sucrose Level is Involved in Arabidopsis Abiotic Stress Resistance by Regulating Sucrose Distribution and ABA Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wanqiu; Zhang, Lijun; Wu, Di; Liu, Shan; Gong, Xue; Cui, Zhenhai; Cui, Na; Cao, Huiying; Rao, Longbing; Wang, Che

    2015-08-01

    Sucrose (Suc) transporters (SUCs or SUTs) are important regulators in plant growth and stress tolerance. However, the mechanism of SUCs in plant abiotic stress resistance remains to be dietermined. Here, we found that AtSUC9 expression was induced by abiotic stress, including salt, osmotic and cold stress conditions. Disruption of AtSUC9 led to sensitive responses to abiotic stress during seed germination and seedling growth. Further analyses indicated that the sensitivity phenotype of Atsuc9 mutants resulted from higher Suc content in shoots and lower Suc content in roots, as compared with that in wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, we found that the expression of AtSUC9 is induced in particular by low levels of exogenous and endogenous Suc, and deletion of AtSUC9 affected the expression of the low Suc level-responsive genes. AtSUC9 also showed an obvious response to treatments with low concentrations of exogenous Suc during seed germination, seedling growth and Suc distribution, and Atsuc9 mutants hardly grew in abiotic stress treatments without exogenous Suc. Moreover, our results illustrated not only that deletion of AtSUC9 blocks abiotic stress-inducible ABA accumulation but also that Atsuc9 mutants had a lower content of endogenous ABA in stress conditions than in normal conditions. Deletion of AtSUC9 also inhibited the expression of many ABA-inducible genes (SnRk2.2/3/6, ABF2/3/4, ABI1/3/4, RD29A, KIN1 and KIN2). These results indicate that AtSUC9 is induced in particular by low Suc levels then mediates the balance of Suc distribution and promotes ABA accumulation to enhance Arabidopsis abiotic stress resistance.

  17. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  18. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  19. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging. PMID:27498120

  20. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging.

  1. Spatio-temporal expression of patatin-like lipid acyl hydrolases and accumulation of jasmonates in elicitor-treated tobacco leaves are not affected by endogenous levels of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Sandrine; Gouzerh, Guillaume; Müller, Axel; Legrand, Michel; Heitz, Thierry

    2002-12-01

    We have previously isolated three tobacco genes (NtPat) encoding patatin-like proteins, getting rapidly induced during the hypersensitive response (HR) to tobacco mosaic virus, in advance to jasmonate accumulation. NtPAT enzymes are lipid acyl hydrolases that display high phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and may mobilize fatty acid precursors of oxylipins. Here, we performed a detailed study of NtPat gene regulation under various biotic and abiotic stresses. PLA2 activity was poorly induced in response to drought, wounding, reactive oxygen intermediates, salicylic acid (SA) or methyl-jasmonate (MJ) whereas the ethylene (ET) precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), provoked a moderate induction. In contrast, PLA2 activity was strongly induced when ACC was combined with MJ, and in response to the bacterium Erwinia carotovora or to the fungus Botrytis cinerea, as well as to treatment with beta-megaspermin, a cell death-inducing protein elicitor. A simplified system based on the infiltration of beta-megaspermin into leaves was used to dissect the spatio-temporal activation of PLA2 activity with regards to the accumulation of jasmonates and to the influence of endogenous SA. NtPat-encoded PLA2 activity was rapidly induced in the infiltrated zone before the appearance of cell death and with some delay in the surrounding living cells. A massive accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic and jasmonic acids occurred in the elicitor-infiltrated zone, but only low levels were detectable outside this area. A similar picture was found in SA-deficient plants, showing that in tobacco, accumulation of jasmonates is not affected by the concomitant HR-induced build-up of endogenous SA. Finally, ET-insensitive plants showed a weakened induction of PLA2 activity outside the elicitor-infiltrated tissue.

  2. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  3. Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuation on mercury accumulation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Knights, Brent C.; Gray, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fisheries is a major concern for resource managers of many temperate lakes. Anthropogenic Hg contamination is largely derived from atmospheric deposition within a lake’s watershed, but its incorporation into the food web is facilitated by bacterial activity in sediments. Temporal variation in Hg content of fish (young-of-year yellow perch) in the regulated lakes of the Rainy–Namakan complex (on the border of the United States and Canada) has been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, presumably through variation in sediment inundation. As a result, Hg contamination of fish has been linked to international regulations of WL fluctuation. Here we assess the relationship between WL fluctuations and fish Hg content using a 10-year dataset covering six lakes. Within-year WL rise did not appear in strongly supported models of fish Hg, but year-to-year variation in maximum water levels (∆maxWL) was positively associated with fish Hg content. This WL effect varied in magnitude among lakes: In Crane Lake, a 1 m increase in ∆maxWL from the previous year was associated with a 108 ng increase in fish Hg content (per gram wet weight), while the same WL change in Kabetogama was associated with only a 5 ng increase in fish Hg content. In half the lakes sampled here, effect sizes could not be distinguished from zero. Given the persistent and wide-ranging extent of Hg contamination and the large number of regulated waterways, future research is needed to identify the conditions in which WL fluctuations influence fish Hg content.

  4. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage within a mixed-culture biomass with simultaneous growth as a function of accumulation substrate nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesco; Karabegovic, Lamija; Majone, Mauro; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Werker, Alan

    2015-06-15

    PHA content was attributed to interpreted differences in the biomass initial physiological state and not due to changes in feedstock nutrient loading. We found that the accumulation process production rates for mixed cultures can be sustained long after the maximum PHA content of the biomass was reached. Within the specific context of the applied fed-batch feed-on-demand methods, active biomass growth was interpreted to have been largely restricted to the PHA-storing phenotypic fraction of the biomass. This study suggests practical prospects for mixed culture PHA production using a wide range of volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich feedstocks. Such VFA sources derived from residual industrial or municipal organic wastes often naturally contain associated nutrients ranging in levels from limitation to excess.

  5. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage within a mixed-culture biomass with simultaneous growth as a function of accumulation substrate nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesco; Karabegovic, Lamija; Majone, Mauro; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Werker, Alan

    2015-06-15

    PHA content was attributed to interpreted differences in the biomass initial physiological state and not due to changes in feedstock nutrient loading. We found that the accumulation process production rates for mixed cultures can be sustained long after the maximum PHA content of the biomass was reached. Within the specific context of the applied fed-batch feed-on-demand methods, active biomass growth was interpreted to have been largely restricted to the PHA-storing phenotypic fraction of the biomass. This study suggests practical prospects for mixed culture PHA production using a wide range of volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich feedstocks. Such VFA sources derived from residual industrial or municipal organic wastes often naturally contain associated nutrients ranging in levels from limitation to excess. PMID:25846983

  6. High-throughput imaging method for direct assessment of GM1 ganglioside levels in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Walter; Martin, Reid; Radin, David N.; Cramer, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene GLB1, which encodes acid β-galactosidase (β-gal). The lack of activity in this lysosomal enzyme leads to accumulation of GM1 gangliosides (GM1) in cells. We have developed a high-content-imaging method to assess GM1 levels in fibroblasts that can be used to evaluate substrate reduction in treated GLB1−/− cells [1]. This assay allows fluorescent quantification in a multi-well system which generates unbiased and statistically significant data. Fluorescently labeled Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTXB), which specifically binds to GM1 gangliosides, was used to detect in situ GM1 levels in a fixed monolayer of fibroblasts. This sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive method facilitates in vitro drug screening in a format that allows a high number of replicates using low working volumes. PMID:26958633

  7. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved.

  8. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved. PMID:26697490

  9. Accumulation of high-value lipids in single-cell microorganisms: a mechanistic approach and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; German, J Bruce

    2014-04-01

    In recent years attention has been focused on the utilization of microorganisms as alternatives for industrial and nutritional applications. Considerable research has been devoted to techniques for growth, extraction, and purification of high-value lipids for their use as biofuels and biosurfactants as well as high-value metabolites for nutrition and health. These successes argue that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the microbial biosynthesis of such molecules, which are far from being completely understood, now will yield spectacular opportunities for industrial scale biomolecular production. There are important additional questions to be solved to optimize the processing strategies to take advantage of the assets of microbial lipids. The present review describes the current state of knowledge regarding lipid biosynthesis, accumulation, and transport mechanisms present in single-cell organisms, specifically yeasts, microalgae, bacteria, and archaea. Similarities and differences in biochemical pathways and strategies of different microorganisms provide a diverse toolset to the expansion of biotechnologies for lipid production. This paper is intended to inspire a generation of lipid scientists to insights that will drive the biotechnologies of microbial production as uniquely enabling players of lipid biotherapeutics, biofuels, biomaterials, and other opportunity areas into the 21st century. PMID:24628496

  10. Accumulation of High-Value Lipids in Single-Cell Microorganisms: A Mechanistic Approach and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years attention has been focused on the utilization of microorganisms as alternatives for industrial and nutritional applications. Considerable research has been devoted to techniques for growth, extraction, and purification of high-value lipids for their use as biofuels and biosurfactants as well as high-value metabolites for nutrition and health. These successes argue that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the microbial biosynthesis of such molecules, which are far from being completely understood, now will yield spectacular opportunities for industrial scale biomolecular production. There are important additional questions to be solved to optimize the processing strategies to take advantage of the assets of microbial lipids. The present review describes the current state of knowledge regarding lipid biosynthesis, accumulation, and transport mechanisms present in single-cell organisms, specifically yeasts, microalgae, bacteria, and archaea. Similarities and differences in biochemical pathways and strategies of different microorganisms provide a diverse toolset to the expansion of biotechnologies for lipid production. This paper is intended to inspire a generation of lipid scientists to insights that will drive the biotechnologies of microbial production as uniquely enabling players of lipid biotherapeutics, biofuels, biomaterials, and other opportunity areas into the 21st century. PMID:24628496

  11. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  12. High Resolution Quantification of Crystalline Cellulose Accumulation in Arabidopsis Roots to Monitor Tissue-specific Cell Wall Modifications.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Yulia; Holland, Neta; Elbaum, Rivka; Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall, the composition of which determines their final size and shape. The cell wall is composed of a complex matrix containing polysaccharides that include cellulose microfibrils that form both crystalline structures and cellulose chains of amorphous organization. The orientation of the cellulose fibers and their concentrations dictate the mechanical properties of the cell. Several methods are used to determine the levels of crystalline cellulose, each bringing both advantages and limitations. Some can distinguish the proportion of crystalline regions within the total cellulose. However, they are limited to whole-organ analyses that are deficient in spatiotemporal information. Others relying on live imaging, are limited by the use of imprecise dyes. Here, we report a sensitive polarized light-based system for specific quantification of relative light retardance, representing crystalline cellulose accumulation in cross sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. In this method, the cellular resolution and anatomical data are maintained, enabling direct comparisons between the different tissues composing the growing root. This approach opens a new analytical dimension, shedding light on the link between cell wall composition, cellular behavior and whole-organ growth. PMID:27214583

  13. Cadmium accumulation, metallothionein and glutathione levels, and histopathological changes in the kidneys and liver of magpie (Pica pica) from a zinc smelter area.

    PubMed

    Włostowski, Tadeusz; Dmowski, Krzysztof; Bonda-Ostaszewska, Elzbieta

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between cadmium (Cd) accumulation and histopathological changes in the kidneys and liver of magpies (Pica pica) from a zinc smelter area. The concentrations of metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH) that are linked to a protective effect against Cd toxicity were also determined. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of Cd (2.2-17.9 microg/g) and histopathological changes (interstitial inflammation and tubular cell degeneration) in the kidneys (R (s) = 0.87, P = 0.0000). The renal Cd also positively correlated with apoptosis (R (s) = 0.72, P = 0.0005) but the metal did not affect lipid peroxidation. Notably, the average concentration of Cd in the kidneys exceeded MT capacity by about 7 microg/g which is thought to produce renal injury. Importantly, GSH level in the kidneys of magpies from the polluted area dropped to 38% of that observed in the reference birds, probably potentiating Cd toxicity. On the contrary, the liver accumulation of Cd was relatively small (0.88-3.38 microg/g), the hepatic MT capacity exceeded the total concentration of Cd and no association between the hepatic Cd and histopathology was found despite the fact that GSH level was only half that observed in the reference birds. The data suggest that Cd intoxication may be responsible for histopathological changes occurring in the kidneys of free-ranging magpies and that the pathology may be associated with inappropriate amount of renal MT and GSH.

  14. Versican but not decorin accumulation is related to malignancy in mammographically detected high density and malignant-appearing microcalcifications in non-palpable breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) and malignant-appearing microcalcifications (MAMCs) represent the earliest mammographic findings of non-palpable breast carcinomas. Matrix proteoglycans versican and decorin are frequently over-expressed in various malignancies and are differently involved in the progression of cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of versican and decorin in non-palpable breast carcinomas and their association with high risk mammographic findings and tumor characteristics. Methods Three hundred and ten patients with non-palpable suspicious breast lesions, detected during screening mammography, were studied. Histological examination was carried out and the expression of decorin, versican, estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and c-erbB2 (HER-2/neu) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Histological examination showed 83 out of 310 (26.8%) carcinomas of various subtypes. Immunohistochemistry was carried out in 62/83 carcinomas. Decorin was accumulated in breast tissues with MD and MAMCs independently of the presence of malignancy. In contrast, versican was significantly increased only in carcinomas with MAMCs (median ± SE: 42.0 ± 9.1) and MD (22.5 ± 10.1) as compared to normal breast tissue with MAMCs (14.0 ± 5.8), MD (11.0 ± 4.4) and normal breast tissue without mammographic findings (10.0 ± 2.0). Elevated levels of versican were correlated with higher tumor grade and invasiveness in carcinomas with MD and MAMCs, whereas increased amounts of decorin were associated with in situ carcinomas in MAMCs. Stromal deposition of both proteoglycans was related to higher expression of ERα and PR in tumor cells only in MAMCs. Conclusions The specific accumulation of versican in breast tissue with high MD and MAMCs only in the presence of malignant transformation and its association with the aggressiveness of the tumor suggests its possible use as molecular marker in non-palpable breast carcinomas

  15. Cynanchum wilfordii Radix attenuates liver fat accumulation and damage by suppressing hepatic cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon-A; Lee, SungRyul; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Yang, Jaehyuk; Park, Dae Won; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Kwon, Jung Eun; Song, Hae Seong; Cho, Young Mi; Meng, Xue; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-09-01

    Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice were fed either a normal diet or an atherogenic diet with fructose (ATHFR) in the presence or absence of CWE (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; n=6/group). Treatment with ATHFR induced a hepatosplenomegaly-like condition (increased liver and spleen weight); this pathological change was attenuated in the presence of CWE. The ATHFR group exhibited impaired liver function, as evidenced by increased blood levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, fat accumulation in the liver, and lipid profiles. Supplementation of CWE (100 and 200 mg/kg, P<.05) ameliorated these impaired liver functions. Atherogenic diet with fructose increased the protein levels of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These signaling pathways, which are associated with the inflammatory response, were markedly suppressed after CWE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg). In summary, CWE supplementation reduced high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced fat accumulation and damage in the liver by suppressing COX-2, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK. PMID:27632911

  16. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean. PMID:12676623

  17. Arsenic accumulation in root and shoot vis-a-vis its effects on growth and level of phytochelatins in seedlings of Cicer arietinum L.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Tripathi, R D; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Rai, U N; Yang, X E; Huanji, H; Inouhe, M

    2008-05-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water and soil has become a subject of prime interest due to its direct effect on human health through drinking water and food. In present study two varieties (CSG-8962 and C-235) of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L., which is a major supplementary food in many parts of India and a valuable source of protein, has been selected to estimate the level of arsenate in root and shoot of five day old seedlings vis-à-vis effect of arsenate on seedling growth and induction of thiols including glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) and their homologues. Both varieties accumulated arsenate to similar levels and most of the metalloid was confined to roots, only about 2.5% was translocated to shoot. Plant growth was also not affected significantly in both the varieties. Arsenate exposure significantly induced the levels of thiols including PCs and homophytochelatins (hPCs). The induction of thiols was much higher in roots than shoots and was greater in var C-235 between the two tested ones. Thus, both varieties tolerated and detoxified arsenic through chelation with GSH, PCs and hPCs, primarily in roots, however var C-235 performed better PMID:18972678

  18. Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase accumulate enhanced levels of cysteine and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Seok; Chronis, Demosthenis; Juergens, Matthew; Schroeder, Amy C; Hyun, Seung Won; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2012-01-01

    Soybeans provide an excellent source of protein in animal feed. Soybean protein quality can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids. Previous attempts to increase the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids through the expression of heterologous proteins have met with limited success. Here, we report a successful strategy to increase the cysteine content of soybean seed through the overexpression of a key sulfur assimilatory enzyme. We have generated several transgenic soybean plants that overexpress a cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). These transgenic soybean plants exhibit a four- to tenfold increase in OASS activity when compared with non-transformed wild-type. The OASS activity in the transgenic soybeans was significantly higher at all the stages of seed development. Unlike the non-transformed soybean plants, there was no marked decrease in the OASS activity even at later stages of seed development. Overexpression of cytosolic OASS resulted in a 58-74% increase in protein-bound cysteine levels compared with non-transformed wild-type soybean seeds. A 22-32% increase in the free cysteine levels was also observed in transgenic soybeans overexpressing OASS. Furthermore, these transgenic soybean plants showed a marked increase in the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, a cysteine-rich protein. The overall increase in soybean total cysteine content (both free and protein-bound) satisfies the recommended levels required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals.

  19. Arsenic accumulation in root and shoot vis-a-vis its effects on growth and level of phytochelatins in seedlings of Cicer arietinum L.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Tripathi, R D; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Rai, U N; Yang, X E; Huanji, H; Inouhe, M

    2008-05-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water and soil has become a subject of prime interest due to its direct effect on human health through drinking water and food. In present study two varieties (CSG-8962 and C-235) of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L., which is a major supplementary food in many parts of India and a valuable source of protein, has been selected to estimate the level of arsenate in root and shoot of five day old seedlings vis-à-vis effect of arsenate on seedling growth and induction of thiols including glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) and their homologues. Both varieties accumulated arsenate to similar levels and most of the metalloid was confined to roots, only about 2.5% was translocated to shoot. Plant growth was also not affected significantly in both the varieties. Arsenate exposure significantly induced the levels of thiols including PCs and homophytochelatins (hPCs). The induction of thiols was much higher in roots than shoots and was greater in var C-235 between the two tested ones. Thus, both varieties tolerated and detoxified arsenic through chelation with GSH, PCs and hPCs, primarily in roots, however var C-235 performed better

  20. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. . Radioisotope Unit)

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK $0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK $120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3]. The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3] was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m[sup [minus]3] for newly built buildings.

  1. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  2. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  3. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  4. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  5. The Use of ARTEMIS with High-Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Bowling; H. Shoaee; S. Witherspoon

    1995-10-01

    ARTEMIS is an online accelerator modeling server developed at CEBAF. One of the design goals of ARTEMIS was to provide an integrated modeling environment for high- level accelerator diagnostic and control applications such as automated beam steering, Linac Energy management (LEM) and the fast feedback system. This report illustrates the use of ARTEMIS in these applications as well as the application interface using the EPICS cdev device support API. Concentration is placed on the design and implementation aspects of high- level applications which utilize the ARTEMIS server for information on beam dynamics. Performance benchmarks for various model operations provided by ARTEMIS are also discussed.

  6. A highly sensitive quantification method for the accumulation of alarmone ppGpp in Arabidopsis thaliana using UPLC-ESI-qMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuta; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Shinji

    2015-05-01

    Recently, a bacterial second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), has been detected in chloroplasts. However, because ppGpp concentration in plants is much lower than that in bacteria, detailed analysis of ppGpp in plants has not been performed. A highly sensitive quantification method is required for further characterization of ppGpp function in chloroplasts. Here, we report a new method that allows for the highly sensitive and selective high-throughput quantification of ppGpp by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS/MS) equipped with an electrospray interface (ESI). This method requires only ~100 mg of plant tissue for ppGpp quantification. We used this method to measure ppGpp levels in Arabidopsis thaliana under different light conditions. A. thaliana accumulated ppGpp during dark periods. This method will be helpful to further characterize the stringent response in higher plants.

  7. Potential accumulation of contaminated sediments in a reservoir of a high-Andean watershed: Morphodynamic connections with geochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, María. Teresa; Müllendorff, Daniel; Pastén, Pablo; Pizarro, Gonzalo E.; Paola, Chris; Escauriaza, Cristián.

    2015-05-01

    Rapid changes due to anthropic interventions in high-altitude environments, such as the Altiplano region in South America, require new approaches to understand the connections between physical and geochemical processes. Alterations of the water quality linked to the river morphology can affect the ecosystems and human development in the long term. The future construction of a reservoir in the Lluta River, located in northern Chile, will change the spatial distribution of arsenic-rich sediments, which can have significant effects on the lower parts of the watershed. In this investigation, we develop a coupled numerical model to predict and evaluate the interactions between morphodynamic changes in the Lluta reservoir, and conditions that can potentially desorb arsenic from the sediments. Assuming that contaminants are mobilized under anaerobic conditions, we calculate the oxygen concentration within the sediments to study the interactions of the delta progradation with the potential arsenic release. This work provides a framework for future studies aimed to analyze the complex connections between morphodynamics and water quality, when contaminant-rich sediments accumulate in a reservoir. The tool can also help to design effective risk management and remediation strategies in these extreme environments. This article was corrected on 15 JUNE 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  8. Accumulated metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hilvo, Mika; de Santiago, Ines; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Schmitt, Wolfgang D.; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Aittokallio, Tero; Markowetz, Florian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Frezza, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease of low prevalence, but poor survival. Early diagnosis is critical for survival, but is often challenging because the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle and become apparent only during advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the identification of robust biomarkers of early disease is a clinical priority. Metabolomic profiling is an emerging diagnostic tool enabling the detection of biomarkers reflecting alterations in tumor metabolism, a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue from 158 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and 100 control patients with benign or non-neoplastic lesions. We report metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with tumor burden and patient survival. The accumulation of HBA metabolites caused by HGSOC was also associated with reduced expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by ALDH5A1), and with the presence of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature, implying a role for these metabolic alterations in cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our findings represent the first comprehensive metabolomics analysis in HGSOC and propose a new set of metabolites as biomarkers of disease with diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. PMID:26685161

  9. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H; Maloney, Christopher A; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13-14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  10. Accumulated Metabolites of Hydroxybutyric Acid Serve as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hilvo, Mika; de Santiago, Ines; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Schmitt, Wolfgang D; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Aittokallio, Tero; Markowetz, Florian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Frezza, Christian; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Braicu, Elena Ioana

    2016-02-15

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease of low prevalence, but poor survival. Early diagnosis is critical for survival, but it is often challenging because the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle and become apparent only during advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the identification of robust biomarkers of early disease is a clinical priority. Metabolomic profiling is an emerging diagnostic tool enabling the detection of biomarkers reflecting alterations in tumor metabolism, a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue from 158 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and 100 control patients with benign or non-neoplastic lesions. We report metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with tumor burden and patient survival. The accumulation of HBA metabolites caused by HGSOC was also associated with reduced expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by ALDH5A1), and with the presence of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition gene signature, implying a role for these metabolic alterations in cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our findings represent the first comprehensive metabolomics analysis in HGSOC and propose a new set of metabolites as biomarkers of disease with diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. PMID:26685161

  11. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S.; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H.; Maloney, Christopher A.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13–14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  12. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  13. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  14. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  15. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  16. Equity-Focused Schools Carry All Students to High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of experience supporting efforts from local to state levels to improve learning for underserved students, Sonia Caus Gleason and WestEd's Nancy Gerzon could not point to examples of entire schools accomplishing what they believed was possible: high-poverty public schools personalizing learning for all students to consistently reach…

  17. Device enables calibration of microphones at high sound pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, A.

    1967-01-01

    Coupling device accurately calibrates microphones at high sound pressure intensities. The system which uses a liquid as the coupling medium can operate in an automatic mode by using a standard microphone as a control sensor. Feedback from the standard microphone controls the calibration signal level.

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a lazarette; (2) A machinery space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to flooding from sea water...

  19. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a lazarette; (2) A machinery space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to flooding from sea water...

  20. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a lazarette; (2) A machinery space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to flooding from sea water...

  1. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a lazarette; (2) A machinery space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to flooding from sea water...

  2. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a lazarette; (2) A machinery space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to flooding from sea water...

  3. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  4. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  5. Transient Proliferation of Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Cells on the Epidermal Apex Contributes to Highly Aluminum-Resistant Root Elongation in Camphor Tree1[W

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  6. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  7. Gene limiting cadmium accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisei; Yamaji, Naoki; Kono, Izumi; Huang, Chao Feng; Ando, Tsuyu; Yano, Masahiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2010-09-21

    Intake of toxic cadmium (Cd) from rice caused Itai-itai disease in the past and it is still a threat for human health. Therefore, control of the accumulation of Cd from soil is an important food-safety issue, but the molecular mechanism for the control is unknown. Herein, we report a gene (OsHMA3) responsible for low Cd accumulation in rice that was isolated from a mapping population derived from a cross between a high and low Cd-accumulating cultivar. The gene encodes a transporter belonging to the P(1B)-type ATPase family, but shares low similarity with other members. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that the transporter from the low-Cd cultivar is functional, but the transporter from the high-Cd cultivar had lost its function, probably because of the single amino acid mutation. The transporter is mainly expressed in the tonoplast of root cells at a similar level in both the low and high Cd-accumulating cultivars. Overexpression of the functional gene from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar selectively decreased accumulation of Cd, but not other micronutrients in the grain. Our results indicated that OsHMA3 from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar limits translocation of Cd from the roots to the above-ground tissues by selectively sequestrating Cd into the root vacuoles.

  8. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    SciTech Connect

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning.

  9. Physiological differences in response to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low- and high-DBP accumulating cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Cao, Gang; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding on the mechanisms of cultivar difference in contaminant accumulation in crops, this study was designed to compare the physiological responses to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low (Lvbao70) and high (Huaguan) DBP cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). Under high DBP exposure, significant differences in various physiological responses were observed between the two cultivars, which might account for the variation in DBP accumulation. Ultrastructure observation also showed different alterations or damages in the mesophyll cell structures between both cultivars, especially for the chloroplast disintegration, starch grain quantity, and plastoglobuli accumulation. Compared with Huaguan, Lvbao70 suffered greater decreases in biomass, chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and antioxidase activities, which would have resulted in a great reduction of photosynthetic capacity. Although Lvbao70 enhanced energy dissipation and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, they did not provide sufficient protection against oxidative damage caused by DBP. The result suggested that the lower DBP tolerance of Lvbao70 might be associated with its poor physiological performances, which was responsible for its lower DBP accumulation to protect itself from toxicity. Additionally, Lvbao70 had a significantly lower transpiration rate and stomatal conductance than Huaguan, which might be the factors regulating DBP-accumulation variation. PMID:26608873

  10. Physiological differences in response to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low- and high-DBP accumulating cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Cao, Gang; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding on the mechanisms of cultivar difference in contaminant accumulation in crops, this study was designed to compare the physiological responses to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low (Lvbao70) and high (Huaguan) DBP cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). Under high DBP exposure, significant differences in various physiological responses were observed between the two cultivars, which might account for the variation in DBP accumulation. Ultrastructure observation also showed different alterations or damages in the mesophyll cell structures between both cultivars, especially for the chloroplast disintegration, starch grain quantity, and plastoglobuli accumulation. Compared with Huaguan, Lvbao70 suffered greater decreases in biomass, chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and antioxidase activities, which would have resulted in a great reduction of photosynthetic capacity. Although Lvbao70 enhanced energy dissipation and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, they did not provide sufficient protection against oxidative damage caused by DBP. The result suggested that the lower DBP tolerance of Lvbao70 might be associated with its poor physiological performances, which was responsible for its lower DBP accumulation to protect itself from toxicity. Additionally, Lvbao70 had a significantly lower transpiration rate and stomatal conductance than Huaguan, which might be the factors regulating DBP-accumulation variation.

  11. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawroski, H; Berreth, J R; Freeby, W A

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle.

  12. High levels of molecular chlorine in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Gregory; Liu, Zhen; Tanner, David J.; Cantrell, Chris A.; Orlando, John J.; Flocke, Frank M.; Shepson, Paul B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Beine, Harry J.; Wang, Yuhang; Ingall, Ellery D.; Stephens, Chelsea R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Riemer, Daniel; Fried, Alan; Mauldin, Roy L.; Smith, James N.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.

    2014-02-01

    Chlorine radicals can function as a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions, where levels of hydroxyl radicals are low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone, and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We report high levels of molecular chlorine, of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon, and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimate that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals, on average, and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyses mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. We therefore suggest that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic.

  13. Uptake of manganese in potatoes tolerant of high tissue manganese levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    Observations on the accumulations of Mn in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Norland) focused on factors which enabled plants in field studies to withstand high concentrations of Mn in their foliage. A microculture method for assessing nutrient uptake was introduced and applied to studies of the effects of P and temperature on Mn toxicity. Potato plants in microculture behaved similarly in the symptomatology of Mn toxicity to those grown in solution culture but were more responsive to P. The effects of both P and temperature on Mn toxicity in microculture correlated with changes in Mn uptake and with growth reductions due to low P or temperature stress. The uptake of Mn from solution culture increased with increasing P level in solution. This increase was attributed to an increased health and vitality of potato plants under high P and to changes in pH and nutrient solution concentration as plants matured at different rates. When limited control over solution pH and nutrient concentration was provided the effects of P on Mn uptake were largely eliminated. The well-documented time dependence of Mn accumulation was confirmed in a fractionation experiment.

  14. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  15. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  17. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  18. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  19. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  20. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  1. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  3. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  4. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  5. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  6. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository.

  7. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  8. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  9. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  10. The influence of climate change on recent peat accumulation patterns of Distichia muscoides cushion bogs in the high-elevation tropical Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Juan C.; Vitt, Dale H.; Wieder, R. Kelman

    2013-12-01

    Extensive cushions of Distichia muscoides found at high elevations in the Andes form deep deposits of peat and function as peatland. The location of Distichia peatlands at the highest elevations makes them susceptible to the effects of global change including global warming. Accumulation rates of organic matter are the key function of peatland ecosystems and are highly susceptible to changes in climate. This study used 210Pb chronologies to infer the recent dynamics of three Distichia muscoides peatlands located above 4000 m in elevation. Chronological markers from dated volcanic eruptions were correlated to the 210Pb chronologies of Distichia peat and validated the 210Pb chronologies. Changes in 210Pb activity with depth indicated rapid accumulation in recent times. Organic matter had a mean accumulation rate of 1400 g m-2 yr-1 during the past 10 years, with values well above the observed regional accumulation rate of 300-400 g m-2 yr-1. The same pattern was observed in peat accretion rates, with growth rates of 1-2 cm per year during the last 10 years. Cushion plants engineer their own environment, allowing the system to be less susceptible to direct changes in climate. However, the high rates of peat accretion in recent times may be originated from increasing temperatures and excess water from nearby glacier melt. However, glaciers are predicted to disappear during the next 20 years in the northern Andes, reducing water inputs in tropical high-elevation ecosystems.

  11. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts.

  12. Reduced cytosolic carboxypeptidase 6 (CCP6) level leads to accumulation of serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 protein: A potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma early detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Ding, Juan; Ren, Shuangchun; Zhao, Heping; Wu, Song; Tian, Yong; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages of disease, although early diagnosis has much favorable prognosis. This study assessed aberrant expression of cytosolic carboxypeptidase 6 (CCP6) leading to accumulation of serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 as a biomarker for early RCC detection. A total of 835 RCCs, 143 chronic nephritis, 170 kidney stones and 415 health controls were collected for qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of CCP6 expression and mass spectrometry of DNAJC7 and polyglutamylated DNAJC7. The data showed that CCP6 expression was significantly decreased in 30 RCC tissues and that mass spectrometric and pull-down analysis identified DNAJC7 as a substrate of CCP6 and showed upregulated polyglutamylated-DNAJC7 (polyE-DNAJC7) in sera of RCC patients. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of large-scale serum samples from multi-institutes further confirmed the remarkable increase of polyE-DNAJC7 in 805 RCCs compared to that of 385 healthy controls (p < 0.001), 128 patients with chronic nephritis (p < 0.001), and 153 with kidney stone (p < 0.001). Serum level of DNAJC7-polyE protein was also associated with advanced RCC stage and grade in 805 patients. The data from the current study for the first time demonstrated increased serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 as a potential biomarker for RCC early detection and association with advanced tumor stages and grade, which provides support of further polyglutamylation research in RCC. PMID:26993597

  13. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of α-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of α-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of α-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

  14. High CO2 Levels Impair Alveolar Epithelial Function Independently of pH

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Vadász, István; Lecuona, Emilia; Welch, Lynn C.; Chen, Jiwang; Dada, Laura A.; Trejo, Humberto E.; Dumasius, Vidas; Azzam, Zaher S.; Myrianthefs, Pavlos M.; Batlle, Daniel; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with acute respiratory failure, gas exchange is impaired due to the accumulation of fluid in the lung airspaces. This life-threatening syndrome is treated with mechanical ventilation, which is adjusted to maintain gas exchange, but can be associated with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lung. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-product of cellular energy utilization and its elimination is affected via alveolar epithelial cells. Signaling pathways sensitive to changes in CO2 levels were described in plants and neuronal mammalian cells. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether non-neuronal cells sense and respond to CO2. The Na,K-ATPase consumes ∼40% of the cellular metabolism to maintain cell homeostasis. Our study examines the effects of increased pCO2 on the epithelial Na,K-ATPase a major contributor to alveolar fluid reabsorption which is a marker of alveolar epithelial function. Principal Findings We found that short-term increases in pCO2 impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption in rats. Also, we provide evidence that non-excitable, alveolar epithelial cells sense and respond to high levels of CO2, independently of extracellular and intracellular pH, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function, via activation of PKCζ which phosphorylates the Na,K-ATPase, causing it to endocytose from the plasma membrane into intracellular pools. Conclusions Our data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells, through which CO2 is eliminated in mammals, are highly sensitive to hypercapnia. Elevated CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function, independently of pH, which is relevant in patients with lung diseases and altered alveolar gas exchange. PMID:18043745

  15. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  16. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  17. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  18. Poplar trees for phytoremediation of high levels of nitrate and applications in bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, Vanessa; García-Gutiérrez, Angel; Canales, Javier; Cañas, Rafael A; Kirby, Edward G; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of high amounts of nitrate fertilizers for crop yield leads to nitrate pollution of ground and surface waters. In this study, we report the assimilation and utilization of nitrate luxuriant levels, 20 times more than the highest N fertilizer application in Europe, by transgenic poplars overexpressing a cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1). In comparison with the wild-type controls, transgenic plants grown under high N levels exhibited increased biomass (171.6%) and accumulated higher levels of proteins, chlorophylls and total sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. These plants also exhibited greater nitrogen-use efficiency particularly in young leaves, suggesting that they are able to translocate most of the resources to the above-ground part of the plant to produce biomass. The transgenic poplar transcriptome was greatly affected in response to N availability with 1237 genes differentially regulated in high N, while only 632 genes were differentially expressed in untransformed plants. Many of these genes are essential in the adaptation and response against N excess and include those involved in photosynthesis, cell wall formation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Cellulose production in the transgenic plants was fivefold higher than in control plants, indicating that transgenic poplars represent a potential feedstock for applications in bioenergy. In conclusion, our results show that GS transgenic poplars can be used not only for improving growth and biomass production but also as an important resource for potential phytoremediation of nitrate pollution.

  19. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  20. Line differences in Cor/Lea and fructan biosynthesis-related gene transcript accumulation are related to distinct freezing tolerance levels in synthetic wheat hexaploids.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hirokazu; Iehisa, Julio C M; Shimosaka, Etsuo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-03-15

    In common wheat, cultivar differences in freezing tolerance are considered to be mainly due to allelic differences at two major loci controlling freezing tolerance. One of the two loci, Fr-2, is coincident with a cluster of genes encoding C-repeat binding factors (CBFs), which induce downstream Cor/Lea genes during cold acclimation. Here, we conducted microarray analysis to study comprehensive changes in gene expression profile under long-term low-temperature (LT) treatment and to identify other LT-responsive genes related to cold acclimation in leaves of seedlings and crown tissues of a synthetic hexaploid wheat line. The microarray analysis revealed marked up-regulation of a number of Cor/Lea genes and fructan biosynthesis-related genes under the long-term LT treatment. For validation of the microarray data, we selected four synthetic wheat lines that contain the A and B genomes from the tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and the diverse D genomes originating from different Aegilops tauschii accessions with distinct levels of freezing tolerance after cold acclimation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed increased transcript levels of the Cor/Lea, CBF, and fructan biosynthesis-related genes in more freezing-tolerant lines than in sensitive lines. After a 14-day LT treatment, a significant difference in fructan accumulation was observed among the four lines. Therefore, the fructan biosynthetic pathway is associated with cold acclimation in development of wheat freezing tolerance and is another pathway related to diversity in freezing tolerance, in addition to the CBF-mediated Cor/Lea expression pathway.

  1. High illness loads (physical and social) do not always force high levels of mass religiosity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    The hypothesis that high levels of religiosity are partly caused by high disease loads is in accord with studies showing that societal dysfunction promotes mass supernaturalism. However, some cultures suffering from high rates of disease and other socioeconomic dysfunction exhibit low levels of popular religiosity. At this point, it appears that religion is hard pressed to thrive in healthy societies, but poor conditions do not always make religion popular, either.

  2. Understanding sugar yield loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolisis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, not all oligosaccharides can be fully hydrolyzed and they may accumulate to 18-...

  3. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  4. Biocontrol of Potato Common Scab is Associated with High Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Populations and Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Biosynthetic Transcript Accumulation in the Potato Geocaulosphere.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonads are often used as biocontrol agents because they display a broad range of mechanisms to control diseases. Common scab of potato, caused by Streptomyces scabies, was previously reported to be controlled by Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 through phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) production. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the population dynamics of LBUM223 and the expression of phzC, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of PCA, in the rhizosphere and geocaulosphere of potato plants grown under controlled and field conditions. Results obtained from controlled experiments showed that soil populations of LBUM223 significantly declined over a 15-week period. However, at week 15, the presence of S. scabies in the geocaulosphere was associated with significantly higher populations of LBUM223 than when the pathogen was absent. It also led to the detection of significantly higher phzC gene transcript numbers. Under field conditions, soil populations of LBUM223 followed a similar decline in time when a single inoculation was applied in spring but remained stable when reinoculated biweekly, which also led to greater phzC gene transcripts accumulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LBUM223 must colonize the potato geocaulosphere at high levels (10(7) bacteria/g of soil) in order to achieve biocontrol of common scab through increased PCA production. PMID:27088392

  5. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  6. Impact of high dietary zinc on zinc accumulation, enzyme activity and proteomic profiles in the pancreas of piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Martin, L; Schunter, N; Villodre Tudela, C; Weise, C; Klopfleisch, R; Zentek, J; Einspanier, R; Bondzio, A

    2015-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas plays an important role in zinc homeostasis. Feeding very high (2000-3000mgzinc/kg diet) levels of zinc oxide to piglets for short periods is a common practice in the swine industry to improve performance and prevent diseases. The impact on pancreatic function and possible side effects during long-term feeding of high dietary zinc levels are still poorly understood. A total of 54 weaned piglets were either fed with low (57mg/kg, LZn), normal (164mg/kg, NZn) or high (2425mg/kg, HZn) zinc concentration in the diets. After 4 weeks of feeding, ten piglets per treatment were euthanized and pancreas samples were taken. Tissue zinc concentration and metallothionein abundance was greater with HZn compared with NZn and LZn (P<0.05). Similarly, activity of α-amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin was higher with HZn as compared with NZn and LZn diets (P<0.05), whereas elastase activity was unchanged. Total trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity of pancreas tissue was higher with HZn diets compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Pancreatic protein profiles of NZn and HZn fed piglets were obtained by 2D-DIGE technique and revealed 15 differentially expressed proteins out of 2100 detected spots (P<0.05). The differentially expressed proteins aldose reductase, eukaryotic elongation factor II and peroxiredoxin III were confirmed by immunoblotting. Identified proteins include zinc finger-containing transcription factors and proteins mainly associated with oxidative stress response and signal transduction in HZn compared with NZn pigs. Histologic examination however showed no morphologic changes. The results suggest that long-term supply of very high dietary zinc increases zinc and metallothionein concentration, and digestive enzyme activity, but also triggers oxidative stress reactions in the pancreas of young pigs. The data provide new insights into pancreatic function under outbalanced zinc homeostasis.

  7. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  8. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  9. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  10. Measurement of bone conduction levels for high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Martin L; Richards, Douglas G; Madsen, Alan G; Goldstein, Barbara A; Shulman, Abraham; Guinta, Robert

    2002-01-01

    For assessment of safety, it is necessary to measure the maximum possible force exerted by a bone conduction device coupled to the human head. Calibration of bone conduction hearing aids and vibrators in the audiometric range is based on measurement of acceleration and force using an artificial mastoid. Extending the measurement to the high audio range was accomplished using a live head. To assess safety of the UltraQuiet tinnitus treatment system, as an example, acceleration was measured from 5 to 20 kHz on a live human head as compared with calibrated levels at 6 kHz on an artificial mastoid and the live head. Using head acceleration and anchoring it to established calibration levels is a means of establishing clinical safety. Stimulation in the high audio frequencies at low levels was found to be safe. In contrast, stimulation with ultrasound requires more energy (approximately 75-90 dB re 6 kHz), which may increase the risk of damage to the car.

  11. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  12. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  13. High asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mengeloglu, Zafer; Sünnetcioglu, Mahmut; Tosun, Mehmet; Kücükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp., can manifest as vasculopathy. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between ADMA and brucellosis. Serum samples from 39 patients with an accurate diagnosis of brucellosis and from 18 healthy control individuals were included in this study. ADMA levels were significantly higher in the patient group than the controls (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that ADMA level ≥ 0.61 had a sensitivity of 79.5 %, specificity of 88.9 %, positive predictive value of 93.9 %, and negative predictive value of 66.7 %. This is the first report of an association between brucellosis and high levels of ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA levels should be tested in brucellosis cases and that further studies to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between ADMA and brucellosis are required.

  14. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  15. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  16. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  17. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  18. Salivary fluoride levels after use of high-fluoride dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cruz, Priscila Figueiredo; Bohn, Ana Clarissa Cavalcante Elvas; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary fluoride (F) availability after toothbrushing with a high-F dentifrice. Twelve adult volunteers took part in this crossover and blind study. F concentration in saliva was determined after brushing with a high-F dentifrice (5000 µg F/g) or with a conventional F concentration dentifrice (1100 µg F/g) followed by a 15 mL distilled water rinse. Samples of nonstimulated saliva were collected on the following times: before (baseline), and immediately after spit (time = 0) and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. F analysis was performed with a fluoride-sensitive electrode and the area under curve of F salivary concentration × time (µg F/mL × min(-1)) was calculated. At baseline, no significant difference was found among dentifrices (P > 0.05). After brushing, both dentifrices caused an elevated fluoride level in saliva; however salivary F concentration was significantly higher at all times, when high-F dentifrice was used (P < 0.01). Even after 120 min, salivary F concentration was still higher than the baseline values for both dentifrices (P < 0.001). High-F dentifrice enhanced the bioavailability of salivary F, being an option for caries management in patients with high caries risk.

  19. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition.

  20. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure

  1. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  2. Overview of the Spanish high-level waste program

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, A.; Beceiro, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to be responsible for the management of all radioactive wastes generated in Spain. The strategy and main guidelines of ENRESA`s program to fulfill this mandate are contained in the General Radioactive Waste Plan (PGRR), a basic document which ENRESA is due to submit every year to the Ministry of Industry and Energy for Government approval. The Spanish nuclear electricity generating program consists of nine Light Water Reactors (LWR) with an overall capacity of 7.1 GWe, after the Vandellos 1 nuclear power plant were phased-out in 1989. The spent nuclear fuel from LWRs is defined, in accordance with the 1983 National Energy Plan, as high level waste, and its management is accordingly focused to the direct disposal option. The spent nuclear fuel from Vandellos 1, a graphite gas-cooled reactor which was in operation from 1972 to 1989, in reprocessed abroad, and the wastes generated in the processes will be returned to Spain. The final objective of the Spanish High Level Waste program is to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel and high level vitrified waste into a deep geological repository. In fulfilling this target, taking into account the time frame in which it can reasonably be achieved, a previous step is necessary in order to secure the temporary storage of the spent fuel. This paper presents the strategy and a description of the different elements of the program currently under way as established in the fourth General Radioactive Waste Plan that has been approved by the Government in December 1994.

  3. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  4. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  5. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTIANER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  8. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options.

  9. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, A.; Veganzones, A.

    1993-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 as a state-owned limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kinds of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international co-operational are also included.

  10. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  11. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  12. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  13. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ignacio I; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g(-1) (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g(-1) internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  14. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) μg/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) μg/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9) μg/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) μg/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) μg/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) μg/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) μg/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 μg/L; range <0.01-57 μg/L, with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 μg/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  15. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  16. High levels of uranium in groundwater of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) μg/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) μg/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9)μg/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) μg/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) μg/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) μg/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) μg/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 μg/L; range <0.01-57 μg/L), with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 μg/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city.

  17. GUN1 Controls Accumulation of the Plastid Ribosomal Protein S1 at the Protein Level and Interacts with Proteins Involved in Plastid Protein Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tadini, Luca; Pesaresi, Paolo; Kleine, Tatjana; Rossi, Fabio; Guljamow, Arthur; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Schroda, Michael; Masiero, Simona; Pribil, Mathias; Rothbart, Maxi; Hedtke, Boris; Grimm, Bernhard; Leister, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Developmental or metabolic changes in chloroplasts can have profound effects on the rest of the plant cell. Such intracellular responses are associated with signals that originate in chloroplasts and convey information on their physiological status to the nucleus, which leads to large-scale changes in gene expression (retrograde signaling). A screen designed to identify components of retrograde signaling resulted in the discovery of the so-called genomes uncoupled (gun) mutants. Genetic evidence suggests that the chloroplast protein GUN1 integrates signals derived from perturbations in plastid redox state, plastid gene expression, and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TPB) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, exerting biogenic control of chloroplast functions. However, the molecular mechanism by which GUN1 integrates retrograde signaling in the chloroplast is unclear. Here we show that GUN1 also operates in adult plants, contributing to operational control of chloroplasts. The gun1 mutation genetically interacts with mutations of genes for the chloroplast ribosomal proteins S1 (PRPS1) and L11. Analysis of gun1 prps1 lines indicates that GUN1 controls PRPS1 accumulation at the protein level. The GUN1 protein physically interacts with proteins involved in chloroplast protein homeostasis based on coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments suggest that GUN1 might transiently interact with several TPB enzymes, including Mg-chelatase subunit D (CHLD) and two other TPB enzymes known to activate retrograde signaling. Moreover, the association of PRPS1 and CHLD with protein complexes is modulated by GUN1. These findings allow us to speculate that retrograde signaling might involve GUN1-dependent formation of protein complexes. PMID:26823545

  18. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  19. A solitary large radioiodine accumulative lung lesion in high-dose 131i therapeutic scan: bronchial atresia with mucocele.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Park, Jung Mi; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2015-02-01

    We reported a large radioiodine accumulative lung lesion on I therapeutic whole-body scan performed in a 50-year-old woman for thyroid cancer ablation therapy. Previously, her chest radiography and contrast-enhanced chest CT images showed bronchial atresia in the left upper lobar bronchus and mucus-filled dilated distal bronchus. Bronchial mucocele was confirmed by CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration. Bronchial atresia is a rare congenital abnormality associated with the mucocele.

  20. Ezetimibe and Simvastatin Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Sun; Fang, Longhou; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol-fed zebrafish is an emerging animal model to study metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory vascular processes relevant to pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) develop hypercholesterolemia and are characterized by profound lipoprotein oxidation and vascular lipid accumulation. Using optically translucent zebrafish larvae has the advantage of monitoring vascular pathology and assessing the efficacy of drug candidates in live animals. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin and ezetimibe, the principal drugs used in management of hypercholesterolemia in humans, would also reduce cholesterol levels in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. We found that ezetimibe was well tolerated by zebrafish and effectively reduced cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. In contrast, simvastatin added to water was poorly tolerated by zebrafish larvae and, when added to food, had little effect on cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. Combination of low doses of ezetimibe and simvastatin had an additive effect in reducing cholesterol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that ezetimibe exerts in zebrafish a therapeutic effect similar to that in humans and that the hypercholesterolemic zebrafish can be used as a low-cost and informative model for testing new drug candidates and for investigating mechanisms of action for existing drugs targeting dyslipidemia. PMID:22693663

  1. Pleistocene carbonate stratigraphy of South Florida: Evidence for high-frequency sea-level cyclicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Todd D.; Hine, Albert C.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Kruse, Sarah E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2010-01-01

    Pleistocene carbonates of south Florida and islands of the Florida Keys are currently divided into five marine sequences designated, from oldest to youngest, the Q1–Q5 units. The units include a mosaic of freshwater and shallow marine deposits that accumulated on the Florida platform during high sea-level stands. The units are separated by regional-scale subaerial-exposure surfaces that formed during glacioeustatic lowstands. Analyses of cores recovered at Grossman Ridge Rock Reef and Joe Ree Rock Reef in the Florida Everglades reveal additional subaerial-exposure surfaces that are used to delineate subdivisions within units Q1 (Q1a–Q1b), Q2 (Q2a–Q2d), and Q4 (Q4a–Q4b). Units Q1–Q5 preserve evidence of at least 10 separate sea-level highstands, rather than 5 as indicated by previous studies. Compilation of available uranium-series dates on corals recovered from the Florida Keys indicates that the Q4 unit accreted during sea-level maxima associated with marine oxygen-isotope Stage 9 (Q4a) and isotope Stage 7 (Q4b). The Q5 unit formed during isotope Stage 5. No reliable dates are available for units Q1–Q3. We infer that unit Q3 was formed during the extended sea-level highstand of isotope Stage 11 and that units Q2 and Q1 predate isotope Stage 11.

  2. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846.

  3. Linearization of the Fermilab recycler high level RF

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph E Dey; Tom Kubicki; John Reid

    2003-05-28

    In studying the Recycler high level RF, it was found that at 89 kHz, the lowest frequency required by the system, some nonlinearities in magnitude and phase were discovered. The visible evidence of this was that beam injected in a barrier bucket had a definite slope at the top. Using a network analyzer, the S-parameter S{sub 21} was realized for the overall system and from mathematical modeling a second order numerator and denominator transfer function was found. The inverse of this transfer function gives their linearization transfer function. The linearization transfer function was realized in hardware by summing a high pass, band pass and low pass filter together. The resulting magnitude and phase plots, along with actual beam response will be shown.

  4. High levels of subgenomic HCV plasma RNA in immunosilent infections

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Flavien; Stramer, Susan; Rehermann, Barbara; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Cooper, Stewart; Bangsberg, David; Hahn, Judith; Tobler, Leslie; Busch, Michael; Delwart, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A genetic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in rare blood donors who remained HCV seronegative despite long-term high-level viremia revealed the chronic presence of HCV genomes with large in frame deletions in their structural genes. Full-length HCV genomes were only detected as minority variants. In one immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected donor the truncated HCV genome transiently decreased in frequency concomitant with delayed seroconversion and re-emerged following partial seroreversion. The long-term production of heavily truncated HCV genomes in vivo suggests that these viruses retained the necessary elements for RNA replication while the deleted structural functions necessary for their spread in vivo was provided in trans by wild type helper virus in co-infected cells. The absence of immunological pressure and a high viral load may therefore promote the emergence of truncated HCV subgenomic replicons in vivo. PMID:17493654

  5. CKA2 functions in H2O2-induced apoptosis and high-temperature stress tolerance by regulating NO accumulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Li, Yun-Hui; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in yeast responses to various environmental factors, such as H2O2 and high temperature. However, the gene encoding NO synthase (NOS) in yeast has not yet been identified, and the mechanism underlying the regulation of NOS-like activity is poorly understood. Here, we report on the involvement of CKA2 in H2O2-induced yeast apoptosis and yeast high-temperature stress tolerance. Our results showed that although Δcka2 mutant had reduced NO accumulation with decreased apoptosis after H2O2 exposure, treatment with a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, resulted in similar survival rate of Δcka2 mutant compared to that of wild-type yeast when subjected to H2O2 stress. This finding occurred because H2O2-enhanced NOS-like activity in wild-type yeast was significantly repressed in Δcka2. Our additional experiments indicated that both high-temperature-enhanced NO accumulation and NOS-like activity were also suppressed in Δcka2, leading to the hypersensitivity of the mutant to high temperature in terms of changes in survival rate. Thus, our results showed that CKA2 functioned in H2O2-induced apoptosis and high-temperature stress tolerance by regulating NOS-like-dependent NO accumulation in yeast.

  6. A high-dose Shiitake mushroom increases hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol in rats fed a high-fat diet: underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Dian; Meyer, Barbara J; Chen, Jiezhong; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-02-12

    Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty Wistar rats were divided into control group were given HFD and treatment group were fed HFD, enriched with Shiitake mushroom powder at a low dose (LD-M): 0.7%, medium dose (MD-M): 2%, or high dose (HD-M): 6% (wt:wt) for six weeks. Diets were isocaloric containing ~50% energy from fat. After six weeks' dietary intervention, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples were collected. The HD-M group showed a significantly higher ratio of liver weight to 100 g body weight (p < 0.05), a more severe hepatic steatosis marker, such as hepatocyte ballooning (p < 0.0001), and more liver triacylglycerol content than LD-M and MD-M (p < 0.05). HD-M also showed a significantly decreased ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to HFD (p < 0.05), however, there were no differences compared to HD-M and MD-M. Our results also showed a positive association between the dosage, liver TAG, and liver ballooning histology. A negative association was found between the mushroom dosage and the ratio of liver PC to PE. This study showed the mechanism of how high-dose Shiitake mushroom (HD-M) prevents obesity by increasing TAG accumulation in the liver, rather than adipose tissue.

  7. Attenuation of high-level impulses by earmuffs.

    PubMed

    Zera, Jan; Mlynski, Rafal

    2007-10-01

    Attenuation of high-level acoustic impulses (noise reduction) by various types of earmuffs was measured using a laboratory source of type A impulses and an artificial test fixture compatible with the ISO 4869-3 standard. The measurements were made for impulses of peak sound-pressure levels (SPLs) from 150 to 170 dB. The rise time and A duration of the impulses depended on their SPL and were within a range of 12-400 mus (rise time) and 0.4-1.1 ms (A duration). The results showed that earmuff peak level attenuation increases by about 10 dB when the impulse's rise time and the A duration are reduced. The results also demonstrated that the signals under the earmuff cup have a longer rise and A duration than the original impulses recorded outside the earmuff. Results of the measurements were used to check the validity of various hearing damage risk criteria that specify the maximum permissible exposure to impulse noise. The present data lead to the conclusion that procedures in which hearing damage risk is assessed only from signal attenuation, without taking into consideration changes in the signal waveform under the earmuff, tend to underestimate the risk of hearing damage. PMID:17902846

  8. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  9. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  10. System-Level Virtualization for High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, Geoffroy R; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Engelmann, Christian; Ong, Hong Hoe; Scott, Stephen L

    2008-01-01

    System-level virtualization has been a research topic since the 70's but regained popularity during the past few years because of the availability of efficient solution such as Xen and the implementation of hardware support in commodity processors (e.g. Intel-VT, AMD-V). However, a majority of system-level virtualization projects is guided by the server consolidation market. As a result, current virtualization solutions appear to not be suitable for high performance computing (HPC) which is typically based on large-scale systems. On another hand there is significant interest in exploiting virtual machines (VMs) within HPC for a number of other reasons. By virtualizing the machine, one is able to run a variety of operating systems and environments as needed by the applications. Virtualization allows users to isolate workloads, improving security and reliability. It is also possible to support non-native environments and/or legacy operating environments through virtualization. In addition, it is possible to balance work loads, use migration techniques to relocate applications from failing machines, and isolate fault systems for repair. This document presents the challenges for the implementation of a system-level virtualization solution for HPC. It also presents a brief survey of the different approaches and techniques to address these challenges.

  11. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI2 nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI2 that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5-5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor-acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  12. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornman, W. R.

    1981-12-01

    Research and development studies on the immobilization of high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels are summarized. The reports are grouped under the following tasks: (1) program management and support; (2) waste preparation; (3) waste fixation; and (4) final handling. Some of the highlights are: leaching properties were obtained for titanate and tailored ceramic materials being developed at ICPP to immobilize zirconia calcine; comparative leach tests, hot-cell tests, and process evaluations were conducted of waste form alternatives to borosilicate glass for the immobilization of SRP high-level wastes, experiments were run at ANL to qualify neutron activation analysis and radioactive tracers for measuring leach rates from simulated waste glasses; comparative leach test samples of SYNROC D were prepared, characterized, and tested at LLNL; encapsulation of glass marbles with lead or lead alloys was demonstrated on an engineering scale at PNL; a canister for reference Commercial HLW was designed at PNL; a study of the optimization of salt-crete was completed at SRL; a risk assessment showed that an investment for tornado dampers in the interim storage building of the DWPF is unjustified.

  13. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  14. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  15. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  16. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  17. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  18. Predicting high levels of multitasking reduces between-tasks interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2015-12-01

    The simultaneous handling of 2 tasks requires shielding of the prioritized primary task (T1) from interference caused by the secondary task (T2) processing. Such interactions between tasks (e.g., between-task interference, or crosstalk) depend on the similarity of both tasks and are especially pronounced when both tasks overlap strongly in time. In the present study we investigated whether between-tasks interference can be reduced when specific items do not predict the level of interference but instead the degree of temporal proximity between both tasks. We implemented an item-specific proportion manipulation of temporal task overlap (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]). Selected stimuli of T1 predicted high temporal task overlap (short SOAs) in 80% of trials, whereas other stimuli of T1 predicted low temporal task overlap (long SOAs) in 80% of trials. Results showed that the predictive value of T1 stimuli determined the adjustment of T1 shielding. That is, interference from the secondary task was significantly reduced for items predicting high temporal task overlap compared to items predicting low temporal task overlap. It is important to note that task shielding was not initiated by predicting the actual conflict level (i.e., whether T1 and T2 required compatible/incompatible responses) between tasks but by specific items predicting conditions in which 2 tasks are likely to interact (i.e., short vs. long SOA). These findings offer new insights into the specificity of contextual bottom-up regulations of cognitive control. PMID:26480246

  19. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  20. Predicting high levels of multitasking reduces between-tasks interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2015-12-01

    The simultaneous handling of 2 tasks requires shielding of the prioritized primary task (T1) from interference caused by the secondary task (T2) processing. Such interactions between tasks (e.g., between-task interference, or crosstalk) depend on the similarity of both tasks and are especially pronounced when both tasks overlap strongly in time. In the present study we investigated whether between-tasks interference can be reduced when specific items do not predict the level of interference but instead the degree of temporal proximity between both tasks. We implemented an item-specific proportion manipulation of temporal task overlap (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]). Selected stimuli of T1 predicted high temporal task overlap (short SOAs) in 80% of trials, whereas other stimuli of T1 predicted low temporal task overlap (long SOAs) in 80% of trials. Results showed that the predictive value of T1 stimuli determined the adjustment of T1 shielding. That is, interference from the secondary task was significantly reduced for items predicting high temporal task overlap compared to items predicting low temporal task overlap. It is important to note that task shielding was not initiated by predicting the actual conflict level (i.e., whether T1 and T2 required compatible/incompatible responses) between tasks but by specific items predicting conditions in which 2 tasks are likely to interact (i.e., short vs. long SOA). These findings offer new insights into the specificity of contextual bottom-up regulations of cognitive control.

  1. Behavior construction and refinement from high-level specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoni, Andrew J., III; Smart, William D.

    2004-12-01

    Mobile robots are excellent examples of systems that need to show a high level of autonomy. Often robots are loosely supervised by humans who are not intimately familiar with the inner workings of the robot. We cannot generally predict exact environmental conditions in which the robot will operate in advance. This means that the behavior must be adapted in the field. Untrained individuals cannot (and probably should not) program the robot to effect these changes. We need a system that will (a) allow re-tasking, and (b) allow adaptation of the behavior to the specific conditions in the field. In this paper we concentrate on (b). We will describe how to assemble controllers, based on high-level descriptions of the behavior. We will show how the behavior can be tuned by the human, despite not knowing how the code is put together. We will also show how this can be done automatically, using reinforcement learning, and point out the problems that must be overcome for this approach to work.

  2. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo.

  3. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  4. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  5. Curcumin prevents liver fat accumulation and serum fetuin-A increase in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Koçak, Hikmet; Seyidhanoğlu, Muhammed; Gürdöl, Figen; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Yildirim, Funda; Çevik, Aydin; Uysal, Müjdat

    2013-12-01

    Fetuin-A is synthesized in the liver and is secreted into the bloodstream. Clinical studies suggest involvement of fetuin-A in metabolic disorders such as visceral obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and fatty liver. Curcumin is extracted from the rhizome Curcuma longa and has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on serum fetuin-A levels as well as hepatic lipids and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was fed control diet (10 % of total calories from fat). Groups 2 and 3 were given curcumin (100 and 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively ) by gavage for 8 weeks and were fed control diet. Group 4 was fed with HFD (60 % of total calories from fat). Groups 5 and 6 received HFD together with the two doses of curcumin, respectively. Curcumin treatment appeared to be effective in reducing liver triglycerides and serum fetuin-A levels. These findings suggest that the reduction of fetuin-A may contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  6. Acetylshikonin from Zicao Prevents Obesity in Rats on a High-Fat Diet by Inhibiting Lipid Accumulation and Inducing Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Banghao

    2016-01-01

    Various drugs have been developed to treat obesity, but these have undesirable secondary effects, and an efficient but non-toxic anti-obesity drug from natural sources is desired. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin (AS)—which is used in traditional Chinese medicine—in rats on a high-fat diet (HFD). Rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD; the latter group was received no treatment or were treated with 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg AS extract by intragastric administration for 6 weeks. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AS and the effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis were evaluated by western blot analysis of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid-metabolizing enzyme levels and the phosphorylation status of protein kinase (PK) A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). AS prevented HFD-induced obesity including reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue content, liver mass, and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in rats. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic differentiation transcription factors and decreased the expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Furthermore, AS treatment induced lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and increased in PKA and HSL phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that AS has anti-obesity effects in a rat model and may be a safe treatment for obesity in humans. PMID:26771185

  7. High-level hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Matzke, B; Schaller, H; Chisari, F V

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice whose hepatocytes replicate the virus at levels comparable to that in the infected livers of patients with chronic hepatitis have been produced, without any evidence of cytopathology. High-level viral gene expression was obtained in the liver and kidney tissues in three independent lineages. These animals were produced with a terminally redundant viral DNA construct (HBV 1.3) that starts just upstream of HBV enhancer I, extends completely around the circular viral genome, and ends just downstream of the unique polyadenylation site in HBV. In these animals, the viral mRNA is more abundant in centrilobular hepatocytes than elsewhere in the hepatic lobule. High-level viral DNA replication occurs inside viral nucleocapsid particles that preferentially form in the cytoplasm of these centrilobular hepatocytes, suggesting that an expression threshold must be reached for nucleocapsid assembly and viral replication to occur. Despite the restricted distribution of the viral replication machinery in centrilobular cytoplasmic nucleocapsids, nucleocapsid particles are detectable in the vast majority of hepatocyte nuclei throughout the hepatic lobule. The intranuclear nucleocapsid particles are empty, however, suggesting that viral nucleocapsid particle assembly occurs independently in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte and implying that cytoplasmic nucleocapsid particles do not transport the viral genome across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus during the viral life cycle. This model creates the opportunity to examine the influence of viral and host factors on HBV pathogenesis and replication and to assess the antiviral potential of pharmacological agents and physiological processes, including the immune response. PMID:7666518

  8. High-level microsatellite instability in appendiceal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Melissa W; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F; Fournier, Keith F; Royal, Richard E; Overman, Michael J; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C

    2013-08-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2% to 3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only 4 MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and 1 MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from MD Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high, and 1 was MSI-low. The 3 MSI-high cases included: (1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; (2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and (3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid tumors, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI

  9. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  10. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  11. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  12. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  13. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  14. Non-invasive assessment of negative pressure wound therapy using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound: oedema reduction and new tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen R; Hampton, Sylvie; Martin, Robin

    2013-08-01

    Tissue oedema plays an important role in the pathology of chronic and traumatic wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is thought to contribute to active oedema reduction, yet few studies have showed this effect. In this study, high frequency diagnostic ultrasound at 20 MHz with an axial resolution of 60 µm was used to assess the effect of NPWT at - 80 mmHg on pressure ulcers and the surrounding tissue. Wounds were monitored in four patients over a 3-month period during which changes in oedema and wound bed thickness (granulation tissue) were measured non-invasively. The results showed a rapid reduction of periwound tissue oedema in all patients with levels falling by a mean of 43% after 4 days of therapy. A 20% increase in the thickness of the wound bed was observed after 7 days due to new granulation tissue formation. Ultrasound scans through the in situ gauze NPWT filler also revealed the existence of macrodeformation in the tissue produced by the negative pressure. These preliminary studies suggest that non-invasive assessment using high frequency diagnostic ultrasound could be a valuable tool in clinical studies of NPWT.

  15. Do Highly Effective Principals Also Have High Levels of Cultural Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Whitney Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if elementary school principals who exhibit characteristics of highly effective principals also possess high levels of cultural intelligence. Methodology: Three instruments were used in this study, combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the collection of data. The first…

  16. Airborne laser scan measurements of winter snow accumulation in high alpine catchments - hydrological implications and verification by ground penetrating radar at glacier surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, K.; Keuschnig, M.; Heilig, A.; Mayer, C.; Kuhn, M.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover as storage of winter precipitation is a substantial source for runoff generation in high mountain catchments. Redistribution of solid precipitation, caused by wind and gravity, leads to a characteristic spatial distribution of snow accumulation which differs from simple model assumption of a homogenous snowpack increasing with altitude. Both, the distinct distribution of snow accumulation and the total amount of SWE stored in the snow cover, affect the magnitude and seasonality of melt water runoff. Complex relations exist between the spatial pattern of snow accumulation and the presence of glaciers and vice versa. For proper hydrological modeling in high mountain catchments, knowledge about snow cover distribution is an important requirement. To date, to evaluate modeling results, spatially insufficient point data on snow depths and SWE are usually available. On catchment scale, optical space-borne remote sensing techniques deliver areal extent of snow cover, but no snow depths and hence no volume of snow cover. Multi-temporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing method to obtain elevation changes extensively even in inaccessible alpine terrain. Before the start and at the end of accumulation season of winter 2010/2011, two airborne laser scan acquisitions were performed in the Ötztal Alps (Tirol, Austria). Differences of the respective digital elevation models were interpreted as snow depths and converted into SWE using a simple regression method between snow depths and snow density. Preferred snow accumulation areas were determined, e.g. wind sheltered depressions, the base of steep mountain walls and flat glacier surfaces. At catchment scale, solid precipitation is obviously redistributed from wind exposed mountain ridges to lower elevations, inducing characteristic elevations of maximum snow accumulation. Overall, catchment precipitation derived from snow accumulation is a valuable reference for precipitation approaches in

  17. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Low- and High-Cadmium-Accumulating Genotypes of Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) in Response to Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Guo, Jing-Jie; He, Chun-Tao; Shen, Chuang; Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Jing-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-21

    To reduce cadmium (Cd) pollution of food chains, screening and breeding of low-Cd-accumulating cultivars are the focus of much study. Two previously identified genotypes, a low-Cd-accumulating genotype (LAJK) and a high-Cd-accumulating genotype (HAJS) of pakchoi (Brassica chinesis L.), were stressed by Cd (12.5 μM) for 0 h (T0), 3 h (T3) and 24 h (T24). By comparative transcriptome analysis for root tissue, 3005 and 4343 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in LAJK at T3 (vs T0) and T24 (vs T3), respectively, whereas 8677 and 5081 DEGs were detected in HAJS. Gene expression pattern analysis suggested a delay of Cd responded transcriptional changes in LAJK compared to HAJS. DEG functional enrichments proposed genotype-specific biological processes coped with Cd stress. Cell wall biosynthesis and glutathione (GSH) metabolism were found to involve in Cd resistance in HAJS, whereas DNA repair and abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction pathways played important roles in LAJK. Furthermore, the genes participating in Cd efflux such as PDR8 were overexpressed in LAJK, whereas those responsible for Cd transport such as YSL1 were more enhanced in HAJS, exhibiting different Cd transport processes between two genotypes. These novel findings should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of low-Cd-accumulating genotypes for pakchoi. PMID:27228483

  19. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  20. Analysis of Metagenomic Data Containing High Biodiversity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, José R.; Mellado, Rafael P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have addressed the problem of analysing Next Generation Sequencing samples with an expected large biodiversity content. We analysed several well-known 16S rRNA datasets from experimental samples, including both large and short sequences, in numbers of tens of thousands, in addition to carefully crafted synthetic datasets containing more than 7000 OTUs. From this data analysis several patterns were identified and used to develop new guidelines for experimentation in conditions of high biodiversity. We analysed the suitability of different clustering packages for these type of situations, the problem of even sampling, the relative effectiveness of Chao1 and ACE estimators as well as their effect on sampling size for a variety of population distributions. As regards practical analysis procedures, we advocated an approach that retains as much high-quality experimental data as possible. By carefully applying selection rules combining the taxonomic assignment with clustering strategies, we derived a set of recommendations for ultra-sequencing data analysis at high biodiversity levels. PMID:23505458