Science.gov

Sample records for accumulates large quantities

  1. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  2. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  3. Accumulation and transport of scalar quantities in stratified and rotating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yuli D.

    2010-05-01

    Remote distance instruments have shown that contaminants in the environmental flows form extended narrow bands having irregular of even arch forms. The goal of paper is theoretical searching of mechanisms of such flow patterns formation and their laboratory modeling. The fundamental set of governing equations including equation of state, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations describing flows of stratified or generally rotating fluids is selected for analysis. The set is treated as a high order singular disturbed system as the terms with the highest spatial derivatives contain small factors (that are kinetic coefficients). Solutions of such systems contain regular disturbed functions describing large scale flow components that are jets, wakes, vortices and waves as well as a rich family of singular disturbed functions describing extended and thin flow components. In contrast with conventional boundary layers the singular disturbed components can be disposed inside a fluid body and be stationary type (soaring interfaces inside attached waves past uniformly moving obstacles) or twinkled type. Their thickness is defined by kinetic coefficients, characteristic velocity and frequency of buoyancy or rotation. All components are dynamically active and interact between themselves directly. The minimal number of singular disturbed components is associated with viscosity effects and is equal two. In flows energy and momentum are transported by regular disturbed components. The energy dissipation and vorticity generation and transportation are associated with singular disturbed components. Passive admixtures are accumulated on singular disturbed components and transported along their surfaces or lines of their intersections. In domains of their convergence compact vortices are self-organized. In experiments with stratified flows accumulation of a dye was observed on interfaces formed inside the fluid past moving 2D (horizontal cylinder) and 3D flows (a uniformly

  4. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  5. Effects of Fatty Acid Quality and Quantity in the Japanese Diet on the Suppression of Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yu; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Hatakeyama, Yu; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japan has been known as a healthy country since its life expectancy became among the highest in the world in the 1980s. The influence of the Japanese diet is one of the factors explaining Japan's high life expectancy. Our recent study that fed representative freeze-dried and powdered Japanese diets from 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 based on National Health and Nutrition Research to mice showed the 1975 Japanese diet exhibited the strongest visceral fat accumulation suppression and overall health benefits. However, it is unclear why. We investigated the effects of the fatty acid composition in Japanese diets on visceral fat accumulation in mice. ICR mice were fed diets replicating the fatty acid composition and macronutrient ratios of Japanese diets from 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 for four weeks. The 1975 diet suppressed visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy. DNA microarray analysis showed the 1975 diet suppressed Acyl-CoA synthetase and prostaglandin D2 synthase mRNA expressions in white adipose tissue. As the effects of the 1975 diet are likely due to differences in fatty acid intake and/or composition, we investigated test diets that replicated only the fatty acid composition of Japanese diets. There were no significant differences in visceral fat mass. Therefore, both the quality and quantity of fatty acids are involved in the anti-obesity effects of the 1975 Japanese diet.

  6. Large Quantities of Melt-Quenched Impact Spherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon "Muck" Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Firestone, R. B.; West, A.; Weaver, J. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Kimbel, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The so-called "muck" deposits of Alaska and the upper Yukon are wind-transported, silt-dominated, organic-rich sediments, including paleosols, erosional unconformities, and buried forests with in situ stumps, that have accumulated in creek valleys over at least the last 2 million years. Underlying the frozen muck are gold-bearing gravels, and removal of Late Pleistocene muck layers in mining operations has uncovered a remarkable collection of usually broken and disarticulated megafaunal bones and carcasses. Previously, Fe-rich particles have been found embedded in a number of mammoth tusks and a bison skull, and those particles have high-Ni and low-Ti compositions indicative of an extraterrestrial origin. These fossils range in age from ~21 to 37 ka B.P. Additional fossil skulls (bison, rangifer, mammoth) and a mammoth tusk from Alaska and the Yukon Territory have been found in museum and government collections with embedded Fe-rich particles as well, and nine skulls also contain significant quantities of original host sediment within them. This associated sediment was removed and examined for the presence of spherules and other cosmic impact proxies. The additional megafaunal bones are estimated to date from between 13 to 40 ka, and radiocarbon dating of samples from these specimens is currently underway. Magnetic grains were extracted from aliquots of bulk sediment from each of the fossil skulls. The magnetic fractions ranged from ~5 to 44 g/kg, averaging 23.6 g/kg. We then examined each sample fraction for magnetic spherules. Two samples contained rounded detrital magnetite and no spherules, while the other seven samples contained numerous melt-quenched magnetic spherules ranging in abundance from ~1000 to 18,000/kg, averaging ~8000/kg. We performed SEM-EDS analyses on 49 selected spherules and identified two distinct compositional populations. One group from a mammoth skull is predominately aluminosilicate (Al2O3 = 30.7 wt.%, SiO2 = 34.4 wt.%, FeO = 23.4 wt

  7. Methods for the Preparation of Large Quantities of Complex Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Murgha, Yusuf E.; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification. PMID:24733454

  8. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    PubMed

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  9. Large-quantity and continuous preparation of two-dimensional nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Wu, Yongzhong; Shao, Yongliang; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets, finding a simple and feasible method to obtain nanosheets is crucial. Here, we present a high-efficiency exfoliation method to obtain abundant and superior graphene, h-BN, MoS2, and WS2 nanosheets in aqueous solution. The obtained 2D nanosheets are very thin, especially MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets which are below 1 nm.With the increasing demand for two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets, finding a simple and feasible method to obtain nanosheets is crucial. Here, we present a high-efficiency exfoliation method to obtain abundant and superior graphene, h-BN, MoS2, and WS2 nanosheets in aqueous solution. The obtained 2D nanosheets are very thin, especially MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets which are below 1 nm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of large quantities of exfoliation of layered nanosheets; SEM images of raw materials; the experimental instrument; specific preparation time of exfoliation of 2D materials; solvents influence at the same exfoliation time. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07950k

  10. Using large-scale diagnostic quantities to investigate change in East Coast Lows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Fei; Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, Daniel; Fita, Lluis; Di Luca, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    East Coast Lows (ECLs) are intense low-pressure systems that affect the eastern seaboard of Australia. They have attracted research interest for both their destructive nature and water supplying capability. Estimating the changes in ECLs in the future has a major impact on emergency response as well as water management strategies for the coastal communities on the east coast of Australia. In this study, ECLs were identified using two large-scale diagnostic quantities: isentropic potential vorticity (IPV) and geostrophic vorticity (GV), which were calculated from outputs of historical and future regional climate simulations from the NSW/ACT regional climate modelling (NARCliM) project. The diagnostic results for the historical period were evaluated against a subjective ECL event database. Future simulations using a high emission scenario were examined to estimate changes in frequency, duration, and intensity of ECLs. The use of a relatively high resolution regional climate model makes this the first study to examine future changes in ECLs while resolving the full range of ECL sizes which can be as small as 100-200 km in diameter. The results indicate that it is likely that there will be fewer ECLs, with weaker intensity in the future. There could also be a seasonal shift in ECLs from cool months to warm months. These changes have the potential to significantly impact the water security on the east coast of Australia.

  11. Quantity and quantity value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Giordani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic ‘equality’ relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of such concepts is obtained, which is then generalized to ‘property’ and ‘property value’. This analysis also throws some light on the elusive concept of magnitude. A preliminary version of this paper was presented and discussed at the Joint International IMEKO TC1, TC7 & TC13 Symposium, 31 August to 2 September 2011, Jena, Germany.

  12. Optimized Gen-II FeCrAl cladding production in large quantity for campaign testing

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Sun, Zhiqian; Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2016-06-03

    There are two major objectives in this report; (1) to optimize microstructure control of ATF FeCrAl alloys during tube drawing processes, and (2) to provide an update on the progress of ATF FeCrAl tube production via commercial manufacturers. Experimental efforts have been made to optimize the process parameters balancing the tube fabricability, especially for tube drawing processes, and microstructure control of the final tube products. Lab-scale sheet materials of Gen II FeCrAl alloys (Mo-containing and Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys) were used in the study, combined with a stepwise warm-rolling process and intermediate annealing, aiming to simulate the tube drawing process in a commercial tube manufacturer. The intermediate annealing at 650ºC for 1h was suggested for the tube-drawing process of Mo-containing FeCrAl alloys because it successfully softened the material by recovering the work hardening introduced through the rolling step, without inducing grain coarsening due to recrystallization. The final tube product is expected to have stabilized deformed microstructure providing the improved tensile properties with sufficient ductility. Optimization efforts on Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys focused on the effect of alloying additions and annealing conditions on the stability of deformed microstructure. Relationships between the second-phase precipitates (Fe2Nb-Laves phase) and microstructure stability are discussed. FeCrAl tube production through commercial tube manufacturers is currently in progress. Three different manufacturers, Century Tubes, Inc. (CTI), Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), and Superior Tube Company, Inc. (STC), are providing capabilities for cold-drawing, warm-drawing, and HPTR cold-pilgering, respectively. The first two companies are currently working on large quantity tube production (expected 250 ft length) of Gen I model FeCrAl alloy (B136Y3, at CTI) and Gen II (C35M4, at RAI), with the process parameters obtained from the experimental

  13. Short-Term Memory Effects on Crossing the Boundary: Discrimination between Large and Small Quantities in Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rudimentary quantification abilities are found in numerous animal species and in human infants all demonstrating the ability to discriminate between quantities differing in numerical size. An open question is whether individuals rely on different underlying systems to discriminate between large (analogue magnitude system (AMS) for number of items exceeding 3) and small quantities (object-file system (OFS) for number of items below 4), or they use only one system (AMS) for the entire number range. The two-system hypothesis has been supported by finding reduced ability to discriminate between quantities that cross the large-small boundary in several species. Recently, the role of cognitive representation, i.e., memory, in quantity discrimination has also been recognized. Here, we investigated whether angelfish can discriminate quantities across the boundary under two memory conditions. In a binary choice test, single angelfish were allowed to see groups (shoals) of conspecifics of different numerical size on the two sides of their test tank. In Experiment 1, their choice was recorded after a 2-sec retention interval during which shoal size information was unavailable. Angelfish were able to discriminate the larger shoal across the boundary when the shoals differed by a 2:1 or higher ratio, but not when the ratio was lower. In Experiment 2, however, with a 15-sec retention interval, angelfish could only detect a four-fold difference in ratio but failed to detect a three- or a two-fold difference across the boundary. These results suggest that angelfish can remember smaller differences for a short (2 sec) but not for a longer (15 sec) period. Together with previous findings, the current results support the idea that angelfish use two distinct systems for representing quantity, but they may recruit the AMS even for the small number range under some circumstances, e.g., when higher memory demand is imposed by a greater retention interval. PMID:27683275

  14. Rapid Ovary Mass-Isolation (ROMi) to Obtain Large Quantities of Drosophila Egg Chambers for Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Jambor, Helena; Mejstrik, Pavel; Tomancak, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of large quantities of tissue from organisms is essential for many techniques such as genome-wide screens and biochemistry. However, obtaining large quantities of tissues or cells is often the rate-limiting step when working in vivo. Here, we present a rapid method that allows the isolation of intact, single egg chambers at various developmental stages from ovaries of adult female Drosophila flies. The isolated egg chambers are amenable for a variety of procedures such as fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA isolation, extract preparation, or immunostaining. Isolation of egg chambers from adult flies can be completed in 5 min and results, depending on the input amount of flies, in several milliliters of material. The isolated egg chambers are then further processed depending on the exact requirements of the subsequent application. We describe high-throughput in situ hybridization in 96-well plates as example application for the mass-isolated egg chambers.

  15. Dynamics of large-scale quantities in Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ambrish; Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we estimate the relative strengths of various terms of the Rayleigh-Bénard equations. Based on these estimates and scaling analysis, we derive a general formula for the large-scale velocity U or the Péclet number that is applicable for arbitrary Rayleigh number Ra and Prandtl number Pr. Our formula fits reasonably well with the earlier simulation and experimental results. Our analysis also shows that the wall-bounded convection has enhanced viscous force compared to free turbulence. We also demonstrate how correlations deviate the Nusselt number scaling from the theoretical prediction of Ra1 /2 to the experimentally observed scaling of nearly Ra0.3.

  16. Dynamics of large-scale quantities in Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambrish; Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G; Verma, Mahendra K

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we estimate the relative strengths of various terms of the Rayleigh-Bénard equations. Based on these estimates and scaling analysis, we derive a general formula for the large-scale velocity U or the Péclet number that is applicable for arbitrary Rayleigh number Ra and Prandtl number Pr. Our formula fits reasonably well with the earlier simulation and experimental results. Our analysis also shows that the wall-bounded convection has enhanced viscous force compared to free turbulence. We also demonstrate how correlations deviate the Nusselt number scaling from the theoretical prediction of Ra^{1/2} to the experimentally observed scaling of nearly Ra^{0.3}.

  17. Preparation of multimilligram quantities of large, linear DNA molecules for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Muecke, Merlind; Samuels, Martin; Davey, Megan; Jeruzalmi, David

    2008-06-01

    We describe a method for preparing large, linear DNA molecules in amounts that are suitable for structural studies. The procedure employs self-primed DNA amplification on a starting molecule that consists of the sequence of interest flanked by the cohesive end sequences from bacteriophage lambda as well as endonuclease recognition sites. Amplification produces long polymers of DNA, tens of kilobases in length, which harbor many copies of the sequence of interest. Endonuclease digestion of these polymers, followed by chromatographic purification, yields high-quality preparations of the DNA molecule of interest. Reliance on the cohesive end sequences to initiate self-primed amplification effectively enables the synthesis of DNA molecules of interest with minimal restriction on length and sequence.

  18. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  19. Quantity and Quality of Computer Use and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale International Test Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of both quantity and quality of computer use on achievement. The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student survey comprising of 4,356 students (boys, n = 2,129; girls, n = 2,227) was used to predict academic achievement from quantity and quality of computer use while controlling for…

  20. A co-precipitation and annealing route to the large-quantity synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaofan; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jianbao; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Juan; Su, Qiaoqiao

    2013-11-01

    A novel co-precipitation and annealing route to the large-quantity synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), using amorphous boron powder, iron nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) and urea (CO(NH2)2) as the raw materials, was demonstrated. An intermediate Fe(OH)3·B was firstly prepared through a co-precipitation process and then annealed in flowing ammonia atmosphere at 1200 °C. It was found that the heat treatment at 800 °C during the annealing process could favor the growth of BNNTs. The BNNTs had an average diameter of 70 nm and possessed bamboo and quasi-cylindrical structures. The annealing temperature greatly affected the formation of BNNTs. Only BN particles could be obtained at lower temperature (e.g. 1100 °C), whereas thorn-like nanosheet-decorated BNNTs were fabricated at higher temperature (e.g. 1300 °C). A combination mechanism of solid-liquid-solid (SLS) and vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) model was suggested to be responsible for the growth of BNNTs.

  1. HIV populations are large and accumulate high genetic diversity in a nonlinear fashion.

    PubMed

    Maldarelli, Frank; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Stephens, Robert; Mican, JoAnn; Polis, Michael A; Davey, Richard T; Kovacs, Joseph; Shao, Wei; Rock-Kress, Diane; Metcalf, Julia A; Rehm, Catherine; Greer, Sarah E; Lucey, Daniel L; Danley, Kristen; Alter, Harvey; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2013-09-01

    HIV infection is characterized by rapid and error-prone viral replication resulting in genetically diverse virus populations. The rate of accumulation of diversity and the mechanisms involved are under intense study to provide useful information to understand immune evasion and the development of drug resistance. To characterize the development of viral diversity after infection, we carried out an in-depth analysis of single genome sequences of HIV pro-pol to assess diversity and divergence and to estimate replicating population sizes in a group of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals sampled at single (n = 22) or multiple, longitudinal (n = 11) time points. Analysis of single genome sequences revealed nonlinear accumulation of sequence diversity during the course of infection. Diversity accumulated in recently infected individuals at rates 30-fold higher than in patients with chronic infection. Accumulation of synonymous changes accounted for most of the diversity during chronic infection. Accumulation of diversity resulted in population shifts, but the rates of change were low relative to estimated replication cycle times, consistent with relatively large population sizes. Analysis of changes in allele frequencies revealed effective population sizes that are substantially higher than previous estimates of approximately 1,000 infectious particles/infected individual. Taken together, these observations indicate that HIV populations are large, diverse, and slow to change in chronic infection and that the emergence of new mutations, including drug resistance mutations, is governed by both selection forces and drift.

  2. The accumulation pattern of ferruginol in the heartwood-forming Cryptomeria japonica xylem as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Hashida, Koh; Imai, Takanori; Kushi, Masayoshi; Saito, Kaori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heartwood formation is a unique phenomenon of tree species. Although the accumulation of heartwood substances is a well-known feature of the process, the accumulation mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation process of ferruginol, a predominant heartwood substance of Cryptomeria japonica, in heartwood-forming xylem. Methods The radial accumulation pattern of ferruginol was examined from sapwood and through the intermediate wood to the heartwood by direct mapping using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The data were compared with quantitative results obtained from a novel method of gas chromatography analysis using laser microdissection sampling and with water distribution obtained from cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ferruginol initially accumulated in the middle of the intermediate wood, in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary. It accumulated throughout the entire earlywood in the inner intermediate wood, and in both the earlywood and the latewood in the heartwood. The process of ferruginol accumulation continued for more than eight annual rings. Ferruginol concentration peaked at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, while the concentration was less in the latewood compared wiht the earlywood in each annual ring. Ferruginol tended to accumulate around the ray parenchyma cells. In addition, at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, the accumulation was higher in areas without water than in areas with water. Conclusions TOF-SIMS clearly revealed ferruginol distribution at the cellular level. Ferruginol accumulation begins in the middle of intermediate wood, initially in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary, then throughout the entire earlywood, and finally across to the whole annual ring in the heartwood. The heterogeneous timing of ferruginol accumulation could be related to the distribution of ray parenchyma cells

  3. A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants.

  4. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  5. Calcite-accumulating large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium in Sippewissett Salt Marsh.

    PubMed

    Salman, Verena; Yang, Tingting; Berben, Tom; Klein, Frieder; Angert, Esther; Teske, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium are exceptional among Bacteria and Archaea as they can accumulate high amounts of internal calcite. Although known for more than 100 years, they remain uncultured, and only freshwater populations have been studied so far. Here we investigate a marine population of calcite-accumulating bacteria that is primarily found at the sediment surface of tide pools in a salt marsh, where high sulfide concentrations meet oversaturated oxygen concentrations during the day. Dynamic sulfur cycling by phototrophic sulfide-oxidizing and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria co-occurring in these sediments creates a highly sulfidic environment that we propose induces behavioral differences in the Achromatium population compared with reported migration patterns in a low-sulfide environment. Fluctuating intracellular calcium/sulfur ratios at different depths and times of day indicate a biochemical reaction of the salt marsh Achromatium to diurnal changes in sedimentary redox conditions. We correlate this calcite dynamic with new evidence regarding its formation/mobilization and suggest general implications as well as a possible biological function of calcite accumulation in large bacteria in the sediment environment that is governed by gradients. Finally, we propose a new taxonomic classification of the salt marsh Achromatium based on their adaptation to a significantly different habitat than their freshwater relatives, as indicated by their differential behavior as well as phylogenetic distance on 16S ribosomal RNA gene level. In future studies, whole-genome characterization and additional ecophysiological factors could further support the distinctive position of salt marsh Achromatium.

  6. Forage quantity, quality and depletion as scale-dependent mechanisms driving habitat selection of a large browsing herbivore.

    PubMed

    van Beest, Floris M; Mysterud, Atle; Loe, Leif E; Milner, Jos M

    2010-07-01

    1. Mechanisms that affect the spatial distribution of animals are typically scale-dependent and may involve forage distribution. Forage quality and quantity are often inversely correlated and a much discussed trade-off is whether or not to select for high-quality forage at the expense of forage abundance. This discussion has rarely involved scale-dependence or been applied to Northern browsing herbivores. At small spatial scales, browsers are assumed to select for the best quality forage. But, as high-quality forage resources are often scarce and may become depleted, coarse-scale habitat selection is assumed to be driven by forage availability. 2. To evaluate if moose selection for forage quantity and quality is scale-dependent we modelled summer and winter habitat selection of 32 GPS-marked female moose (Alces alces) at two spatial scales (landscape-scale vs. within-home range-scale). We used mixed-effects resource selection functions (RSFs) and landscape-scale forage availability models of six tree species of varying quality for moose. We considered silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (Betula pubescens.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) as low quality browse species and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), aspen (Populus tremula), willow (Salix spp.) as high-quality species. 3. As expected, the overall selection patterns for available browse biomass and quality varied across spatiotemporal scales. At the landscape-scale, moose selected for habitat with high available browse biomass of low quality species while at the within-home range-scale moose selected for sites with the highest quality browse species available. Furthermore, selection patterns during summer remained fairly stable, while during winter, selection at the within-home range-scale switched from sites with high quality to sites with lower quality browse species which suggests depletion of high-quality species. Consistent with expectations from seasonal resource depletion, site fidelity (bimonthly home

  7. A Novel Pathway for Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Is Responsible for the Accumulation of Massive Quantities of Glycerolipids in the Surface Wax of Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Fruit[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits synthesize an extremely thick and unusual layer of crystalline surface wax that accumulates to 32% of fruit dry weight, the highest reported surface lipid accumulation in plants. The composition is also striking, consisting of completely saturated triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol with palmitate and myristate acyl chains. To gain insight into the unique properties of Bayberry wax synthesis, we examined the chemical and morphological development of the wax layer, monitored wax biosynthesis through [14C]-radiolabeling, and sequenced the transcriptome. Radiolabeling identified sn-2 monoacylglycerol as an initial glycerolipid intermediate. The kinetics of [14C]-DAG and [14C]-TAG accumulation and the regiospecificity of their [14C]-acyl chains indicated distinct pools of acyl donors and that final TAG assembly occurs outside of cells. The most highly expressed lipid-related genes were associated with production of cutin, whereas transcripts for conventional TAG synthesis were >50-fold less abundant. The biochemical and expression data together indicate that Bayberry surface glycerolipids are synthesized by a pathway for TAG synthesis that is related to cutin biosynthesis. The combination of a unique surface wax and massive accumulation may aid understanding of how plants produce and secrete non-membrane glycerolipids and also how to engineer alternative pathways for lipid production in non-seeds. PMID:26744217

  8. Calcite-accumulating large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium in Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Verena; Yang, Tingting; Berben, Tom; Klein, Frieder; Angert, Esther; Teske, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium are exceptional among Bacteria and Archaea as they can accumulate high amounts of internal calcite. Although known for more than 100 years, they remain uncultured, and only freshwater populations have been studied so far. Here we investigate a marine population of calcite-accumulating bacteria that is primarily found at the sediment surface of tide pools in a salt marsh, where high sulfide concentrations meet oversaturated oxygen concentrations during the day. Dynamic sulfur cycling by phototrophic sulfide-oxidizing and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria co-occurring in these sediments creates a highly sulfidic environment that we propose induces behavioral differences in the Achromatium population compared with reported migration patterns in a low-sulfide environment. Fluctuating intracellular calcium/sulfur ratios at different depths and times of day indicate a biochemical reaction of the salt marsh Achromatium to diurnal changes in sedimentary redox conditions. We correlate this calcite dynamic with new evidence regarding its formation/mobilization and suggest general implications as well as a possible biological function of calcite accumulation in large bacteria in the sediment environment that is governed by gradients. Finally, we propose a new taxonomic classification of the salt marsh Achromatium based on their adaptation to a significantly different habitat than their freshwater relatives, as indicated by their differential behavior as well as phylogenetic distance on 16S ribosomal RNA gene level. In future studies, whole-genome characterization and additional ecophysiological factors could further support the distinctive position of salt marsh Achromatium. PMID:25909974

  9. Unintended consequences of biofuels production?The effects of large-scale crop conversion on water quality and quantity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Heather L.; Green, Christopher T.; Rebich, Richard A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Hicks, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta resulted in a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288-percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation than for cotton, this widespread shift in crop type has implications for water quantity and water quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged because of concerns about sustainability of the groundwater resource. Results from a mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta indicate that increased fertilizer application on corn also likely will increase the extent of nitrate-nitrogen movement into the alluvial aquifer. Preliminary estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen increase the nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River Basin to the Mississippi River by about 7 percent. Thus, the shift from cotton to corn may further contribute to hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen) conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  11. The Management Challenge: Handling Exams Involving Large Quantities of Students, on and off Campus--A Design Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the process of managing large numbers of exams efficiently and secure with the use of a dedicated IT support. The system integrates regulations on different levels, from national to local, (even down to departments) and ensures that the rules are employed in all stages of handling the exams. The system has a proven record of…

  12. Facile, Large-Quantity Synthesis of Stable, Tunable-Color Silicon Nanoparticles and Their Application for Long-Term Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiling; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Siyi; Peng, Fei; Bao, Feng; Su, Yuanyuan; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2015-06-23

    We herein introduce a facile, low-cost photochemical method capable of rapid (<40 min) and large-quantity (∼10 g) production of highly fluorescent (quantum yield: 25%) silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) of tunable optical properties (peak emission wavelength in the range of 470-560 nm) under ambient air conditions, by introducing 1,8-naphthalimide as a reducing agent and surface ligands. The as-prepared SiNPs feature robust storage stability and photostability preserving strong and stable fluorescent during long-term (>3 h) high-power UV irradiation, in contrast to the rapid fluorescence quenching within 2 h of conventional organic dyes and II-VI quantum dots under the same conditions. The as-prepared SiNPs serving as photostable nanoprobes are workable for cellular imaging in long-term manners. Our findings provide a powerful method for mild-condition and low-cost, large-quantity production of highly fluorescent and photostable SiNPs for various promising applications.

  13. Indicators used to assess the quantity and quality of water in Special Area of Conservation located in the valleys of large lowland rivers - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utratna, Marta; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    One of the aims of Ecological network Natura 2000 is to protect rare habitats from complete disappearance in Europe. That is why natural and transformed river valleys were and still are often included into this form of protection. The problem of influences on Natura 2000 areas an their impact on the conservation status of protected habitats within the network is well known. Solving this issue may have a significant impact on the planning of protection tasks, as well as on assessing the impact of new and existing investments on protected areas. The aim of this study was to build a statistical model for assessing the impact of selected external factors related to the quantity and quality of water on the conservation status of habitats in large lowland river areas protected under the Natura 2000 network. The method used in the study is based on a structural study which uses the knowledge and experience of experts in the field of Phytosociology as well as indicators used to assess the quantity and quality of water in the analyzed area.

  14. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  15. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  16. Large scale spatial variation of accumulation rate across ice promontory in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Denis; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Drews, Reinhard; Pattyn, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Ice rises are known to play a key role on ice shelf dynamics. By buttressing the flow, they constrain the flow of ice from the continent toward the ocean. However, since they are small hills surrounded by extremely flat area, they also play a role on atmospheric circulation. However, this impact is relatively unknown. Here, we show evidence that ice rises play a significant role on the wind redistribution of the snow. We report observations of persistent features observed all around the coast of Dronning Maud Land (DML). By analyzing radio-echo sounding data, we identified internal reflection horizons assumed to be isochronous. These layers show a remarkable variability in layer depth at both sides of the ridge, pointing to variability in surface accumulation rates. We show that a strong gradient of accumulation rate exist across, at least, 5 different ice rises in DML : Halvfarryggen Ice Rise nearby Ekstromisen (7°W), 2 ice rises into the Fimbulisen (2°E) and 2 ice rises within the Roi Baudoin Ice Shelf (25°E, Derwael & FranKenny Ice Rise). We used deepness of radar reflector as a proxy of the accumulation rate as long as we removed the influence of ice dynamics. All collected data (both low and high frequency) all show the similar persistent gradient in accumulation rate. Comparison of accumulation rate distribution and meteorological data shows that accumulation rate is twice as high on the wind side of the ridge compared to the lee side, which makes ice rise topography playing a significant role in snow redistribution. This feature is important in term of ice coring and paleoclimatic reconstruction of on time scales of 2 to 20k years.

  17. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  18. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora, a large amphibious ornamental grass.

    PubMed

    Tian, R N; Yu, S; Wang, S G; Zhang, Y; Tang, J Y; Liu, Y L; Nie, Y H

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). The results show that T. sacchariflora had strong tolerance to Cu and Cd stress. The tolerance indexes (TI) were greater than 0.5 for all treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) to Cu and Cd were both above 1.0. The accumulation ability of roots was stronger than that of shoots, and ranges of BCF to Cu and Cd in roots were 37.89-79.08 and 83.96-300.57, respectively. However, the translocation ability to Cu and Cd was weak, with more than 86% of Cu or Cd accumulated in roots, suggesting an exclusion strategy for heavy metal tolerance. The uptake efficiency (UE) and translocation efficiency (TE) to Cu and Cd increased linearly as the Cu and Cd concentration in the substrate increased. UE was higher than TE, with a maximum of 2,118.90 μg g(-1) root dry weight (DW) (50 mg L(-1) Cu) and 1,847.51 μg g(-1) root DW (20 mg L(-1)Cd), respectively. The results indicate that T. sacchariflora is a Cu- and Cd-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator plant, suggesting that T. sacchariflora could play an important role in phytoremediation in areas contaminated with Cu and Cd.

  19. SU-E-T-235: Data Mining for Evaluating Treatment Performances Over a Large Quantity of Data to Monitor and Improve SBRT Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, W; Chu, A; Wuu, C; Nguyen, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quality assure a large quantity of retrospective treatment cases for treatment performances by randomly sampling is inefficient. Here we provide a method to efficiently monitor and investigate the QA of SBRT workflow over Mosaiq. Methods: The code developed with Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio 2008R2 and VBA was used for retrieving and sorting data from Mosaiq (version 2.3–2.6 during 2012–2015). SBRT patients were filtered by fractional dose over 350cGy and total fraction number less than 6, which SBRT prescriptions were defined. The quality assurance on the SBRT workflow was focused on the treatment deliveries such as patient positioning setup, CBCT indicated offsets and couch shifted corrections. The treatment delivery were done by Varian Truebeam systems and the record/verify by Mosaiq. Results: Total 82 SBRT patients corresponding to 103 courses and 854 CBCT images were found by the retrieval query. Most centers record daily pre-treatment (Pre-Tx: before treatment shift) image-guided shifts along treatment course for inter-fraction motion record, and it is useful to also verify it with post-treatment imaging (Post-Tx: after treatment CBCT verification) to verify intra-fraction motion. Analyzing the details of daily recorded shifts can reveals the information of patient-setup and staff’s record/verify behaviors. 3 examples were provided as solid evidences and on-going rectification for preventing future mistakes. Conclusions: The report gave feasible examples for inspector to verify a large amount of data during site investigation. This program can also be extended to a scheduled data mining with software to periodical analyze the timely records in Mosaiq, for example, a various control charts for different QA purposes. As the current trend of automation in radiation therapy field, the data mining would be a necessary tool in the future, just as the automatic plan quality evaluation has been under development in Eclipse.

  20. Volcanism on Venus: Large shields and major accumulations of small domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, Gerald G.; Kozak, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    The outer layers of the Venusian lithosphere appear to dissipate heat from the interior through mantle-driven thermal anomalies (hot spots, swells). As a result, Venus exhibits diverse forms of thin-skin tectonism and magmatic transfer to and extrusion from countless numbers of volcanic centers (e.g., shields, paterae, domes) and volcano-tectonic complexes (e.g., coronae, arachnoids). What is known about the distribution and morphologies of major Venusian shields is summarized, and the evidence for possible structural control of major accumulations as long as 5000 km of small volcanic domes is described.

  1. Mutation accumulation in real branches: fitness assays for genomic deleterious mutation rate and effect in large-statured plants.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stewart T; Scofield, Douglas G

    2009-08-01

    The genomic deleterious mutation rate and mean effect are central to the biology and evolution of all species. Large-statured plants, such as trees, are predicted to have high mutation rates due to mitotic mutation and the absence of a sheltered germ line, but their size and generation time has hindered genetic study. We develop and test approaches for estimating deleterious mutation rates and effects from viability comparisons within the canopy of large-statured plants. Our methods, inspired by E. J. Klekowski, are a modification of the classic Bateman-Mukai mutation-accumulation experiment. Within a canopy, cell lineages accumulate mitotic mutations independently. Gametes or zygotes produced at more distal points by these cell lineages contain more mitotic mutations than those at basal locations, and within-flower selfs contain more homozygous mutations than between-flower selfs. The resulting viability differences allow demonstration of lethal mutation with experiments similar in size to assays of genetic load and allow estimates of the rate and effect of new mutations with moderate precision and bias similar to that of classic mutation-accumulation experiments in small-statured organisms. These methods open up new possibilities with the potential to provide valuable new insights into the evolutionary genetics of plants.

  2. On the architecture for the X part of a very large FX correlator using two-accumulator CMACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapshev, Stepan; Rezaul Hasan, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an improved input-buffer architecture for the X part of a very large FX correlator that optimizes memory use to both increase performance and reduce the overall power consumption. The architecture uses an array of two-accumulator CMACs that are reused for different pairs of correlated signals. Using two accumulators in every CMAC allows the processing array to alternately correlate two sets of signal pairs selected in such a way so that they share some or all of the processed data samples. This leads to increased processing bandwidth and a significant reduction of the memory read rate due to not having to update some or all of the processing buffers in every second processing cycle. The overall memory access rate is at most 75 % of that of the single-accumulator CMAC array. This architecture is intended for correlators of very large multi-element radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), and is suitable for an ASIC implementation.

  3. Mechanism of Arachidonic Acid Accumulation during Aging in Mortierella alpina: A Large-Scale Label-Free Comparative Proteomics Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Tao; Wu, Na; Ren, Lujing; Jiang, Ling; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2016-11-30

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid having various beneficial physiological effects on the human body. The aging of Mortierella alpina has long been known to significantly improve ARA yield, but the exact mechanism is still elusive. Herein, multiple approaches including large-scale label-free comparative proteomics were employed to systematically investigate the mechanism mentioned above. Upon ultrastructural observation, abnormal mitochondria were found to aggregate around shrunken lipid droplets. Proteomics analysis revealed a total of 171 proteins with significant alterations of expression during aging. Pathway analysis suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated and stimulated the activation of the malate/pyruvate cycle and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which might provide additional NADPH for ARA synthesis. EC 4.2.1.17-hydratase might be a key player in ARA accumulation during aging. These findings provide a valuable resource for efforts to further improve the ARA content in the oil produced by aging M. alpina.

  4. Large accumulation of micro-sized synthetic polymer particles in the sea surface microlayer.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Han, Gi Myung; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-08-19

    Determining the exact abundance of microplastics on the sea surface can be susceptible to the sampling method used. The sea surface microlayer (SML) can accumulate light plastic particles, but this has not yet been sampled. The abundance of microplastics in the SML was evaluated off the southern coast of Korea. The SML sampling method was then compared to bulk surface water filtering, a hand net (50 μm mesh), and a Manta trawl net (330 μm mesh). The mean abundances were in the order of SML water > hand net > bulk water > Manta trawl net. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) identified that alkyds and poly(acrylate/styrene) accounted for 81 and 11%, respectively, of the total polymer content of the SML samples. These polymers originated from paints and the fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) matrix used on ships. Synthetic polymers from ship coatings should be considered to be a source of microplastics. Selecting a suitable sampling method is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution.

  5. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  6. Large accumulations of maize streak virus in the filter chamber and midgut cells of the leafhopper vector Cicadulina mbila.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Gargani, Daniel; Lett, Jean M; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV, Mastrevirus, Geminiviridae) is persistently transmitted by Cicadulina mbila, apparently without propagation in its leafhopper vector. MSV was shown earlier by quantitative PCR to accumulate in the alimentary canal of C. mbila. We examined the alimentary canals of C. mbila leafhoppers that acquired MSV from diseased plants for various acquisition access periods (AAP) by immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (iCLSM) and by immunogold labelling transmission electron microscopy (iTEM). Following a 7-day AAP and a 7-day inoculation period (IP) on healthy seedlings, MSV was detected by iCLSM mainly in the filter chamber and anterior midgut. Using iTEM, large accumulations of MSV particles, usually enclosed in membranous vesicles, were detected only in cells of the midgut, inside and outside the filter chamber, following 14- or 30-day AAPs, and also following 7-day AAP and 7-day IP on healthy plants. No virus was detected in the control non-vector species C. chinaï. Coated pits or vesicles, typical of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, were not observed. We discuss an alternative endocytosis pathway and suggest that the MSV accumulations are stored in endosomes in the midgut epithelial cells.

  7. Evolutionary origins of abnormally large shoot sodium accumulation in nonsaline environments within the Caryophyllales.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J; Bowen, Helen C; Broadley, Martin R; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Neugebauer, Konrad; Taylor, Anna; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Wright, Gladys

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of sodium (Na)-'hyperaccumulator' species, which exhibit abnormally large shoot sodium concentrations ([Na]shoot ) when grown in nonsaline environments, was investigated among angiosperms in general and within the Caryophyllales order in particular. Shoot Na concentrations were determined in 334 angiosperm species, representing 35 orders, grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. Many Caryophyllales species exhibited abnormally large [Na]shoot when grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. The bimodal distribution of the log-normal [Na]shoot of species within the Caryophyllales suggested at least two distinct [Na]shoot phenotypes within this order. Mapping the trait of Na-hyperaccumulation onto the phylogenetic relationships between Caryophyllales families, and between subfamilies within the Amaranthaceae, suggested that the trait evolved several times within this order: in an ancestor of the Aizoaceae, but not the Phytolaccaceae or Nyctaginaceae, in ancestors of several lineages formerly classified as Chenopodiaceae, but not in the Amaranthaceae sensu stricto, and in ancestors of species within the Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Tamaricaceae and Polygonaceae. In conclusion, a disproportionate number of Caryophyllales species behave as Na-hyperaccumulators, and multiple evolutionary origins of this trait can be identified within this order.

  8. Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass

    DOEpatents

    Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

    1982-09-02

    Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

  9. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  10. Lasting effects of snow accumulation on summer performance of large herbivores in alpine ecosystems may not last.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Austrheim, Gunnar

    2014-05-01

    One of the clearest predictions from the IPCC is that we can expect much less snow cover due to global warming in the 21st century, especially in the lower alpine areas. In alpine ecosystems, snow accumulation in depressions gives rise to distinct snow-bed vegetation types, assumed to play a key role in ecosystem function. A delayed plant phenology yields high-quality forage in late summer for wild and domestic herbivores. Yet, the mechanistic pathways for how declining snow may affect future performance of large herbivores beyond the effect of phenology remain poorly documented. Here, we link unique individual-based data on diet choice, habitat selection and performance of domestic sheep over a 10-year period to manually GPS-recorded spatial positions of snow cover in early summer (0.57% to 43.3% in snow beds on 1st of July) in an alpine ecosystem. Snowy winters gave a higher proportion of easily digestible herbs in the diet and a more variable use of snow-bed and meadow vegetation types resulting in faster growing lambs. These patterns were consistent between two density treatment levels although slightly more marked for diet at low density, suggesting that effects of simple mitigation efforts such as managing population numbers will be meagre. Our study thus yields novel insight into the strong impact of melting snow on ecosystem function in alpine habitats, which are likely to affect productivity of both domestic and wild ungulate populations.

  11. Assessment of dosimetric quantities for patients undergoing X-ray examinations in a large public hospital in Brazil--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Marco Aurélio de Sousa; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto; Khoury, Helen Jamil

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of routine patient dosimetry to Brazilian radiological institutions is very necessary in order to meet national and international standard requirements for radiation protection. This work presents a survey of the air kerma-area product (P(KA)), the entrance surface air kerma (K(e)) and the effective dose (E) in common radiographic examinations during the routine of a large public hospital in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Results draw attention to the use of field sizes larger than the cassette dimension, the lack of both the collimation X-ray beam and the standardisation of the exposure parameters by radiology technicians.

  12. Large Crystal Toxin Formation in Chromosomally Engineered Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Due to σE Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Buasri, Wasin

    2012-01-01

    Seven distinct Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants were constructed that carried the chitinase (chiBlA) gene from B. licheniformis under the control of the cry11Aa promoter and terminator with and without p19 and p20 genes. The toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants against second-instar Spodoptera litura larvae was increased 1.8- to 4.6-fold compared to that of the wild-type strain (BTA1). Surprisingly, the enhanced toxicity in some strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants (BtaP19CS, BtaP19CSter, and BtaCAT) correlated with an increase in toxin formation. To investigate the role of these genes in toxin production, the expression profiles of the toxin genes, cry1Aa and chiBlA, as well as their transcriptional regulators (sigK and sigE), were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) from BTA1, BtaP19CS, and BtaCAT. Expression levels of cry1Aa in these two integrants increased about 2- to 3-fold compared to those of BTA1. The expression of the transcription factor sigK also was prolonged in the integrants compared to that of the wild type; however, sigE expression was unchanged. Western blot analysis of σE and σK showed the prolonged accumulation of σE in the integrants compared to that of BTA1, resulting in the increased synthesis of pro-σK up to T17 after the onset of sporulation in both BtaP19CS and BtaCAT compared to that of T13 in BTA1. The results from qPCR indicate clearly that the cry1Aa promoter activity was influenced most strongly by σE, whereas cry11Aa depended mostly on σK. These results on large-crystal toxin formation with enhanced toxicity should provide useful information for the generation of strains with improved insecticidal activity. PMID:22267677

  13. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer.

  14. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer. PMID:27499175

  15. Saddle quantities and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyal, Pierre; Rousseau, Christiane

    In this paper we make the connection between the theoretical study of the generalized homoclinic loop bifurcation (GHB ∗) and the practical computational aspects. For this purpose we first compare the Dulac normal form with the Joyal normal form. These forms were both used to prove the GHB ∗ theorem. But the second one is far more practical from the algorithmic point of view. We then show that the information carried by these normal forms can be computed in a much simpler way, using what we shall call dual Lyapunov constants. The coefficients of a normal form or the dual Lyapunov quantities are particular cases of what we shall call saddle quantities. We calculate the saddle quantities for quadratic systems, and we show that no more than three limit cycles can appear in a homoclinic loop bifurcation. We also study the homoclinic loop bifurcation of order 5, appearing in a 6-parameter family close to a Hamiltonian system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that one can find a complete description of a GHB ∗ of such high order. Finally we calculate the saddle quantities for a symmetric cubic vector field, and we deduce a bound for the number of limit cycles that appear in a GHB ∗.

  16. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  17. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  18. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  19. TYPES AND QUANTITIES OF LEFTOVER DRUGS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals designed for humans and animals often remain unused. Leftover and accumulated drugs represent suboptimal delivery of health care and environmentally unsound disposal, which can pose exposure risks for humans and wildlife.OBJECTIVES: A major unknown with respect to drugs as pollutants is what fractions of drug residues occurring in the ambient environment result from discarding leftover drugs. To gauge the significance of leftover drugs as potential pollutants, data are needed on the types, quantities, and frequencies with which drugs accumulate. Absence of this data has prevented assessments of the significance of drug accumulation and disposal as a contributing source of drug residues in the environment.METHODS: One particular source of drug accumulation is those drugs that become

  20. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  1. A novel porous bioceramics scaffold by accumulating hydroxyapatite spherulites for large bone tissue engineering in vivo. II. Construct large volume of bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Duan, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jianxin; Zhu, Zhuoli; Huang, Peng; Xia, Tian; Liao, Ga; Weng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    In vivo engineering of bone autografts using bioceramic scaffolds with appropriate porous structures is a potential approach to prepare autologous bone grafts for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. This study investigated the evolutionary process of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and compressive strength of bioceramic scaffolds implanted in two non-osseous sites of dogs: the abdominal cavity and the dorsal muscle. Hydroxyapatite (HA) sphere-accumulated scaffolds with controlled porous structures were prepared and placed in the two sites for up to 6 months. Analyses of retrieved scaffolds found that osteogenesis and angiogenesis were faster in scaffolds implanted in dorsal muscles compared with those placed in abdominal cavities. The abdominal cavity, however, can accommodate larger bone grafts with designed shape. Analyses of scaffolds implanted in abdominal cavities [an environment of a low mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) density] further demonstrated that angiogenesis play critical roles during osteogenesis in the scaffolds, presumably by supplying progenitor cells and/or MSCs as seed cells. This study also examined the relationship between the volume of bone grafts and the physiological environment of in vivo bioreactor. These results provide basic information for the selection of appropriate implanting sites and culture time required to engineer autologous bone grafts for the clinical bone defect repair. Based on these positive results, a pilot study has applied the grafts constructed in canine abdominal cavity to repair segmental bone defect in load-bearing sites (limbs).

  2. Large Sanjiang basin groups outside of the Songliao Basin Meso-Senozoic Tectonic-sediment evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The basis geological problem is still the bottleneck of the exploration work of the lager Sanjiang basin groups. In general terms, the problems are including the prototype basins and basin forming mechanism of two aspects. In this paper, using the field geological survey and investigation, logging data analysis, seismic data interpretation technical means large Sanjiang basin groups and basin forming mechanism of the prototype are discussed. Main draw the following conclusions: 1. Sanjiang region group-level formation can be completely contrasted. 2. Tension faults, compressive faults, shear structure composition and structure combination of four kinds of compound fracture are mainly developed In the study area. The direction of their distribution can be divided into SN, EW, NNE, NEE, NNW, NWW to other groups of fracture. 3. Large Sanjiang basin has the SN and the EW two main directions of tectonic evolution. Cenozoic basins in Sanjiang region in group formation located the two tectonic domains of ancient Paleo-Asian Ocean and the Pacific Interchange. 4. Large Sanjiang basin has experienced in the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of two-stage and nine times. The first stage, developmental stage basement, they are ① Since the Mesozoic era and before the Jurassic; ② Early Jurassic period; The second stage, cap stage of development, they are ③ Late Jurassic depression developmental stages of compression; ④ Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑤ depression in mid-Early Cretaceous period; ⑥ tensile Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑦ inversion of Late Cretaceous tectonic compression stage; ⑧ Paleogene - Neogene; ⑨ After recently Ji Baoquan Sedimentary Ridge. 5. Large Sanjiang basin group is actually a residual basin structure, and Can be divided into left - superimposed (Founder, Tangyuan depression, Hulin Basin), residual - inherited type (Sanjiang basin), residual - reformed (Jixi, Boli, Hegang basin). there are two developed depression and the mechanism

  3. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 7: Environmental contaminant accumulation and effects in great blue heron

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Brewer, R.L. Jr.; Buehler, D.A.

    1999-04-01

    Past plant operations and waste disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced an assortment of potentially harmful contaminants into the surrounding environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) and PCBs have been found in fish collected from aquatic systems on the ORR, and a screening level risk assessment has identified piscivorous wildlife downstream from the ORR as being at risk. As a component of an ecological risk assessment of a large river-reservoir system, the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) was chosen as an endpoint species to evaluate potential adverse effects of contaminants on piscivorous wildlife using aquatic systems on or downstream of the ORR. Eggs and chick liver, muscle, and fat samples were collected from two heron colonies located on and two colonies located off the ORR. Samples were analyzed for PCBs, mercury, chromium, and arsenic to determine if differences existed among colonies. Mean mercury and PCB concentrations were greater in eggs and chick tissues collected from colonies located on the ORR. However, no biologically significant differences were observed in fecundity or in egg physical measurements or chick physiological measurements between study locations. The results of this study do not indicate that the contaminant burdens in great blue heron chicks and eggs have a detrimental effect on heron populations utilizing aquatic habitats on the ORR.

  4. Accumulation of cell-penetrating peptides in large unilamellar vesicles: A straightforward screening assay for investigating the internalization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Swiecicki, Jean-Marie; Di Pisa, Margherita; Burlina, Fabienne; Lécorché, Pascaline; Mansuy, Christelle; Chassaing, Gérard; Lavielle, Solange

    2015-09-01

    The internalization of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) into liposomes (large unilamellar vesicles, LUVs) was studied with a rapid and robust procedure based on the quenching of a small fluorescent probe, 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD). Quenching can be achieved by reduction with dithionite or by pH jump. LUVs with different compositions of phospholipids (PLs) were used to screen the efficacy of different CPPs. In order to "validate" the composition of the membrane models, a control cationic peptide, which does not enter eukaryotic cells, was included in the study. It was found that pure DOPG or DOPG within ternary mixtures with cholesterol are the most appropriate models for studying CPP translocation. An anionic lipid, such as DOPG, is required for the adsorption of the basic peptides on the surface of LUVs. In addition, it acts as transfer agent through the lipid bilayer. A fluid phase and/or the presence of phase defects also appear mandatory for the internalization to occur. The neutralization of charges within an inverted micelle demonstrated in the case of DOPG and also proposed for a ternary mixture of PLs might not be the only mechanism for the CPP translocation. Finally, it is shown that oleic acid facilitates the entry inside LUVs in gel phase of a series of cationic peptides including CPPs and also the negative control peptide PKCi.

  5. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  6. Conserved nonlinear quantities in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2005-11-15

    We give a detailed and improved presentation of our recently proposed formalism for nonlinear perturbations in cosmology, based on a covariant and fully nonperturbative approach. We work, in particular, with a covector combining the gradients of the energy density and of the local number of e-folds to obtain a nonlinear generalization of the familiar linear uniform-density perturbation. We show that this covector obeys a remarkably simple conservation equation which is exact, fully nonlinear and valid at all scales. We relate explicitly our approach to the coordinate-based formalisms for linear perturbations and for second-order perturbations. We also consider other quantities, which are conserved on sufficiently large scales for adiabatic perturbations, and discuss the issue of gauge invariance.

  7. Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laurence E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

  8. Accumulation of Poly (beta-Hydroxybutyrate) by Halobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castillo, R; Rodriguez-Valera, F; Gonzalez-Ramos, J; Ruiz-Berraquero, F

    1986-01-01

    Some species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacteriaceae, have been shown to accumulate large amounts of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and abundant carbon source. The production of poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), at least in large quantities, was restricted to two carbohydrate-utilizing species, Halobacterium mediterranei and H. volcanii. In addition to the nutrients in the media, the salt concentration also influenced poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation, which was greater at lower salt concentrations. The possible application of these microorganisms for the production of biodegradable plastics is discussed.

  9. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  10. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  11. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  12. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  13. Patterns, Quantities, and Linear Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern generalization and a focus on quantities are important aspects of algebraic reasoning. This article describes two different approaches to teaching and learning linear functions for middle school students. One group focused on patterns in number tables, and the other group worked primarily with real-world quantities. This article highlights…

  14. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-10-30

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  15. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  16. Reportable Quantities Federal Register Notices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act regulation designates specific substances as hazardous; identifies the quantity of substances which, when released, requires notification; and sets forth the notification requirements.

  17. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  18. 40 CFR 262.211 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.211 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site central accumulation area. If an eligible academic entity makes the hazardous waste....34(a) (or § 262.34(j) and (k) for Performance Track members) for large quantity generators or §...

  19. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  20. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  1. Invariant Quantities in Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of systems out of thermal equilibrium is usually treated on a case-by-case basis without knowledge of fundamental and universal principles. We address this problem for a class of driven steady states, namely, those mechanically driven at the boundaries such as complex fluids under shear. From a nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB) we derive a remarkably simple set of invariant quantities which remain unchanged when the system is driven. These new nonequilibrium relations are both exact and valid arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Furthermore, they enable the systematic calculation of transition rates in driven systems with state spaces of arbitrary connectivity.

  2. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  3. A large accumulation of avian eggs from the late cretaceous of patagonia (Argentina) reveals a novel nesting strategy in mesozoic birds.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariela S; García, Rodolfo A; Fiorelli, Lucas; Scolaro, Alejandro; Salvador, Rodrigo B; Cotaro, Carlos N; Kaiser, Gary W; Dyke, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a nesting colony of mesozoic birds on Gondwana: a fossil accumulation in Late Cretaceous rocks mapped and collected from within the campus of the National University of Comahue, Neuquén City, Patagonia (Argentina). Here, Cretaceous ornithothoracine birds, almost certainly Enanthiornithes, nested in an arid, shallow basinal environment among sand dunes close to an ephemeral water-course. We mapped and collected 65 complete, near-complete, and broken eggs across an area of more than 55 m(2). These eggs were laid either singly, or occasionally in pairs, onto a sandy substrate. All eggs were found apparently in, or close to, their original nest site; they all occur within the same bedding plane and may represent the product of a single nesting season or a short series of nesting attempts. Although there is no evidence for nesting structures, all but one of the Comahue eggs were half-buried upright in the sand with their pointed end downwards, a position that would have exposed the pole containing the air cell and precluded egg turning. This egg position is not seen in living birds, with the exception of the basal galliform megapodes who place their eggs within mounds of vegetation or burrows. This accumulation reveals a novel nesting behaviour in Mesozoic Aves that was perhaps shared with the non-avian and phylogenetically more basal troodontid theropods.

  4. A Large Accumulation of Avian Eggs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina) Reveals a Novel Nesting Strategy in Mesozoic Birds

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Mariela S.; García, Rodolfo A.; Fiorelli, Lucas; Scolaro, Alejandro; Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Cotaro, Carlos N.; Kaiser, Gary W.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a nesting colony of Mesozoic birds on Gondwana: a fossil accumulation in Late Cretaceous rocks mapped and collected from within the campus of the National University of Comahue, Neuquén City, Patagonia (Argentina). Here, Cretaceous ornithothoracine birds, almost certainly Enanthiornithes, nested in an arid, shallow basinal environment among sand dunes close to an ephemeral water-course. We mapped and collected 65 complete, near-complete, and broken eggs across an area of more than 55 m2. These eggs were laid either singly, or occasionally in pairs, onto a sandy substrate. All eggs were found apparently in, or close to, their original nest site; they all occur within the same bedding plane and may represent the product of a single nesting season or a short series of nesting attempts. Although there is no evidence for nesting structures, all but one of the Comahue eggs were half-buried upright in the sand with their pointed end downwards, a position that would have exposed the pole containing the air cell and precluded egg turning. This egg position is not seen in living birds, with the exception of the basal galliform megapodes who place their eggs within mounds of vegetation or burrows. This accumulation reveals a novel nesting behaviour in Mesozoic Aves that was perhaps shared with the non-avian and phylogenetically more basal troodontid theropods. PMID:23613776

  5. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  6. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V. Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Quantity discrimination involves distinguishing which of two quantities is greater. This discrimination between larger and smaller quantities has only been demonstrated in rats post extensive training. We tested whether domestic rats could perform quantity discrimination without explicit training. We found that rats could distinguish the greater amount in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. Rats could not distinguish between 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. We also found that as the ratio between quantities became finer the choice of the larger quantity decreased. We conclude that rats can perform quantity discrimination without extensive training and that their quantity discrimination ability is influenced by the ratio between quantities. Abstract Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats’ natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats’ ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats (n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t-tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber’s law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats’ ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination. PMID:27527223

  7. Non-Gaussianity effects in petrophysical quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.

    2013-10-01

    It has been proved that there are many indicators (petrophysical quantities) for the estimation of petroleum reservoirs. The value of information contained in each indicator is yet to be addressed. In this work, the most famous and applicable petrophysical quantities for a reservoir, which are the gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and deep induced resistivity (ILD), have been analyzed in order to characterize a reservoir. The implemented technique is the well-logging method. Based on the log-normal model defined in random multiplicative processes, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the data sets is described. The shape of the PDF depends on the parameter λ2 which determines the efficiency of non-Gaussianity. When non-Gaussianity appears, it is a sign of uncertainty and phase transition in the critical regime. The large value and scale-invariant behavior of the non-Gaussian parameter λ2 is an indication of a new phase which proves adequate for the existence of petroleum reservoirs. Our results show that one of the indicators (GR) is more non-Gaussian than the other indicators, scale wise. This means that GR is a continuously critical indicator. But by moving windows with various scales, the estimated λ2 shows that the most appropriate indicator for distinguishing the critical regime is ILD, which shows an increase at the end of the measured region of the well.

  8. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number.

  9. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C{sup 1}. In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q{sub ab}, P{sup ab}) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background.

  10. Differential accumulation of ribonucleotide reductase subunits in clam oocytes: the large subunit is stored as a polypeptide, the small subunit as untranslated mRNA

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Within minutes of fertilization of clam oocytes, translation of a set of maternal mRNAs is activated. One of the most abundant of these stored mRNAs encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (Standart, N. M., S. J. Bray, E. L. George, T. Hunt, and J. V. Ruderman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1968-1976). Unfertilized oocytes do not contain any ribonucleotide reductase activity; such activity begins to appear shortly after fertilization. In virtually all organisms, this enzyme is composed of two dissimilar subunits with molecular masses of approximately 44 and 88 kD, both of which are required for activity. This paper reports the identification of the large subunit of clam ribonucleotide reductase isolated by dATP-Sepharose chromatography as a relatively abundant 86-kD polypeptide which is already present in oocytes, and whose level remains constant during early development. The enzyme activity of this large subunit was established in reconstitution assays using the small subunit isolated from embryos by virtue of its binding to the anti-tubulin antibody YL 1/2. Thus the two components of clam ribonucleotide reductase are differentially stored in the oocyte: the small subunit in the form of untranslated mRNA and the large subunit as protein. When fertilization triggers the activation of translation of the maternal mRNA, the newly synthesized small subunit combines with the preformed large subunit to generate active ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:3536960

  11. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  13. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  16. Bibliographic Control of Large Quantities of Research Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Martha M.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for individual researcher describe bibliographic methods for achieving high standards of quality while maintaining maximum efficiency in each step of all necessary procedures involved in the construction of a bibliography ranging from several hundred to several thousand items. Ways to minimize waste motion and duplication of effort are…

  17. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  18. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  19. Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastook, James

    1993-01-01

    The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along

  20. Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

  1. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  2. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  3. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  4. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  5. Alpine pasture soils accumulate a large fraction of labile carbon due to combined effects of low temperature, low pH, and poor litter quality on decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Karen; Leifeld, Jens; Hiltbrunner, Erika; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Alpine soils are expected to contain large amounts of labile carbon (C) which may result in a further increase in atmospheric CO2 levels in response to global warming. However, there is little data available on these soils and limited understanding of the influence environmental factors have on soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. We extracted 30 cm deep soil cores from 5 sites along an elevation gradient of an alpine pasture in the central Swiss Alps. Soil fractions obtained by size and density fractionation revealed a high proportion of labile particulate organic carbon (POC), particularly in the uppermost soil layers. POC values in the top 20 cm across the gradient of 2285-2653 m above sea level (a.s.l.) ranged from 39.6-57.6 % in comparison to 7.2-29.6 reported in lower elevation soils of 810-1960 m a.s.l. in previous studies. While soil at all elevations was found to be relatively acidic, C mean residence times (MRTs) were considerably shorter and phytomass was slightly higher at the single site found to have a comparatively less acidic soil pH, although SOC content did not vary from those sites of similar root/litter and stone contents. At all elevations, MRTs increased between fractions of increasing stability from free POM (fPOM) → occluded POM (oPOM) → mineral-associated material (mOM); e.g. at 2653 m MRTs increased in years from 90 in fPOM → 117 in oPOM → 534 in mOM. Depending on elevation and pH, plant community data indicated considerable variation in the source of litter input. The lowest site was dominated by sedges whereas the highest site by lichens and dwarf shrubs, this variation in litter source may be reflected in the dynamics of soil C. While temperature is likely to be a major influence in the low turnover rate observed, other factors such as litter quality and soil pH as well as the combination of these factors are likely to play an important role on the response of SOM in the event of soil warming and require consideration in model

  6. Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Barnard, Allison M; Hughes, Kelly D; Gerhardt, Regina R; Divincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  7. Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Allison M.; Hughes, Kelly D.; Gerhardt, Regina R.; DiVincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates. PMID:23653619

  8. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  9. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity...

  10. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  11. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variations. 500.25 Section 500.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT..., permitted variations. (a) The statement of net quantity of contents shall accurately reveal the quantity of... instructions for use are followed. The propellant is included in the net quantity statement. (b)...

  12. Frequency, Quantity, and Quantity X Frequency as Indicators of College Student Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.

    1991-01-01

    Compared relative efficacy of three drinking indices (quantity, frequency, quantity x frequency) in predicting presence of drinking problems in college students (n=55 males; 64 females). Although drinking frequency was as good a predictor as quantity x frequency for predicting such problems in males, it was best predictor of female drinking…

  13. Are Quantity-Distances Narrowing in?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    REPORT TYPE N/A 3 . DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Are Quantity-Distances Narrowing in? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...adopt AASTP-1 and AASTP-5 for ammunition storage /1/, /2 /. Quantity-Distance History The history of QD goes far back, see e.g. / 3 /, /4/, /5...6 3 /. Reference / / quotes /7 /: “Act for preventing the Mischiefs which may happen by keeping too great Quantities of gunpowder in or near

  14. Is it a biological response or chemical process? Chemical and transcriptional regulation experiments probe the cause for the increased accumulation of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in carrot root slices exposed to UV-B light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently demonstrated that wounded carrot roots subjected to a brief UV-B light treatment accumulate large quantities of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in the treated tissues. Chlorogenic acid is an intermediate in the phenylpropanoid pathway and a potent anti-oxidant. Chemical analysis and real-time P...

  15. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N O

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  16. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  17. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  18. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  20. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  1. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary to... district manager and specified in the ventilation plan: (1) Self-propelled equipment meeting...

  2. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary to... district manager and specified in the ventilation plan: (1) Self-propelled equipment meeting...

  3. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  4. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple

  5. Counting on your friends: The role of social environment on quantity discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E McKenna

    2016-07-01

    Quantity discrimination has been established in a range of species. However, most demonstrations of quantity discrimination control for social factors by testing animals individually. I tested whether sociality affects quantity discrimination in the wild by comparing the performances of the highly social Mexican jay (MJ; Aphelocoma wollweberi) and the territorial Western scrub jay (WJ; Aphelocoma californica). The birds were given a choice between two lines of peanuts that differed in initial quantity ranging from 2 vs 8 to 14 vs 16. Their choices were recorded until all peanuts were eaten or cached. Whereas non-social WJ selected the larger quantity across all the trials significantly more than chance, social MJ selected the larger line only when the difference in the number of peanuts between lines was small. In MJ, individual choice when selecting the large or small quantity was influenced by what line the previous bird had chosen when the difference in lines was large, with followers significantly more likely to select the smaller quantity. WJ were not significantly affected by the choices of other individuals. The only factors that influenced WJ choice were ratio and total differences between the two quantities. These results suggests that in certain scenarios, both species can discriminate between different quantities. However, MJ were greatly influenced by social factors, a previously untested factor, while WJ were only influenced by ratio and total difference between the quantities, consistent with findings in other species. Overall, this study demonstrates the important role of sociality in numerical cognitive performance, a previously overlooked factor.

  6. Different effects of low- and high-dose waterborne zinc on Zn accumulation, ROS levels, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses in the liver of large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zeng, Lin; Xu, Mei-Ying; Shen, Bin; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess survival rate, Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses after Zn exposure (2 and 8 mg L(-1) Zn) at different exposure times (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) in the liver of large yellow croaker. Survival rate was reduced at 96 h, and hepatic Zn content increased during 24-96 by 8 mg L(-1) Zn. In the 2 mg L(-1) Zn group, no fish died and the increase in Zn content merely occurred at 96 h. Exposure to 8 mg L(-1) Zn induced accumulation of ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation during the late stage of exposure. In contrast, exposure to 2 mg L(-1) Zn did not result in oxidative damage, which may result from the up-regulation of antioxidant defenses. Although exposure to 8 mg L(-1) Zn increased activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes during the early stage of exposure, including Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GPx and GR, the activities of these enzymes except Cu/Zn-SOD were inhibited at 96 h. Furthermore, a sharp increase in Nrf2 expression was observed in fish exposed to 8 mg L(-1) at 6 and 12 h, and 2 mg L(-1) at 12 h and 24 h, suggesting that Nrf2 was required for the protracted induction of these genes. The late increase in Keap1 expression may support its role in switching off the Nrf2 response. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated different effects of low- and high-dose waterborne Zn on antioxidant responses, which could contribute to the understanding of antioxidant and toxic roles of zinc on a molecular level.

  7. Quantity Representation in Children and Rhesus Monkeys: Linear Versus Logarithmic Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Ready, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The performances of 4- and 5-year-olds and rhesus monkeys were compared using a computerized task for quantity assessment. Participants first learned two quantity anchor values and then responded to intermediate values by classifying them as similar to either the large anchor or the small anchor. Of primary interest was an assessment of where the…

  8. Relative quantity judgments in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have documented the ability of many species to make relative quantity judgments using an analogue magnitude system. We investigated whether one beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and three bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, were capable of selecting the larger of two sets of quantities, and analyzed if their performance matched predictions from the object file model versus the analog accumulator model. In Experiment 1, the two sets were presented simultaneously, under water, and they were visually (condition 1) or echoically (condition 2) available at the time of choice. In experiment 2, the two sets were presented above the water, successively (condition 1) or sequentially, item-by-item (condition 2), so that they were not visually available at the time of choice (condition 1) or at any time throughout the experiment (condition 2). We analyzed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities, and the total number of items presented on the subjects' choices. All subjects selected the larger of the two sets of quantities above chance levels in all conditions. However, unlike most previous studies, the subjects' choices did not match the predictions from the accumulator model. Whether these findings reflect interspecies differences in the mechanisms which underpin relative quantity judgments remains to be determined.

  9. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Chlorella vulgaris: Potential targets for enhanced lipid accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Nag, Ambarish; Yang, Shihui; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2013-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are capable of producing large quantities of fatty acids and triacylglycerides. As such, they are promising feedstocks for the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Genetic strain-engineering strategies offer a means to accelerate the commercialization of algal biofuels by improving the rate and total accumulation of microalgal lipids. However, the industrial potential of these organisms remains to be met, largely due to the incomplete knowledgebase surrounding the mechanisms governing the induction of algal lipid biosynthesis. Such strategies require further elucidation of genes and gene products controlling algal lipid accumulation. In this study, we have set out to examine these mechanisms and identify novel strain-engineering targets in the oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Comparative shotgun proteomic analyses have identified a number of novel targets, including previously unidentified transcription factors and proteins involved in cell signaling and cell cycle regulation. These results lay the foundation for strain-improvement strategies and demonstrate the power of translational proteomic analysis.

  11. Active hydrocarbon biosynthesis and accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (race A).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Mana; Mukaida, Fukiko; Okada, Sigeru; Noguchi, Tetsuko

    2013-08-01

    Among oleaginous microalgae, the colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii accumulates especially large quantities of hydrocarbons. This accumulation may be achieved more by storage of lipids in the extracellular space rather than in the cytoplasm, as is the case for all other examined oleaginous microalgae. The stage of hydrocarbon synthesis during the cell cycle was determined by autoradiography. The cell cycle of B. braunii race A was synchronized by aminouracil treatment, and cells were taken at various stages in the cell cycle and cultured in a medium containing [(14)C]acetate. Incorporation of (14)C into hydrocarbons was detected. The highest labeling occurred just after septum formation, when it was about 2.6 times the rate during interphase. Fluorescent and electron microscopy revealed that new lipid accumulation on the cell surface occurred during at least two different growth stages and sites of cells. Lipid bodies in the cytoplasm were not prominent in interphase cells. These lipid bodies then increased in number, size, and inclusions, reaching maximum values just before the first lipid accumulation on the cell surface at the cell apex. Most of them disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the second new accumulation at the basolateral region, where extracellular lipids continuously accumulated. The rough endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane is prominent in B. braunii, and the endoplasmic reticulum was often in contact with both a chloroplast and lipid bodies in cells with increasing numbers of lipid bodies. We discuss the transport pathway of precursors of extracellular hydrocarbons in race A.

  12. Prosimian Primates Show Ratio Dependence in Spontaneous Quantity Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah M.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS) and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of non-human animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (≤3), both values were large (>3), or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of non-human primates. PMID:23420691

  13. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING...

  14. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  15. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  16. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  17. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they…

  18. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  19. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  20. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  1. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  2. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  3. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  4. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  5. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  6. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  7. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  8. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  10. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  11. Metabolic and morphological changes of an oil accumulating trebouxiophycean alga in nitrogen-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuro; Tanaka, Miho; Shinkawa, Haruka; Nakada, Takashi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Kurano, Norihide; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2013-03-01

    Oil-rich algae have promising potential for a next-generation biofuel feedstock. Pseudochoricystis ellipsoidea MBIC 11204, a novel unicellular green algal strain, accumulates a large amount of oil (lipids) in nitrogen-deficient (-N) conditions. Although the oil bodies are easily visualized by lipophilic staining in the cells, little is known about how oil bodies are metabolically synthesized. Clarifying the metabolic profiles in -N conditions is important to understand the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations and will be useful to optimize culture conditions efficiently produce industrial oil. Metabolome and lipidome profiles were obtained, respectively, using capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from P. ellipsoidea in both nitrogen-rich (+N; rapid growth) and -N conditions. Relative quantities of more than 300 metabolites were systematically compared between these two conditions. Amino acids in nitrogen assimilation and N-transporting metabolisms were decreased to 1/20 the amount, or less, in -N conditions. In lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased greatly in -N conditions; however, quantities of nearly all the other lipids either decreased or only changed slightly. The morphological changes in +N and -N conditions were also provided by microscopy, and we discuss their relationship to the metabolic changes. This is the first approach to understand the novel algal strain's metabolism using a combination of wide-scale metabolome analysis and morphological analysis.

  12. Memory formation under stress: quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T; Oitzl, Melly S

    2010-03-01

    Stress shapes memory. Depending on the timing of the stress exposure facilitating and impairing effects of stress are reported on how much is learned and remembered. Beyond such stress-induced changes in the quantity of memory, recent research suggests that stress also affects the contribution of multiple memory systems to performance. Under stress, rigid 'habit' memory gets favored over more flexible 'cognitive' memory. Thus, stress has an impact on the way we learn and remember, that is the quality of memory. This shift between different behavioral strategies on "environmental demands" may facilitate adaptive responses. Here, we review stress effects on both quantity and quality of memory and address possible implications of these effects for the understanding of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  13. QUANTITY: An Isobaric Tag for Quantitative Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Meiyao; Chen, Lijun; Yin, Bojiao; Song, Guoqiang; Turko, Illarion V.; Phinney, Karen W.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Glycan is an important class of macromolecules that play numerous biological functions. Quantitative glycomics - analysis of glycans at global level - however, is far behind genomics and proteomics owing to technical challenges associated with their chemical properties and structural complexity. As a result, technologies that can facilitate global glycan analysis are highly sought after. Here, we present QUANTITY (Quaternary Amine Containing Isobaric Tag for Glycan), a quantitative approach that can not only enhance detection of glycans by mass spectrometry, but also allow high-throughput glycomic analysis from multiple biological samples. This robust tool enabled us to accomplish glycomic survey of bioengineered Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with knock-in/out enzymes involved in protein glycosylation. Our results demonstrated QUANTITY is an invaluable technique for glycan analysis and bioengineering. PMID:26616285

  14. Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2008-03-13

    Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized.

  15. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  16. [Key Technology and Quantity Control of Wearable Medical Devices].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongen; Yao, Shaowei

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, because the wearable medical devices can indicate the health monitoring index of blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen content, temperature, respiration of the human body anytime and anywhere, can also be used for the treatment of various diseases, accompanied by the development of large data, which will bring a subversive revolution for the medical device industry. This paper introduces the development of wearable devices, key technical index of main products, and to make a preliminary study on its quantity control.

  17. Defining Value Through Quantity and Quality –Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Undervalue Food Quantities When Items are Broken

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is largely influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees’ food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a consistent bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than towards the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set’s quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a sets original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options. PMID:25447509

  18. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  19. Wolman's Disease: A Microscopic and Biochemical Study Showing Accumulation of Ceroid and Esterified Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Lowden, J. A.; Barson, A. J.; Wentworth, P.

    1970-01-01

    A case of Wolman's disease is described in a female infant who died at 7 weeks of age. This rare familial disorder is characterized by bilateral adrenal calcification and the accumulation of esterified cholesterol in many tissues. For the first time large quantities of ceroid have been demonstrated in the liver, spleen, adrenals, lymph nodes and particularly within the lamina propria of the small intestine. It is postulated that there exists in these patients a decreased activity of cholesterol esterases. The accumulated cholesterol esters may then be oxidized to form ceroid. Since ceroid is quite impermeable, intestinal absorption is progressively impaired, leading ultimately to death. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5414926

  20. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  1. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  2. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52....211-16 Variation in Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(a), insert the following clause: Variation in Quantity (APR 1984) (a) A variation in the quantity of any item called for by this contract will not...

  3. The Acquisition of Quantity Contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Katsura; Reid, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the acquisition of quantity contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok, an indigenous language spoken in the Philippines. Four-year-old and 5-year-old children's perception and production of quantity contrasts were examined using a pair of names that contrast in the quantity of the medial nasal. Frequencies of the quantity contrast were…

  4. Conserved Quantities in the Generalized Heisenberg Magnet (ghm) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushahid, N.; Hassan, M.; Saleem, U.

    2013-03-01

    We study the conserved quantities of the generalized Heisenberg magnet (GHM) model. We derive the nonlocal conserved quantities of the model using the iterative procedure of Brezin et al. [Phys. Lett. B82, 442 (1979).] We show that the nonlocal conserved quantities Poisson commute with local conserved quantities of the model.

  5. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  7. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  9. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  10. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  11. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  12. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  15. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  16. On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    adjectives, and adverbs can determine a quantity that is not explicitly mentioned in a sentence. Verbs A quantity type can be implicitly referenced...provided as background knowledge in NL systems. Verb/ Adverb combination Quantity types can also be determined by combining verbs and adverbs . The...quantity type referenced in (11) is the rate of movement, or ‘velocity’. The adverb alone is not sufficient to determine the quantity type. Although

  17. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  18. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  19. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  20. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  1. Uncertainty quantification of measured quantities for a HCCI engine: mass-average quantities and perofrmances

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, Guillaume; Whitesides, Russel

    2016-12-12

    UQHCCI_2 propagates the uncertainties of mass-average quantities (temperature, heat capacity ratio) and the output performances (IMEP, heat release, CA50 and RI) of a HCCI engine test bench using the pressure trace, and intake and exhaust molar fraction and IVC temperature distributions, as inputs (those inputs may be computed using another code UQHCCI_2, or entered independently).

  2. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  6. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  7. Estimating and operating on discrete quantities in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Call, J

    2000-06-01

    This study investigated the ability of 3 male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; 1 subadult, 2 adults) to estimate, compare, and operate on 2 sets of small quantities (1-6 cereal bits). Experiment 1 investigated the orangutans' ability to choose the larger of 2 quantities when they were presented successively as opposed to simultaneously, thus being perceptually unavailable at the time of choice. Experiment 2 investigated the orangutans' ability to select the larger quantity after the original quantities were augmented or reduced. Orangutans were capable of selecting the larger of 2 quantities in Experiment 1. There was also some evidence from Experiment 2, albeit weaker, that orangutans may mentally combine quantities (but not dissociate) to obtain the larger of 2 quantities. This study suggests that orangutans use a representational mechanism (especially when comparing quantities) to select the larger of 2 sets of items.

  8. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland.

  9. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  10. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor’s law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases. PMID:27310915

  11. Approximating relational observables by absolute quantities: a quantum accuracy-size trade-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Loveridge, Leon; Busch, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The notion that any physical quantity is defined and measured relative to a reference frame is traditionally not explicitly reflected in the theoretical description of physical experiments where, instead, the relevant observables are typically represented as ‘absolute’ quantities. However, the emergence of the resource theory of quantum reference frames as a new branch of quantum information science in recent years has highlighted the need to identify the physical conditions under which a quantum system can serve as a good reference. Here we investigate the conditions under which, in quantum theory, an account in terms of absolute quantities can provide a good approximation of relative quantities. We find that this requires the reference system to be large in a suitable sense.

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  13. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of § 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  14. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of § 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23.1551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29.1551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27.1551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments...

  18. Intensive Quantities: Why They Matter to Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A distinction can be drawn between extensive and intensive quantities. Extensive quantities (e.g., volume, distance), which have been the focus of developmental research, depend upon additive combination. Intensive quantities (e.g., density, speed), which have been relatively neglected, derive from proportional relations between variables. Thus,…

  19. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  20. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  4. Do Social Conditions Affect Capuchin Monkeys’ (Cebus apella) Choices in a Quantity Judgment Task?

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Beran et al. (2012) reported that capuchin monkeys closely matched the performance of humans in a quantity judgment test in which information was incomplete but a judgment still had to be made. In each test session, subjects first made quantity judgments between two known options. Then, they made choices where only one option was visible. Both humans and capuchin monkeys were guided by past outcomes, as they shifted from selecting a known option to selecting an unknown option at the point at which the known option went from being more than the average rate of return to less than the average rate of return from earlier choices in the test session. Here, we expanded this assessment of what guides quantity judgment choice behavior in the face of incomplete information to include manipulations to the unselected quantity. We manipulated the unchosen set in two ways: first, we showed the monkeys what they did not get (the unchosen set), anticipating that “losses” would weigh heavily on subsequent trials in which the same known quantity was presented. Second, we sometimes gave the unchosen set to another monkey, anticipating that this social manipulation might influence the risk-taking responses of the focal monkey when faced with incomplete information. However, neither manipulation caused difficulty for the monkeys who instead continued to use the rational strategy of choosing known sets when they were as large as or larger than the average rate of return in the session, and choosing the unknown (riskier) set when the known set was not sufficiently large. As in past experiments, this was true across a variety of daily ranges of quantities, indicating that monkeys were not using some absolute quantity as a threshold for selecting (or not) the known set, but instead continued to use the daily average rate of return to determine when to choose the known versus the unknown quantity. PMID:23181038

  5. Chromium accumulation in three species of central Florida centrarchids

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.R. |

    1995-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are required in Central Florida when land is developed to treat the resulting stormwater. The St. Johns River Water Management District, the agency that regulates stormwater discharges in Central Florida, frequently approves plans that create habitat for fish and wildlife by planting desirable wetland and aquatic vegetation in the littoral zones of stormwater ponds to compensate for the loss of wetlands. The various species of fish that inhabit stormwater ponds serve as a food source to wildlife, especially wading birds. The objective of this study was to determine if fish that live in stormwater treatment ponds in Orlando, Florida contained significant concentrations of chromium. In order to determine if there were differences in chromium concentrations in fish with different foraging strategies, three species of sunfish (Centrarchidae) with substantially different foraging strategies were selected for this study: largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a predator; redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), a bottom feeder; and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), an omnivore. Many researchers have shown that large quantities of chromium are found in urban runoff. Chromium sources are largely associates with the operation of motor vehicles. Several investigators have determined that chromium from urban runoff concentrates in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Sediments represent the most concentrated physical pool of metals in aquatic environments, and they are ingested by many types of aquatic organisms. Most fish are capable of accumulating heavy metals from their diet and from water through their gills. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  7. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liao-Fu

    2009-06-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  8. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  9. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  10. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  11. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  12. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  13. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  14. Does fine sediment source as well as quantity affect salmonid embryo mortality and development?

    PubMed

    Sear, D A; Jones, J I; Collins, A L; Hulin, A; Burke, N; Bateman, S; Pattison, I; Naden, P S

    2016-01-15

    Fine sediments are known to be an important cause of increased mortality in benthic spawning fish. To date, most of the research has focussed on the relationship between embryo mortality and the quantity of fine sediment accumulated in the egg pocket. However, recent evidence suggests a) that the source of fine sediment might also be important, and b) that fitness of surviving embryos post-hatch might also be impacted by the accumulation of fine sediments. In this paper, we report an experiment designed to simulate the incubation environment of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). During the experiment, the incubating embryos were exposed to different quantities of fine (<63 μm) sediment derived from four different sources; agricultural topsoils, damaged road verges, eroding river channel banks and tertiary level treated sewage. Results showed that mass and source are independently important for determining the mortality and fitness of alevin. Differences between species were observed, such that brown trout are less sensitive to mass and source of accumulated sediment. We demonstrate for the first time that sediment source is an additional control on the impact of fine sediment, and that this is primarily controlled by the organic matter content and oxygen consumption of the catchment source material.

  15. Quantity discounts on a virtual good: The results of a massive pricing experiment at King Digital Entertainment.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Steven D; List, John A; Neckermann, Susanne; Nelson, David

    2016-07-05

    We report on a natural field experiment on quantity discounts involving more than 14 million consumers. Implementing price reductions ranging from 9-70% for large purchases, we found remarkably little impact on revenue, either positively or negatively. There was virtually no increase in the quantity of customers making a purchase; all the observed changes occurred for customers who already were buyers. We found evidence that infrequent purchasers are more responsive to discounts than frequent purchasers. There was some evidence of habit formation when prices returned to pre-experiment levels. There also was some evidence that consumers contemplating small purchases are discouraged by the presence of extreme quantity discounts for large purchases.

  16. Organic matter quantity and quality, metals availability and foraminiferal assemblages as environmental proxy applied to the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Boukef-BenOmrane, Imen; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Reis, Darlly; Portela, Helena; Clemente, Iara Martins Matos Moreira; Nogueira, Leandro; Pereira, Egberto; Miranda, Paulo; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-15

    This study analyzes the benthic trophic state of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) based on the total organic matter and the bioavailability of biopolymeric carbon including proteins (PTN), carbohydrates (CHO), lipids (LIP), chlorophyll a, as well as bacteria counts. The overall simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) as well as the SEM/AVS ratio indicative of the toxicity of the sediments also were analyzed aiming to study their impact in the dimension, composition and structure of both dead and living benthic foraminiferal assemblages. In the studied sites TOC content is relatively high and the PTN/CHO values indicate that they can be considered as meso-eutrophic environments. The CHO/TOC and C/N values suggest that the OM which accumulated on the sediments surface has mainly natural origin despite the introduction of municipal and industrial effluents in the lagoon and the large bacterial pool. The living assemblages of benthic foraminifera of Bizerte Lagoon are quite different to other Mediterranean transitional systems studied until now. They are composed of typical lagoonal species but also include several marine and opportunistic species including significant numbers of bolivinids, buliminids, Nonionella/Nonionoides spp. and Cassidulina/Globocassidulina spp. These assemblages seem to benefitfrom the physicochemical parameters and the sediment stability. They may however face environmental stress in the lagoon related to the AVS production as a result of the organic matter degradation and toxicity in some areas due to the available concentrations of metals. Nonetheless statistical results evidence that the structure and dimension of assemblages are being controlled mostly by OM quantity and quality related mainly to the availability of PTN, CHO and chlorophyll a. Results of this work support the importance of considering OM quantity and quality in studies of environmental impact in coastal systems.

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY... quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  18. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs.

  19. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  20. Transformation of lipid bodies related to hydrocarbon accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race B).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Reiko; Ito, Naoko; Uno, Yuki; Nishii, Ichiro; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Okada, Sigeru; Noguchi, Tetsuko

    2013-01-01

    The colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii accumulates large quantities of hydrocarbons mainly in the extracellular space; most other oleaginous microalgae store lipids in the cytoplasm. Botryococcus braunii is classified into three principal races (A, B, and L) based on the types of hydrocarbons. Race B has attracted the most attention as an alternative to petroleum by its higher hydrocarbon contents than the other races and its hydrocarbon components, botryococcenes and methylsqualenes, both can be readily converted into biofuels. We studied race B using fluorescence and electron microscopy, and clarify the stage when extracellular hydrocarbon accumulation occurs during the cell cycle, in a correlation with the behavior and structural changes of the lipid bodies and discussed development of the algal colony. New accumulation of lipids on the cell surface occurred after cell division in the basolateral region of daughter cells. While lipid bodies were observed throughout the cell cycle, their size and inclusions were dynamically changing. When cells began dividing, the lipid bodies increased in size and inclusions until the extracellular accumulation of lipids started. Most of the lipids disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the extracellular accumulation, and then reformed. We therefore hypothesize that lipid bodies produced during the growth of B. braunii are related to lipid secretion. New lipids secreted at the cell surface formed layers of oil droplets, to a maximum depth of six layers, and fused to form flattened, continuous sheets. The sheets that combined a pair of daughter cells remained during successive cellular divisions and the colony increased in size with increasing number of cells.

  1. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  2. Recent organic carbon accumulation (~100 years) along the Cabo Frio, Brazil upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Caldeira, Pedro P.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Belem, Andre; Mendoza, Ursula M. N.; Cordeiro, Lívia G. M. S.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2014-03-01

    Six sediment cores were obtained from the Cabo Frio shelf region of coastal Brazil to quantify the accumulation of organic carbon in a highly productive upwelling region. The sampled locations, 10-60 km offshore at ~100 m water depth, were investigated for excess 210Pb (210Pbex) as well as 239+240Pu fallout activities to determine sedimentary dynamics. The 210Pbex and 239+240Pu dating models show that the sediment accumulation rates varied substantially throughout this complex hydrodynamic system (0.8-5.5 mm yr-1). Excess 210Pb and 239+240Pu fluxes indicate lateral transport, with varying intensity along the continental shelf. The stations with the greatest 210Pbex and 239+240Pu sediment inventories are also the sites with the highest carbon accumulation rates (CAR). The total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents, along with the δ13C results, indicate that the organic matter deposited in this region is mainly of marine origin. The results of this work suggest that lateral transport, with varying intensity along the shelf, contribute to the large quantities of marine plankton buried at specific depositional settings in the Cabo Frio upwelling region (~1-8 mol of OC cm-2 yr-1).

  3. The Study of Tone in Languages with a Quantity Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of tone in languages that additionally have a phonological contrastive of quantity, such as vowel length or stress. In such complex word-prosodic systems, tone and the quantity contrast(s) can be fully independent of one another, or they may interact. Both of these configurations are illustrated in this paper, and…

  4. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Quantity of contents. (a) The label shall bear a statement of the quantity of contents in terms of weight... weight that would otherwise be required under this subparagraph: Provided, That the shipping container bears a statement “Net weight to be marked on consumer packages prior to display and sale”: And...

  5. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Quantity of contents. (a) The label shall bear a statement of the quantity of contents in terms of weight... weight that would otherwise be required under this subparagraph: Provided, That the shipping container bears a statement “Net weight to be marked on consumer packages prior to display and sale”: And...

  6. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... based. The reportable quantity applies to the waste itself, not merely to the toxic contaminant. If an...(b) have the reportable quantity of 100 pounds, except for those unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have...

  7. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... based. The reportable quantity applies to the waste itself, not merely to the toxic contaminant. If an...(b) have the reportable quantity of 100 pounds, except for those unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have...

  8. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of quantity transferred. 25.183 Section 25.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the...

  9. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  10. 33 CFR 183.105 - Quantity of flotation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity of flotation required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.105 Quantity of flotation required. (a) Each boat must have...

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  14. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  15. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  16. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less than an entire...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon,...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  19. Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Hout, Karel

    2012-09-01

    This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

  20. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title,...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 27.1553 Section 27... § 27.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29... Placards § 29.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on each indicator at the calibrated zero reading, as specified in § 23.1337(b)(1)....

  5. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products containing underdetermined qualities of such fibers, the percentage...

  6. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  7. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  8. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  9. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  10. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  11. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  14. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  15. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  17. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  18. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  19. 33 CFR 183.105 - Quantity of flotation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity of flotation required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.105 Quantity of flotation required. (a) Each boat must have...

  20. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  1. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29... Placards § 29.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on each indicator at the calibrated zero reading, as specified in § 23.1337(b)(1)....

  4. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 27.1553 Section 27... § 27.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator...

  6. The equation of state for stellar envelopes. III - Thermodynamic quantities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeppen, Werner; Mihalas, Dimitri; Hummer, D. G.; Mihalas, Barbara Weibel

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for deriving general expressions for all thermodynamic quantities of interest of a partially ionized multicomponent gas in terms of derivatives of the free energy. Explicit analytical formulas for all derivatives required in the evaluation of these quantities are given. Representative results for a hydrogen-helium mixture are shown.

  7. Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

  8. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  9. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  10. Potential radioactive scrap metal quantities from nuclear power plants worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Tilbrook, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 12 million tons of scrap metals are likely to be generated worldwide during the next 50 years from decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. A large portion of this material will be only slightly contaminated it at all, and, it it is releasable, it would have a scrap value of billions of dollars. Disposition of the metal is complicated because criteria for release of the metal vary among countries depending on whether the metal is surface of volumetrically contaminated. At present, there is no internationally accepted standard for release of low-level contaminated materials, though both the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Commission of European Communities are in the process of developing recommendations. If the metals are not releasable, they will most likely be disposed of as low-level waste. However, currently available low-level waste repository capacity is limited and costly. Using repositories to dispose of metals that could potentially be decontaminated and recycled is probably not good resource management. This article presents estimates of metal quantities by metal type and contamination that will be come available as nuclear power plants are retired. Topics discussed are major issues related to inventory estimates, methods used to estimate metal masses; and metal masses summarized by reference plant category and total for world region by metal type and activity category. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. On wormholes with arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fewster, Christopher J.; Roman, Thomas A.

    2005-08-15

    Recently several models of traversable wormholes have been proposed which require only arbitrarily small amounts of negative energy to hold them open against self-collapse. If the exotic matter is assumed to be provided by quantum fields, then quantum inequalities can be used to place constraints on the negative energy densities required. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method for obtaining constraints on wormhole geometries, using a recently derived quantum inequality bound on the null-contracted stress-energy averaged over a timelike worldline. The bound allows us to perform a simplified analysis of general wormhole models, not just those with small quantities of exotic matter. We then use it to study, in particular, the models of Visser, Kar, and Dadhich (VKD) and the models of Kuhfittig. The VKD models are constrained to be either submicroscopic or to have a large discrepancy between throat size and curvature radius. A recent model of Kuhfittig is shown to be nontraversable. This is due to the fact that the throat of his wormhole flares outward so slowly that light rays and particles, starting from outside the throat, require an infinite lapse of affine parameter to reach the throat.

  12. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  13. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  14. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  15. Comparison of methods for high quantity and quality genomic DNA extraction from raw cow milk.

    PubMed

    Usman, T; Yu, Y; Liu, C; Fan, Z; Wang, Y

    2014-04-29

    Isolation of sufficient quantities of high quality DNA is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Milk somatic cells can be used; however, inhibitors such as fats and proteins make milk a difficult medium for extracting large amounts of quality DNA. We optimized, evaluated and compared three methods, Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method, Modified TianGen Kit method and Phenol-Chloroform method for genomic DNA extraction from bovine milk. Individual cows' milk and bulk milk samples were collected from a China agricultural university dairy farm. Genomic DNA extracted from each milk sample by the three methods was evaluated for quantity and purity by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, as well as PCR and sequencing. All the three methods were found suitable for genomic DNA isolation from bovine milk, PCR applications, and sequencing. Comparing the three methods, we found that the Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method was significantly better than the Phenol-Chloroform method in terms of quantity as well as quality (amount, concentration, 260/280 nm and 260/230 nm absorbance ratio), whereas, the Modified TianGen Kit method was more efficient than the Phenol-Chloroform method and cheaper than the Modified Nucleospine Blood Kit method; it yielded reasonably good quantities of good quality DNA and would be suitable for large-scale genotyping of lactating cows.

  16. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata. I. Large-Scale Changes in the Accumulation of Growth- and Defense-Related Plant mRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Hermsmeier, Dieter; Schittko, Ursula; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N. attenuata and verified differential expression for 27 cDNAs. Northern analyses were used to study the effects of folivory and exposure to airborne methyl jasmonate and for kinetic analyses throughout a 16-h- light/8-h-dark cycle. Sequence similarity searches allowed putative functions to be assigned to 15 transcripts. Genes were related to photosynthesis, electron transport, cytoskeleton, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, signaling, and a group responding to stress, wounding, or invasion of pathogens. Overall, transcripts involved in photosynthesis were strongly down-regulated, whereas those responding to stress, wounding, and pathogens and involved in shifting carbon and nitrogen to defense were strongly up-regulated. The majority of transcripts responded similarly to airborne methyl jasmonate and folivory, and had tissue- and diurnal-specific patterns of expression. Transcripts encoding Thr deaminase (TD) and a putative retrotransposon were absent in control plants, but were strongly induced after herbivory. Full-length sequences were obtained for TD and the pathogen-inducible α-dioxygenase, PIOX. Effects of abiotic and biotic stimuli were investigated for transcripts encoding TD, importin α, PIOX, and a GAL83-like kinase cofactor. PMID:11161026

  17. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.45 Quantity of ventilating air. (a) Results of the engine...

  18. Symmetries as by-products of conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Maltrana, Diego

    2015-11-01

    There is general consensus among physicists in considering symmetries as a source of conserved quantities, a conclusion allegedly supported by Emmy Noether's theorems. Recently it has been pointed out that no arrow of explanation can be extracted from Noether's work, and there are also criticisms against the priority of particular symmetries over specific conserved quantities under Noether's ideas, but there are no general arguments against the aforementioned consensus, nor proposals promoting an explanation that leads from conserved quantities to symmetries. In this paper a general argument is built which favours conserved quantities over symmetries inasmuch as the presence of the former seems to allow (i.e. it seems to be a sufficient condition leading to) symmetrical descriptions.

  19. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  20. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  1. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  2. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  3. Ultra-rapid formation of large volumes of evolved magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, C.; Jaupart, C.

    2006-10-01

    We discuss evidence for, and evaluate the consequences of, the growth of magma reservoirs by small increments of thin (⋍ 1-2 m) sills. For such thin units, cooling proceeds faster than the nucleation and growth of crystals, which only allows a small amount of crystallization and leads to the formation of large quantities of glass. The heat balance equation for kinetic-controlled crystallization is solved numerically for a range of sill thicknesses, magma injection rates and crustal emplacement depths. Successive injections lead to the accumulation of poorly crystallized chilled magma with the properties of a solid. Temperatures increase gradually with each injection until they become large enough to allow a late phase of crystal nucleation and growth. Crystallization and latent heat release work in a positive feedback loop, leading to catastrophic heating of the magma pile, typically by 200 °C in a few decades. Large volumes of evolved melt are made available in a short time. The time for the catastrophic heating event varies as Q- 2 , where Q is the average magma injection rate, and takes values in a range of 10 5-10 6 yr for typical geological magma production rates. With this mechanism, storage of large quantities of magma beneath an active volcanic center may escape detection by seismic methods.

  4. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  5. Assessment of storage lipid accumulation patterns in eucalanoid copepods from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2014-11-01

    Members of the copepod family Eucalanidae are widely distributed throughout the world's oceans and have been noted for their accumulation of storage lipids in high- and low-latitude environments. However, little is known about the lipid composition of eucalanoid copepods in low-latitude environments. The purpose of this study was to examine fatty acid and alcohol profiles in the storage lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols) of Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, R. nasutus, Pareucalanus attenuatus, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, collected primarily in the eastern tropical north Pacific near the Tehuantepec Bowl and Costa Rica Dome regions, noted for its oxygen minimum zone, during fall 2007 and winter 2008/2009. Adult copepods and particulate material were collected in the upper 50 m and from 200 to 300 m in the upper oxycline. Lipid profiles of particulate matter were generated to help ascertain information on ecological strategies of these species and on differential accumulation of dietary and modified fatty acids in the wax ester and triacylglycerol storage lipid components of these copepods in relation to their vertical distributions around the oxygen minimum zone. Additional data on phospholipid fatty acid and sterol/fatty alcohol fractions were also generated to obtain a comprehensive lipid data set for each sample. Rhincalanus spp. accumulated relatively large amounts of storage lipids (31-80% of dry mass (DM)), while E. inermis had moderate amounts (2-9% DM), and P. attenuatus and S. subtenuis had low quantities of storage lipid (0-1% DM). E. inermis and S. subtenuis primarily accumulated triacylglycerols (>90% of storage lipids), while P. attenuatus and Rhincalanus spp. primarily accumulated wax esters (>84% of storage lipids). Based on previously generated molecular phylogenies of the Eucalanidae family, these results appear to support genetic predisposition as a major factor explaining why a given species accumulates primarily triacylglycerols

  6. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guozhu

    2008-05-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts, and all four major physical quantities, energy, time, momentum and length, have both lower and upper limits. Now, many questions come up. What are these limits? Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe. What is the shortest limit of time? At the beginning of big bang, there exists a tremendously short time, the Planck time. This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe. The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe. The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe. All these lead to a finite universe. Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities, mass and speed, thermal energy and temperature. These four physical quantities must also have limits. We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit. By these two formulae, Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly. Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities, it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities. A quantitative sketch of big bang is described. It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang. The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation. It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  7. Processing, mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of ultrafine grained zirconium fabricated by accumulative roll bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ling

    The aim of this study is to produce large quantities of bulk zirconium with an ultrafine grained microstructure and with enhanced properties. Accumulative roll bonding (ARB), a severe plastic deformation technique based on rolling, is chosen due to its availability in industrial environment. The texture, microstructure and mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine grained (ufg) Zr fabricated by accumulative roll bonding is investigated by electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and mechanical testing. A reasonably homogeneous and equiaxed ufg structure, with a large fraction of high angle boundaries (HABs, ˜70%), can be obtained in Zr after only two ARB cycles. The average grain size, counting only HABs (theta>15°), is 400 nm. (Sub)grain size is equal to 320 nm. The yield stress and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) values are nearly double those from conventionally processed Zr with only a slight loss of ductility. Optimum processing conditions include large thickness reductions per pass (˜75%), which enhance grain refinement, and a rolling temperature (T ˜ 0.3Tm) at which a sufficient number of slip modes are activated, with an absence of significant grain growth. Grain refinement takes place by geometrical thinning and grain subdivision by the formation of geometrically necessary boundaries. The formation of equiaxed grains by geometric dynamic recrystallization is facilitated by enhanced diffusion due to adabatic heating. Optical microscopy examination and shear testing suggest accepted bonding quality compared to that achieved in materials processed by diffusion bonding and that obtained in other ARB studies. Biocompatibility of ultrafine grained Zr processed by large strain rolling is studied by evaluating the behavior of human osteoblast cells. It is suggested that ultrafine grained Zr has a similar good biocompatibility as Ti6Al4V alloy and conventional Zr with a large grain size have. The improved mechanical properties together with

  8. Quantities of arsenic-treated wood in demolition debris generated by Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Brajesh; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsendt, Timothy G

    2007-03-01

    The disaster debris from Hurricane Katrina is one of the largest in terms of volume and economic loss in American history. One of the major components of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures such as electrical poles, fences, decks, and homes a considerable amount of treated wood and consequently arsenic will be disposed as disaster debris. In this study an effort was made to estimate the quantity of arsenic disposed through demolition debris generated in the Louisiana and Mississippi area through Hurricane Katrina. Of the 72 million cubic meters of disaster debris generated, roughly 12 million cubic meters were in the form of construction and demolition wood resulting in an estimated 1740 metric tons of arsenic disposed. Management of disaster debris should consider the relatively large quantities of arsenic associated with pressure-treated wood.

  9. Quantities of Arsenic-Treated Wood in Demolition Debris Generated by Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Brajesh; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    The disaster debris from Hurricane Katrina is one of the largest in terms of volume and economic loss in American history. One of the major components of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures such as electrical poles, fences, decks, and homes a considerable amount of treated wood and consequently arsenic will be disposed as disaster debris. In this study an effort was made to estimate the quantity of arsenic disposed through demolition debris generated in the Louisiana and Mississippi area through Hurricane Katrina. Of the 72 million cubic meters of disaster debris generated, roughly 12 million cubic meters were in the form of construction and demolition wood resulting in an estimated 1740 metric tons of arsenic disposed. Management of disaster debris should consider the relatively large quantities of arsenic associated with pressure-treated wood. PMID:17396637

  10. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Opportunity Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity was expected to accumulate a sufficient quantity of dust after ninety Martian days (sols) such that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Opportunity continues to operate on the Martian surface for over 4000 sols (over six Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced six Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a method to scientifically estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Meridiani Planum over the course of the entire mission to date.

  11. Octopine Accumulation Early in Crown Gall Development is Progressive 1

    PubMed Central

    Toothman, Penelope

    1982-01-01

    A purification of octopine from crown gall tissue was developed to quantitate conversion of precursor [3H]arginine into [3H]octopine. Plant wound tissue which was sterile or infected with an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens did not accumulate detectable quantities of octopine, consistent with opine synthesis not being induced by wounding or infection. Octopine was only recovered from tissue infected with virulent tumor-inducing strains of A. tumefaciens. In every case tested, the morphological appearance of tumors preceded the accumulation of octopine by at least 1 week, and in some instances 3 weeks. Thus, what was necessary and sufficient for the expression of plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) required for tumor growth was not sufficient for the accumulation of octopine. The possible nature of the temporal difference in the expression of hormone autotrophy and octopine synthesis is discussed. Images PMID:16662161

  12. Explosion Hazards Associated with Spills of Large Quantities of Hazardous Materials. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    methane is relatively even more difficult to ignite. Norma ! shock tables were used to calculate At required for ignition of methane as a function of...10, U.S. Coast Guard, October 1972. Witte, S. C., and J. E. Cox, Nonchemical Explosive Interaction of’ LNG and Water. ASME Winter Annual Meeting, 28

  13. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  14. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... milliliter=0.033 814 0 fluid oz. 1 liquid pint=473.177 mL 1 liter=1.05669 liquid quart. =0.473 177 L 1 liter... g 1 milligram=0.000 035 274 0 oz. 1 pound=453.592 g =0.015 432 4 grain. =0.453 592 kg 1 gram=0.035... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  15. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  16. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  17. Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

    2008-12-01

    Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

  18. Regulatory compliance by small-quantity generators of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    While small quantity and very small quantity generators of hazardous waste (SQCs and VSQGs) are responsible for less than one percent of the total hazardous waste produced, mismanagement of even small quantities of many types of hazardous waste can cause significant local impacts. Most SQGs and VSQGs are also small businesses. They are presumed to face significant time, expertise, and other resource constraints in complying with legally and technically complex regulations such as those that govern hazardous waste management. A sample of 400 SQGs and VSQGs in New Jersey was surveyed to assess policy options for two policy issues identified by the New Jersey Hazardous Waste Facilities Siting Commission: (1) enhancing regulatory compliance by SQGs, and (2) promoting voluntary adherence with hazardous waste regulations by VSQGs in the state. The analysis empirically tests hypotheses based on the rational utility maximization and bounded rationality models of individual and organizational decision making and compliance behavior.

  19. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  20. Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus): the effect of presenting whole sets versus item-by-item.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Daniel; Call, Josep

    2007-08-01

    The authors examined quantity-based judgments for up to 10 items for simultaneous and sequential whole sets as well as for sequentially dropped items in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). In Experiment 1, subjects had to choose the larger of 2 quantities presented in 2 separate dishes either simultaneously or 1 dish after the other. Representatives of all species were capable of selecting the larger of 2 quantities in both conditions, even when the quantities were large and the numerical distance between them was small. In Experiment 2, subjects had to select between the same food quantities sequentially dropped into 2 opaque cups so that none of the quantities were ever viewed as a whole. The authors found some evidence (albeit weaker) that subjects were able to select the larger quantity of items. Furthermore, the authors found no performance breakdown with the inclusion of certain quantities. Instead, the ratio between quantities was the best performance predictor. The authors conclude that quantity-based judgments rely on an analogical system, not a discrete object file model or perceptual estimation mechanism, such as subitizing.

  1. Partial molar quantity of an intensive mother function.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-09-28

    A new formal definition is given to the partial molar quantity of a component i for an intensive mother function. We perturb the entire system by increasing the amount of the target component by δn(i) keeping others constant and measure the response of the system in terms of an intensive mother function, Φ, δΦ. We then define its partial molar quantity of the ith component, φ(i), as φ(i) = [δΦ∕{δn(i)∕(N + δn(i))

  2. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed contingency task: the effects of food quantity and food visibility.

    PubMed

    Vlamings, Petra H J M; Uher, Jana; Call, Josep

    2006-01-01

    S. T. Boysen and G. G. Berntson (1995) found that chimpanzees performed poorly on a reversed contingency task in which they had to point to the smaller of 2 food quantities to acquire the larger quantity. The authors compared the performance of 4 great ape species (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) on the reversed contingency task while manipulating food quantity (0-4 or 1-4) and food visibility (visible pairs or covered pairs). Results showed no systematic species differences but large individual differences. Some individuals of each species were able to solve the reversed contingency task. Both quantity and visibility of the food items had a significant effect on performance. Subjects performed better when the disparity between quantities was smaller and the quantities were not directly visible.

  3. Utilization of experimental integral data for the adjustment and uncertainty evaluation of reactor design quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.; Collins, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Biases and uncertainties of calculated reactor design quantities caused by errors and uncertainties of basic parameters, such as neutron cross sections, fission spectra parameters, and prompt and delayed neutron yields, are large, and in most cases, exceed reactor design requirements. Errors and uncertainties due to models and methods approximations contribute as well. An extensive data base, with presently /approximately/300 experimental integral values from 28 critical assemblies, has been assembled at Argonne National Laboratory in order to provide improvements and to investigate both sources of uncertainties. Generalized-least-squares fitting is being used. The available large data base permitted the investigation of the influence of specific input data, the constraints of the covariance information, the selection of parameters, and the reliability of the predictions. It is shown that reliable improvements of calculated quantities like enrichment, breeding ratio, sodium void, control rod worth, power distribution, and material worth can be made. Substantial reductions of the uncertainties of these quantities, which are caused by the uncertainties of the basic parameters, are obtained in most cases. The FFTF uranium-metal-core conversion is the first application of the present effort. 21 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  5. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  6. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  7. Multichannel Magnetorelaxometry In Vivo Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticle Quantity for Thermal Ablation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Heike; Kettering, Melanie; Wiekhorst, Frank; Kosch, Olaf; Hilger, Ingrid; Trahms, Lutz

    2010-12-01

    To inactivate cancer cells with minimal side-effects to the normal tissue, cancer therapy as magnetic thermal ablation utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) injected into the tumor. When exposed to an externally applied alternating magnetic field MNP generate heat, which deactivates cellular processes or even generates lethal thermal doses. Hence, the intratumoral quantity of MNP needs to be thoroughly controlled to govern adequate heat production in the carcinoma region. Here, we investigate the capability of multichannel magnetorelaxometry (MRX) for quantitative measurement of MNP accumulation in the tumor region performed in vivo on a carcinoma mouse, and moreover, the feasibility of quantitative long-term monitoring of MNP amount in a conscious, freely moving mouse.

  8. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

  9. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. 300.28 Section 300.28 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.28...

  10. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  11. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  12. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  13. Linear actuation using milligram quantities of CL-20 and TAGDNAT.

    SciTech Connect

    Snedigar, Shane; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Ball, James Patrick; Basiliere, Marc; Fischer, Gary John

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous applications for small-scale actuation utilizing pyrotechnics and explosives. In certain applications, especially when multiple actuation strokes are needed, or actuator reuse is required, it is desirable to have all gaseous combustion products with no condensed residue in the actuator cylinder. Toward this goal, we have performed experiments on utilizing milligram quantities of high explosives to drive a millimeter-diameter actuator with a stroke of 30 mm. Calculations were performed to select proper material quantities to provide 0.5 J of actuation energy. This was performed utilizing the thermochemical code Cheetah to calculate the impetus for numerous propellants and to select quantities based on estimated efficiencies of these propellants at small scales. Milligram quantities of propellants were loaded into a small-scale actuator and ignited with an ignition increment and hot wire ignition. Actuator combustion chamber pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer and actuator stroke was monitored using a laser displacement meter. Total actuation energy was determined by calculating the kinetic energy of reaction mass motion against gravity. Of the materials utilized, the best performance was obtained with a mixture of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and bis-triaminoguanidinium(3,3{prime}dinitroazotriazolate) (TAGDNAT).

  14. 49 CFR 172.315 - Packages containing limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packages containing limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  15. Plotting Rates of Photosynthesis as a Function of Light Quantity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods for plotting rates of photosynthesis as a function of light quantity. Presents evidence that suggests that empirically derived conversion factors, which are used to convert foot candles to photon fluence rates, should be used with extreme caution. Suggests how rate data are best plotted when any kind of light meter is not…

  16. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  17. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  18. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  19. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  20. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  1. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  2. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  3. The Influence of Reasoning with Emergent Quantities on Students' Generalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the mathematical generalizations of two groups of algebra students, one which focused primarily on quantitative relationships, and one which focused primarily on number patterns disconnected from quantities. Results indicate that instruction encouraging a focus on number patterns supported generalizations about patterns,…

  4. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract is contemplated that authorizes a...

  5. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  9. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... sale of the coal shall exceed the cost of developing the mine and extracting, removing,...

  10. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of minimal quantities. 983.53 Section 983.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing of minimal quantities. 983.53 Section 983.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  12. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... based upon any increase or decrease in costs due solely to the variation above 115 percent or below 85... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause...

  13. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  14. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852.216-70 Section 852.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery of Excess Quantities. 52.211-17 Section 52.211-17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  16. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Variation in Estimated Quantity. 52.211-18 Section 52.211-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  17. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52.211-16 Section 52.211-16 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  18. CSM programs SM RCS propellant quantity gaging systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. R.; Reynolds, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program calculates actual and useable remaining propellant quantities as required in positive expulsion rocket engine propellant feed system. Program establishes relationship between helium system pressures and temperatures and propellant weight remaining in tanks. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 for IBM-360 computer.

  19. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  20. Approximate quantities and exact number words: dissociable systems.

    PubMed

    Lemer, Cathy; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth; Cohen, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Numerical abilities are thought to rest on the integration of two distinct systems, a verbal system of number words and a non-symbolic representation of approximate quantities. This view has lead to the classification of acalculias into two broad categories depending on whether the deficit affects the verbal or the quantity system. Here, we test the association of deficits predicted by this theory, and particularly the presence or absence of impairments in non-symbolic quantity processing. We describe two acalculic patients, one with a focal lesion of the left parietal lobe and Gerstmann's syndrome and another with semantic dementia with predominantly left temporal hypometabolism. As predicted by a quantity deficit, the first patient was more impaired in subtraction than in multiplication, showed a severe slowness in approximation, and exhibited associated impairments in subitizing and numerical comparison tasks, both with Arabic digits and with arrays of dots. As predicted by a verbal deficit, the second patient was more impaired in multiplication than in subtraction, had intact approximation abilities, and showed preserved processing of non-symbolic numerosities.

  1. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies to receive, possess, use, and transfer uranium and thorium, in their natural isotopic concentrations and in the form of depleted uranium, for research, development, educational, commercial, or operational purposes in the following forms and quantities: (1) No more than 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) of uranium...

  2. Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

  3. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  4. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  5. Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

  6. Mapping among Number Words, Numerals, and Nonsymbolic Quantities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…

  7. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  8. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  9. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  10. Narrative Speech in Aging: Quantity, Information Content, and Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Pereiro, Arturo X.; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad

    2005-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in narrative speech of 79 adults aged 40-91 who told stories from their pictorial representations. Quantity, information content and cohesion of narratives were analysed using a detailed transcription and codification system. We carried out a LISREL analysis to study relationships between narrative…

  11. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value....

  12. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  13. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  14. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  15. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  16. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  17. Quantity Recognition among Speakers of an Anumeric Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Caleb; Madora, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the Piraha, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities greater than 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Piraha. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahas' performance in the crucial one-to-one…

  18. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  19. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  20. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  1. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  2. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  3. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  8. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  9. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  10. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  11. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  12. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  13. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  14. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  15. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  16. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED... single calendar day sell any purchaser more than 3.6 grams of ephedrine base, 3.6 grams...

  17. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  18. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  19. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  20. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  1. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  2. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  3. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  4. Quantity discounts on a virtual good: The results of a massive pricing experiment at King Digital Entertainment

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Steven D.; List, John A.; Neckermann, Susanne; Nelson, David

    2016-01-01

    We report on a natural field experiment on quantity discounts involving more than 14 million consumers. Implementing price reductions ranging from 9–70% for large purchases, we found remarkably little impact on revenue, either positively or negatively. There was virtually no increase in the quantity of customers making a purchase; all the observed changes occurred for customers who already were buyers. We found evidence that infrequent purchasers are more responsive to discounts than frequent purchasers. There was some evidence of habit formation when prices returned to pre-experiment levels. There also was some evidence that consumers contemplating small purchases are discouraged by the presence of extreme quantity discounts for large purchases. PMID:27382146

  5. A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

  6. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m{sup 3}/day (147 ft{sup 3}/day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ``burps,`` that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m{sup 3} (21,400 to 36,700 ft{sup 3}); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m{sup 3} (6,800 to 11,600 ft{sup 3}). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m{sup 3} (14,600 to 25,100 ft{sup 3}).

  7. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  8. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  9. Quantum Physics and Mathematical Debates Concerning the Problem of the Ontological Priority between Continuous Quantity and Discrete Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Victor Gómez

    In his book about the Categories (that is about the ultimate elements of classification and order), in the chapter concerning the quantity (IV, 20) Aristotle says that this concept recovers two kinds of modalities: the discrete quantity and the continuous quantity and he gives as examples the number for the first one; line, surface, solid, times and space for the second one. The main philosophical problem raised by this text is to determine which of the two modalities of the quantity has the ontological priority over the other (given two concepts A and B, we assume that A has ontological priority over B if every entity that possesses the quality B possesses necessarily the quality A). The problem is magnified by the fact that space, which in some part of Aristotle's Physics is mentioned not only as a category properly speaking but even as the main category whose power can be amazing, is in the evoked text of the Categories's Book reduced to expression of the continuum, and sharing this condition with time. In this matter the controversy is constant through the common history of Science and Philosophy.

  10. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... container became a waste or was received; (2) Marking or labeling the individual item of universal waste (e... Section 273.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal...

  11. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... container became a waste or was received; (2) Marking or labeling the individual item of universal waste (e... Section 273.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal...

  12. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... container became a waste or was received; (2) Marking or labeling the individual item of universal waste (e... Section 273.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal...

  13. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  14. Quantity control of the ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Fry, William H D; Simion, Catalina; Sweeney, Colleen; Carraway, Kermit L

    2011-07-01

    The ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to a variety of developmental processes, and its overexpression and aberrant activation promote tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that tumor overexpression may be mediated by the loss of posttranscriptional negative regulatory mechanisms, such as protein degradation, that normally keep receptor levels in check. Our previous studies indicate that the RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1, a protein lost in breast and other tumor types, suppresses ErbB3 levels by mediating ligand-independent receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Here we demonstrate that Nrdp1 preferentially associates with the nascent form of ErbB3 to accelerate its degradation, and we show that the two proteins colocalize at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Blocking the exit of ErbB3 from the ER does not affect the ability of Nrdp1 to mediate receptor ubiquitination or degradation, while functional disruption of the conserved ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway ATPase VCP/p97 leads to the Nrdp1-dependent accumulation of ubiquitinated ErbB3 but blocks receptor degradation. Further evidence indicates that the ErbB3 targeted by Nrdp1 for degradation is properly folded and fully functional. Collectively, these observations point to a novel mechanism of receptor tyrosine kinase quantity control wherein steady-state levels of signaling-competent receptor are dictated by an ER-localized degradation pathway.

  15. Quantity Control of the ErbB3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase at the Endoplasmic Reticulum▿

    PubMed Central

    Fry, William H. D.; Simion, Catalina; Sweeney, Colleen; Carraway, Kermit L.

    2011-01-01

    The ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to a variety of developmental processes, and its overexpression and aberrant activation promote tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that tumor overexpression may be mediated by the loss of posttranscriptional negative regulatory mechanisms, such as protein degradation, that normally keep receptor levels in check. Our previous studies indicate that the RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1, a protein lost in breast and other tumor types, suppresses ErbB3 levels by mediating ligand-independent receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Here we demonstrate that Nrdp1 preferentially associates with the nascent form of ErbB3 to accelerate its degradation, and we show that the two proteins colocalize at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Blocking the exit of ErbB3 from the ER does not affect the ability of Nrdp1 to mediate receptor ubiquitination or degradation, while functional disruption of the conserved ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway ATPase VCP/p97 leads to the Nrdp1-dependent accumulation of ubiquitinated ErbB3 but blocks receptor degradation. Further evidence indicates that the ErbB3 targeted by Nrdp1 for degradation is properly folded and fully functional. Collectively, these observations point to a novel mechanism of receptor tyrosine kinase quantity control wherein steady-state levels of signaling-competent receptor are dictated by an ER-localized degradation pathway. PMID:21576364

  16. The correlation between skeletal weathering and DNA quality and quantity.

    PubMed

    Misner, Lisa M; Halvorson, Andrea C; Dreier, Jennifer L; Ubelaker, Douglas H; Foran, David R

    2009-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analysis of skeletal material is invaluable in forensic identification, although results can vary widely among remains. Previous studies have included bones of different ages, burial conditions, and even species. In the research presented, a collection of human remains that lacked major confounders such as burial age, interment style, and gross environmental conditions, while displaying a very broad range of skeletal degradation, were examined for both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quality and quantity. Overall skeletal weathering, individual bone weathering, and bone variety were considered. Neither skeletal nor bone weathering influenced DNA quality or quantity, indicating that factors that degrade bone do not have the same effect on DNA. In contrast, bone variety, regardless of weathering level, was a significant element in DNA amplification success. Taken together, the results indicate that neither skeletal nor individual bone appearance are reliable indicators of subsequent mtDNA typing outcomes, while the type of bone assayed is.

  17. Variation of organic matter quantity and quality in streams at Critical Zone Observatory watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; McKnight, Diane M.; Brown, Michael G.; Gabor, Rachel S.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Iavorivska , Lidiia; Inamdar, Shreeram; Kaplan, Louis A.; Johnson, Dale W.; Lin, Henry; McDowell, William H.; Perdrial, Julia N.

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters influence ecosystem processes and anthropogenic use of freshwater. However, despite the importance of understanding spatial and temporal patterns in DOM, measures of DOM quality are not routinely included as part of large-scale ecosystem monitoring programs and variations in analytical procedures can introduce artifacts. In this study, we used consistent sampling and analytical methods to meet the objective of defining variability in DOM quantity and quality and other measures of water quality in streamflow issuing from small forested watersheds located within five Critical Zone Observatory sites representing contrasting environmental conditions. Results show distinct separations among sites as a function of water quality constituents. Relationships among rates of atmospheric deposition, water quality conditions, and stream DOM quantity and quality are consistent with the notion that areas with relatively high rates of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition and high concentrations of divalent cations result in selective transport of DOM derived from microbial sources, including in-stream microbial phototrophs. We suggest that the critical zone as a whole strongly influences the origin, composition, and fate of DOM in streams. This study highlights the value of consistent DOM characterization methods included as part of long-term monitoring programs for improving our understanding of interactions among ecosystem processes as controls on DOM biogeochemistry.

  18. Variation of organic matter quantity and quality in streams at Critical Zone Observatory watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; McKnight, Diane M.; Brown, Michael G.; Gabor, Rachel S.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Iavorivska, Lidiia; Inamdar, Shreeram; Johnson, Dale W.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Lin, Henry; McDowell, William H.; Perdrial, Julia N.

    2016-10-01

    The quantity and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters influence ecosystem processes and anthropogenic use of freshwater. However, despite the importance of understanding spatial and temporal patterns in DOM, measures of DOM quality are not routinely included as part of large-scale ecosystem monitoring programs and variations in analytical procedures can introduce artifacts. In this study, we used consistent sampling and analytical methods to meet the objective of defining variability in DOM quantity and quality and other measures of water quality in streamflow issuing from small forested watersheds located within five Critical Zone Observatory sites representing contrasting environmental conditions. Results show distinct separations among sites as a function of water quality constituents. Relationships among rates of atmospheric deposition, water quality conditions, and stream DOM quantity and quality are consistent with the notion that areas with relatively high rates of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition and high concentrations of divalent cations result in selective transport of DOM derived from microbial sources, including in-stream microbial phototrophs. We suggest that the critical zone as a whole strongly influences the origin, composition, and fate of DOM in streams. This study highlights the value of consistent DOM characterization methods included as part of long-term monitoring programs for improving our understanding of interactions among ecosystem processes as controls on DOM biogeochemistry.

  19. Chronic alcohol self-administration in monkeys shows long-term quantity/frequency categorical stability

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erich J.; Farro, Jonathan; Gonzales, Steven; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) do not include consumption (quantity/frequency) measures of alcohol intake, in part due to the difficulty of these measures in humans. Animal models of ethanol self-administration have been fundamental in advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of (AUD) and can address quantity/frequency measures with accurate measurements over prolonged periods of time. The non-human primate (NHP) model of voluntary oral alcohol self-administration has documented both binge drinking and drinking to dependence and can be used to test the stability of consumption measures over time. Methods and Results Here, an extensive set of alcohol intakes (g/kg/day) was analyzed from a large multi-cohort population of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys (n=31). Daily ethanol intake was uniformly distributed over chronic (12 months) access for all animals. Underlying this distribution of intakes were subpopulations of monkeys that exhibited distinctive clustering of drinking patterns, allowing us to categorically define very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD). These categories were stable across the 12-month assessed by the protocol, but exhibited fluctuations when examined at shorter intervals. Conclusions The establishment of persistent drinking categories based on quantity/frequency suggests that consumption variables can be used to track long-term changes in behavioral, molecular or physiochemical mechanisms related to our understanding of diagnosis, prevention, intervention and treatment efficacies. PMID:25421519

  20. Risk assessment using the species sensitivity distribution method: data quality versus data quantity.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Renee; Tang, Doudou; Palmer, Carolyn G; Kefford, Ben J

    2013-06-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are cumulative distributions of measures of species sensitivity to a stressor or toxicant, and are used to estimate concentrations that will protect p% of a community (PCp ). There is conflict between the desire to use high-quality sensitivity data in SSDs, and to construct them with a large number of species forming a representative sample. Trade-offs between data quality and quantity were investigated using the effects of increasing salinity on the macroinvertebrate community from the Hunter River catchment, in eastern Australia. Five SSDs were constructed, representing five points along a continuum of data quality versus data quantity and representativeness. This continuum was achieved by the various inclusion/exclusion of censored data, nonmodeled data, and extrapolation from related species. Protective concentrations were estimated using the Burr type III distribution, Kaplan-Meier survival function, and two Bayesian statistical models. The dominant taxonomic group was the prime determinant of protective concentrations, with an increase in PC95 values resulting from a decrease in the proportion of Ephemeropteran species included in the SSD. In addition, decreases in data quantity in a SSD decreased community representativeness. The authors suggest, at least for salinity, that the inclusion of right censored data provides a more representative sample of species that reflects the natural biotic assemblage of an area to be protected, and will therefore improve risk assessment.

  1. Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

  2. Navy Officials Justified the MQ-4C Triton Procurement Quantity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-16

    Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 16, 2015 Objective This is the first in a series of audits on the Navy MQ-4C Triton (Triton) Unmanned Aircraft...System (UAS) Program. Our overall objective for the series of audits was to determine whether the Navy effectively managed the Triton UAS...acquisition program. For this audit , we determined whether the Navy adequately justified the overall Triton Unmanned Aircraft procurement quantity

  3. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  4. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  5. Sediment quantity and quality in three impoundments in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Breault, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a study with an overriding goal of providing information that would assist State and Federal agencies in developing screening protocols for managing sediments impounded behind dams that are potential candidates for removal, the U.S Geological Survey determined sediment quantity and quality at three locations: one on the French River and two on Yokum Brook, a tributary to the west branch of the Westfield River. Data collected with a global positioning system, a geographic information system, and sediment-thickness data aided in the creation of sediment maps and the calculation of sediment volumes at Perryville Pond on the French River in Webster, Massachusetts, and at the Silk Mill and Ballou Dams on Yokum Brook in Becket, Massachusetts. From these data the following sediment volumes were determined: Perryville Pond, 71,000 cubic yards, Silk Mill, 1,600 cubic yards, and Ballou, 800 cubic yards. Sediment characteristics were assessed in terms of grain size and concentrations of potentially hazardous organic compounds and metals. Assessment of the approaches and methods used at study sites indicated that ground-penetrating radar produced data that were extremely difficult and time-consuming to interpret for the three study sites. Because of these difficulties, a steel probe was ultimately used to determine sediment depth and extent for inclusion in the sediment maps. Use of these methods showed that, where sampling sites were accessible, a machine-driven coring device would be preferable to the physically exhausting, manual sediment-coring methods used in this investigation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were an effective tool for screening large numbers of samples for a range of organic contaminant compounds. An example calculation of the number of samples needed to characterize mean concentrations of contaminants indicated that the number of samples collected for most analytes was adequate; however, additional analyses for lead, copper, silver

  6. Novel ansatzes and scalar quantities in gravito-electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulos, A.; Kanti, P.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of gravito-electromagnetism (GEM)—the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in electromagnetism—and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential Φ. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the linearised gravitational theory is studied, and shown to lead to the gauge invariance of the GEM fields E and B for a general configuration of the arbitrary vector involved in the coordinate transformations.

  7. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  8. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T.M.; Finlay, J.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Spontaneous discrimination of small quantities: shoaling preferences in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-07-01

    The ability to quantify, i.e. to estimate quantity, may provide evolutionary advantages in some contexts and has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species. In a prior study, we showed that angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) were able to discriminate between groups (shoals) in which a large number of conspecifics swam preferring to join the larger of the two. Our results implied that angelfish can compare relative shoal sizes likely on the basis of some quantitative attributes of the shoal. Here, also using a binary preference test, we examined whether angelfish are able to discriminate between shoals of small numbers of conspecifics, and if so whether their performance reveals a comparable underlying mechanism to that proposed for discrimination of small quantities in human and non-human animals, namely the possible precursor of the ability to count. Our results demonstrate that fish reliably chose 4 versus 1, 3 versus 1, 2 versus 1 and 3 versus 2 individuals, but were at chance performance level when having to choose between 4 versus 3, 5 versus 4 and 6 versus 5. Findings also reveal that the density of the fish in the stimulus shoals did not significantly affect the performance of experimental angelfish. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of the existence of an object-file mechanism to discriminate small quantities in vertebrates and provide evidence for spontaneous discrimination of up to three elements in angelfish, a similar limit to that found in human and non-human animals. The findings add to the growing body of data, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying discrimination between different quantities of items may be shared across different taxa and have an evolutionary ancient origin.

  10. Spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of Pennisetum americanum: Genetics and chlorophyll quantities.

    PubMed

    Koduru, P R; Rao, M K

    1980-05-01

    Thirteen spontaneously occurring chlorophyll deficient phenotypes have been described and their genetic basis was established. Ten of these - 'white', 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white virescent', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'white striping 4', 'fine striping', 'chlorina' and 'yellow virescent' showed monogenic recessive inheritance and the remaining three - 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' seedling phenotypes showed digenic recessive inheritance. The genes for (i) 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) and (ii) 'patchy white' (pw) and 'white striping 1' (wst 1) showed independent assortment. Further, the genes for 'white' (w), 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) were inherited independently of the gene for hairy leaf margin (Hm).In the mutants - 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' phenotypes total quantity of chlorophyll was significantly less than that in the corresponding controls, while in 'white virescent' there was no reduction in the mature stage. For nine of the mutants the quantity of chlorophyll was also estimated in F1's (mutant x control green). In F1's of six of the mutants - 'white tip', 'patchy white', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'fine striping' and 'yellow striping' the quantity of chlorophyll was almost equal to the wild type. In the F1's of three of the mutants - 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2' and 'light green' an intermediate value between the mutant and wild types was observed. In 'yellow virescent' retarded synthesis of chlorophyll, particularly chlorophyll a was observed in the juvenile stage. Reduced quantity of chlorophyll was associated with defective chloroplasts. In the mutants - 'white tipped green, 'white virescent', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' defective

  11. Radioenzymatic microassay for picogram quantities of serotonin or acetylserotonin in biological fluids and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M.N.; Benedict, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes several modifications of the original radioenzymatic assay for serotonin which increase the sensitivity of the assay 20-fold as well as enhance its reliability. Using this method serotonin concentrations can be directly measured in biological examples without precleaning the sample. When compared to currently available methods this assay is specific and sensitive to approximately 1 pg of serotonin and can be used to measure serotonin levels in individual brain nuclei or microliter quantities of biological fluids. This assay can be easily adapted for the direct measurement of N-acetylserotonin. A large number of samples can be assayed in a single working day.

  12. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  13. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  14. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed reward contingency task II: transfer to new quantities, long-term retention, and the impact of quantity ratios.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana; Call, Josep

    2008-05-01

    We tested 6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task. Individuals were presented with pairs of quantities ranging between 0 and 6 food items. Prior to testing, some experienced apes had solved this task using 2 quantities while others were totally naïve. Experienced apes transferred their ability to multiple-novel pairs after 6 to 19 months had elapsed since their initial testing. Two out of 6 naïve apes (1 chimpanzee, 1 bonobo) solved the task--a proportion comparable to that of a previous study using 2 pairs of quantities. Their acquisition speed was also comparable to the successful subjects from that study. The ratio between quantities explained a large portion of the variance but affected naïve and experienced individuals differently. For smaller ratios, naïve individuals were well below 50% correct and experienced ones were well above 50%, yet both groups tended to converge toward 50% for larger ratios. Thus, some apes require no procedural modifications to overcome their strong bias for selecting the larger of 2 quantities.

  15. Linking snowfall and snow accumulation to generate spatial maps of SWE and snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broxton, Patrick D.; Dawson, Nicholas; Zeng, Xubin

    2016-06-01

    It is critically important but challenging to estimate the amount of snow on the ground over large areas due to its strong spatial variability. Point snow data are used to generate or improve (i.e., blend with) gridded estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) by using various forms of interpolation; however, the interpolation methodologies often overlook the physical mechanisms for the snow being there in the first place. Using data from the Snow Telemetry and Cooperative Observer networks in the western United States, we show that four methods for the spatial interpolation of peak of winter snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth based on distance and elevation can result in large errors. These errors are reduced substantially by our new method, i.e., the spatial interpolation of these quantities normalized by accumulated snowfall from the current or previous water years. Our method results in significant improvement in SWE estimates over interpolation techniques that do not consider snowfall, regardless of the number of stations used for the interpolation. Furthermore, it can be used along with gridded precipitation and temperature data to produce daily maps of SWE over the western United States that are comparable to existing estimates (which are based on the assimilation of much more data). Our results also show that not honoring the constraint between SWE and snowfall when blending in situ data with gridded data can lead to the development and propagation of unrealistic errors.

  16. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  17. Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-02-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City.

  18. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years.

  19. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  20. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  1. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  2. Light quality and quantity regulate aerobic methane emissions from plants.

    PubMed

    Martel, Ashley B; Qaderi, Mirwais M

    2017-03-01

    Studies have been mounting in support of the finding that plants release aerobic methane (CH4 ), and that these emissions are increased by both short-term and long-term environmental stress. It remains unknown whether or not they are affected by variation in light quantity and quality, whether emissions change over time, and whether they are influenced by physiological parameters. Light is the primary energy source of plants, and therefore an important regulator of plant growth and development. Both shade-intolerant sunflower and shade-tolerant chrysanthemum were investigated for the release of aerobic CH4 emissions, using either low or high light intensity, and varying light quality, including control, low or normal red:far-red ratio (R:FR), and low or high levels of blue, to discern the relationship between light and CH4 emissions. It was found that low levels of light act as an environmental stress, facilitating CH4 release from both species. R:FR and blue lights increased emissions under low light, but the results varied with species, providing evidence that both light quantity and quality regulate CH4 emissions. Emission rates of 6.79-41.13 ng g(-1) DW h(-1) and 18.53-180.25 ng g(-1) DW h(-1) were observed for sunflower and chrysanthemum, respectively. Moreover, emissions decreased with age as plants acclimated to environmental conditions. Since effects were similar in both species, there may be a common trend among a number of shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species. Light quantity and quality are influenced by factors including cloud covering, so it is important to know how plants will be affected in the context of aerobic CH4 emissions.

  3. Reasoning about Intensive Quantities in Whole-Number Multiplication? A Possible Basis for Ratio Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of learning ratio concepts is that it involves intensive quantities, a type of quantity that is more conceptually demanding than those that are evaluated by counting or measuring (extensive quantities). In this paper, we engage in an exploration of the possibility of developing reasoning about intensive quantities during the…

  4. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  5. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  6. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  7. Optical algorithm for calculating the quantity distribution of fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meiqin; Wang, Fumei

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the two-flux model of Kubelka-Munk was proposed for the description of light propagating through a fiber-air mixture medium, which simplified fibers' internal reflection as a part of the scattering on the total fiber path length. A series of systematical experiments demonstrated a higher consistency with the reference quantity distribution than the common Lambert law on the fibrogram used in the textile industry did. Its application in the fibrogram for measuring the cotton fiber's length was demonstrated to be good, extending its applicability to the wool fiber, the length of which is harder to measure than that of the cotton fiber.

  8. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  9. On the propagation of uncertainty in complex-valued quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. D.

    2004-06-01

    This paper explores a recent suggestion to use a bivariate form of the Gaussian 'error propagation law' to propagate uncertainty in the measurement of complex-valued quantities (Ridler N M and Salter M J 2002 Metrologia 39 295-302). Several alterative formulations of the law are discussed in which the contributions from individual input terms are more explicit. The calculation of complex-valued sensitivity coefficients is discussed and a matrix generalization of the notion of a 'component of uncertainty' in a measurement result is introduced. A form of a 'chain rule' is given for the propagation of uncertainty when several intermediate equations are involved.

  10. Equal opportunity and the quantity and quality of Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Dekle, R

    1990-01-01

    "This paper constructs and estimates a simple model of Japanese completed fertility. The analytical model shows that as a woman's lifetime wage rises, there is a decline in average 'quality' per child, but the effect on the quantity of children is ambiguous. Estimation of the model with rare household level data shows that increases in the husband's permanent income raises completed fertility for high income couples, but lowers fertility for the low income. If the wife's education is an appropriate instrument for her lifetime wage, then a rise in the wife's lifetime wage appears to lower her demand for children."

  11. On determining continuum quantities of non-equilibrium processes via molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yao

    In this dissertation, a high-fidelity atomistic-to-continuum link for highly non-equilibrium processes has been established by making several modifications to Hardy's theory. Although Hardy's thermomechanical quantities were derived analytically to conserve mass, momentum and energy, they have not been rigorously tested and validated numerically in the past. Hence the first task was to investigate the effectiveness of ensemble averaging in removing thermal fluctuations and compare with conventional time averaging for fcc crystals simulated using both equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, where the non-equilibrium process was introduced by a shock impact. It has been found that the ensemble averaging has better convergence than time averaging due to the statistical independence of the thermomechanical quantities computed using ensemble averaging. The second task was to test the validity of Hardy's theory by checking if it is able to conserve mass, momentum and energy numerically. A few highly non-equilibrium processes were simulated using MD, including Gaussian wave and shock impact propagation in 1D and 3D fcc crystals. Based on the test results, a new normalization rule has been proposed so that the computed thermomechanical quantities can conserve the fundamental properties more accurately. To a large extent, Hardy's theory has been found to be valid regardless of the width of the localization function, the interatomic potential and crystal structure, and with and without ensemble averaging. To further test the validity of Hardy's theory for more complex non-equilibrium processes, where plastic deformation is accomplished through dislocation glide and slip band emission, a crack propagation problem in iron crystal with a pre-created center crack is simulated using MD. The computed Hardy's thermomechanical quantities can generally conserve mass, momentum and energy. Exceptions have been found around the crack region, where the

  12. Fe(0) Nanomotors in Ton Quantities (10(20) Units) for Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Zboril, Radek; Medrik, Ivo; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-24

    Despite demonstrating potential for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, the practical environmental applications of autonomous self-propelled micro-/nanorobots have been limited by the inability to fabricate these devices in large (kilograms/tons) quantities. In view of the demand for large-scale environmental remediation by micro-/nanomotors, which are easily synthesized and powered by nontoxic fuel, we have developed bubble-propelled Fe(0) Janus nanomotors by a facile thermally induced solid-state procedure and investigated their potential as decontamination agents of pollutants. These Fe(0) Janus nanomotors, stabilized by an ultrathin iron oxide shell, were fuelled by their decomposition in citric acid, leading to the asymmetric bubble propulsion. The degradation of azo-dyes was dramatically increased in the presence of moving self-propelled Fe(0) nanomotors, which acted as reducing agents. Such enhanced pollutant decomposition triggered by biocompatible Fe(0) (nanoscale zero-valent iron motors), which can be handled in the air and fabricated in ton quantities for low cost, will revolutionize the way that environmental remediation is carried out.

  13. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment.

  14. Comparison of conserved quantities in an FRC with RMFs added

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, A. S.; Cohen, S. A.

    2001-10-01

    The fields in the FRC with an applied rotating magnetic field (RMF) can be derived from the time-independent FRC potential, and the applied time-dependent RMF vector potential, which is a function of φ - ω t, where ω is the frequency of rotation of the applied field, and φ is the angle in the toroidal geometry of the FRC. Based on general principles, Glasser and Cohen have derived a conserved quantity K = H - ω p_φ by transforming from the lab set of coordinates, r, φ and z to a rotating frame of coordinates r, \\varphi, and z, where \\varphi = φ - ω t. K is shown to be conserved whenever such a change of coordinates produces potentials that do not have an explicit time dependence. Hugrass and Turley, starting with a specified FRC and RMF vector potentials, performing a change of variables and working with a resulting second order differential equation, have also derived a conserved quantity, named "Energy in the Rotating Frame", ξ. It can be shown that ξ is in fact K, calculated for the vector potentials specified by Hugrass and Turley. ξ is thus a specific instance of the more general result.

  15. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  16. An economic order quantity model with shortage and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulan, Elis Ratna; Nurjaman, Wildan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of inflation has become a persistent characteristic and more significant problem of many developing economies especially in the third world countries. While making effort to achieve optimal quantity of product to be produced or purchased using the simplest and on the shelf classical EOQ model, the non-inclusion of conflicting economic realities as shortage and inflation has rendered its result quite uneconomical and hence the purpose for this study. Mathematical expression was developed for each of the cost components the sum of which become the total inventory model over the period (0,L) ((TIC(0,L)). L is planning horizon and TIC(0,L) is total inventory cost over a period of (0,L). Significant savings with increase in quantity was achieved based on deference in the varying price regime. With the assumptions considered and subject to the availability of reliable inventory cost element, the developed model is found to produce a feasible, and economic inventory stock-level with the numerical example of a material supply of a manufacturing company.

  17. Oscillatory Brain Activity Reveals Linguistic Prints in the Quantity Code

    PubMed Central

    Salillas, Elena; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Number representations change through education, although it is currently unclear whether and how language could impact the magnitude representation that we share with other species. The most prominent view is that language does not play any role in modulating the core numeric representation involved in the contrast of quantities. Nevertheless, possible cultural hints on the numerical magnitude representation are currently on discussion focus. In fact, the acquisition of number words provides linguistic input that the quantity system may not ignore. Bilingualism offers a window to the study of this question, especially in bilinguals where the two number wording systems imply also two different numerical systems, such as in Basque-Spanish bilinguals. The present study evidences linguistic prints in the core number representational system through the analysis of EEG oscillatory activity during a simple number comparison task. Gamma band synchronization appears when Basque-Spanish bilinguals compare pairs of Arabic numbers linked through the Basque base-20 wording system, but it does not if the pairs are related through the base-10 system. Crucially, this gamma activity, originated in a left fronto-parietal network, only appears in bilinguals who learned math in Basque and not in equivalent proficiency bilinguals who learned math in Spanish. Thus, this neural index reflected in gamma band synchrony appears to be triggered by early learning experience with the base-20 numerical associations in Basque number words. PMID:25875210

  18. Influence on SPF of the quantity of sunscreen product applied.

    PubMed

    Couteau, C; Paparis, E; El-Bourry-Alami, S; Coiffard, L J M

    2012-11-01

    It is now a clearly established fact that ultraviolet radiation is involved in the induction of skin cancer such as carcinoma and melanoma. The most efficient means of protection is by using clothes. For uncovered areas, it is essential to apply a sun product. For some time, various authors have been wondering about the inefficiency or indeed the dangerousness of sun products. Cases of sunburn are still just as frequent in children. We have chosen to study the influence of the quantity of sun product applied on the skin on the level of efficiency obtained. Twenty commercially-available products with SPFs varying between 10 and 50+ and belonging to all levels of protection, that is to say "low", "medium" and "high", were tested in vitro at 5 different doses (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 mg for a surface area of 25 cm(2)). We were able to demonstrate that there was a polynomial relationship between the SPF and the quantity of product on the skin's surface. It can be seen that when the dose is halved, the SPF is divided by a variable factor according to the product, from 1.5 to 3.8.

  19. The effects of quantum gravity on some thermodynamical quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, A. D.; Shababi, H.; Nozari, K.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, using a deformed algebra [X,P] = iℏ/(1 - α2P2) which is originated from various theories of gravity, we study thermodynamical properties of the classical and extreme relativistic gases in canonical ensembles. In this regards, we exactly calculate the modified partition function, Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, entropy, heat capacity and the thermal pressure which conclude to the familiar form of the equation of state for the ideal gas. The advantage of applying this algebra is not only considering all natural cutoffs but also its structure is similar to the other effective quantum gravity models such as polymer, Snyder and noncommutative space-time frameworks. Moreover, after obtaining some thermodynamical quantities including internal energy and entropy, we conclude at high temperature limits due to the decreasing of the number of microstates, these quantities reach to maximal bounds which do not exist in standard cases and it concludes that at the presence of gravity for both micro-canonic and canonic ensembles, the internal energy and the entropy tend to these upper bounds.

  20. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  1. Depth-cumulated epithelial redox ratio and stromal collagen quantity as quantitative intrinsic indicators for differentiating normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan

    2010-10-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was used to isolate the intrinsic emission contribution of epithelial cellular origins and stromal collagen in normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues, and quantify the depth-cumulated epithelial redox ratio and stromal collagen quantity. It was found that both inflammatory and dysplastic epithelial tissues display a large decrease in stromal collagen quantity but have very different epithelial redox ratio. These results suggest that probing differences in epithelial redox ratio in addition to stromal collagen quantity can serve as quantitative intrinsic indicators for differentiating normal, inflammatory, and dysplastic epithelial tissues.

  2. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  3. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the new madrid seismic zone.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zoback, M D; Segall, P

    1992-09-18

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  4. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P. USGS, Menlo Park, CA )

    1992-09-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes greater than 8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time. 34 refs.

  5. Choline Accumulation by Photoreceptor Cells of the Rabbit Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masland, Richard H.; Mills, John W.

    1980-03-01

    Photoreceptor cells of the rabbit retina accumulate choline from the extracellular environment by an overall process that has a high affinity for choline. These cells do not synthesize acetylcholine; instead, the choline taken up is incorporated into phosphorylcholine and eventually phospholipid. A mechanism for efficient choline accumulation is presumably concomitant to the photoreceptor cell's synthesis of large amounts of membrane for outer segment membrane renewal. Its existence in the photoreceptor cell supports previous evidence that high-affinity choline uptake is not confined to neurons that release acetylcholine, but may be present wherever large amounts of choline are required.

  6. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  7. Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Human infants and non-human animals can discriminate the larger of two sets of discrete items. This quantity discrimination may be based upon the number of items, or upon non-numerical variables of the sets that co-vary with number. We have demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues. However, density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals. Here, we examine the role of another non-numerical cue, swimming activity of the stimulus fish, in quantity discrimination by angelfish. To control this variable, we varied the water temperature of the stimulus aquaria or restricted the space occupied by each fish in the stimulus shoals. We used the previously successfully discriminated contrasts consisting of large (10 vs. 5) and small (3 vs. 2) shoals. We also studied whether more active or less active shoals are preferred in case of equally sized shoals (10 vs. 10, 5 vs. 5, and 3 vs. 3). When differences in stimulus fish activity were minimized by temperature manipulation we found angelfish to prefer the larger shoal in the 3 vs. 2 comparison, but not in the 10 vs. 5 comparison. When activity was controlled by space restriction, angelfish preferred the larger shoal in both numerical contrasts. These results imply that the overall activity level of the contrasted shoals is not a necessary condition for small shoals discrimination in angelfish. On the other hand, the results obtained for the large shoals, together with results obtained in the control treatments (equal numerical contrasts and differing activity levels), suggest that activity is a sufficient condition for discrimination when large shoals are involved. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the influence of other continuous variables, and to assess whether the mechanisms underlying performance are comparable to those suggested for other animals. PMID:23162518

  8. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; ...

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production frommore » cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  9. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  10. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil).

  11. Confidence and certainty: distinct probabilistic quantities for different goals.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Alexandre; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kepecs, Adam

    2016-03-01

    When facing uncertainty, adaptive behavioral strategies demand that the brain performs probabilistic computations. In this probabilistic framework, the notion of certainty and confidence would appear to be closely related, so much so that it is tempting to conclude that these two concepts are one and the same. We argue that there are computational reasons to distinguish between these two concepts. Specifically, we propose that confidence should be defined as the probability that a decision or a proposition, overt or covert, is correct given the evidence, a critical quantity in complex sequential decisions. We suggest that the term certainty should be reserved to refer to the encoding of all other probability distributions over sensory and cognitive variables. We also discuss strategies for studying the neural codes for confidence and certainty and argue that clear definitions of neural codes are essential to understanding the relative contributions of various cortical areas to decision making.

  12. Confidence and certainty: distinct probabilistic quantities for different goals

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Alexandre; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kepecs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    When facing uncertainty, adaptive behavioral strategies demand that the brain performs probabilistic computations. In this probabilistic framework, the notion of certainty and confidence would appear to be closely related, so much so that it is tempting to conclude that these two concepts are one and the same. We argue that there are computational reasons to distinguish between these two concepts. Specifically, we propose that confidence should be defined as the probability that a decision or a proposition, overt or covert, is correct given the evidence, a critical quantity in complex sequential decisions. We suggest that the term certainty should be reserved to refer to the encoding of all other probability distributions over sensory and cognitive variables. We also discuss strategies for studying the neural codes for confidence and certainty and argue that clear definitions of neural codes are essential to understanding the relative contributions of various cortical areas to decision making. PMID:26906503

  13. Quantity change in collagen following 830-nm diode laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; O'Callaghan, David; Rouy, Simone; Godlewski, Guilhem; Prudhomme, Michel

    1996-12-01

    The actual mechanism for production of laser welding of tissue is presently unknown, but collagen plays an important role is tissue welded after laser irradiance. The quantity change in collagen extracted from the abdominal aorta of Wistar rats after tissue welding using an 830 nm diode laser was investigated. The collagen contents following repeated pepsin digestion after acetic acid extraction were determined with Sircol collagen assay. Compared with untreated aorta, the collagen content of the treated vessel was obvious decreased immediately after laser irradiation and following an initial increase on day 3, there was a peak at day 10. The results suggest that a part of collagen molecules is denatured by the heat of laser. There is an effect of stimulating collagen synthesis after laser welding with parameters used in this study.

  14. Gauge transformations and conserved quantities in classical and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Malterre, Daniel; Medina, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    We are taught that gauge transformations in classical and quantum mechanics do not change the physics of the problem. Nevertheless, here we discuss three broad scenarios where under gauge transformations: (i) conservation laws are not preserved in the usual manner; (ii) non-gauge-invariant quantities can be associated with physical observables; and (iii) there are changes in the physical boundary conditions of the wave function that render it non-single-valued. We give worked examples that illustrate these points, in contrast to general opinions from classic texts. We also give a historical perspective on the development of Abelian gauge theory in relation to our particular points. Our aim is to provide a discussion of these issues at the graduate level.

  15. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, Hans; Palmans, Hugo; Hilgers, Gerhard; Sharpe, Peter; Pinto, Massimo; Villagrasa, Carmen; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Moro, Davide; Pola, Andrea; Pszona, Stanislaw; Teles, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) [1], the joint research project "Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy" (BioQuaRT) [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm), and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  16. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  17. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  18. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  19. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID

  20. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first "count," then hunt.

    PubMed

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m(2) per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  1. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  2. Total carbon accumulation in a tropical forest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regrowing tropical forests worldwide sequester important amounts of carbon and restore part of the C emissions emitted by deforestation. However, there are large uncertainties concerning the rates of carbon accumulation after the abandonment of agricultural and pasture land. We report here accumulation of total carbon stocks (TCS) in a chronosequence of secondary forests at a mid-elevation landscape (900-1200 m asl) in the Andean mountains of Colombia. Results We found positive accumulation rates for all ecosystem pools except soil carbon, which showed no significant trend of recovery after 36 years of secondary succession. We used these data to develop a simple model to predict accumulation of TCS over time. This model performed remarkably well predicting TCS at other chronosequences in the Americas (Root Mean Square Error < 40 Mg C ha-1), which provided an opportunity to explore different assumptions in the calculation of large-scale carbon budgets. Simulations of TCS with our empirical model were used to test three assumptions often made in carbon budgets: 1) the use of carbon accumulation in tree aboveground biomass as a surrogate for accumulation of TCS, 2) the implicit consideration of carbon legacies from previous land-use, and 3) the omission of landscape age in calculating accumulation rates of TCS. Conclusions Our simulations showed that in many situations carbon can be released from regrowing secondary forests depending on the amount of carbon legacies and the average age of the landscape. In most cases, the rates used to predict carbon accumulation in the Americas were above the rates predicted in our simulations. These biome level rates seemed to be realistic only in landscapes not affected by carbon legacies from previous land-use and mean ages of around 10 years. PMID:23249727

  3. Quantity and quality of streamflow in the White River basin, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, J.M.; Covay, K.J.; Bauer, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The water quality and flow of existing streams in the White River basin, located in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah, are adequate for present uses, but future development (such as energy) may affect stream quality and quantity. Present conditions are described as a baseline to enable planners to allocate available water and to measure changes in quantity and quality of water in the future. The White River basin contains extensive energy resources consisting of oil, natural gas, coal, and oil shale. Large quantities of water will be required for energy-resource development and associated municipal and industrial uses. An average of 70% of the annual flow in the White River occurs during May, June, and July as a result of snowmelt runoff. The 7-day, 10-year low-flow discharges/sq mi and the 1-day, 25-year high-flow discharges/sq mi are larger in the eastern part of the basin than in the western part. Flow-duration curves indicate that high flows in the White River and the North and South Fork White Rivers result mainly from snowmelt runoff and that base flow is sustained throughout the year by groundwater discharge from the alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Water type varies in the basin; however, calcium and sodium are the dominantly occurring cations and sulfate and bicarbonate are the dominantly occurring anions. Computed total annual dissolved-solids loads in the White River range from 31 ,800 tons/yr in the North Fork White River to 284,000 tons/yr at the mouth. A 10% increase to a 14% decrease of the dissolved-solids load could result at the mouth of the White River near Ouray, Utah. This corresponds to a 5% increase to a 10% decrease in dissolved-solids concentration. The seasonal pattern of stream temperatures was found to fit a harmonic curve. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. An effective and simple procedure to isolate abundant quantities of biologically active chemopreventive lunasin-protease inhibitor concentrate (LPIC) from soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lunasin is a 5-kDa soybean bioactive peptide with demonstrated anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The use of lunasin as a chemopreventive agent in large-scale animal studies and human clinical trials is hampered by the paucity of large quantities of lunasin. Recently, purification methods...

  5. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  6. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  7. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  8. The effect of reservoir heterogeneity on gas production from hydrate accumulations in the permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, M. T.; Kowalsky, M B.; Moridis, G. J.; Silpngarmlert, S.

    2010-05-01

    The quantity of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations is enormous, leading to significant interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from methane hydrate accumulations in the permafrost by means of depressurization-induced dissociation combined with conventional technologies and horizontal or vertical well configurations. Initial studies on the possibility of natural gas production from permafrost hydrates assumed homogeneity in intrinsic reservoir properties and in the initial condition of the hydrate-bearing layers (either due to the coarseness of the model or due to simplifications in the definition of the system). These results showed great promise for gas recovery from Class 1, 2, and 3 systems in the permafrost. This work examines the consequences of inevitable heterogeneity in intrinsic properties, such as in the porosity of the hydrate-bearing formation, or heterogeneity in the initial state of hydrate saturation. Heterogeneous configurations are generated through multiple methods: (1) through defining heterogeneous layers via existing well-log data, (2) through randomized initialization of reservoir properties and initial conditions, and (3) through the use of geostatistical methods to create heterogeneous fields that extrapolate from the limited data available from cores and well-log data. These extrapolations use available information and established geophysical methods to capture a range of deposit properties and hydrate configurations. The results show that some forms of heterogeneity, such as horizontal stratification, can assist in production of hydrate-derived gas. However, more heterogeneous structures can lead to complex physical behavior within the deposit and near the wellbore that may obstruct the flow of fluids to the well, necessitating revised production strategies. The need for fine discretization is crucial in all cases to

  9. Modern Breeding and Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Carotenoid Accumulation in Seeds.

    PubMed

    Federico, M L; Schmidt, M A

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants. The production and consumption of these carotenoids from natural sources, especially from seeds, constitutes an important step towards fortifying the diet of malnourished people in developing nations. Therefore, attempts to metabolically manipulate β-carotene production in plants have received global attention, especially after the generation of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa). The endosperms of Golden Rice seeds synthesize and accumulate large quantities of β-carotene (provitamin A), yielding a characteristic yellow color in the polished grains. Classical breeding efforts have also focused in the development of cultivars with elevated seed carotenoid content, with maize and other cereals leading the way. In this communication we will summarize transgenic efforts and modern breeding strategies to fortify various crop seeds with nutraceutical carotenoids.

  10. Soil organic matter quantity and quality shape microbial community compositions of subtropical broadleaved forests.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang; Wang, Mengmeng; Sun, Xin; Cong, Jing; Deng, Ye; Lu, Hui; Yuan, Tong; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    As two major forest types in the subtropics, broadleaved evergreen and broadleaved deciduous forests have long interested ecologists. However, little is known about their belowground ecosystems despite their ecological importance in driving biogeochemical cycling. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S rRNA gene and a microarray named GeoChip targeting functional genes to analyse microbial communities in broadleaved evergreen and deciduous forest soils of Shennongjia Mountain of Central China, a region known as 'The Oriental Botanic Garden' for its extraordinarily rich biodiversity. We observed higher plant diversity and relatively richer nutrients in the broadleaved evergreen forest than the deciduous forest. In odds to our expectation that plant communities shaped soil microbial communities, we found that soil organic matter quantity and quality, but not plant community parameters, were the best predictors of microbial communities. Actinobacteria, a copiotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved evergreen forest, while Verrucomicrobia, an oligotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forest. The density of the correlation network of microbial OTUs was higher in the broadleaved deciduous forest but its modularity was smaller, reflecting lower resistance to environment changes. In addition, keystone OTUs of the broadleaved deciduous forest were mainly oligotrophic. Microbial functional genes associated with recalcitrant carbon degradation were also more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forests, resulting in low accumulation of organic matters. Collectively, these findings revealed the important role of soil organic matter in shaping microbial taxonomic and functional traits.

  11. The effects of K+ growth conditions on the accumulation of cesium by the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailei; Kong, Fanjing; Zheng, Mianping

    2006-04-01

    The accumulation of cesium by the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG6 was examined under different K+ growth conditions. The effects of external pH and Na+ on the accumulation of cesium were also studied, and the mechanism involved was discussed. K+ regimes played an important role in the accumulation of cesium by the strain TibetanG6. The quantity of cesium accumulated (24 h) was much higher in K+-deficient regime than that in K+-sufficient regime. The pH and Na+ had different effects on the accumulation of cesium in the two K+ regimes. IR spectra analyses indicated that the biosorption is a process of homeostasis with cesium initially accumulated on the cell wall.

  12. Electron accumulation layer in ultrastrong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammon, M.; Fu, Han; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2017-02-01

    When a three-dimensional electron gas is subjected to a very strong magnetic field, it can reach a quasi-onedimensional state in which all electrons occupy the lowest Landau level. This state is referred to as the extreme quantum limit ( EQL ) and has been studied in the physics of pulsars and bulk semiconductors. Here we present a theory of the EQL phase in electron accumulation layers created by an external electric field E at the surface of a semiconductor with a large Bohr radius such as InSb , PbTe , SrTiO 3 ( STO ) , and particularly in the LaA 1 O 3 / SrTiO 3 ( LAO / STO ) heterostructure. The phase diagram of the electron gas in the plane of the magnetic field strength and the electron surface concentration is found for different orientations of the magnetic field. We find that in addition to the quasi-classical metallic phase ( M ), there is a metallic EQL phase, as well as an insulating Wigner crystal state ( WC ). Within the EQL phase, the Thomas-Fermi approximation is used to find the electron density and the electrostatic potential profiles of the accumulation layer. Additionally, the quantum capacitance for each phase is calculated as a tool for experimental study of these phase diagrams.

  13. Minimum quantity lubrication machining of aluminum and magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Sukanta

    2011-12-01

    The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, i.e. drilling and tapping of aluminum and magnesium alloys using very low quantities of cutting fluids was studied and the MQL machining performance was compared to dry and conventional flooded conditions. An experimental drilling station with an MQL system was built to measure torque and thrust force responses. Uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated HSS drills were tested against 319 Al and AZ91 alloys using 10--50 ml/h of distilled water (H 2O-MQL) and a fatty acid based MQL agent (FA-MQL). The results indicated that H2O-MQL used in conjunction with non-hydrogenated DLC (NH-DLC) coatings reduced the average torque and thrust-force compared to dry cutting and achieved a performance comparable with conventional flooded drilling. At least 103 holes could be drilled using NH-DLC in H2O-MQL and uncoated HSS in FA-MQL in drilling of both 319 Al and AZ91. MQL drilling and tapping provided a stable machining performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns and also resulted in desirable hole surface, thread quality and chip segments. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL machining was lower than that observed in dry drilling and tapping, and comparable to flooded conditions. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements, revealed a notable softening in case of dry drilling, with magnesium alloys exhibiting a recrystallized grain zone, but not for MQL drilling. Softened aluminum and magnesium promoted adhesion to the tools resulted built-up edge formation and consequently high torques and thrust-forces were generated. NH-DLC coatings' low COF in H 2O-MQL against 319 Al (0.10) and AZ91 (0.12) compared to uncoated HSS (0.63 and 0.65) limited the temperature increase during NH-DLC in H2 O-MQL drilling and hence both torques and thrust forces were effectively reduced.

  14. Simulating inbreeding depression through the mutation accumulation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Bernardes, Américo T.

    2000-04-01

    Using the Penna model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation accumulation theory, we show that the number of homozygous loci corresponding to deleterious mutations is higher in small populations than in large ones. This decrease of heterozygosity may drive small populations to extinction even when no drastic change of the environment occurs.

  15. Gallium accumulation in the stomach. A frequent incidental finding

    SciTech Connect

    MacMahon, H.; Vyborny, C.; Sephardari, S.; Kirchner, P.; Ryan, J.

    1985-10-01

    Accumulation of tracer by the stomach is a frequent incidental occurrence on gallium scans. Gastric concentration of Ga-67 equal to or greater than that seen in the liver was observed in approximately 10% of patients in a large series. Although a few of these patients had known or subsequently demonstrated gastric pathologic conditions, most had no clinically or radiographically identifiable gastric disease.

  16. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... quantity(ies) of supplies on which bids, proposals or quotes are requested in this solicitation is (are... to avoid acquisitions in disadvantageous quantities and to assist the Government in developing a...

  17. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity(ies) of supplies on which bids, proposals or quotes are requested in this solicitation is (are... to avoid acquisitions in disadvantageous quantities and to assist the Government in developing a...

  18. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... quantity(ies) of supplies on which bids, proposals or quotes are requested in this solicitation is (are... to avoid acquisitions in disadvantageous quantities and to assist the Government in developing a...

  19. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... quantity(ies) of supplies on which bids, proposals or quotes are requested in this solicitation is (are... to avoid acquisitions in disadvantageous quantities and to assist the Government in developing a...

  20. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment.

  1. Forage quantity estimation from MERIS using band depth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Saleem; Yali, Si; Schlerf, Martin

    Saleem Ullah1 , Si Yali1 , Martin Schlerf1 Forage quantity is an important factor influencing feeding pattern and distribution of wildlife. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of vegetation indices and band depth analysis parameters for estimation of green biomass using MERIS data. Green biomass was best predicted by NBDI (normalized band depth index) and yielded a calibration R2 of 0.73 and an accuracy (independent validation dataset, n=30) of 136.2 g/m2 (47 % of the measured mean) compared to a much lower accuracy obtained by soil adjusted vegetation index SAVI (444.6 g/m2, 154 % of the mean) and by other vegetation indices. This study will contribute to map and monitor foliar biomass over the year at regional scale which intern can aid the understanding of bird migration pattern. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen density, Nitrogen concentration, Vegetation indices, Band depth analysis parameters 1 Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, The Netherlands

  2. Dynamics of Nuclear DNA Quantities during Zygote Development in Barley.

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, H. L.; Holm, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    Quantities of DNA were estimated in the nuclei of mechanically isolated egg and zygote protoplasts in two cultivars of barley using 4[prime],6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and microfluorometry. Unlike many previous studies on DNA amounts within the sex cells of flowering plants, we obtained consistent and unambiguous results indicating that the egg and sperm nuclei are at the 1C DNA level (basic haploid amount) at the time of karyogamy. Karyogamy was initiated within 60 min postpollination, and the male chromatin became completely integrated into the egg nucleus within 6 to 7 hr postpollination (hpp). Zygotic nuclear DNA levels began to increase at ~9 to 12 hpp in cultivar Alexis and at 12 to 15 hpp in cultivar Igri. The 4C DNA complement was reached in most zygotes by 22 to 26 hpp in cultivar Alexis and by 23 to 29 hpp in cultivar Igri. These data are fundamental to a better understanding of fertilization and zygote maturation in flowering plants. They are also relevant to studies in which the timing of zygotic DNA replication is of interest, such as ongoing investigations on genetic transformations in barley using the microinjection technique. PMID:12242375

  3. Position- and quantity-dependent responses in zebrafish turning behavior

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Shoji, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality. PMID:27292818

  4. A comparison of methods for representing sparsely sampled random quantities.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Vicente Jose; Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel; Mullins, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    This report discusses the treatment of uncertainties stemming from relatively few samples of random quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation, and prediction. With very sparse data samples it is not practical to have a goal of accurately estimating the underlying probability density function (PDF). Rather, a pragmatic goal is that the uncertainty representation should be conservative so as to bound a specified percentile range of the actual PDF, say the range between 0.025 and .975 percentiles, with reasonable reliability. A second, opposing objective is that the representation not be overly conservative; that it minimally over-estimate the desired percentile range of the actual PDF. The presence of the two opposing objectives makes the sparse-data uncertainty representation problem interesting and difficult. In this report, five uncertainty representation techniques are characterized for their performance on twenty-one test problems (over thousands of trials for each problem) according to these two opposing objectives and other performance measures. Two of the methods, statistical Tolerance Intervals and a kernel density approach specifically developed for handling sparse data, exhibit significantly better overall performance than the others.

  5. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  6. Chromatographic cation exchange separation of decigram quantities of californium and other transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Decigram quantities of highly radioactive transplutonium elements are routinely partitioned at TRU by chromatographic elution from cation resin using AHIB eluents. Batch runs containing up to 200 mg of /sup 252/Cf can be made in about 5 h (2 h to load the feed and 3 h for the elution), with two high-pressure ion exchange columns, a small one for the initial loading of the feed and a large one for the elution. The separations achieved in the column are preserved by routing the column effluent through an alpha detector and using the response from the detector to select appropriate product fractions. The high-pressure ion exchange process has been reliable and relatively easy to operate; therefore it will continue to be used for partitioning transplutonium elements at TRU. 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Quantitative aspects of informed consent: considering the dose response curve when estimating quantity of information.

    PubMed

    Lynöe, N; Hoeyer, K

    2005-12-01

    Information is usually supposed to be a prerequisite for people making decisions on whether or not to participate in a clinical trial. Previously conducted studies and research ethics scandals indicate that participants have sometimes lacked important pieces of information. Over the past few decades the quantity of information believed to be adequate has increased significantly, and in some instances a new maxim seems to be in place: the more information, the better the ethics in terms of respecting a participant's autonomy. The authors hypothesise that the dose-response curve from pharmacology or toxicology serves as a model to illustrate that a large amount of written information does not equal optimality. Using the curve as a pedagogical analogy when teaching ethics to students in clinical sciences, and also in engaging in dialogue with research institutions, may promote reflection on how to adjust information in relation to the preferences of individual participants, thereby transgressing the maxim that more information means better ethics.

  8. Proximity data-loggers increase the quantity and quality of social network data.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Thomas B; Horton, Brent M; van den Tillaart, Mike; Morales, Juan De Dios; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-12-23

    Social network analysis is an ideal quantitative tool for advancing our understanding of complex social behaviour. However, this approach is often limited by the challenges of accurately characterizing social structure and measuring network heterogeneity. Technological advances have facilitated the study of social networks, but to date, all such work has focused on large vertebrates. Here, we provide proof of concept for using proximity data-logging to quantify the frequency of social interactions, construct weighted networks and characterize variation in the social behaviour of a lek-breeding bird, the wire-tailed manakin, Pipra filicauda. Our results highlight how this approach can ameliorate the challenges of social network data collection and analysis by concurrently improving data quality and quantity.

  9. A novel design for a primary measurement standard for the quantity torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccola, G. M.; Leão, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Primary standards are established using a reference measurement procedure. Through the realization of the definition of a given quantity they provide traceability in the metrology chain. Most torque standards use calibrated weights linked to a lever arm to provide known torques in the rotational axis of the device. These standards do not succeed to provide continuous torque values because of limitation in weights combination and the intrinsic incremental steps of the technique. In automatic machines this can be overcome but it requires a complex mechanical system to operate. In designs that use movable weights along the lever arm the determination of the length of the lever arm is a large source of errors. Zeroing the torque standard also represents a major problem. An innovative and functional design that aims to solve the aforementioned disadvantages is presented.

  10. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade... be used to establish the ``base quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol with a zero percent local... base quantity to be used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the administration of the law is...

  11. 16 CFR 500.7 - Net quantity of contents, method of expression.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net quantity of contents, method of... REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.7 Net quantity of contents, method of expression. The net quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of weight or mass, measure,...

  12. 19 CFR 144.32 - Statement of quantity; charges and liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.32 Statement of quantity; charges and liens. (a) On each withdrawal. Each withdrawal filed... warehouse account before the withdrawal; (2) The quantity being withdrawn; and (3) The quantity remaining...

  13. Reasoning about Variation in the Intensity of Change in Covarying Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends work in the area of quantitative reasoning related to rate of change by investigating numerical and nonnumerical reasoning about covarying quantities involved in rate of change via tasks involving multiple representations of covarying quantities. The findings suggest that by systematically varying one quantity, an individual…

  14. Together yet Separate: Students' Associating Amounts of Change in Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends work about quantitative reasoning related to covarying quantities involved in rate of change. It reports a multiple case study of three students' reasoning about quantities involved in rate of change when working on tasks incorporating multiple representations of covarying quantities. When interpreting relationships between…

  15. Food Choice in People with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Quantity and Relative Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Beth; Egli, Mark; Koppekin, Amy; Thompson, Travis

    2002-01-01

    Seven individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome and seven obese individuals without the syndrome were compared on their choice of either a larger quantity of food delivered after a delay or a small quantity of food delivered immediately. Individuals with Prader-Willi selected the larger food quantity whereas choices by the obese comparison group was…

  16. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  17. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  18. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  19. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  20. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...